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Sample records for child development disorders pervasive

  1. Unremitting Impulsive Aggression in a Child with Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: The Role of Stimulants, Atypical Antipsychotics and Mood Stabilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkıran, Sarper; Coffey, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unremitting Impulsive Aggression in a Child with Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: The Role of Stimulants, Atypical Antipsychotics and Mood Stabilizers Presenter: Sarper Taskiran, MD1 Discussant: Barbara J. Coffey, MD, MS2 Chief Complaint and Presenting Problem C. is a 7 ½-year-old, right-handed, elementary school student in a special education class, who carries a...

  2. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  3. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  4. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Omiya Tomoko; Mochizuki Mieko; Yamazaki Yoshihiko; Kimura Miyako

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making aft...

  5. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

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    Andrea De Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea De Giacomo1, Claudia Portoghