WorldWideScience

Sample records for child health days

  1. 75 FR 62449 - Child Health Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... around the country. Today, our children face a new public health crisis we must address as a Nation, and... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8578 of October 4, 2010 Child Health Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The health and well-being of...

  2. The Knowledge of Staff in Day Nurseries about Some Basic Measures Which Promote Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Suzy S.; Nunes de Melo, Maria Clotildes; Carneiro, Nadya Bustani; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the knowledge that staff in day nurseries in Brazil had of basic measures to promote child health which are connected with high child mortality. These measures included breastfeeding, oral rehydration therapy, child growth follow-up, immunization and the identification of signs that indicate that the child…

  3. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  4. 75 FR 71521 - National Child's Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... United States of America A Proclamation On National Child's Day, we celebrate America's children and... is helping lead our effort to end the epidemic of childhood obesity within a generation by... the promise within each child. Our children will soon stand at the helm of America and steer...

  5. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  6. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  7. Poverty's Impact on A Child's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162949.html Poverty's Impact on a Child's Mental Health Poor kids ... Jan. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Growing up in poverty exposes children to greater levels of stress, which ...

  8. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  9. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...

  10. Child Health in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  11. FastStats: Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  12. Child health in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  13. Foster Care and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  14. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  15. 77 FR 70677 - National Child's Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... day, parents and guardians are taking up that important task by making healthy choices for their kids. Schools are finding innovative ways to provide nutritious food for their students, and communities are... obesity within a generation, and the Affordable Care Act, which has expanded preventive services...

  16. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  17. Child Health Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and Families, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides two short articles on health topics for parents of young children. "Building Success Across the Generations" presents a profile of a Head Start parent and highlights the benefits of the program for her children and family. "Creating a Mealtime Environment for Learning" describes how to enhance children's social…

  18. Take Your Child to Work Day Poster Puzzler | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your challenge is to find this item and fill in the blanks below from a nearby label or sign. The label/sequence that you're looking for would fit here: "_ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _". Here's one more clue: The item pictured above is in or around the Take Your Child to Work Day hub area!

  19. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allows youth to text live with a mental health professional. Crisis Text Line : help is available 24 hours a day throughout the US by texting START to 741741 More ... that cover a variety of mental health topics! An expert in scientific and health issues ...

  20. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  1. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teache...... for nursery care teachers, but not for preschool teacher...

  2. 78 FR 62309 - Child Health Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    .... Because clean air and clean water are cornerstones of a healthy lifestyle, I am taking action to reduce... about nutrition, exercise, and healthy lifestyles. Leading by example, adults across our country can... States of America A Proclamation All children deserve to grow up healthy and safe. And we all share...

  3. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  4. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  5. [Relationship between child day-care attendance and acute infectious disease. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, Carlos; Barajas Sánchez, M Verisima; Muñoz Martín, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Child day-care attendance is considered to be an acute early childhood disease risk factor, the studies available however not affording the possibility of fully quantifying this risk. A systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted, in which the effects child day-care attendance had on the health of young children based on the Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed and Spanish Medical Index databases, without any time or language-related limits, were analyzed and rounded out with analyses of referenced works and an additional EMBASE search. The methodological quality was evaluated by means of personalized criteria. Pooling measures (relative risks, incidence density ratios and weighted mean differences) were calculated with their confidence intervals, assuming random effects models. A significant increase was found to exist of a risk consistent over time and among different social and geographical environments. Considering the most methodologically-stringent studies with adjusted effect estimates, child day-care attendance was related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (RR=1,88), acute otitis media (RR=1,58), otitis media with fluid draining (RR=2,43), lower respiratory tract infections (overall RR=210; acute pneumonia RR=1.70; broncholitis RR=1,80; bronchitis RR=2,10) and gastroenteritis (RR=1,40). Child day-care attendance could be responsible for 33%-50% of the episodes of respiratory infection and gastroenteritis among the exposed population. In conclusion, it can be said that the risk for childhood health attributable to the child day-care attendance is discreet but of high-impact. This information has some major implications for research, clinical practice, healthcare authorities and society as a whole.

  6. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2016-04-29

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  8. 45 CFR 1304.24 - Child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental health... concerns about their child's mental health; (ii) Sharing staff observations of their child and...

  9. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  10. Pregnancy smoking, child health and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included

  11. How Healthy Is Your Child's Health Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiest, Meghan Mahoney

    1991-01-01

    Offers questions for parents to ask when determining whether their child's school health program is sufficient. Issues to examine include time allotted for health education, types of school services provided to help teachers with the subject, instructional methods, outside health services, and additional staff (e.g., nurses and counselors). (SM)

  12. Health consequences of child marriage in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2006-11-01

    Despite international agreements and national laws, marriage of girls Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Girls' offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. To stop child marriage, policies and programs must educate communities, raise awareness, engage local and religious leaders, involve parents, and empower girls through education and employment.

  13. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  14. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  15. [Health advocacy in child care: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Raquel Dully; Mello, Débora Falleiros; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-01-01

    This narrative literature review aimed to identify the publications about health law, in the ambit of child health care. The databases LILACS and MEDLINE were searched, between 2004 and 2009. Thirteen articles were analyzed, and three themes were identified: Emphasis on knowledge, abilities and attitudes for the development of competencies; Partnerships as an imperative; Health and Law: intersectorial relationship. The studies about the practice of health law are relevant to our reality, especially in primary health care, pointing out for the possibilities of its applicability in the role of the nurses acting in the family health strategy, with families and children.

  16. Model Child Care Standards Act--Guidance to States to Prevent Child Abuse in Day Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    The document offers guidelines to states regarding review and revision of child care statutes, standards, and policies to address the prevention of child sexual abuse in day care facilities. General information is also provided on changes in state standards in recent years. Each of six sections examines findings of the 1981 Comparative Licensing…

  17. Understanding Cortisol Reactivity across the Day at Child Care: The Potential Buffering Role of Secure Attachments to Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2012-01-01

    Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…

  18. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents’ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure. PMID:26392798

  19. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34% of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents′ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.

  20. StaR Child Health: improving global standards for child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Martin; Needham, Allison C; Chan, Winnie W Y

    2013-11-01

    Standards for Research (StaR) in Child Health, founded in 2009, addresses the current scarcity of and deficiencies in pediatric clinical trials. StaR Child Health brings together leading international experts devoted to developing practical, evidence-based standards to enrich the reliability and relevance of pediatric clinical research. Through a systematic "knowledge to action" plan, StaR Child Health creates opportunities to improve the evidence base for child health across the world. To date, six standards have been published and four more are under development. It is now time to use these standards. Improving the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric clinical trials will ultimately advance the quality of health care provided to children across the globe.

  1. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  2. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.

  3. Health: A Key Factor in the Evaluation of Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Gail G.

    Research has inadequately examined why health has become a problem in the day care setting. Health regulations for day care have not been researched in the day care setting per se but have been imposed on day care by the medical community working from a hospital model. Day care research has presumed that having antecedent health regulations in…

  4. Child Health Booklet: experiences of professionals in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.

  5. An innovation in child health: Globally reaching out to child health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jones

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide deaths of children younger than 5 years reduced from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013. Much of this decline is attributed to an increase in the knowledge, skills, and abilities of child health professionals. In turn this increase in knowledge, skills, and abilities has been brought about by increased child-health-focused education available to child health professionals. Therefore child-health-focused education must be part of the strategy to eliminate the remaining 6.3 million deaths and to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This article describes a child-health-focused program that was established in 1992 and operates in 20 countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, the Seychelles, the Solomon Islands, Tanzania, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. The Diploma in Child Health/International Postgraduate Paediatric Certificate (DCH/IPPC course provides a comprehensive overview of evidence-based current best practice in pediatrics. This includes all subspecialty areas from infectious diseases and emergency medicine through to endocrinology, respiratory medicine, neurology, nutrition, and dietetics. Content is developed and presented by international medical experts in response to global child health needs. Content is provided to students via a combination of learning outcomes, webcasts, lecture notes, personalized study, tutorials, case studies, and clinical practice. One hundred eleven webcasts are provided, and these are updated annually. This article includes a brief discussion of the value and focus of medical education programs; a description of the DCH/IPPC course content, approaches to teaching and learning, course structure and the funding model; the most recent evaluation of the DCH/IPPC course; and recommendations for overcoming the challenges for implementing a multinational child-health

  6. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty.

  7. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  8. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  9. 42 CFR 457.402 - Definition of child health assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of child health assistance. 457.402 Section 457.402 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.402 Definition of child health assistance. For...

  10. Technology seduction: lost opportunities in child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F J; Kurinczuk, J J

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the extent to which illness-based individual care and expensive, often unevaluated, technologies in paediatrics have seduced practitioners away from more cost-effective, population-based child health activities and examples of new and unevaluated technologies in perinatology and paediatrics are given. The way in which these technologies are introduced and taken up, by 'creeping incrementalism', is described and a plea is made to implement only those aspects of paediatric care that have been demonstrated to be effective. This would result in only appropriate technologies being used, avoid harm being done to children and ensure that money is available for other effective population-based activities that improve child health.

  11. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  12. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Muzik, Maria; Borovska, Stefana

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal depression is common and primary care holds a crucial role for detecting, treating or, if necessary, providing referrals to mental health care for affected women. Family doctors should be aware of risk factors for peripartum depression, including previous history of depression, life events and interpersonal conflict. Perinatal depression has been associated with many poor outcomes, including maternal, child and family unit challenges. Infants and young children of perinatally depres...

  13. Maternal and Child Health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatho Mugo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of South Sudan continues to face considerable challenges in meeting maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH care needs and improving health outcomes. Ongoing instability and population displacement undermine scope for development, and damaged infrastructure, low coverage of health services, and limited government capacity and a human resource base have resulted in a fragmented health system. Despite considerable attention, effort and support, the issues and challenges facing South Sudan remain deep and sustained, and urban–rural disparities are considerable. There is a need to maintain investments in MNCH care and to support developing systems, institutions, and programs. This review of the literature offers a commentary and appraisal of the current MNCH situation in South Sudan. It explores the barriers and challenges of promoting MNCH gains, and identifies priorities that will contribute to addressing the Millennium Development Goals and the emerging health priorities for the post-2015 development agenda.

  14. Child hearing health: practice of the Family Health Strategy nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Brito Azevedo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluating the practice of nurses of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in child hearing health care. Method A normative assessment of structure and process, with 37 nurses in the Family Health Units, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco. The data collection instrument originated from the logical model of child hearing health care provided by nurses of the Family Health Strategy, and the matrix of indicators for evaluation of nursing practice. Results All the nurses identified the hearing developmental milestones. At least two risk factors were identified by 94.5% of the nurses, and 21.6% of them carried out educational activities. Conclusion The normative assessment was considered adequate despite existing limitations in the structure and process.

  15. The Role of Maternal Cognitive Ability in Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rubalcava; Graciela Teruel

    2004-01-01

    The literature on child health suggests mother`s schooling is a key determinant of child health. Little is known of how other sources of maternal human capital contribute to her children`s health. This paper investigates the differential returns on child health of three sources of maternal human capital: schooling, cognitive ability and childhood background. Conditional on schooling and mother`s height, we first analyze the effect of maternal cognitive ability on her children`s health. Next, ...

  16. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  17. Climate change, water resources and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistin, Elizabeth J; Fogarty, John; Pokrasso, Ryan Shaening; McCally, Michael; McCornick, Peter G

    2010-07-01

    Climate change is occurring and has tremendous consequences for children's health worldwide. This article describes how the rise in temperature, precipitation, droughts, floods, glacier melt and sea levels resulting from human-induced climate change is affecting the quantity, quality and flow of water resources worldwide and impacting child health through dangerous effects on water supply and sanitation, food production and human migration. It argues that paediatricians and healthcare professionals have a critical leadership role to play in motivating and sustaining efforts for policy change and programme implementation at the local, national and international level.

  18. Repository on maternal child health: Health portal to improve access to information on maternal child health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. Methods The portal ‘Repository on Maternal Child Health’ was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. Results The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01, increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00, and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03. There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa

  19. Child health in case of emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Alp Gözübüyük

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Stockholm Declaration, it states that " The emergency in terms of medicine is characterized by the acute and unforeseeable imbalance between the capacity and sources of the medicine profession within a certain period of time and the requirement of people affected by the emergency situation or people whose health are under threat." Since potential exposure from the inner and outer stimulus is higher for the organism that is developing in physiological and psychological sense, childhood period is a risky period without considering causation. All of the risks cover the child, family and society. In risk evaluation, live, protection, development and participation rights of child shall be basis in humane and legal sense. Considering the fact that child is the subject of the social life, the damages that may happen should be realized before creating domino effect and injuries should be treated and they should be prevented with precautions that are the dynamo of themselves. Convention on the rights of children gives right to all of us in particular to pediatricians like us to warn and remind states of their duties in the event of failure to abide by these rights to protect the children from risky situations. Reasonable and practical approaches shall be produced with evaluations conducted in the scope of the health, security and education in case of emergency. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 324-330

  20. Celebrating UNAM-Oshakati Campus health day/world health day: a community service: professional and personal life experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lusia N. Ndahambelela Pinehas; NN. Shifiona; KKI. Shikongo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The University of Namibia-Oshakati Campus has a tradition to celebrate UNAM Health Day which coincided with the World Health Day annually. The day had always been celebrated within the Oshakati Campus premises. Nurse lecturers from the School of Nursing and Public Health always decide on the activities of the day and they volunteered themselves to take part in the event. The activities conducted were such as blood pressure monitoring, taking of weigh and giving general health edu...

  1. Smoke-free legislation and child health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world’s population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike. PMID:27853176

  2. Infectious disease burden related to child day care in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, R.; Ypma, R.; Donker, G.A.; Smit, H.A.; Pelt, W. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studying day-care–associated infectious disease dynamics aids in formulating evidence-based guidelines for disease control, thereby supporting day-care centers in their continuous efforts to provide their child population with a safe and hygienic environment. The objective of this study

  3. Child Day Care Centers, Child Day Cares as provided by the Department of Children and Family in Miami-Dade - points, Published in 2012, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Miami-Dade County, Information Technology Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2012. It is described as 'Child...

  4. Why children's rights are central to international child health

    OpenAIRE

    Waterston, T.; Goldhagen, J

    2007-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a framework for improving children's lives around the world. It covers both individual child health practice and public health and provides a unique and child‐centred approach to paediatric problems. The Convention applies to most child health problems and the articles are grouped into protection, provision and participation. Examples of the first are the right to protection from abuse, from economic exploitation and from illicit drugs. We...

  5. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  6. Child Day Care Centers, Statewide Day Cares in the LDSS database., Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2006. It is described as 'Statewide Day Cares in the LDSS database.'. The extent...

  7. Child Day Care Centers, Day Care Centers in Thomas County, GA, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Thomas County BOC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'Day...

  8. Integrating child health information systems in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y

    2009-01-01

    Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.

  9. The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...

  10. Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W.; Haviland, Mark G.; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables – Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health – were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35–106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family...

  11. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  12. 77 FR 19022 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... allowed 60 days for public comment. Two written comments and two verbal comments were received. The verbal... participants and members of the NCS target population (non-NCS participants), $101 per hour for health..., Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 31 Center Drive...

  13. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Borovska, Stefana

    2010-12-01

    Perinatal depression is common and primary care holds a crucial role for detecting, treating or, if necessary, providing referrals to mental health care for affected women. Family doctors should be aware of risk factors for peripartum depression, including previous history of depression, life events and interpersonal conflict. Perinatal depression has been associated with many poor outcomes, including maternal, child and family unit challenges. Infants and young children of perinatally depressed mothers are more likely to have a difficult temperament, as well as cognitive and emotional delays. The primary care setting is uniquely poised to be the screening and treatment site for perinatal depression; however, several obstacles, both at patient and systems level, have been identified that interfere with women's treatment engagement. Current published treatment guidelines favour psychotherapy above medicines as first line treatment for mild to moderate perinatal depression, while pharmacotherapy is first choice for severe depression, often in combination with psychosocial or integrative approaches. Among mothers who decide to stop taking their antidepressants despite ongoing depression during the perinatal period, the majority suffer from relapsing symptoms. If depression continues post-partum, there is an increased risk of poor mother-infant attachment, delayed cognitive and linguistic skills in the infant, impaired emotional development and risk for behavioural problems in later life. Complex, comprehensive and multilevel algorithms are warranted to treat perinatal depression. Primary care doctors are best suited to initiate, carry out and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions designed to prevent adverse outcomes of maternal perinatal depression on mother and child wellbeing.

  14. Health Care Coverage among Child Support-Eligible Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    Using data from the National Survey of America's Families (a nationally representative survey of the economic, social, and health characteristics of children, adults, and their families), this paper discusses health care coverage among child support eligible children. It begins with a detailed profile of child support eligible children living with…

  15. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  16. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth af

  17. The Class and Cultural Functions of Obesity Discourse: Our Latter Day Child Saving Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian; Rich, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the inexorable rise of "health" as regulative discourse, highlighting its class and cultural dimensions. With reference to the policy content of recent obesity reports, analysis suggests that contemporary concerns around obesity are but a modern variant of earlier eighteenth and nineteenth century child saving crusades whose…

  18. The child health/family income gradient: Evidence from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Alison; Shields, Michael A; Price, Stephen Wheatley

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies using Canadian and US data have documented a positive relationship between family income and child health, with the slope of the gradient being larger for older than younger children [Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C., 2002. Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. American Economic Review 92, 1308-1334; Currie, J., Stabile, M., 2003. Socioeconomic status and child health: why is the relationship stronger for older children? American Economic Review 93, 1813-1823]. In this paper we explore whether or not these findings hold for England, analysing a sample of over 13,000 children (and their parents) drawn from the Health Survey for England. While we find consistent and robust evidence of a significant family income gradient in child health, using the subjective general health status measure, the slope of the gradient is very small. Moreover, we find no evidence that the slope of the gradient increases with child age. Furthermore, we find no evidence of such a gradient with more objective measures, based on nurse examinations and blood test results. Together these results suggest that family income is not a major determinant of child health in England. Finally, we provide some evidence that nutrition and family lifestyle choices have an important role in determining child health and that child health is highly correlated within the family.

  19. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.

  20. Child care work. Organizational culture and health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, K S; Bright, K A; Cole, F L; Mackey, T; Lindenberg, J; Grimm, A

    2000-10-01

    A nonrandom sample of child care workers was surveyed to assess whether child care work represented an "at risk" health and safety culture and to measure the organizational dimensions contributing to the health and safety culture. The child care workers in Houston, Texas, were surveyed by mail, using an instrument developed by the research team. The sample population represented 34 child care centers (n = 240 respondents). The analysis yielded five factors related to determinants of health and safety culture. The participants had a favorable perception of the five health and safety determinants. The participants also reported high levels of injury and illness in their environments, suggesting a less than favorable situation. A culture, work, and health model was useful in examining the relationship between health and safety and organizational culture.

  1. Child to child: an approach to the health education of primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J K

    1988-01-01

    Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established.

  2. Child health and the income gradient: evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Hong Son; Connelly, Luke B

    2009-07-01

    The positive relationship between household income and child health is well documented in the child health literature but the precise mechanisms via which income generates better health and whether the income gradient is increasing in child age are not well understood. This paper presents new Australian evidence on the child health-income gradient. We use data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), which involved two waves of data collection for children born between March 2003 and February 2004 (B-Cohort: 0-3 years), and between March 1999 and February 2000 (K-Cohort: 4-7 years). This data set allows us to test the robustness of some of the findings of the influential studies of Case et al. [Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C., 2002. Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. The American Economic Review 92 (5) 1308-1344] and Currie and Stabile [Currie, J., Stabile, M., 2003. Socioeconomic status and child health: why is the relationship stronger for older children. The American Economic Review 93 (5) 1813-1823], and a recent study by Currie et al. [Currie, A., Shields, M.A., Price, S.W., 2007. The child health/family income gradient: evidence from England. Journal of Health Economics 26 (2) 213-232]. The richness of the LSAC data set also allows us to conduct further exploration of the determinants of child health. Our results reveal an increasing income gradient by child age using similar covariates to Case et al. [Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C., 2002. Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. The American Economic Review 92 (5) 1308-1344]. However, the income gradient disappears if we include a rich set of controls. Our results indicate that parental health and, in particular, the mother's health plays a significant role, reducing the income coefficient to zero; suggesting an underlying mechanism that can explain the observed relationship between child health and family income

  3. Child Day Care Centers, Day Care Centers, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  4. Child Day Care Centers, Day_care_preschool_providers, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as...

  5. Child Day Care Centers, Day Care Center point layer, combined with pre-school points., Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is...

  6. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  7. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, Joseph J.; Jane Buchanan; Jane Cohen; Juliane Kippenberg

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and envi...

  8. Somalia: supporting the child survival agenda when routine health service is broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Somalia, one of the most unstable countries in the world, has been without a permanent government for nearly 2 decades. With a health system in total disarray, coverage of basic health interventions remains low and, maternal and child mortality is among the highest in the world. Health partners jointly outlined an integrated package of critical child survival interventions to be delivered through a population-based delivery strategy known as Child Health Days (CHDs), to reduce child mortality. Using this strategy, key child survival interventions are delivered to the community with an objective of reaching children Somalia every 6 months. Through this strategy, immunization services were reached in remote areas, and coverage disparity between the urban and rural areas was reduced from 17% (42% urban and 25% rural) to 10% (50% urban and 60% rural). In addition, infants were reached with a third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, achieving 51% coverage during 2009 and 66% in 2010. This paper summarizes the challenges of scaling up child interventions in the troubled context of Somalia by reviewing the planning, implementation, and achievements of CHDs as well as reflecting on challenges for the future of child survival in Somalia.

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmian M. Bennett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charmian M; Friel, Sharon

    2014-12-03

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world's poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  11. Why children's rights are central to international child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, T; Goldhagen, J

    2007-02-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a framework for improving children's lives around the world. It covers both individual child health practice and public health and provides a unique and child-centred approach to paediatric problems. The Convention applies to most child health problems and the articles are grouped into protection, provision and participation. Examples of the first are the right to protection from abuse, from economic exploitation and from illicit drugs. We examine one particular problem in each of these categories, specifically child labour, services for children with a disability and violence against children. The role of the paedialrician in applying a children's rights approach is discussed. Children's rights are increasingly being accepted around the world but still there is much more rhetoric paid to their value than genuine enforcement. Paediatricians can make a difference to the status of children worldwide by adopting a rights-based approach.

  12. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  13. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    OpenAIRE

    S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth affecting their ability to learn in school and productivity in later life. Sufficient iron supply and intake during pregnancy and in children under two years of age are an important component for nut...

  14. [Environment and child health: from health transition to shared risk?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revault, P; Monjour, L

    2003-01-01

    Children under the age of 18 account for almost half of the world's population, with most living in developing countries. Young people are especially sensitive to acute and chronic environmental conditions and 43% of environmental diseases occur in the 12% of the world's population under age 5. The main environmental threats to the health of children in developing countries are inadequate access to clean water for drinking and hygiene, exposure to air pollution: primarily indoors and secondarily outdoors, risk of accidents and wounds, and poisoning due to toxic products. Recent data suggest that the number and diversity of environmental risk factors affecting child health is increasing as a result of increasing malnutrition, pollution, and violence and consequently that the level of health and quality of life of future generations will decrease. Due to the complexity of the interactions between environmental factors and socio-economic determinants, the epidemiological transition model is poorly suited to analyzing and predicting the concurring risks of infectious disease and chronic disease (diabetes, cancer...). This article presents a number of recommendations for training health professional, developing environmental reference centers, implementing risk assessment, coordinating decentralized activities and policy, and involving parents and children in the decisional process with emphasis on divulgating study findings and developing interfaces between the various stakeholders.

  15. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education.

  16. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  17. Caring for a child with cancer: impact on mother's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forugh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Shoghi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The life of a mother undergoes a dramatic change after a child is diagnosed with cancer. The present study aimed to determine effects on the everyday life process and health status of mothers with children suffering from leukemia. This qualitative study was based on a grounded theory approach with sixteen mothers. The results indicate that after onset of disease in their children, they marginalized their own health and tied their identities to taking care of the child and keeping the child healthy by ignoring themselves, becoming imprisoned in a taking-care-of-the-child position, and trying very hard for seek balance and stability Enduring physical pressures on the one hand, and constantly attempting to achieve balance and stability in family processes on the other hand, gradually cause exhaustion. It seems that health care providers and nurses should pay much more attention to the health status of this group of mothers.

  18. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Child mental health and longer hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Child mental health and longer hospitalizations : 01/03/2017 To use ... up on weekly topics. Children and teens with mental health conditions experience comparatively longer and more expensive hospital ...

  19. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2013-01-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. ...

  20. [Systematization of regional maternal and child health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1983-08-01

    Systematization of regional maternal and child health care is discussed. At present regional maternal and child health care is mainly carried out by public health nurses, midwives, and maternal/child health promotor volunteers. Administrative measures taken so far in connection with maternal and child care are: early notification of pregnancy, issuance of mother/child health memo book, frequent check-ups during pregnancy, expectant mothers' education, baby check-ups, inoculation, and a special care of premature babies. 2 models for the systematization are proposed. According to the 1st model, a public health nurse starts to function whenever one or more of the following occurs. Birth registration and request for counseling from a nursing mother have been filed at the public health office. The notice of release of a nursing mother and request for home visiting from the medical institution arrive. Maternal and child health promotors advise guidance through home visiting. Midwives will play an important role among the patients with postpartum complications. Another model emphasizes the importance of the patient's continuing relationship with the medical institution where the birth took place. A midwife and a public health nurse interested in regional maternal and child care will be placed in the medical institution to engage in home visiting after the release of the patients. In addition to the usual 1 month baby check-up, one at 2 weeks is given for the benefit of nursing mothers. Regional public health nurses concentrate on the care of high risk patients, premarital pregnancy, and family planning. As systematization progresses, it becomes necessary to have a liason department of obstetrics and an information exchange system to achieve better communication between medical institutions and an administrative body.

  1. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  2. Child Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) Reactive Attachment Disorder (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) Also ... Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Patient Handouts Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ...

  3. Open globe injury in a 3-year-old child presenting 3 days later!!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Open globe injuries are a very common cause of unilateral visual loss, with children accounting for up to 20% of all these injuries. The principles of management of ocular injuries are the same for children and adults. However, the management in the case of a child is made much more difficult due to variable cooperation with assessment and continuing therapy as well as the subsequent possibility of amblyopia further complicating the treatment. Here we report the successful management of a 3-year-old child who was brought to this center with a full thickness penetrating injury to her cornea, with a pencil, and the presence of hypopyon, 3 days after the occurrence of the injury.

  4. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  5. Maternal mental health in pregnancy and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Lukose, Ammu; Srinivasan, K

    2011-10-01

    Maternal mental health research is a public health priority due to its impact on both maternal and child health. Despite the growing number of empirical studies in this area, particularly from developing countries, there is a paucity of synthetic review articles. Therefore, attempting to synthesize the existing literature in this area seems relevant to appraise the readers of the field's progress and to infer directions for future research. The present review aims to provide an overview of the literature on maternal mental health and its association with birth outcomes and child behavior. Specifically, the literature on mental health during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its influence on birth outcomes and child behavior have been reviewed. Further, a conceptual and methodological evaluation of the existing literature has been provided to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest directions for future research.

  6. Parental investments in child health - maternal health behaviours and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    A growing economic literature has begun to focus on the effect of parental investments in child health in developed countries. However, this literature is not conclusive. Empirical work has concentrated on estimating the effect of a wide set of parental inputs comprising maternal health behaviour...... the ways in which child health is generated, and - for children of higher birth order - earlier children's outcomes will shape parental investments in child health.......A growing economic literature has begun to focus on the effect of parental investments in child health in developed countries. However, this literature is not conclusive. Empirical work has concentrated on estimating the effect of a wide set of parental inputs comprising maternal health behaviours...... like smoking, alcohol consumption or diet. As most of these inputs are parental choices and we commonly do not observe all inputs relevant for the child production function, estimates on the effect of health inputs suffer from endogeneity bias. This paper explores the effect of smoking, alcohol...

  7. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  8. Enhancing Maternal and Child Health using a Combined Mother & Child Health Booklet in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudany, Mildred A.; Sirengo, Martin; Rutherford, George W.; Mwangi, Mary; Nganga, Lucy W.; Gichangi, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Under Kenyan guidelines, HIV-exposed infants should be tested for HIV DNA at 6 weeks or at first clinical contact thereafter, as infants come for immunization. Following the introduction of early infant diagnoses programmes, however, many infants were not being tested and linked to care and treatment. We developed the Mother & Child Health Booklet to help relate mothers’ obstetrical history to infants’ healthcare providers to facilitate follow-up and timely management. The booklet contains information on the mother’s pregnancy, delivery and postpartum course and her child’s growth and development, immunization, nutrition and other data need to monitor the child to 5 years of age. It replaced three separate record clinical cards. In a 1 year pilot evaluation of the booklet in Nyanza province in 2007–08, the number of HIV DNA tests on infants increased by 34% from 9966 to 13 379. The booklet was subsequently distributed nationwide in 2009. Overall, the numbers of infants tested for HIV DNA rose from 27 000 in 2007 to 60 000 in 2012, which represents approximately 60% of the estimated HIV-exposed infants in Kenya. We believe that the booklet is an important strategy for identifying and treating infected infants and, thus, in progress toward Millennium Development Goal 4. PMID:26342124

  9. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ..., 2010, at 75 FR 41793. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) [Per meal rates in whole or fractions... 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not significant and was reviewed... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  10. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., 2009, at 74 FR 34295. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Lunch and Centers Breakfast supper \\1... related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  11. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  12. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  13. PREVALENCE OF VARIOUS MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS IN CHILD CARE WORKERS IN DAY CARE SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariet Caroline, MPT,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child care workers are those who take care of children in the absence of their parents. Child care workers are exposed to various kinds of occupational injuries which include infections, sprains and strains, trauma like bites from children, trip falls and noise exposure. The risks of injury among these workers are due to their nature of the job. One of the common occupational risks found in these workers is musculoskeletal injury, it occurs as a result of working in awkward postures such as bending, twisting, lifting and carrying in incorrect positions, which may result in various injuries like strain, sprain and soft tissue ruptures. Workers with poor physical conditioning may tend to undergo these changes very rapidly. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders in child care workers who are taking care of the babies. The study was conducted around various day care centres, among 160 women from who were chosen for the study and were given musculoskeletal analysis questionnaires (Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire , The Questionnaires were evaluated using descriptive statistics, analysed using SPSS and the results were computed in percentage. Following the analysis, it was concluded that low back injury was predominant among 44% of workers followed by 18% with neck pain, 11% of shoulder pain, 9% of knee pain, 7% of elbow, 6% of wrist, 4% of others and surprisingly 1 % had no musculoskeletal complaints.

  14. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... : Program Director 200 Assistant administrator 150 Medical officer, director of nursing or equivalent 150... facility, States must meet the requirements of this section. (a) Each adult day health care program, when it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own...

  15. Child Day Care Centers, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. Data by...

  16. Child Health USA 2013: Postpartum Visit and Well-Baby Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRSA MCHB CHUSA Downloads Viewers & Players Child Health USA 2013 An illustrated collection of current and historical ... found in the print version of Child Health USA 2013 . Suggested Citation: U.S. Department of Health and ...

  17. Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B.

    Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world,…

  18. Training Highly Qualified Health Research Personnel: The Pain in Child Health Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L von Baeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes.

  19. Child marriage: a silent health and human rights issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2009-01-01

    Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls' education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls' financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school.

  20. Principles and core functions of integrated child health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Alan R; Atkinson, Delton; Diehn, Tonya Norvell; Eichwald, John; Heberer, Jennifer; Hoyle, Therese; King, Pam; Kossack, Robert E; Williams, Donna C; Zimmerman, Amy

    2004-11-01

    Infants undergo a series of preventive and therapeutic health interventions and activities. Typically, each activity includes collection and submission of data to a dedicated information system. Subsequently, health care providers, families, and health programs must query each information system to determine the child's status in a given area. Efforts are underway to integrate information in these separate information systems. This requires specifying the core functions that integrated information systems must perform.

  1. World Day for Safety and Health at Work

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    27 April is World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   CERN’s health and safety teams look forward to seeing you at their stands in each of the three restaurants. This year, we cast the spotlight on two topics: • ergonomics • electrical hazards. Come and get tips that will help you to ensure your safety and to stay healthy and, you never know, you might be lucky enough to win a nice prize. Don't forget, Friday, 27 April 2012 from 11:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. in your nearest restaurant!

  2. Maternal and child health in Brazil: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L

    2011-05-28

    In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988

  3. Courses in reproductive and child health in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining the human resource needs for providing quality maternal, newborn, and child health services across such a large and diverse population country like India is truly challenging. The effective response to significant challenges and increased requirements of evidence-based effectiveness of the public health projects on maternal and child health is putting pressure on existing program managers to acquire new advanced academic training and information. The data regarding the existing courses on reproductive and child health and related fields in the country were obtained by a predefined search made on the Internet through the Google search engine in December 2011. The collected data were the name and location of the institution offering the respective course, theme, course duration, course structure, eligibility criteria, and mode of learning. In India, around 15 institutes are offering certificate/postgraduate diploma courses on maternal and child health either as a regular program or through distance education program. The admission procedure for each institute is independent of others. The courses vary in terms of duration, eligibility criteria, and fee structure. Conceptualizing an educational initiative in response to national demands for increased workforce capacity to eliminate key medical and nonmedical educational barriers and financial and nonfinancial barriers to advanced academic preparation would enhance the quality of services available in the region.

  4. Child health education for the foreign-born parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R A

    2001-01-01

    Providing child health education for the foreign-born parent presents unique concerns related to language and culture. An innovative approach in a transcultural format used a presentation of basic child health information in English, with translators as facilitators. Foreign-born parents who need partial or complete language interpretation have ready access to translation support. The parents offer questions, comments, suggestions and evaluate the presentation through the translator. Each presentation can accommodate more than one language, since participants are grouped with the appropriate translator. The presentation is done in English and paced to allow for translation to be completed as material is offered. This type of presentation allows discussion of child health in a forum apart from the pediatric care setting. Because the presentation is the only focus, parents do not have the additional concern of immediate care of the child added to communication issues. Vocabulary relative to health care is developed from English into the parents' primary language, with the support of the translator. The pediatric nurse presenter has an opportunity to review health care practices that parents prefer, as well as interpret safety and efficacy.

  5. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  6. 77 FR 10758 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ]...

  7. Planned health change in an emerging nation. Maternal/child health programme in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, M A

    1990-04-01

    Professional skills developed in providing maternal and child care in the industrialised world can be applied to the provision of appropriate services to emerging nations. Understanding local mores and values, one can more effectively convey the essential elements of maintenance and promotion of health. By volunteering to work with a locally based relief organisation in Arequipa, Peru, I helped to facilitate cross-cultural planned health change in the maternal/child health programme.

  8. Health insurance and child mortality in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schoeps

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micro health insurance schemes have been implemented across developing countries as a means of facilitating access to modern medical care, with the ultimate aim of improving health. This effect, however, has not been explored sufficiently. Objective: We investigated the effect of enrolment into community-based health insurance on mortality in children under 5 years of age in a health and demographic surveillance system in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Design: We analysed the effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality with a Cox regression model. We adjusted for variables that we found to be related to the enrolment in health insurance in a preceding analysis. Results: Based on the analysis of 33,500 children, the risk of mortality was 46% lower in children enrolled in health insurance as compared to the non-enrolled children (HR=0.54, 95% CI 0.43–0.68 after adjustment for possible confounders. We identified socioeconomic status, father's education, distance to the health facility, year of birth, and insurance status of the mother at time of birth as the major determinants of health insurance enrolment. Conclusions: The strong effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality may be explained by increased utilisation of health services by enrolled children; however, other non-observed factors cannot be excluded. Because malaria is a main cause of death in the study area, early consultation of health services in case of infection could prevent many deaths. Concerning the magnitude of the effect, implementation of health insurance could be a major driving factor of reduction in child mortality in the developing world.

  9. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  10. Discharge on the day of birth, parental response and health and schooling outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    Exploiting the Danish roll-out of same-day discharge policies, we find that treated newborns have a higher probability of first-month hospital readmission. This result may suggest that parents substitute postpartum hospital stays with readmissions. However, a same-day discharge also increases the...... and schooling in the longer run through both its effects on children’s health and on parental investments.......Exploiting the Danish roll-out of same-day discharge policies, we find that treated newborns have a higher probability of first-month hospital readmission. This result may suggest that parents substitute postpartum hospital stays with readmissions. However, a same-day discharge also increases...... the number of mother and child general practitioner contacts in the first three years and decreases children’s ninth grade GPA. Longer-run effects are strongest for at-risk children. Complementing our analyses of administrative data with survey data, we show that a same-day discharge impacts health...

  11. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  12. Child Health and Access to Medical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Lindsey; Levy, Helen

    2015-01-01

    It might seem strange to ask whether increasing access to medical care can improve children's health. Yet Lindsey Leininger and Helen Levy begin by pointing out that access to care plays a smaller role than we might think, and that many other factors, such as those discussed elsewhere in this issue, strongly influence children's health.…

  13. 75 FR 1792 - Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... information and education resource library to help meet the changing needs of professionals, families with... information science and information technology to identify, collect, and organize information from the MCH... ensure that Georgetown University, Maternal and Child Health Library can continue to provide much...

  14. Accountability of specialist child and adolescent mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garralda, Elena M

    2009-05-01

    Outcome auditing of specialist child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) is now well under way internationally. There is, however, debate about objectives and tools. A case is made for the achievable goal of enhancing service accountability through user satisfaction information and clinician-rated contextualised measures of improvements in symptoms and impairment.

  15. What Every Child Needs for Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen Eating Disorders Teen Depression and Suicide Teen Self-esteem Feeling Good About Yourself Teen Stress: A Guide to Surviving Stress SOURCES “Facts for Families," America Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry “Children’s and Adolescent’s Mental Health," US Dept. ...

  16. Global child health: challenges and goals in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R S

    1994-01-01

    The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to

  17. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children.

  18. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.

  19. Ministry of Health Maps Out Goals for Prevention of Motherto-Child Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In a recently circulated document called Implementation Plan (Trial) for Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission, the Ministry of Health vowed to step up efforts to cut off mother-tochild transmission and improve maternal and child health.

  20. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H

    2013-10-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies.

  1. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  2. Child maltreatment and allostatic load: consequences for physical and mental health in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A; Dackis, Melissa N; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-11-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning dehydroepiandosterone also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health.

  3. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  4. Diabetes Dictating Policy: An Editorial Commemorating World Health Day 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara

    2016-06-18

    The 21st century is an era of great challenge for humankind; we are combating terrorism, climate change, poverty, human rights issues and last but not least non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The burden of the latter has become so large that it is being recognized by world leaders globally as an area that it is in need of much greater attention. In light of this concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) dedicated this year's World Health Day (held on April 7, 2016) to raising international awareness on diabetes, the fastest growing NCD in the world. This editorial is an account of the macro politics in place for fighting diabetes, both internationally and nationally.

  5. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  6. 77 FR 38840 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Child Health Disparities Substudy for the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... measures of health literacy, discrimination, parenting self-efficacy, and health care accessibility... shown that health literacy, discrimination, parenting self-efficacy, health care (access, utilization... environment, genetics on child health and development. The Study defines ``environment'' broadly, taking...

  7. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  8. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  9. Mothers' Community Participation and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    We use rich data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to assess the relationship between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community activities and their children's health. We exploit the advantages of longitudinal data and community fixed effects to mitigate some of the concerns about spuriousness and reverse causality that…

  10. Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

  11. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  12. 75 FR 51827 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...

  13. 77 FR 29675 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of Meeting Pursuant... given of a meeting of the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council. The meeting will... Committee: National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council. Date: June 7, 2012. Open: June...

  14. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  15. La salud en la infancia Child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Colomer-Revuelta

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En España, la infancia aparece como un grupo de población con escasas necesidades y problemas de salud, lo que lo hace casi invisible en la investigación y en la planificación de servicios. En general, no se tiene en cuenta que se trata de un período de desarrollo y de alta vulnerabilidad a los riesgos físicos y psicosociales, y de respuesta positiva a los factores protectores. En este artículo se recogen datos y reflexiones sobre algunos problemas que mejoran (mortalidad, cáncer y otros que persisten o empeoran (calidad del ambiente, maltrato, salud mental, obesidad, discapacidades y estilos de vida, y se plantean nuevos desafíos relacionados con la calidad de vida y la equidad de género y clase social. Además se revisan las respuestas que se dan desde los servicios de salud, las políticas medioambientales y de promoción de la salud, y se propone una atención específica a la salud de niños y niñas desde un enfoque de los derechos humanos.Children in Spain are considered as being a population group with few health problems and needs therefore making it almost invisible in research and services' planning. Generally, it is not taken into account that this is a development period with very high vulnerability to physical and psychosocial risks whereas there is a positive response to protective factors. This article covers some data and thoughts on their health problems that are improving (mortality, cancer, those that persist or worsen (environmental quality, abuse, mental health, obesity, disabilities and lifestyles and new challenges relating to quality of life and gender and social class equity. Responses provided by the health services are reviewed, as are environmental policies and health promotion and specific care is proposed for boys' and girls' health from a children's human rights-focused perspective.

  16. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  17. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  18. Poverty and Child Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Almost half of young children in the United States live in poverty or near poverty. The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to reducing and ultimately eliminating child poverty in the United States. Poverty and related social determinants of health can lead to adverse health outcomes in childhood and across the life course, negatively affecting physical health, socioemotional development, and educational achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates for programs and policies that have been shown to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for children and families living in poverty. With an awareness and understanding of the effects of poverty on children, pediatricians and other pediatric health practitioners in a family-centered medical home can assess the financial stability of families, link families to resources, and coordinate care with community partners. Further research, advocacy, and continuing education will improve the ability of pediatricians to address the social determinants of health when caring for children who live in poverty. Accompanying this policy statement is a technical report that describes current knowledge on child poverty and the mechanisms by which poverty influences the health and well-being of children.

  19. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  20. Child health, poverty and the environment: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, N

    1998-01-01

    In Canada, there has been little research exploring the link between child poverty and exposure to environmental contaminants. However, children living in poverty are more likely to grow up in neighbourhoods adjacent to polluting industries and heavily used transportation corridors. They are also more likely to live in improperly designed or maintained buildings where levels of contaminants and toxic residuals may be high, and indoor air quality poor. Risk factors such as exposure to cigarette smoke and poor nutritional status, together with the above living conditions during growth and development, create conditions that make children living in poverty more vulnerable to the effects of environmental contaminants. In Toronto, the South Riverdale Community Health Centre is developing grassroots techniques to build awareness and protect citizens. Given the growing levels of child poverty in Canada and decreasing environmental protection, the author suggests increased community action and health research for use in advocating for appropriate policy changes.

  1. The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosec, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children.

  2. The potential of the Child Health Utility 9D Index as an outcome measure for child dental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) is a relatively new generic child health-related quality of life measure (HRQoL)—designed to be completed by children—which enables the calculation of utility values. The aim is to investigate the use of the CHU9D Index as an outcome measure for child dental health in New Zealand. Method A survey was conducted of children aged between 6 and 9 years attending for routine dental examinations in community clinics in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 2012. The CHU9D, a HRQoL, was used, along with the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), a validated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure. Socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and household deprivation) were recorded. Dental therapists undertook routine clinical examinations, with charting recorded for each child for decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth (dmft) at the d3 level. Results One hundred and forty 6-to-9-year-olds (50.7% female) took part in the study (93.3% participation rate). The mean d3mft was 2.4 (SD = 2.6; range 0 to 9). Both CHU9D and CPQ detected differences in the impact of dental caries, with scores in the expected direction: children who presented with caries had higher scores (indicating poorer OHRQoL) than those who were free of apparent caries. Children with no apparent caries had a higher mean CHU9D score than those with caries (indicating better HRQoL). The difference for the CPQ was statistically significant, but for CHU9D the difference was not significant. When the two indices were compared, there was a significant difference in mean CHU9D scores by the prevalence of CPQ and subscale impacts with children experiencing no impacts having mean CHU9D scores closer to 1.0 (representing perfect health). Conclusion The CHU9D may be useful in dental research. Further exploration in samples with different caries experience is required. The use of the CHU9D in child oral health studies will enable the calculation of

  3. Differentials in reproductive and child health status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Parchure

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.

    Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.

    Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.

    Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.

  4. Sociocognitive determinants of observed and self-reported compliance to hand hygiene guidelines in child day care centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, T.P.; Erasmus, V.; Empelen, P. van; Looman, C.; Beeck, E.F. van; Tjon-A-Tsien, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Voeten, H.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hand hygiene (HH) has proven to be an effective measure to prevent infections, HH compliance is generally low. We assessed sociocognitive determinants of caregivers' HH behavior in child day care centers (DCCs) to develop an effective HH intervention. Methods: Caregivers' compli

  5. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations...

  6. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... June 30, 2013, on July 24, 2012, in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43229. Adjusted Payments The... related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  7. Goodness-of-Fit in Center Day Care: Relations of Temperament, Stability, and Quality of Care with the Child's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Zeijl, Jantien

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the concept of "goodness-of-fit" between the child's temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6-30 months, participated in this…

  8. The Rise in Cortisol in Family Day Care: Associations with Aspects of Care Quality, Child Behavior, and Child Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the increase in salivary cortisol from midmorning to midafternoon in 151 children (3.0-4.5 years) in full-time home-based day care. Compared to cortisol levels at home, increases were noted in the majority of children (63%) at day care, with 40% classified as a stress response. Observations at day care revealed that intrusive,…

  9. Filipino Child Health in the United States: Do Health and Health Care Disparities Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce R. Javier, MD, MPH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFilipinos are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States, but few studies have examined health and health care disparities in Filipino children. The objectives of this review are 1 to appraise current knowledge of Filipino children’s health and health care and 2 to present the implications of these findings for research, clinical care, and policy.MethodsWe identified articles for review primarily via a Medline search emphasizing the terms Filipino and United States crossed with specific topics in child and adolescent health that fall under one of Healthy People 2010’s 28 focus areas. ResultsFilipino children are underrepresented in medical research. Studies that compare Filipino children and adolescents with white children or children of other Asian Pacific Islander subgroups suggest disparities with regard to gestational diabetes, rates of neonatal mortality and low birth weight, malnutrition in young children, overweight, physical inactivity and fitness, tuberculosis, dental caries, and substance abuse. Studies that compare Filipino adults with white adults describe adult Filipino health problems similar to those of Filipino children, including higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Health care disparities remain to be determined.ConclusionHealth and health care disparities appear to exist for Filipino children, but more research is needed to confirm these findings. Practitioners serving this population need to consider social and cultural factors that can increase or diminish risk for health problems. There are priorities in research and policy that, if pursued, may improve the health care and health outcomes of Filipino children.

  10. Impact of information and communication technology on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use.

  11. Child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the UK National Health Service: an historical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rous, Elizabeth; Clark, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review developed from a discussion with the late Professor Richard Harrington about interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) that lacked an evidence base. Our aim is to investigate the literature for signs that child psychoanalysis is a declining paradigm within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the United Kingd...

  12. 75 FR 7484 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Changing Parental Relationships and Child Well-Being. Date: March 5, 2010... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  13. The Health and Working Conditions of Women Employed in Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Linnan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over one million women are employed in child care and are among the lowest wage workers in the US. The health and working conditions of 674 child care workers (118 administrators and 556 staff from 74 centers is described using baseline data from a larger intervention trial. Participants were 39.9 (±13.0 years old; 55.4% African American, 37.1% Caucasian, and 5.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Seventy-six percent reported having an Associate’s degree or less; 42% were classified as at or below poverty (<$20,000; and exhibited many health risks such as excess weight, insufficient activity, poor diet, and inadequate sleep. We investigated potential differences by income and job category. Lower income participants were significantly more likely to be current smokers (19.9% vs. 11.7%, drink more sweetened beverages (1.9 vs. 1.5, and report higher depressive symptoms (15.5 vs. 12.6. Administrators worked more hours weekly compared to staff (46.4 vs. 40.6, are less active (100 vs. 126 min/week, more sedentary (501 vs. 477 min/day, and reported higher job demands (13.3 vs. 12.5. Given the numerous health issues and challenging work conditions, we hope our results serve as a call to action for addressing low wages and the work environment as a means of influencing the health and well-being of child care workers.

  14. Increased seroprevalence of IgG-class antibodies against cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and varicella-zoster virus in women working in child day care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rijckevorsel Gini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary maternal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV, parvovirus B19 (B19V, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes like congenital infection or foetal loss. Women working in child day care have an increased exposure to CMV, B19V, and VZV. By comparing the seroprevalence of IgG-class antibodies against CMV, VZV and B19V in female day care workers (DCW with the seroprevalence in women not working in day care this study aimed to assess the association between occupation and infection. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. Out of a random sample of 266 day care centres, demographic data, data on work history, and blood samples were collected from 285 women from 38 centres. In addition, blood samples and basic demographics from women who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the Amsterdam population (2004 were used. All blood samples were tested for IgG-class antibodies against CMV, B19V, and VZV. Results Twenty-seven percent of the DCW were still susceptible to B19V or CMV. Working in day care was independently associated with B19V infection in all DCW (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.2; 95 % CI 1.1–1.3, and with CMV infection in DCW of European origin only (PR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3–2.3. Almost all women born outside Europe tested seropositive for CMV (96 %. All DCW tested seropositive for VZV, compared to only 94 % of the women not working in day care. Conclusion This study confirms the clear association between employment in child day care centres and infection with CMV and B19V. Intervention policies, like screening of new employees and awareness campaigns emphasizing hygienic measures among DCW, should be implemented urgently to improve the maternal health of these women and the health of their offspring.

  15. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.E. Staal; J.M.A. Hermanns; A.J.P. Schrijvers; H.F. van Stel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional j

  16. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victimschild advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.

  17. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Helena de A. Toloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. Results: The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Conclusions: Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption.

  18. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.

  19. The Health and Working Conditions of Women Employed in Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnan, Laura; Arandia, Gabriela; Bateman, Lori A; Vaughn, Amber; Smith, Natalie; Ward, Dianne

    2017-03-09

    Over one million women are employed in child care and are among the lowest wage workers in the US. The health and working conditions of 674 child care workers (118 administrators and 556 staff) from 74 centers is described using baseline data from a larger intervention trial. Participants were 39.9 (±13.0) years old; 55.4% African American, 37.1% Caucasian, and 5.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Seventy-six percent reported having an Associate's degree or less; 42% were classified as at or below poverty (income and job category. Lower income participants were significantly more likely to be current smokers (19.9% vs. 11.7%), drink more sweetened beverages (1.9 vs. 1.5), and report higher depressive symptoms (15.5 vs. 12.6). Administrators worked more hours weekly compared to staff (46.4 vs. 40.6), are less active (100 vs. 126 min/week), more sedentary (501 vs. 477 min/day), and reported higher job demands (13.3 vs. 12.5). Given the numerous health issues and challenging work conditions, we hope our results serve as a call to action for addressing low wages and the work environment as a means of influencing the health and well-being of child care workers.

  20. Trauma and Child Health: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M; Comer, Jonathan S; Lai, Betty S

    2016-01-01

    Potentially traumatic events are common occurrences that can lead to significant psychological distress, and yet, there has been remarkably little attention to the associations between traumatic events and youth's physical health. The articles contained in this Special Issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology represent a significant step forward in the establishment of "Trauma and Child Health" as a major area of study within the field of pediatric psychology. In this introductory article, we briefly describe several contextual issues that may help to set the stage for the articles contained in this Special Issue. These contextual issues include the most common types of traumatic events that are studied, as well as the features of traumatic events that may affect physical and mental health outcomes, such as whether casualties or interpersonal violence is involved.

  1. Infant mental health screening in the general child health surveilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Andersen, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    was investigated by Rasch item response analyses; the predictive validity was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The Rasch analyses showed that CIMHS had high construct validity and identified patterns of infant mental health problems without differential item function for gender, age...

  2. [Child health care and its development in Vrsac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.

  3. The role of maternal cognitive ability on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcava, Luis N; Teruel, Graciela M

    2004-12-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms through which mother's cognitive ability operates in enhancing her children's health. This paper analyzes how maternal returns to cognitive ability on children's height reflect contemporaneous endowments and childhood background of the mother. Results suggest that maternal returns to cognitive ability on child height are less likely to reflect observed mother's childhood endowments as measured by parental transmission of knowledge or school quality, but are more likely to be associated with learning to be a mother, and with a better capacity to take advantage of household and community available resources.

  4. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  5. 75 FR 10491 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 77 FR 12599 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...

  7. 75 FR 4577 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  8. 77 FR 37424 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703)...

  9. 75 FR 55807 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01,...

  10. 76 FR 19999 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  11. 76 FR 40738 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive...

  12. 77 FR 19676 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  13. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  14. 75 FR 12244 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  15. 75 FR 34457 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Child Health, And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01,...

  16. 76 FR 65516 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD...

  17. 76 FR 40737 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  18. 78 FR 12767 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  19. 75 FR 12243 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd. Room 5B01, Bethesda,...

  20. 77 FR 61418 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...

  1. 76 FR 77544 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  2. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  3. 77 FR 58854 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,...

  4. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 77 FR 21789 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  6. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  7. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  8. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  9. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  10. 75 FR 16151 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  11. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  12. 76 FR 18566 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  13. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  15. 77 FR 5035 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 61719 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  17. 77 FR 5036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  18. 75 FR 49500 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  19. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD, 301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  20. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 75 FR 36101 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 76 FR 12125 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  3. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01G, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  4. 76 FR 67468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  7. 76 FR 53686 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council; NACHHD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  8. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ..., National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20812... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  9. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  10. 76 FR 64092 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 76 FR 61720 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  12. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  13. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 76 FR 35226 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  15. 75 FR 20853 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  16. 77 FR 16845 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703) 902... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  17. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  18. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  19. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  20. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  3. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, ] Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  4. 76 FR 13651 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 76 FR 13649 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  6. 75 FR 66771 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  7. 76 FR 11801 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  8. 75 FR 65496 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  9. 76 FR 13650 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  10. 76 FR 11800 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 75 FR 36662 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  12. 75 FR 29774 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  13. 75 FR 61765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ``Reproductive Panel''. Date: November 3-5... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 75 FR 36661 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  15. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  16. An epidemiological perspective on gastroenteritis in child day care centers : Assessment of impact and risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, R.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastroenteritis related to Dutch DCCs is substantial, particularly among the very young attendees. Attending a DCC roughly doubles a child’s probability of experiencing an episode of gastroenteritis that requires a visit to a general practitioner or hospital. A child might experience a

  17. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  18. Prisoners of the Method: Breaking Open the Child-Centered Pedagogy in Day Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Elly

    1996-01-01

    Examines basic concepts forming the foundation for professional care and education of young children and how these concepts may impede interaction between teachers or caregivers and children. Critiques the concepts of natural development, developmentally appropriate curriculum, and child centeredness. Advocates increased scaffolding, increased…

  19. The Danish preventive child health examination should expand on mental health and the well-being of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    health. The aim of this study was to explore how the child's physical, cognitive and psychosocial health are examined and assessed at the health examinations of children aged 0-5 years in general practice. METHODS: Our study employed observations of the consultations as well as individual interviews...... of the health examination. Motor, cognitive, social skills and mental health are assessed globally through observation and communication with the child, and, to a lesser degree, through conversation with the parents. The child health examination rarely has a family perspective, unless the doctor is already...

  20. Parents' perspectives of the transition to home when a child has complex technological health care needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brenner, Maria

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.

  1. Impact of Play Therapy on Parent-Child Relationship Stress at a Mental Health Training Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…

  2. The effects of poverty on child health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J L; Bennett, N G; Conley, D C; Li, J

    1997-01-01

    Poverty has been shown to negatively influence child health and development along a number of dimensions. For example, poverty-net of a variety of potentially confounding factors-is associated with increased neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates, greater risk of injuries resulting from accidents or physical abuse/neglect, higher risk for asthma, and lower developmental scores in a range of tests at multiple ages. Despite the extensive literature available that addresses the relationship between poverty and child health and development, as yet there is no consensus on how poverty should be operationalized to reflect its dynamic nature. Perhaps more important is the lack of agreement on the set of controls that should be included in the modeling of this relationship in order to determine the "true" or net effect of poverty, independent of its cofactors. In this paper, we suggest a general model that should be adhered to when investigating the effects of poverty on children. We propose a standard set of controls and various measures of poverty that should be incorporated in any study, when possible.

  3. Maternal and Child Health Data Book: The Health of America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana; And Others

    This databook describes the status of maternal and child health in America; the nation's progress in reducing infant mortality, low birthweight babies, and the percentage of pregnant women who receive late or no prenatal care; patterns of teenage and out-of-wedlock childbearing; and the extent to which certain safety net programs, such as Aid to…

  4. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Vinod Kumar; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Ramachandran, Prema; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhandari, Nita; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan; Govil, Dipti; Osrin, David; Kirkwood, Betty

    2011-01-01

    India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and...

  5. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of adolescent health status measurement by the Child Health Questionnaire Child Form (CHQ-CF): Internet administration compared with the standard paper version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Raat (Hein); R.T. Mangunkusumo; J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); G. Kloek (Gitte); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: In this study we evaluated indicators of the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Child Health Questionnaire-Child Form (CHQ-CF). We compared the results in a subgroup of adolescents who completed the standard paper version of the CHQ-CF with the results in another subgrou

  6. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions...

  7. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data collection form is used to identify the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center. The day care teacher is asked questions related to the age of their day care building; age and frequency of cleaning carpets or rugs; types of heating and air conditioning de...

  8. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  9. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action.

  10. Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services - first annual report 2008

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-10-01

    This Annual Report provides the first comprehensive survey carried out on community CAMHS teams and includes preliminary data collected by The Health Research Board on the admission of young people under the age of 18 years to inpatient mental health facilities. As many measures in this report do not have historic comparators it provides a baseline foundation that will be built upon in subsequent years providing an indication of trends that cannot yet be drawn on the basis of this report. The next report will include day hospital, liaison and inpatient services. Subsequent reports will further extend the mapping of mental health services for young people.

  11. Evolution of paradigms of child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohs, E

    1985-01-01

    In 1982 Costa Rica had an infant mortality of 18 per 1000 live births and a life expectancy at birth of 76 years for women and 72 years for men. In the evolution of infant health in Costa Rica two paradigms were identified. One developed in the decades before 1970 and the other during the 1970s. The necessity of conceptualizing a third new paradigm compatible with health needs of the present and the immediate future is recognized. The first or "malnutrition paradigm" was orthodox in its derivation; it identified the lack of food as the underlying base for the major health problems and placed its emphasis on institutional medicine. The paradigm was influenced by foreign schools of nutrition and pediatrics and led to the development of an infrastructure for the delivery of medical services and the programs for food distribution. The "infectious disease paradigm" recognized infectious diseases as the main determinants of morbidity, mortality and malnutrition in childhood. The strategies derived from such a revolutionary paradigm aimed at the control and eradication of infectious diseases, and they resulted in a rapid improvement of child nutrition and health. However, the infectious disease paradigm does not seem to reduce infant mortality below the present level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  13. [Crisis in human resources for health: millennium development goals for maternal and child health threatened].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Jogchum J; Stekelenburg, Jelle; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-01-01

    International migration of health care workers from low-income countries to the West has increased considerably in recent years, thereby jeopardizing the achievements of The Millennium Development Goals, especially number 4 (reduction of child mortality) and 5 (improvement of maternal health).This migration, as well as the HIV/AIDS epidemic, lack of training of health care personnel and poverty, are mainly responsible for this health care personnel deficit. It is essential that awareness be raised amongst donors and local governments so that staffing increases, and that infection prevention measures be in place for their health care personnel. Western countries should conduct a more ethical recruitment of health care workers, otherwise a new millennium development goal will have to be created: to reduce the human resources for health crisis.

  14. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 4, July-August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  15. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  16. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  17. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 5, September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  18. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  19. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  20. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 2, March-April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  1. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  2. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  3. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  4. Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic

  5. 78 FR 54255 - Single-Case Deviation From Competition Requirements: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Requirements: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's Research Network on Pregnancy-Related Care Program..., Diabetes during pregnancy, Obesity, Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy); Studies based on newly or soon-to-be...); Studies that assess the maternal-child health workforce (e.g., Racial and gender differences in...

  6. Maternal-Child Health Data from the NLSY: 1988 Tabulations and Summary Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Frank L.; Quinlan, Stephen V.

    This report uses data from the 1983 through 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to provide information about prenatal, infant, and child health. Objectives of the report are to present statistics which should be of value to maternal and child health policymakers, and to provide NLSY users with baseline information about…

  7. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  8. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1 DSG-H 53 1. Date: April 16-17... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  9. 78 FR 70309 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis...

  10. 75 FR 71449 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A50,...

  11. 76 FR 71345 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety...

  12. 76 FR 64091 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  13. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  14. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July 12, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m... of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  15. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  16. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  17. Caregivers' Endorsement of Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…

  18. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Children in Rural Poverty. Date: August 9, 2011. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  19. 75 FR 17150 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  20. Health-e-Child a grid platform for european paediatrics

    CERN Document Server

    Skaburskas, K; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D

    2008-01-01

    The Health-e-Child (HeC) project [1], [2] is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite [3] based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integr...

  1. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  2. The Mother and Child Health Handbook in Japan as a Health Promotion Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takeuchi MD, PhD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Mother and Child Health Handbook (MCHH, a tool used by almost all parents in Japan, serves as a record book shared by parents and health providers to monitor maternal health care throughout the perinatal period, track the child’s health and growth, and provide educational information. Methods. A review of the existing literature was performed by narrative review using electronic databases with the search term “Maternal and Child Health Handbook” from January 1980 to February 2016. Results. Twenty-eight papers were obtained: 3 review articles, 17 original articles, 2 brief reports, 2 letters, 1 research note, and 3 proceedings. After the MCHH was initiated in 1947, Japan’s infant mortality rate decreased to 2.6 per 1000 live births in 2007, and it is still decreasing. Information recorded in the MCHH at antenatal examinations can be used to evaluate a child’s risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, endocrine disease, mental illness, and infectious disease. Utah’s Department of Health implemented a program called “Baby Your Baby” in 1987 based on the Japanese MCHH; this included a similar booklet with family records and educational information. Thus, the MCHH is a unique tool in Japan that has influenced other countries to adopt similar programs. Conclusion. We will confirm the importance of the MCHH’s role in promoting health and open dialogue.

  3. 'Have a nice day': consumerism, compassion and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, David

    Plans to implement a quality measurement framework that will rate nurses according to the level of care and compassion they demonstrate have been proposed and discussed in a number of Department of Health documents. From September 2010 degree-level nursing students in Wales will receive regular feedback on their communication skills and whether they are exhibiting sufficient levels of compassion. This article examines the reasons why there have been such moves by both politicians and health professionals to demonstrate, in quantifiable terms, that they are able to measure something that is frequently contextual and subject to individual interpretation. It explores how these moves have been influenced by the disclosure of unacceptable standards of care by the Patients Association report and the enquiry into Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust. It also discusses how the adoption of targets to evaluate care and compassion seems to reflect a market-driven and bureaucratic approach to health care that has resulted in a system in which measurability and outcome are considered the most important indicator of quality.

  4. 3 CFR 8457 - Proclamation 8457 of November 20, 2009. National Child's Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... millions of young Americans who were previously uninsured. When given proper nutrition and medical care... sons and daughters may one day realize their dreams. Today, we recommit ourselves to the vision of...

  5. Understanding wealth-based inequalities in child health in India: a decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika

    2012-12-01

    India experienced tremendous economic growth since the mid-1980s but this growth was paralleled by sharp rises in economic inequality. Urban areas experienced greater economic growth as well as greater increases in economic inequality than rural areas. During the same period, child health improved on average but socioeconomic differentials in child health persisted. This paper attempts to explain wealth-based inequalities in child mortality and malnutrition using a regression-based decomposition approach. Data for the analysis come from the 1992/93, 1998/99, and 2005/06 Indian National Family Health Surveys. Inequalities in child health are measured using the concentration index. The concentration index for each outcome is then decomposed into the contributions of wealth-based inequality in the observed determinants of child health. Results indicate that mortality inequality declined in urban areas but remained unchanged or increased in rural areas. Malnutrition inequality increased dramatically both in urban and rural areas. The two largest individual/household-level sources of disparities in child health are (i) inequality in the distribution of wealth itself, and (ii) inequality in maternal education. The contributions of observed determinants (i) to neonatal mortality inequality remained unchanged, (ii) to child mortality inequality increased, and (ii) to malnutrition inequality increased. It is possible that the increases in child health inequality reflect urban biases in economic growth, and the mixed performance of public programs that could have otherwise offset the impacts of unequal growth.

  6. Inequity in child health as a global issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, Tony

    2003-09-01

    Poverty, violence, lack of education, abuse and exploitation, and refugee status are among the primary determinants of the health of children worldwide. There are 1.3 billion people living on less than 1 US dollars per day. Half the world's population, 3 billion people, live on less than 1.30 US dollars per day. Of the 4.4 billion people who live in developing countries, 60% lack access to sanitation, 33% lack clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein.(1) The world's 225 richest people have a combined wealth equivalent to the annual income of the poorest 2.5 billion people, nearly half of the world's population.(1) This article describes a number of the social, political, and environmental factors impacting children in the developing (southern hemisphere) world and how these are affected by actions taken in the developed (northern hemisphere) world.

  7. 42 CFR 68c.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception and Infertility Research Loan... purpose of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception and... payments under the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception...

  8. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopian Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…

  9. Child Day Care Centers, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, S-RCAA, Inc. Head Start/Early Head Start.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. Data by this...

  10. Implementation research on community health workers’ provision of maternal and child health services in rural Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, Peter W; Kenny, Avi; White, Emily; Ballard, Madeleine; Dorr, Lorenzo; Erlandson, Kirby; Grant, Benjamin; Johnson, Alice; Lorenzen, Breanna; Mukherjee, Subarna; Ly, E John; McDaniel, Abigail; Nowine, Netus; Sathananthan, Vidiya; Sechler, Gerald A; Kraemer, John D; Siedner, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess changes in the use of essential maternal and child health services in Konobo, Liberia, after implementation of an enhanced community health worker (CHW) programme. Methods The Liberian Ministry of Health partnered with Last Mile Health, a nongovernmental organization, to implement a pilot CHW programme with enhanced recruitment, training, supervision and compensation. To assess changes in maternal and child health-care use, we conducted repeated cross-sectional cluster surveys before (2012) and after (2015) programme implementation. Findings Between 2012 and 2015, 54 CHWs, seven peer supervisors and three clinical supervisors were trained to serve a population of 12 127 people in 44 communities. The regression-adjusted percentage of children receiving care from formal care providers increased by 60.1 (95% confidence interval, CI: 51.6 to 68.7) percentage points for diarrhoea, by 30.6 (95% CI: 20.5 to 40.7) for fever and by 51.2 (95% CI: 37.9 to 64.5) for acute respiratory infection. Facility-based delivery increased by 28.2 points (95% CI: 20.3 to 36.1). Facility-based delivery and formal sector care for acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea increased more in agricultural than gold-mining communities. Receipt of one-or-more antenatal care sessions at a health facility and postnatal care within 24 hours of delivery did not change significantly. Conclusion We identified significant increases in uptake of child and maternal health-care services from formal providers during the pilot CHW programme in remote rural Liberia. Clinic-based services, such as postnatal care, and services in specific settings, such as mining areas, require additional interventions to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:28250511

  11. Does maternal oral health predict child oral health-related quality of life in adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broadbent Jonathan M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parental/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL of adults. Objectives To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they reach adulthood. Methods Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment were used. The main outcome measure was study members' short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14 at age 32. Analyses involved 827 individuals (81.5% of the surviving cohort dentally examined at both ages, who also completed the OHIP-14 questionnaire at age 32, and whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. Results There was a consistent gradient of relative risk across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status at the age-5 assessment for having one or more impacts in the overall OHIP-14 scale, whereby risk was greatest among the study members whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor/edentulous", and lowest among those with an "excellent/fairly good" rating. In addition, there was a gradient in the age-32 mean OHIP-14 score, and in the mean number of OHIP-14 impacts at age 32 across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status. The higher risk of having one or more impacts in the psychological discomfort subscale, when mother rated her oral health as "poor/edentulous", was statistically significant. Conclusions These data suggest that maternal self-rated oral health when a child is young has a bearing on that child's OHRQOL almost three decades later. The adult offspring of mothers with poor self-rated oral health had poorer OHRQOL outcomes, particularly in the psychological discomfort subscale.

  12. Determinants of Performance of Health Systems Concerning Maternal and Child Health: A Global Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. Methods A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures ...

  13. Program Success of Mental Health Clients in Day Reporting Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Brian; Brown, Eleanor; Yan, Fengxia; Mitchell, Crystal; Robinson, Charles; DeGroot, James; Braithwaite, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Day-reporting centers (DRCs) provide programming for probationers with a history of non-compliant behavior related to substance abuse, who are overrepresented among justice-involved men and women. While evaluations of DRCs demonstrate some effectiveness, results are mixed and less is known about predictors of program success. This evaluation compared indicators of program success between adult offenders with a substance use disorder (n = 144) and those with co-morbid mental illness (n = 113) at three DRCs. Analyses examined differences between and within groups on program completion, personal characteristics and subjective measures of well-being. Results indicated that program completers were more likely to be participants with substance use disorders only and to have a drug-related referring charge. No significant differences between groups on most measures of well-being were observed. Future investigations should consider tracking program dropouts to better understand program attrition and explore readiness to change in treatment programming.

  14. The view of the child health nurse among mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerskiöld, Astrid; Timpka, Toomas; Ek, Anna-Christina

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate mothers' experiences of their encounters with the child health (CH) nurse. A cross-sectional design was used for the study, based on data from 140 mothers gathered by the critical incident technique. The analysis was accomplished by a thematic content analysis, using inductive reasoning in three steps. Symbolic interactionism was used as a frame of reference. The results suggest that the central factor in the encounter between mother and nurse is that they are able to share the realm of motherhood, meaning that the nurse is open and willing to share all types of emotions, experiences and attitudes related to being a mother. Given this basis, other important factors are the supply of sound advice and practical interventions, and that the nurse is reassuring and accessible. The majority of the participating mothers had experienced CH nurses who had provided them with valuable support during troublesome incidents. However, there were also several dissatisfied mothers who had expected support but thought they received insulting treatment instead. The mothers and the nurses have varying experiences and background and therefore different perspectives, which may lead to difficulties in understanding each other. Knowledge about the important factors, that affect the mother-nurse encounter, can be used to strengthen the nurses' positive behaviours and facilitate understanding of how disappointed mothers have experienced their health care encounters.

  15. Methamphetamine Consumption during Pregnancy - Effects on Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Jürgen; Hinner, Patricia; Reichert, Jörg; Rüdiger, Mario

    2017-02-08

    Methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy represents an emerging health care problem. The consequences are not only of relevance to the pregnant women, but also their unborn child. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and hypertension, fetal demise, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. The deleterious effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on the developing fetal brain may lead to long-term neuro-developmental and behavioral problems.Given the current evidence, abuse of methamphetamine during pregnancy must be of utmost concern to health care professionals and to policy-makers. As it has been described for neonatal abstinence syndrome, a multi-professional team is required to improve care of affected women and families. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed, including good prenatal care of pregnant women, perinatal care by specialized obstetricians and neonatologists, and psychiatric treatment by an addiction specialist. Furthermore, families should be integrated into appropriate social support networks.For the development of a structured support program for pregnant women with methamphetamine consumption, methamphetamine use disorder should be considered as a disease that requires medical treatment as well as psychological and social support. The pregnancy should be considered as a window of opportunity to provide the required help.

  16. ‘Mum never loved me.’ How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent–child connectedness: A qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent–child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents’ understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 1...

  17. A public health response to data interoperability to prevent child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Loc H

    2014-11-01

    The sharing of data, particularly health data, has been an important tool for the public health community, especially in terms of data sharing across systems (i.e., interoperability). Child maltreatment is a serious public health issue that could be better mitigated if there were interoperability. There are challenges to addressing child maltreatment interoperability that include the current lack of data sharing among systems, the lack of laws that promote interoperability to address child maltreatment, and the lack of data sharing at the individual level. There are waivers in federal law that allow for interoperability to prevent communicable diseases at the individual level. Child maltreatment has a greater long-term impact than a number of communicable diseases combined, and interoperability should be leveraged to maximize public health strategies to prevent child maltreatment.

  18. Commonalities and challenges: a review of Australian state and territory maternity and child health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Donovan, Jenny; Kruske, Sue; Kemp, Lynn; Homer, Caroline; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-12-01

    Nurses and midwives play a key role in providing universal maternal, child and family health services in Australia. However, the Australian federation of states and territories has resulted in policy frameworks that differ across jurisdictions and services that are fragmented across disciplines and sectors. This paper reports the findings of a study that reviewed and synthesised current Australian service policy or frameworks for maternity and child health services in order to identify the degree of commonality across jurisdictions and the compatibility with international research on child development. Key maternity and child health service policy documents in each jurisdiction were sourced. The findings indicate that current policies were in line with international research and policy directions, emphasising prevention and early intervention, continuity of care, collaboration and integrated services. The congruence of policies suggests the time is right to consider the introduction of a national approach to universal maternal, child health services.

  19. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  20. Children's attachment relationships with day care caregivers: Associations with positive caregiving and the child's temperament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Schipper; L.W.C. Tavecchio; M.H. van IJzendoorn

    2008-01-01

    In this study, children's attachment relationships with their professional caregivers in center day care were observed for 48 children. We explored whether more positive caregiving was associated with a more secure attachment relationship and whether this association was stronger for more temperamen

  1. [Use of soft contact lenses in the Riley-Day syndrome in a small child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hańczyc, P; Koziorowska, M; Zajac-Pytrus, H; Misiuk-Hojło, M

    1995-01-01

    We present the observation of a boy treated in our Ophthalmological Department in Wrocław from the age of 6 months up to 6 years for the serious keratitis with ulceration. We diagnosed Riley-Day syndrome with regard to many associated pathological features. The efficacy of the local treatment improved after application of soft contact lenses.

  2. Thriving Children, Striving Families: A Blueprint for Streamlined Delivery of Child Day Care Collaboration Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Elissa J.; And Others

    Upcoming federal and state changes in welfare and social services will have a profound effect on the delivery of early childhood care and education in Illinois. In October, 1995, the Day Care Action Council of Illinois convened a meeting of early childhood experts and advocates. From this retreat, a vision for a new system of the delivery of child…

  3. 75 FR 54158 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01,...

  4. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A46... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  5. 77 FR 52749 - 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Addendum to Declaration for Federal Employment, Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... collection projects, the Indian Health Service (IHS) is publishing for comment a summary of a proposed... information collection project was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 115) on June 14, 2012... crimes of violence; sexual assault, molestation, exploitation, contact or prostitution; crimes...

  6. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Vinod Kumar; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Ramachandran, Prema; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhandari, Nita; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan; Govil, Dipti; Osrin, David; Kirkwood, Betty

    2011-01-22

    India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and consequences of urbanisation and demographic transition. In 2005, India embarked on the National Rural Health Mission, an extraordinary effort to strengthen the health systems. However, coverage of priority interventions remains insufficient, and the content and quality of existing interventions are suboptimum. Substantial unmet need for contraception remains, adolescent pregnancies are common, and access to safe abortion is inadequate. Increases in the numbers of deliveries in institutions have not been matched by improvements in the quality of intrapartum and neonatal care. Infants and young children do not get the health care they need; access to effective treatment for neonatal illness, diarrhoea, and pneumonia shows little improvement; and the coverage of nutrition programmes is inadequate. Absence of well functioning health systems is indicated by the inadequacies related to planning, financing, human resources, infrastructure, supply systems, governance, information, and monitoring. We provide a case for transformation of health systems through effective stewardship, decentralised planning in districts, a reasoned approach to financing that affects demand for health care, a campaign to create awareness and change health and nutrition behaviour, and revision of programmes for child nutrition on the basis of evidence. This agenda needs political commitment of the highest order and the development of a people's movement.

  7. Training highly qualified health research personnel: The Pain in Child Health consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Stevens, Bonnie J; Chambers, Christine T; Craig, Kenneth D; Finley, G Allen; Grunau, Ruth E; Johnston, C Celeste; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Stinson, Jennifer N; Dol, Justine; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH) is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes. METHODS: Quantitative analyses enumerated PICH faculty, trainees, training activities and scientific outputs. Interviews with PICH stakeholders were analyzed using qualitative methods capturing perceptions of the program’s strengths, limitations, and opportunities for development and sustainability. RESULTS: PICH has supported 218 trainee members from 2002 through 2013, from 14 countries and more than 16 disciplines. The faculty at the end of 2013 comprised nine co-principal investigators, 14 Canadian coinvestigators, and 28 Canadian and international collaborators. Trainee members published 697 peer-reviewed journal articles on pediatric pain through 2013, among other research dissemination activities including conference presentations and webinars. Networks have been established between new and established researchers across Canada and in 13 other countries. Perceptions from stakeholders commended PICH for its positive impact on the development of pediatric pain researchers. Stakeholders emphasized skills and abilities gained through PICH, the perceived impact of PICH training on this research field, and considerations for future training in developing researchers in pediatric pain. CONCLUSIONS: PICH has been successfully developing highly qualified health research personnel within a Canadian and international community of pediatric pain scholarship. PMID:25299474

  8. A qualitative exploration of factors that facilitate and impede adherence to child abuse prevention guidelines in Dutch preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke A.J.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M.E.; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives In the Netherlands, evidence-based child abuse prevention (CAP) guidelines have been developed to support child health care professionals (CHPs) in recognizing and responding to suspected child abuse. The aim of this study was to identify factors related to characteris

  9. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... information technology. To Submit Comments and For Further Information: To obtain a copy of the data... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health,...

  10. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  11. Connecting a sociology of childhood perspective with the study of child health, illness and wellbeing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Geraldine; Lowe, Pam; Olin Lauritzen, Sonja

    2015-02-01

    In the last decades we have seen a growing interest in research into children's own experiences and understandings of health and illness. This development, we would argue, is much stimulated by the sociology of childhood which has drawn our attention to how children as a social group are placed and perceived within the structure of society, and within inter-generational relations, as well as how children are social agents and co-constructors of their social world. Drawing on this tradition, we here address some cross-cutting themes that we think are important to further the study of child health: situating children within health policy, drawing attention to practices around children's health and well-being and a focus on children as health actors. The paper contributes to a critical analysis of child health policy and notions of child health and normality, pointing to theoretical and empirical research potential for the sociology of children's health and illness.

  12. Making child mental health 'everybody's business': a training course for family support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, Alex; Van Roosmalen, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the development and delivery of a mental health teaching and training programme offered to Family Support Workers (FSWs) working in a range of schools in an economically deprived part of Bedfordshire. The FSWs had received no prior teaching in the area of child mental health, or in ways of engaging and communicating with children and families. Both topics were considered crucial to their role. The training was delivered in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of 4 full days of teaching. Topics covered included (1) engaging children and families, (2) child development, (3) self-awareness, and (4) systemic thinking. Phase 2 was delivered through 'practice sets', which were held monthly for 4 months, and lasted 2 hours. These were used to develop the FSWs' theoretical understanding of the issues, and link this with their practice. The training was evaluated using a semistructured questionnaire. Results suggested that participants had changed the ways in which they engaged families and children. They were more able to adopt a collaborative, nonexpert, position which focused on empowering families to make decisions for themselves. This represented a significant shift in the way they worked. This process was enhanced by their more sophisticated level of understanding of child development and behaviour problems, which took into account the impact of wider systemic and relational factors and moved away from locating problems within individuals. Participants also demonstrated the ability to reflect on how their personal beliefs and experiences impacted on the work they undertook, and why this was important. Recommendations following the training included the need for regular, ongoing practice support, the need for the training to be more widely disseminated (e.g. to school staff), and the benefits of having clear descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of Family Support Workers.

  13. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  14. Health-e-Child: a grid platform for european paediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaburskas, K; Estrella, F; Shade, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A [Maat-G Knowledge, Toledo (Spain); Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D [Centre for Complex Cooperative Systems, UWE-Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Richard.McClatchey@uwe.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    The Health-e-Child (HeC) project [1], [2] is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite [3] based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integration and indicates how these will be resolved in the HeC system. HeC is presented as an example of how computer science (and, in particular Grid infrastructures) originating from high energy physics can be adapted for use by biomedical informaticians to deliver tangible real-world benefits.

  15. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  16. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan

    2015-11-26

    Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  17. Effects of Drought on Child Health in Marsabit District, Northern Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan Michael; Mburu, Samuel K.

    2017-01-01

    effect on child health using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The results show that approximately 20 percent of the children in the study area are malnourished and a one standard deviation increase in NDVI z-score decreases the probability of child malnourishment by 12–16 percent. These findings...

  18. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  19. Child food insecurity increases risks posed by household food insecurity to young children's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Food Security Scale (USFSS) measures household and child food insecurity (CFI) separately. Our goal was to determine whether CFI increases risks posed by household food insecurity (HFI) to child health and whether the Food Stamp Program (FSP) modifies these effects. From 1998 to 2004, 17,158 ...

  20. A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Evaluation of a One-Day Mental Health Wellness Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…

  1. Balloon atrial septostomy through internal jugular vein in a 45-day-old child with transposition of great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhi Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon atrial septostomy is a common palliative procedure in D-transposition of great arteries. It is technically easy before 2-3 weeks of age when the septum primum is thin. Femoral vein or umbilical vein, when available, is the common access used for this procedure. In situations when these accesses are not available or in case of inferior vena cava interruption, trans-hepatic access is used. Internal jugular vein (IJV access is not used as it is difficult to enter the left atrium through this route. We describe a case of successful Balloon atrial septostomy done through IJV in a 45-day-old child with emphasis on the technique, hardware and precautions necessary during the procedure.

  2. Review of Child and Adolescent Refugee Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Stuart L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Knight, Wanda Grant; Geltman, Paul; Ellis, Heidi; Kinzie, J. David; Keane, Terence; Saxe, Glenn N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review stressful experiences and stress reactions among child and adolescent refugees, as well as interventions and ethical considerations in research and clinical work, within the framework of the chronological experiences of child refugees; namely, the phases of preflight, flight, and resettlement. Highlighted are special refugee…

  3. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  4. The Danish preventive child health examination should expand on mental health and the well-being of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The preventive child health examination is animportant platform for examination and dialogue concerninga child’s health. The physical aspect works well, butthere is a need for development of the assessment of thechild’s mental health and the well-being of the family. FUNDING: Postdoctoral...

  5. Syllabus Outline on Child Care for Day Care Teachers at Family Life Teacher Training Centre in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumina M.

    Five day care centers in Mogadiscio, the capital city of Somalia, were studied to (1) identify problems encountered in teaching a course in child care; (2) observe teaching methods and assess their effectiveness; (3) ascertain reasons for the lack of preservice training for day care teachers; and (4) develop a new syllabus for a course in child…

  6. Health system productivity change in Zambia: A focus on the child health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achoki, Tom; Kinfu, Yohannes; Masiye, Felix; Frederix, Geert W J; Hovels, Anke; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2017-02-01

    Efficiency and productivity improvement have become central in global health debates. In this study, we explored productivity change, particularly the contribution of technological progress and efficiency gains associated with improvements in child survival in Zambia (population 15 million). Productivity was measured by applying the Malmquist productivity index on district-level panel data. The effect of socioeconomic factors was further analyzed by applying an ordinary least squares regression technique. During 2004-2009, overall productivity in Zambia increased by 5.0 per cent, a change largely attributed to technological progress rather than efficiency gains. Within-country productivity comparisons revealed wide heterogeneity in favor of more urbanized and densely populated districts. Improved cooking methods, improved sanitation, and better educated populations tended to improve productive gains, whereas larger household size had an adverse effect. Addressing such district-level factors and ensuring efficient delivery and optimal application of existing health technologies offer a practical pathway for further improving population health.

  7. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  8. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems.

  9. Acculturation differences in communicating information about child mental health between Latino parents and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Brown, Jonathan D; Loder, Stephen; Wissow, Larry

    2014-12-01

    Significant Latino-white disparities in youth mental health care access and quality exist yet little is known about Latino parents' communication with providers about youth mental health and the role of acculturation in influencing this communication. We estimated regression models to assess the association between time in the US and the number of psychosocial issues discussed with the medical assistant (MA) and doctor, adjusting for child and parent mental health and sociodemographics. Other proxies of acculturation were also investigated including measures of Spanish and English language proficiency and nativity. Parent's length of time in the US was positively associated with their communication of: their child's psychosocial problems with their child's MA, stress in their own life with their child's MA, and their child's school problems with their child's doctor. These differences were especially apparent for parents living in the US for >10 years. Parent-child language discordance, parent and child nativity were also significantly associated with communication of psychosocial problems. Greater provider and MA awareness of variation in resistance to communicating psychosocial issues could improve communication, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of youth mental illness.

  10. Teeth Tales: a community-based child oral health promotion trial with migrant families in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, L.; Waters, E; Christian, B.; Gold, L.; Young, D.; Silva, A; Calache, H.; Gussy, M.; Watt, R.; Riggs, E; Tadic, M.; Hall, M.; Gondal, I.; Pradel, V.; Moore, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. Design An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. Setting The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Families with 1–4-year-old children, self-identifie...

  11. Treating Mental Health Disorders for Children in Child Welfare Care: Evaluating the Outcome Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Shannon L.; Leschied, Alan; den Dunnen, Wendy; Zalmanowitz, Sharla; Baiden, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children involved in the child welfare system (CWS) have a greater need for mental health treatment relative to children in the general population. However, the research on mental health treatment for children in the CWS is sparse with only one known previous review of mental health services with children in the CWS. Objective: This…

  12. Parental Efficacy and Role Responsibility for Assisting in Child's Healthful Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Christa L.; Neal, William A.; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity, and its subsequent impact on negative health outcomes, continues to plague the United States. Better health outcomes have been linked to increased child achievement in school. Due to the strong influence parents have on children's healthful behaviors particularly in younger years, it's imperative to…

  13. 78 FR 19498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  14. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-...

  15. 77 FR 33473 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510,...

  16. 77 FR 61420 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510,...

  17. 77 FR 37422 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510,...

  18. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  19. Monitoring Child Health: School Doctors at Work in a Dutch Rural Area (1930-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2016-01-01

    From 1948 the World Health Organization expected child hygiene to include mental health. This article discusses the way school doctors adapted their activities and concerns accordingly in the mid-twentieth century in an agrarian-industrial area of the Netherlands. In spite of an improvement in pupils' physical health they shifted their attention…

  20. Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosser Lisa A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However

  1. The clinical translation gap in child health exercise research: a call for disruptive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M; Cerny, Frank J; Cooper, Dan M; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G; Kemper, Han C G; Leu, Szu-Yun; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A; Olin, J Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T; Purucker, Mary; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy

    2015-02-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health.

  2. Determinants of performance of health systems concerning maternal and child health: a global approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez

    Full Text Available To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world.A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010.Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(<1year: higher access to water (βa Quartile 4(Q4 vs Quartile 1(Q1 = -6,14; 95%CI: -11,63 to -0,73, sanitation systems, (Q4 vs Q1 = -25,58; 95%CI: -31,91 to -19,25, % measles vaccination coverage (Q4 vs Q1 = -7.35; 95%CI: -10,18 to -4,52, % of births attended by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -7,91; 95%CI: -11,36 to -4,52 and a % of the total health expenditure (Q3 vs Q1 = -2,85; 95%CI: -4,93 to -0,7. Ethnic fragmentation (Q4 vs Q1 = 9,93; 95%CI: -0.03 to 19.89 had a marginal effect. For child mortality<5 years, an association was found for these variables and democratization (not free vs free = 11,23; 95%CI: -0,82 to 23,29, out-of-pocket expenditure (Q1 vs Q4 = 17,71; 95%CI: 5,86 to 29,56. For MMR (Maternal mortality ratio, % of access to water for all the quartiles, % of access to sanitation systems, (Q3 vs Q1 = -171,15; 95%CI: -281,29 to -61, birth attention by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -231,23; 95%CI: -349,32 to -113,15, and having corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133.Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.

  3. Determinants of Performance of Health Systems Concerning Maternal and Child Health: A Global Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Idrovo, Álvaro J.; Arredondo López, Abel Armando

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. Methods A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010. Results Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(<1year): higher access to water (βa Quartile 4(Q4) vs Quartile 1(Q1) = -6,14; 95%CI: -11,63 to -0,73), sanitation systems, (Q4 vs Q1 = -25,58; 95%CI: -31,91 to -19,25), % measles vaccination coverage (Q4 vs Q1 = -7.35; 95%CI: -10,18 to -4,52), % of births attended by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -7,91; 95%CI: -11,36 to -4,52) and a % of the total health expenditure (Q3 vs Q1 = -2,85; 95%CI: -4,93 to -0,7). Ethnic fragmentation (Q4 vs Q1 = 9,93; 95%CI: -0.03 to 19.89) had a marginal effect. For child mortality<5 years, an association was found for these variables and democratization (not free vs free = 11,23; 95%CI: -0,82 to 23,29), out-of-pocket expenditure (Q1 vs Q4 = 17,71; 95%CI: 5,86 to 29,56). For MMR (Maternal mortality ratio), % of access to water for all the quartiles, % of access to sanitation systems, (Q3 vs Q1 = -171,15; 95%CI: -281,29 to -61), birth attention by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -231,23; 95%CI: -349,32 to -113,15), and having corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133). Conclusions Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results. PMID

  4. Context matters: A community-based study of urban minority parents’ views on child health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolar, Cassandra L.; Hernandez, Natalie; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin; Ferguson, Aneeqah S.; Rollins, Latrice; Wrenn, Glenda; Okafor, Martha; Collins, David; Clem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Among children, there are substantial ethno-racial minority disparities across a broad range of health-related behaviors, experiences, and outcomes. Addressing these disparities is important, as childhood and adolescence establish health trajectories that extend throughout life. Methods The current study employed a community-based participatory research approach to gain community insight on child health priorities and to frame an intervention aimed at improving the health of minority children. Eight focus groups were conducted among seventy-five African American parents in a Southeastern city. The current study was guided by an ecological theoretical framework. Results Although the focus of this investigation was on community identification of child health priorities, participants cited, as root determinants, contextual factors, which included lack of healthy food options, lack of spaces for physical activity, and community violence. These co-occurring factors were related to limited engagement in outdoor activities and physical activity, increased obesity, and poor mental health and coping. Poor parenting was cited as the most substantial barrier to improving child health outcomes, and quality parenting was identified as the most important issue to address for community programs focused on promoting the health and success of children. For improving health outcomes for children in their neighborhoods, establishment of positive social capital and constructive activities were also cited. Conclusions These results reinforce social determinants of health as influences on child health outcomes and describe how community engagement can address potential solutions through interventions that resonate with program participants. PMID:27275021

  5. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... No: 2010-11316] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...

  6. Government-Backed Salt Reduction Efforts Could Deliver Big Health Pay Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162976.html Government-Backed Salt Reduction Efforts Could Deliver Big Health Pay Day Researchers ... found that a government-supported national plan to reduce salt would be cost-effective in nearly every country ...

  7. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  8. Fragmented implementation of maternal and child health home-based records in Vietnam: need for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu Aiga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home-based records (HBRs are globally implemented as the effective tools that encourage pregnant women and mothers to timely and adequately utilise maternal and child health (MCH services. While availability and utilisation of nationally representative HBRs have been assessed in several earlier studies, the reality of a number of HBRs subnationally implemented in a less coordinated manner has been neither reported nor analysed. Objectives: This study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBRs for MCH and the level of fragmentation of and overlapping between different HBRs for MCH in Vietnam. The study further attempts to identify health workers’ and mothers’ perceptions towards HBR operations and utilisations. Design: A self-administered questionnaire was sent to the provincial health departments of 28 selected provinces. A copy of each HBR available was collected from them. A total of 20 semi-structured interviews with health workers and mothers were conducted at rural communities in four of 28 selected provinces. Results: Whereas HBRs developed exclusively for maternal health and exclusively for child health were available in four provinces (14% and in 28 provinces (100%, respectively, those for both maternal health and child health were available in nine provinces (32%. The mean number of HBRs in 28 provinces (=5.75 indicates over-availability of HBRs. All 119 minimum required items for recording found in three different HBRs under nationwide scale-up were also included in the Maternal and Child Health Handbook being piloted for nationwide scaling-up. Implementation of multiple HBRs is likely to confuse not only health workers by requiring them to record the same data on several HBRs but also mothers about which HBR they should refer to and rely on at home. Conclusions: To enable both health workers and pregnant women to focus on only one type of HBR, province-specific HBRs for maternal and/or child health need to be

  9. Keynote speaker Col. Fitch talks to employee audience at Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Capt. Dennis E. Fitch, a consultant and former pilot instructor with United Airlines, addresses an audience of KSC employees to kick off Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Fitch related his tale of the catastrophic engine failure in UAL flight 232, which crash landed in Iowa in 1989, and the teamwork that contributed to his survival and the lives of 183 other passengers. For the second time Kennedy Space Center dedicated an entire day to safety and health. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend Super Safety and Health Day activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space-related resources first and foremost. Events also included a panel session about related issues, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  10. The Latvian version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I; Ruperto, N; Bikis, E; Remberga, S; Saulite, I; Plotkina, N; Viksna, A; Krauca, M; Breca, I; Vikmanis, U

    2001-01-01

    We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Latvian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Latvian CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 1 forward and 1 backward translations. A total of 141 subjects were enrolled: 80 patients with JIA (16% systemic onset, 32.5% polyarticular onset, 19% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 32.5% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 61 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Latvian version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA.

  11. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean

    2015-02-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles.

  12. The Mexican version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C; Ruperto, N; Goycochea, M V; Maldonado, R; Beristain, R; De Inocencio, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2001-01-01

    We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Mexican language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Mexican CHAQ was already published and therefore it was revalidated while the Mexican CHQ was derived from the European Spanish version with changing of the few words whose use is different in the 2 countries. A total of 182 subjects were enrolled: 89 patients with JIA (26% systemic onset, 47% polyarticular onset, 13.5% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 13.5% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 93 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, and polyarticular onset subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, and polyarticular onset having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Mexican version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA.

  13. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  14. Setting priorities in global child health research investments: assessment of principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Gibson, Jennifer; Kapiriri, Lydia; Lansang, Mary Ann; Hyder, Adnan A; Lawn, Joy; Darmstadt, Gary L; Cousens, Simon; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Black, Maureen; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Webster, Jayne; Carneiro, Ilona; Chandramohan, Daniel; Kosek, Margaret; Lanata, Claudio F; Tomlinson, Mark; Chopra, Mickey; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Campbell, Harry; El Arifeen, Shams; Black, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    This article reviews theoretical and practical approaches for setting priorities in global child health research investments. It also provides an overview of previous attempts to develop appropriate tools and methodologies to define priorities in health research investments. A brief review of the most important theoretical concepts that should govern priority setting processes is undertaken, showing how different perspectives, such as medical, economical, legal, ethical, social, political, rational, philosophical, stakeholder driven, and others will necessarily conflict each other in determining priorities. We specially address present research agenda in global child health today and how it relates to United Nation's (UN) Millennium Development Goal 4, which is to reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. The outcomes of these former approaches are evaluated and their benefits and shortcomings presented. The case for a new methodology for setting priorities in health research investments is presented, as proposed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, and a need for its implementation in global child health is outlined. A transdisciplinary approach is needed to address all the perspectives from which investments into health research can be seen as priorities. This prioritization requires a process that is transparent, systematic, and that would take into account many perspectives and build on advantages of previous approaches.

  15. Integrated Educational and Mental Health Services within a Day Treatment Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greta; Radka, Dale F.

    This paper discusses the integration of educational and mental health services for children and adolescents within a psychiatric day treatment setting at the Bradley School housed in a private psychiatric hospital affiliated with Brown University in Rhode Island. A full range of mental health services are used, and therapies are delivered in the…

  16. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Goli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical

  17. World health day - 7th april, 2004 "road safety is no accident"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.t '            ■The accident is defined as unexpected, unplanned event envolving injury, disability or death. The accidents occur in almost all countries. The most alarming fact is that accidents kill more young trained adults between 15-24 years of age group of males, mainly among two wheelers. All sorts of accidents

  18. The generational transmission of socioeconomic inequalities in child cognitive development and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Jake M; Aird, Rosemary; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail M; Shuttlewood, Gregory J

    2004-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in the health of adults have been largely attributed to lifestyle inequalities. The cognitive development (CD) and emotional health (EH) of the child provides a basis for many of the health-related behaviours which are observed in adulthood. There has been relatively little attention paid to the way CD and EH are transmitted in the foetal and childhood periods, even though these provide a foundation for subsequent socioeconomic inequalities in adult health. The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) is a large, prospective, pre-birth cohort study which enrolled 8556 pregnant women at their first clinic visit over the period 1981-1983. These mothers (and their children) have been followed up at intervals until 14 years after the birth. The socioeconomic status of the child was measured using maternal age, family income, and marital status and the grandfathers' occupational status. Measures of child CD and child EH were obtained at 5 and 14 years of age. Child smoking at 14 years of age was also determined. Family income was related to all measures of child CD and EH and smoking, independently of all other indicators of the socioeconomic status of the child. In addition, the grandfathers' occupational status was independently related to child CD (at 5 and 14 years of age). Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families (previous generations' socioeconomic status as well as current socioeconomic status) begin their lives with a poorer platform of health and a reduced capacity to benefit from the economic and social advances experienced by the rest of society.

  19. Professional attitudes regarding the sexual abuse of children: comparing police, child welfare and community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trute, B; Adkins, E; MacDonald, G

    1992-01-01

    A survey was completed involving three of the key professional groups engaged in the investigation and treatment of child sexual abuse. Police, child welfare and community mental health in a large, rural geographic area in Canada completed attitudinal items relating to professional response to child sexual abuse. An empirical scale was created which was comprised of three orthogonal factors, each with acceptable levels of internal consistency: 1) Beliefs in regard to the extensiveness and seriousness of the issue; 2) treatment versus punishment priority; and 3) view regarding identity of those who perpetrate child sexual abuse. Important gender differences were found across professional groupings in attitude toward sexual abuse. Greatest difference in attitude between service sectors was tied to emphasis placed on treatment versus punishment as a primary aspect of professional intervention. Significant differences were found between child welfare and police, the two service sectors most needing a coordinated approach during the "investigative phase" of professional intervention.

  20. Using a computer simulation program to assess the decision-making process in child health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, S

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the development and testing of a computer simulation program designed to assess the decision-making process in the public health nurses' work in child health care. The work was based primarily on theories of problem-solving and decision making; on knowledge of child development, health care, and education; and on the soft systems methodology. An authoring program and two simulations were designed and produced at the University of Turku by a team of two nurse researchers, a computer specialist, and three public health nurses. The simulations presented two typical situations encountered by the public health nurses' work in child health care. A total of 61 public health nurses from 11 health centers in the southwestern part of Finland completed the simulations. The public health nurses responded positively to the simulations and the program worked very well. The results revealed some inconsistencies in the decision-making process of the public health nurses with respect to the needs of the child and the family. The public health nurses' decisions were more closely related to the developmental stage of the child than to the unique needs of each family. The simulation is acting to test the public health nurses' ability to make decisions "here and now" but not about caring it forward. These shortcomings can be corrected by asking them to explain their decisions and thoughts after each stage and by tape recording their answers. The findings gave many answers to the question of how the computer simulation program can be developed.

  1. Nutrition training improves health workers’ nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and WHO regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention.Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken towards improving the overall nutritional status of

  2. Reduction of particulates in a child-day-care center; Reductie van de fijn- en ultrafijnstof in een kinderdagverblijf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broek, R.; Vons, V. [Virus Free Air VFA, Delft (Netherlands); Jacobs, P. [Afdeling Energy and Comfort Systems, TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    During a practical test an innovative low pressure induct filtration system has been tested on the air inlet of a child day care center. Bottom line is that a significant amount of fine and ultrafine particles were captured from the inlet air while generating little pressure loss. 85% reduction in nano-particles with only 25 Pa pressure drop, is one of the results. This promising filtration system makes it possible to effectively clean the air supply before it is spread throughout the building. Due to low pressure drop larger airflows can be let in a very energy efficient way. This provides a good solution for improving existing as well as new ventilation systems. Conventional F- or H-filters can be replaced or complemented [Dutch] Voldoende frisse lucht in gebouwen is belangrijk. Professionals in de gezondheidszorg adviseren ventilatie om bijvoorbeeld luchtwegklachten te verminderen. Tevens is aangetoond dat productiviteit en welbevinden bevorderd worden naarmate er voldoende frisse lucht aanwezig is. Echter, zomaar buitenlucht direct naar binnen blazen om te ventileren kan in veel gevallen ook negatieve gevolgen hebben, aangezien met de ventilatielucht ook fijnstof naa rbinnenkomt. In de VS is aangetoond dat in gebouwen waarin minder geventileerd werd, mensen minder blootgesteld werden aan fijnstof. Bij deze mensen traden ook minder COPD, hartklachten en longontsteking op. Met name het ultrafijnstof (<0,1 micrometer) is schadelijk. In stedelijke omgeving is dit vooral afkomstig van (diesel) verkeer.

  3. Computer tablet-based health technology for strengthening maternal and child tracking in Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Negandhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: UNICEF along with the State Government of Bihar launched a computer tablet-based Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS in 2014, to capture real-time data online and to minimize the challenges faced with the conventional MCTS. Objective: The article reports the process of implementation of tablet-based MCTS in Bihar. Methods: In-depth interviews with medical officers, program managers, data managers, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs, and a monitoring and evaluation specialist were conducted in October 2015 to understand the process of implementation, challenges and possibility for sustainability, and scale-up of the innovation. Results: MCTS innovation was introduced initially in one Primary Health Centre each in Gaya and Purnia districts. The device, supported with Android MCTS software and connected to a dummy server, was given to ANMs. ANMs were trained in its application. The innovation allows real-time data entry, instant uploading, and generation of day-to-day work plans for easy tracking of beneficiaries for providing in-time health-care services. The nonlinking of the dummy server to the national MCTS portal has not lessened the burden of data entry operators, who continue to enter data into the national portal as before. Conclusion: The innovation has been successfully implemented to meet its objective of tracking the beneficiaries. The national database should be linked to the dummy server or visible impact. The model is sustainable if the challenges can be met. Mobile technology offers a tremendous opportunity to strengthen the capacity of frontline workers and clinicians and increase the quality, completeness, and timeliness of delivery of critical health services.

  4. Child mental health: an e-learning resource for student CYP nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary

    2009-02-01

    This paper outlines a small action research work-based study. Its aim was to ascertain the content of an e-learning resource designed to help student children and young people's (CYP) nurses promote young children's mental health. Recent policy stresses the importance of this area of health promotion. The setting for the study was a higher education institution and the data collection methods were a focus group and semi-structured interviews.The key stakeholders involved in the study were four student CYP nurses, a child health programme leader, a child health lecturer, a child and adolescent mental health lecturer and an e-learning expert.The results suggest that attachment theory, assessment framework and Bronfenbrenner's ecology model should be included in the learning resource in order to promote a holistic approach toward young children's mental health promotion. Further research is required into what training is required for student CYP nurses regarding child mental health and how CYP nurses can be prepared for their role in skill-mixed health visiting teams.

  5. Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rajmil (Luis); M.-J.F. de Sanmamed (María-José Fernandez); I. Choonara (Imti); T. Faresjö (Tomas); A. Hjern (Anders); A. Kozyrskyj (Anita); P.J. Lucas (Patricia); H. Raat (Hein); L. Séguin (Louise); N. Spencer (Nick); D. Taylor-Robinson (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, p

  6. Who cares for former child soldiers? Mental health systems of care in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; van den Brink, H.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with parti

  7. Child and adolescent mental health care in Dutch general practice: time trend analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because most children and adolescents visit their general practitioner (GP) regularly, general practice is a useful setting in which child and adolescent mental health problems can be identified, treated or referred to specialised care. Measures to strengthen Dutch primary mental health

  8. Child anxiety in mental health care: Closing the gaps between research and clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation about child anxiety in mental health care, three gaps between research and everyday clinical practice were addressed. Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in children, only a minority is referred to mental health care. It was found that more severe impairment in the

  9. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  10. Physical and Mental Health of Mothers Caring for a Child with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurvick, Crystal L.; Msall, Michael E.; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. Methods: We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett…

  11. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  12. Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  13. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male Contraceptive Development. Date: December 2... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  14. 75 FR 2150 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Human Development Council. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to...

  15. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-6878,...

  16. 77 FR 17080 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301) 435-6680,...

  17. 78 FR 37232 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Cardio-metabolic risk and epigenetic differences... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,...

  18. 76 FR 27651 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435- 8382,...

  19. 76 FR 72957 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301)...

  20. 77 FR 61421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-1487,...

  1. 78 FR 12765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-1487,...

  2. 78 FR 60294 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 3A01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-1302....

  3. 77 FR 43096 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Donald Compton: Connections Among Reading Comprehension, Math Problem... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  4. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Salime

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  5. Parenting and Child Health: A Study of Low-Income Hispanic and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

    2011-01-01

    Children in low-income and ethnic minority families are more likely to be in poor health, which may impact physical and economic well-being in adulthood. This study explored how maternal depression and parenting efficacy were associated with child health outcomes in a sample of minority low-income families (N = 311). Results demonstrate that…

  6. Identifying inequities in maternal and child health through risk stratification to inform health systems strengthening in Northern Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Katharine J.; Braganza, Sandra; Fiori, Kevin; Gbeleou, Christophe; Kpakpo, Vivien; Lopez, Andrew; Schechter, Jennifer; Singham Goodwin, Alicia; Jones, Heidi E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective In Togo, substantial progress in maternal and child health is needed to reach global development goals. To better inform clinic and community-based health services, this study identifies factors associated with maternal and child health care utilization in the Kara region of Northern Togo. Methods We conducted a population-representative household survey of four health clinic catchment areas of 1,075 women of reproductive age in 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model individual and structural factors associated with utilization of four maternal and child health services. Key outcomes were: facility-based delivery, maternal postnatal health check by a health professional within the first six weeks of birth, childhood vaccination, and receipt of malaria medication for febrile children under age five within 72 hours of symptom onset. Results 83 percent of women who gave birth in the last 2 years delivered at a health facility. In adjusted models, the strongest predictor of facility delivery in the rural catchment areas was proximity to a health center, with women living under three kilometers having 3.7 (95% CI 1.7, 7.9) times the odds of a facility birth. Only 11 percent of women received a health check by a health provider at any time in the postnatal period. Postnatal health checks were less likely for women in the poorest households and for women who resided in rural areas. Children of polygamous mothers had half the odds of receiving malaria medication for fever within 72 hours of symptom onset, while children with increased household wealth status had increased odds of childhood vaccination and receiving treatment for malaria. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of risk stratification analysis to inform the delivery and scope of maternal and child health programs needed to reach those with the least access to care. PMID:28301539

  7. Child Passenger Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Using the correct car seat for your child can be a lifesaver. This podcast discusses the importance of ensuring children are buckled up in car seats or booster seats that are appropriate for their age and size until adult seat belts fit properly. .  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  8. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  9. Mother and Child Health Pmp Report: 2011-2012 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Pelaez, Juan G.; de Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * REMINDER: THE MOTHER AND CHILD PMP MANIFESTO (ERICE 2002) * SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KANGAROO FOUNDATION FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS * WHAT ARE WE EXPECTING FROM 2014? * SOME NEWS FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA KMC NETWORK. * CONCLUSION

  10. 78 FR 22893 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, DHHS,...

  11. 75 FR 36429 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Institute of Child, Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal...

  12. 75 FR 36431 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 3A01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory...

  13. 75 FR 39698 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal...

  14. One Small Step at a Time: Implementing Continuous Quality Improvement in Child and Youth Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovil, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is increasingly being adopted by health care, including child and youth mental health services. As part of the commitment to ongoing quality improvement, child and youth mental health teams in the Fraser region in British Columbia undertook CQI projects over a one year period (2007-2008). The projects covered a…

  15. 75 FR 78717 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal...

  16. StaR Child Health: developing evidence-based guidance for the design, conduct, and reporting of pediatric trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, L; Wittmeier, K D M; Caldwell, P H; van der Lee, J H; Klassen, T P; Craig, J C; Offringa, M

    2011-11-01

    Standards for Research in (StaR) Child Health was founded in 2009 to address the paucity and shortcomings of pediatric clinical trials. This initiative involves international experts who are dedicated to developing practical, evidence-based standards to enhance the reliability and relevance of pediatric clinical research. Through a systematic "knowledge to action" plan, StaR Child Health will make efforts to improve and expand the evidence base for child health across the world.

  17. [The midwife-child health nurse collaboration, a link between the maternity unit and neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaro, Audrey; Polzin, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative work forms part of the well-treatment and improvement of quality of care approach. It is also of benefit to the medical and paramedical teams. Within the parent-child unit of Libourne hospital, the midwife and child health nurse collaborate throughout the pregnancy, and especially during the post-partum period. The teams work together notably around the care of "high-risk" births and in particular when the newborn is hospitalised in a kangaroo care unit.

  18. How a Young Child Learns How to Take Part in Mealtimes in a Japanese Day-Care Center: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This research is a longitudinal, ethnographic study that focuses on mealtimes with one boy from 9 to 78 months of age in a day-care center in Japan. It looks at routine interactions between a child, his nursery teachers, and the environment, which is a shared and mutually available communicative space between participants in collaboration. The aim…

  19. Valuation of Child Health-Related Quality of Life in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M; Greiner, Wolfgang; Brown, Derek S; Reeve, Bryce B

    2016-06-01

    Many economic analyses fail to incorporate evidence on child health-related quality of life because of a paucity of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimates. This health valuation study is the first to summarize the EQ-5D-Y on a QALY scale. Drawn from a nationally representative panel, 5207 adult respondents were asked to choose between two losses in child health-related quality of life. Based on their choices, a 1-year increase in child pain/discomfort from 'some' to 'a lot' equals a loss of 4 QALYs (95% CI, 3.8-4.4). Likewise, a 1-year increase in child anxiety/depression from 'a bit' to 'very worried, sad, or unhappy' equals a loss of 2 QALYs (95% CI, 1.9-2.2). These findings enable the integration of child-reported outcomes with adult preferences to inform economic analysis. Results inform both clinical practice and resource allocation decisions by enhancing understanding of difficult tradeoffs in child-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Inequities in maternal and child health outcomes and interventions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zere Eyob

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the date for achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs approaching fast, there is a heightened concern about equity, as inequities hamper progress towards the MDGs. Equity-focused approaches have the potential to accelerate the progress towards achieving the health-related MDGs faster than the current pace in a more cost-effective and sustainable manner. Ghana's rate of progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 related to reducing child and maternal mortality respectively is less than what is required to achieve the targets. The objective of this paper is to examine the equity dimension of child and maternal health outcomes and interventions using Ghana as a case study. Methods Data from Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2008 report is analyzed for inequities in selected maternal and child health outcomes and interventions using population-weighted, regression-based measures: slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality. Results No statistically significant inequities are observed in infant and under-five mortality, perinatal mortality, wasting and acute respiratory infection in children. However, stunting, underweight in under-five children, anaemia in children and women, childhood diarrhoea and underweight in women (BMI Conclusion Significant Inequities are observed in many of the selected child and maternal health outcomes and interventions. Failure to address these inequities vigorously is likely to lead to non-achievement of the MDG targets related to improving child and maternal health (MDGs 4 and 5. The government should therefore give due attention to tackling inequities in health outcomes and use of interventions by implementing equity-enhancing measure both within and outside the health sector in line with the principles of Primary Health Care and the recommendations of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

  1. The World Health Organization child growth standards: expected implications for clinical and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, J; Willie, D; Younger, N

    2009-02-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) released two sets of child growth standards (World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards. Methods and development. Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2006; World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and Development. Head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2007) to replace the National Center for Health Statistics references (Hamill et al., National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No 165, 1977) as an international tool for growth and nutritional assessment. This paper explores the scope of implications for future anthropometric research, highlighting foreseeable effects on the choice of research questions, choice of nutritional indices, training of measurers, and issues of internal and external validity of research results. The conclusion drawn is that the introduction of the WHO child growth standards is expected to have wide implications for growth and nutrition research. The full scope of this effect will gradually become clear while researchers, similar to health care workers, make the transition to using the new standards, re-evaluate results of past approaches, and explore the uses and functional validity of the standards, including those for indices that were not previously available.

  2. [Influence of child nutrition on health status during adult years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazyk, J

    2000-01-01

    The problem of safety of child's nutrition should be considered from the moment of his conception because intrauterine growth may be related to the diseases in adult life: atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Strict vegetarian diets are not appropriate for children. The task of proper nutrition in childhood is to prevent adult life diseases and to promote potentially highest quality of life and development of cognitive and intellectual functions, and proper growth. The role of microelements - iron and zinc - is also discussed.

  3. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  4. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  5. What factors increase Dutch child health care professionals' adherence to a national guideline on preventing child abuse and neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke A J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Fleuren, Margot A H; Haasnoot, Maria E; Need, Ariana

    2016-03-01

    Guidelines to support health care professionals in early detection of, and responses to, suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) have become increasingly widely available. Yet little is known about professionals' adherence to these guidelines or the determinants that affect their uptake. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess the adherence of Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) professionals to seven key activities described in a national guideline on preventing CAN. This study also examined the presence and strengths of determinants of guideline adherence. Online questionnaires were filled in between May and July 2013 by 164 CHC professionals. Adherence was defined as the extent to which professionals performed each of seven key activities when they suspected CAN. Thirty-three determinants were measured in relation to the guideline, the health professional, the organisational context and the socio-political context. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses tested associations between determinants and guideline adherence. Most of the responding CHC professionals were aware of the guideline and its content (83.7%). Self-reported rates of full adherence varied between 19.5% and 42.7%. Stronger habit to use the guideline was the only determinant associated with higher adherence rates in the multivariate analysis. Understanding guideline adherence and associated determinants is essential for developing implementation strategies that can stimulate adherence. Although CHC professionals in this sample were aware of the guideline, they did not always adhere to its key recommended activities. To increase adherence, tailored interventions should primarily focus on enhancing habit strength.

  6. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Nok Lam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results: Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3

  7. Is collectivism good for health promotion? Experiences of day labourers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Makie

    2013-12-01

    Collectivist values such as social trust and reciprocity are usually associated with positive health outcomes. Few studies have explored how collectivism influences individual and community capacity to engage health promotion practices. This paper explores how collectivism excludes people who do not conform to societal expectations and negatively affects individuals and communities as they practise health promotion. Data were collected through interviews with day labourers in Japan. Using critical ethnography, participants' accounts were examined focusing on the normative claims, which were principally about what behaviours are proper, appropriate and conventional among day labourers in order to understand the cultural norms and values that influence their behaviours. Findings show that day labourers are often denied public support and their social disadvantages are ignored when they seek support. Day labourers often accept their exclusions as inevitable because they accept the dominant social norms. These findings indicate that collectivist norms prevent individuals and communities from developing their capacities for health promotion practices. Individual needs tend to be obscured when prioritizing collective interests, which are also used as a tool for justifying inadequate social programmes. In a collectivist society, burdens that should be shared equally by all may not be equitably distributed, falling disproportionately on the disadvantaged. An uncritical adoption of a collectivist ethos in examining health promotion is not warranted and more investigation is needed to determine when collectivism is helpful and when harmful.

  8. Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Crawford-Jakubiak, James E

    2015-03-01

    Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) are major public health problems in the United States and throughout the world. Despite large numbers of American and foreign youth affected and a plethora of serious physical and mental health problems associated with CSEC, there is limited information available to pediatricians regarding the nature and scope of human trafficking and how pediatricians and other health care providers may help protect children. Knowledge of risk factors, recruitment practices, possible indicators of CSEC, and common medical and behavioral health problems experienced by victims will help pediatricians recognize potential victims and respond appropriately. As health care providers, educators, and leaders in child advocacy, pediatricians play an essential role in addressing the public health issues faced by child victims of CSEC. Their roles can include working to increase recognition of CSEC, providing direct care and anticipatory guidance related to CSEC, engaging in collaborative efforts with medical and nonmedical colleagues to provide for the complex needs of youth, and educating child-serving professionals and the public.

  9. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fluoride varnish, including materials and organizations. Promoting Oral Health During Pregnancy The latest update on programs, policy, ... the release of the national consensus statement on oral health care during pregnancy . Fluoride Vanish Resource Highlights A ...

  10. Working with women to improve child and community eye health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Kothari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the slums and rural areas of India, visual impairment, blindness, and childhood blindness are usually more prevalent.In order to improve the eye health of children and the community in these areas, it is important to understand the influence women and mothers have over children’s eye health and the eye health of the community as a whole.

  11. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  12. No Child Overlooked: Mental Health Triage in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…

  13. Impact of maternal mental health on maternal-child interaction in attendees in a community health clinic in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. Methodology: This is a descriptive clinic-based study. Eligible and consenting mothers are attending the child immunization clinic in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria participated. Consecutive mothers completed the interview questionnaires independently while those who were not literate had the questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Instruments used were a sociodemographic proforma, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Mother and Infant Attachment Scale (MIAS, and the Zung Depression Scale. Results: In total, ninety-eight women were enrolled, 66.3% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and mean age of 30.9 years (±5.1 standard deviation. Most were aged between 26 and 35 years (66.3%. Over 90% had at secondary school education or more. Over a 10 th (13.3% was unemployed and 96% married. The children were aged between 6 weeks and 1 year, males (63.1%, and females (46.9%, and the majority were born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (82.7%. A 10 th (10.2% of the women had probable psychiatric morbidity, 14.3% had scores suggestive of postpartum depression, and 18 (16.3% scored below average attachment in interaction with their children on the MIAS. There was an association found between reduced maternal-child attachment interaction and maternal depression (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: Emotional disorders, such as depression, in mothers can be associated reduced maternal-child interaction. It is important that integrated mental health

  14. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, J; Khalil, D

    2015-12-01

    The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context.

  15. [Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Falk; Diebenbusch, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In the past years the pressure in society and psychological problems in Germany have risen up. This can especially be verified by the great influx of utilization of child and adolescent psychiatric clinics through the admission of crisis. In this connection social disadvantaged female adolescents with a low socio-economic status, students of the secondary school, children in care and the ones whose parents have to manage their upbringing alone are preferentially affected. These developments require a fast adaptation of the supply system to the transformed demands, in particular in terms of outpatient treatment, as well as a closely and structured cooperation between the youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in their function as systems of help. In the script statistical data and adaptive approaches of a supply department of child and adolescent psychiatry are presented.

  16. The difference transport makes to child mortality and preventive healthcare efforts: Riders for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Barry J; Howard, Emma; Jenkinson, Astrid

    2011-02-01

    The 20th and 21st century witnessed the development of many sophisticated vaccinations and other key preventive health interventions, and yet child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa remains unacceptably high. One of the barriers identified to reducing child mortality in rural regions of Africa is distance and lack of transportation. In order to address this, a growing charitable organisation, Riders for Health (http://www.riders.org) has developed a reliable and cost-effective system for managing vehicles used in all types of healthcare delivery. The system intends to ensure that the delivery of health interventions is never undermined by failing vehicles no matter how harsh the terrain. The system provides reliable transport in direct support of partner healthcare goals and, in so doing, maintains a supply of appropriately managed vehicles, particularly motorcycles. Thereby health workers are empowered, their productivity and coverage enhanced and the efficiency of health interventions they promote maximised.

  17. Partner Abuse of Mothers Compromises Children's Behavioral Functioning Through Maternal Mental Health Dysfunction: Analysis of 300 Mother-Child Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddoux, John A; Liu, Fuqin; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Paulson, Rene; Binder, Brenda K; Fredland, Nina; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Partner violence is associated with numerous negative consequences for victims, especially poor mental health. Children who are exposed to partner violence are more likely to have behavior problems. Nevertheless, research on the relationship between severity of abuse, maternal mental health functioning following partner violence, and child behavior problems is limited. We explored the direct and indirect effects on the child's behavioral functioning of severity of maternal abuse and maternal mental health functioning following abuse. A sample of 300 mothers was recruited when they sought assistance for abuse for the first time at shelters for abused women or at the district attorney's office. Severity of abuse, mothers' mental health functioning, and child behavioral functioning were measured by maternal self-report at entry into the study and 4 months later. In SEM analysis, at both entry and 4 months, severity of abuse had a direct effect on maternal mental health functioning, which in turn had a direct effect on child behavioral functioning. The path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning also was significant but became non- significant once maternal mental health functioning was added to the equation, indicating that the path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning was indirect and occurred as a result of the mother's mental health functioning, which remained directly linked to child behavioral problems. Intergenerational interventions are needed to address both maternal mental health and child behavioral functioning when a mother reports partner violence and is experiencing mental health problems.

  18. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.

  19. Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: What the People Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbu Daniel TAMBI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is entitled “Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: what the people say”. The objectives are: (i document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, (ii analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, (iii explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and (iv suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups derived from different backgrounds in our framework. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them more money. Based on this, we recommend that decision makers should promote child health outcomes as it’s a tool to promote maternal labour and wealth accumulation in Cameroon

  20. Transformational Impact of Health Information Technology on the Clinical Practice of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Todd E

    2017-01-01

    Compared with other medical specialties, psychiatrists have been slower adopters of health information technology (IT) practices, such as electronic health records (EHRs). This delay in implementation could compromise patient safety and impede integration into accountable care organizations and multidisciplinary treatment settings. This article focuses on optimizing use of EHRs for clinical practice, leveraging health IT to improve quality of care, and focusing on the potential for future growth in health IT in child and adolescent psychiatric practice. Aligning with other medical fields and focusing on transparency of mental health treatment will help psychiatrists reach parity with other medical specialties.

  1. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children.

  2. History of the child health and development book. Part 2: 1945-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendon, Jill; McBride-Henry, Karen

    2014-07-01

    This is the second part of a historical review of the New Zealand child health and development record book (also known as the Well Child/Tamariki Ora Health book or Plunket book). It focuses on the years between 1945 and 2000. The first article highlighted how the book documented the development of "scientific mothering", which marginalized women-generated mothering knowledge. The present article highlights how during the reviewed time period women began to challenge notions of "scientific mothering", these changes are signaled in the content of the Well Child/Tamariki Ora Health book over time. In addition, women's movements, such as LaLeche league and Parent Centre, reflected significant societal changes during this era in relation to mothering and child-rearing practices, the influence of which had a significant impact on the Plunket book's development. However, tensions between health professionals and women in relation to the value placed on types of knowledge continued to exist as evidenced by the language employed in the Plunket books throughout the time period reviewed. Being mindful of the tensions that exist between competing discourses and knowledge sources is important as they call us to engage with how we value and develop our relationships with women and mothers as health care professionals.

  3. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  4. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavilainen Eija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  5. Referral patterns between the child health care, general practitioners and secondary health care: a prospective descriptive study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einhorn, R.; Eekhof, J.A.H. van; Engelberts, A.C.; Groeneveld, Y.; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, preventive child health service (CHS) screening plays an important role in the early detection of congenital, developmental, physical, and mental disorders. Objective: To obtain insight into the referral patterns of children from CHS to general practitioners and from

  6. 78 FR 56240 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Further Investigation into the Causes of..., Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100...

  7. 76 FR 65516 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... and Human Development Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room...

  8. 77 FR 5029 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  9. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  10. 77 FR 16247 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  11. 75 FR 36431 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  12. Outcome Domains in Child Mental Health Research Since 1996: Have They Changed and Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Jensen, Peter S.; Acri, Mary C.; Olin, S. Serene; Lewandowski, R. Eric; Herman, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Child mental health treatment and services research yields more immediate public health benefit when they focus on outcomes of relevance to a broader group of stakeholders. We reviewed all experimental studies of child and adolescent treatment and service effectiveness published in the last 15 years (1996-2011) and compared the…

  13. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kayoko; Paavilainen, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Flinck, Aune; Hiroyama, Natsuko; Hirose, Taiko; Okubo, Noriko; Okamitsu, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses' knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n = 193) and Japan (n = 440) were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses' knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment.

  14. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses’ knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n=193 and Japan (n=440 were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses’ knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  16. Mother’s perceptions of child mental health problems and services: A cross sectional study from Lahore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Methods: Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Results: Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Conclusion: Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families’ engagement in treatment. PMID:27375732

  17. KESEHATAN ANAK DAN BAYI BARU LAHIR DI KOTA BEKASI (Newborn and Child Health in Bekasi Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felly P. Senewe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Newborn and child health is a main principle issue to be examined due to its close relationship to newborn and child mortality and morbidity, as well as maternal health during pregnancy, labor or puerperal period. The National Household Health Survey 1995 revealed a low prenatal mortality rate in Indonesia(48 per 1000 births. This particular indicator allows in assessing the health status of children and newborn, as well as to assess reproductive health services in relation to the development policies or inhealth service practices. The assessment of reproductive health is important to be conducted, taking into account the coverage of weighted newborn, prevalence of LBW and abortion, as well as the coverage of breastfeeding practices and supplementary food consumption. This study also aims to provide baseline data and considerable inputs for policy makers. Survey was conducted in Bekasi municipality (September 2002, with a cross-sectional study design. Samples are 210 mothers who have been pregnant and delivered within a year before time of interview. The results show that 95% infants were weighed after delivery, 95% mothers had breastfed and 71% of those still breast feed until time of interview. In terms of supplementary food consumption, 44% children consume a combination of rice, vegetables, and fish/meat, while 33% received bottled milk. The prevalence of abortion is 12%. It is found that health services for children and newborn should be improved, by promoting the importance of breastfeeding and supplementary food consumption. Inter sector collaboration across programs should be endorsed, to increase health status of mother and child.Keywords: newborn and child health, breastfeeding, low birth weight

  18. Child Health Inequality: Framing a Social Work Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Montana, Salvador; Clarke, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies acknowledge that the well-being of our nation hinges on the health of its people. There is specific concern about children because they represent the future. Ignoring children's health needs can compromise their educational preparedness, occupational pursuits, productivity, and longevity. Current science demonstrates that…

  19. Child labour in footwear industry: Possible occupational health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Rajnarayan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of India, as a part of the fundamental rights, has laid down that the State shall direct its policy towards protection of childhood and youth against exploitation and shall not be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any hazardous employment. India has the largest number of urban and rural child workers in the world. The Government of India acknowledges at least 17.5 million working children.2 Footwear industry is also one of the major export oriented industry employing a large number of children. The Footwear Industry is a significant segment of the Leather Industry in India. India ranks second among the footwear producing countries next to China. The industry is labour intensive and is concentrated in the small and cottage industry sectors. While leather shoes and uppers are concentrated in large-scale units, the sandals and Chappals are produced in the household and cottage sector. The major production centers India are Chennai, Ranipet, Ambur in Tamil Nadu, Mumbai in Maharashtra, Kanpur and Agra in Uttar Pradesh, Jalandhar in Punjab and Delhi. The processes in the footwear making include last making, pattern cutting, clicking, Sewing, Assembling and Finishing. Children between 10 and 15 years old are mainly employed in assembling shoes. Some 80 percent of the children work for contractors at home. Children work on soling (fixing upper portions of shoes to leather or rubber soles with glue. Children in cramped poorly lit rooms suffer from continuous skin contact with industrial adhesives and breathing vapors from glues. The children working in the footwear industry are exposed to physical factors like poor illumination, noise and poor ventilation, and chemicals like leather dust, benzene that is used as a solvent in glues and p-tert butyl phenols, which is used in neoprene adhesives. Thus most children suffer from respiratory problems, lung diseases and skin infections through constant exposure to glue and

  20. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  1. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  2. Assessment of the learning process through the Maternal and Child Nursing Specialists health care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mur Villar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The curriculum of the Maternal and Child Nursing Specialty is aimed to prepare professionals with theoretical and practical training that enables them to assume the responsibility of the health care of mothers and children as well as to contribute to the training of nurses at different levels. This study has been conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in order to determine the regularities that have been taking place in the learning process through the health care practice and to enable, if it is necessary, a change in the professional performance. As final considerations we have the inadequacies in the learning process as to the integration of health care problems in the formation of graduates of this specialty, according to the new missions of the Medical University and the health services in the area of maternal and child care.

  3. Identification and management of psychosocial problems among toddlers in Dutch preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among preschool children in the general population and to determine the association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic factors, and m

  4. An Index of Child Health in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jose Antonio Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a new composite index of child health, applied to the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) of Africa, one of the areas of the planet most castigated by poverty. Our index has been constructed attending to the variables defined in the Goals of the Millennium Declaration. For this purpose we will use the P2 distance method for…

  5. Linking Child Welfare and Mental Health Using Trauma-Informed Screening and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Lisa; Wherry, Jeffrey; Kisiel, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of research suggests that children in the child welfare system (CWS) have experienced numerous traumatic events and are exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms. Therefore, it is critical that the CWS work closely with the mental health system to ensure that these children receive the appropriate trauma screening, trauma-focused…

  6. 76 FR 13650 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Human Capital Interventions Across Childhood and Adolescence. Date: April... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and ] Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive...

  7. Tobacco control policies and perinatal and child health: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.V. Been (Jasper V.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C. Millett (Christopher); S. Basu (Sanjay); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on

  8. 77 FR 10759 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Human Development (NICHD); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the NIH Reform Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. Sec... and Human Development (NICHD) will host a meeting to enable public discussion of the Institute's... of Child Health and Human Development. Dates and Times: March 7, 2012, at 3 p.m. Place:...

  9. 75 FR 12242 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antibiotics in... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd....

  10. 76 FR 65517 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Reproductive Science Centers. Date: November 2, 2011... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD...

  11. 75 FR 12245 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Human Capital Interventions Across Childhood and Adolescence. Date: April... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  12. 78 FR 37233 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Biomedical Analysis of Human Specimens for Despr. Date: July 10, 2013... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892-9304,...

  13. 77 FR 12604 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral Sciences Subcommittee. Date... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...

  14. Determinants of parental satisfaction with ultrasound hip screening in child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Sakkers, R.J.B.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown ultrasound (US) screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preventive child health care to be more effective than the current screening method. In the present study, 3-month-old infants were screened for DDH with US. The objective of this study was to examine

  15. 75 FR 51083 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Maternal and Child Health Program: Project Choices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Maternal and Child... Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) representing the most severe condition. Children with FAS have facial abnormalities... motivation counseling intervention and a family planning consultation and services visit in a pilot study...

  16. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  17. The proxy problem: Child report versus parent report in health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Vogels, T.G.C.; Koopman, H.M.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the agreement between child and parent reports on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a representative sample of 1,105 Dutch children (age 8-11 years old). Both children and their parents completed a 56 item questionnaire (TACQOL). The questionnaire contains sev

  18. Fetal Origins of Child Non-Right-Handedness and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alina; Waldenstrom, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Background: Environmental risk during fetal development for non-right-handedness, an index of brain asymmetry, and its relevance for child mental health is not fully understood. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed-up when children were five years old (N = 1714). Prenatal environmental risk…

  19. Confirmative factor analysis of the dimensions of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (Dutch version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Geels; J. Hoogstraten; B. Prahl-Andersen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the subscales of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The Dutch version of the COHIP consists of the subscales 'Oral Symptoms', 'Functional Well-being', 'Emotional Well-being', 'School', and 'Peer Interaction'. The questionnaire was administered to a sam

  20. The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…

  1. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  2. Associations between children's video game playing and psychosocial health: Information from both parent and child reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Stone, L.L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health am

  3. Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

  4. An Innovative Child CBT Training Model for Community Mental Health Practitioners in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Ickowicz, Abel; Picard, Erin; Antle, Beverley; McNeill, Ted; Chahauver, Anu; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Monga, Suneeta; Adler-Nevo, Gili

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for children has been shown efficacious, but community access to it is often limited by the lack of trained therapists. This study evaluated a child, CBT-focused, 20-session weekly group supervision seminar with a didactic component which was provided to community mental health practitioners by…

  5. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "A Rolls-Royce of Day Care." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    The Amalgamated Day Care Center is an independent trust established through a collective bargaining agreement between the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, AFL-CIO, and the employers of the garment industry. The free center, open from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., is located near the Chicago garment industries to minimize transportation problems…

  6. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  7. Child Height and Maternal Health Care Knowledge in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Stunting prevalence rates in Mozambique are very high (41 percent), especially in rural areas (46 percent). Recent research shows that consumption growth alone will not be sufficient to solve the problem of malnutrition. To investigate the role of additional determinants I use a two-stage quantile...... regression approach with specific attention to the role of maternal preventive health care knowledge and schooling. Three different scores for health care knowledge are used and show similar results. For rural Mozambique, I find that maternal schooling has positive effects especially in the top quintile...... of the height-for-age distribution while health care knowledge has a positive effect on height-for-age of under two year old children especially at the lower end of the distribution where the severely stunted children are located. Improving health care knowledge of mothers could substitute for the low levels...

  8. [Articulation between child and adolescent mental health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Patricia Santos de Souza; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe and analyze the articulation between children and adolescent mental health care interventions undertaken by teams working under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSI). In order to achieve these objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five CAPSI and 13 FHS managers from five different regions of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The 18 interviews were transcribed and analyzed froma hermeneutic perspective. It was found that interactions between the FHS and CAPSI occur mainly through referral of cases, matrix support or partnerships in cases concerning CAPSI. Obstacles, such as a lack of human resources, productivity goals and lack of training in mental health of FHS professionals were mentioned. The referral system and passing responsibility for mental health cases to specialized services and the hegemonic biomedical model and the fragmentation of care are common place in these services.

  9. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147

  10. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  11. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  12. Effects of the child-perpetrator relationship on mental health outcomes of child abuse: it's (not) all relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Laurel J; Stover, Carla Smith; Navalta, Carryl P; Dorado, Joyce; Vogel, Juliet M; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K; Kim, Soeun; Lee, Robert C; Vivrette, Rebecca; Briggs, Ernestine C

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand the influence of the child-perpetrator relationship on responses to child sexual and physical trauma for a relatively large, ethnically diverse sample of children and youth presenting for clinical evaluation and treatment at child mental health centers across the United States. This referred sample includes 2,133 youth with sexual or physical trauma as their primary treatment focus. Analyses were conducted to ascertain whether outcomes were dependent on the perpetrator's status as a caregiver vs. non-caregiver. Outcome measures included psychiatric symptom and behavior problem rating scales. For sexual trauma, victimization by a non-caregiver was associated with higher posttraumatic stress, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, depression, and dissociation compared to youth victimized by a caregiver. For physical trauma, victimization by a non-caregiver was also associated with higher posttraumatic symptoms and internalizing behavior problems. The total number of trauma types experienced and age of physical or sexual trauma onset also predicted several outcomes for both groups, although in disparate ways. These findings are consistent with other recent studies demonstrating that perpetration of abuse by caregivers results in fewer symptoms and problems than abuse perpetrated by a non-caregiving relative. Thus, clinicians should not make a priori assumptions that children and adolescents who are traumatized by a parent/caregiver would have more severe symptoms than youth who are traumatized by a non-caregiver. Further exploration of the role of the perpetrator and other trauma characteristics associated with the perpetrator role is needed to advance our understanding of these findings and their implications for clinical practice.

  13. 3 CFR 8433 - Proclamation 8433 of October 2, 2009. Child Health Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide our young people with healthy choices, and ensure that families have the resources necessary to... balanced diet, coupled with proper exercise, has proven effective in combating childhood obesity and other... they have access to healthy, affordable food, and empower their families with the information...

  14. Girl child marriage and its association with national rates of HIV, maternal health, and infant mortality across 97 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess associations between national rates of girl child marriage and national rates of HIV and maternal and child health (MCH) concerns, using national indicator data from 2009 United Nations reports. Current analyses were limited to the N = 97 nations (of 188 nations) for which girl child marriage data were available. Regression analyses adjusted for development and world region demonstrate that nations with higher rates of girl child marriage are significantly more likely to contend with higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and nonutilization of maternal health services, but not HIV.

  15. Residual Barriers for Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Community Perceptions From Rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zahid; Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif

    2015-11-03

    Low utilization of maternal and child care services in rural areas has constrained Pakistan from meeting targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. This study explores community barriers in accessing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in ten remote rural districts of Pakistan. It further presents how the barriers differ across a range of MCH services, and also whether the presence of Community Health Workers (CHWs) reduces client barriers. Qualitative methods were used involving altogether sixty focus group discussions with mothers, their spouses and community health workers. Low awareness, formidable distances, expense, and poorly functional services were the main barriers reported, while cultural and religious restrictions were lesser reported. For preventive services including antenatal care (ANC), facility deliveries, postnatal care (PNC), childhood immunization and family planning, the main barrier was low awareness. Conversely, formidable distances and poorly functional services were the main reported constraints in the event of maternal complications and acute child illnesses. The study also found that clients residing in areas served by CHWs had better awareness only of ANC and family planning, while other MCH services were overlooked by the health worker program. The paper highlights that traditional policy emphasis on health facility infrastructure expansion is not likely to address poor utilization rates in remote rural areas. Preventive MCH services require concerted attention to building community awareness, task shifting from facility to community for services provision, and re-energization of CHW program. For maternal and child emergencies there is strong community demand to utilize health facilities, but this will require catalytic support for transport networks and functional health care centers.

  16. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered.

  17. A Shot in the Arm for Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    The unprecedented increase of measles and rising incidence of mumps, rubella, and whooping cough signal a serious breakdown in the nation's childhood immunization system. California now operates on a no-shot, no-school policy. Prohibitive costs for low income families exacerbate the problem. Uniform guidelines for preschool and day care programs…

  18. The Use of Health Information Technology Within Collaborative and Integrated Models of Child Psychiatry Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Sara; Vanderlip, Erik; Sarvet, Barry

    2017-01-01

    There is a consistent need for more child and adolescent psychiatrists. Despite increased recruitment of child and adolescent psychiatry trainees, traditional models of care will likely not be able to meet the need of youth with mental illness. Integrated care models focusing on population-based, team-based, measurement-based, and evidenced-based care have been effective in addressing accessibility and quality of care. These integrated models have specific needs regarding health information technology (HIT). HIT has been used in a variety of different ways in several integrated care models. HIT can aid in implementation of these models but is not without its challenges.

  19. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  20. Millennium development goal four and child health inequities in indonesia: a systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schröders

    Full Text Available Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework?We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable "disadvantaged populations" was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities.This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create, detain, and overcome inequities in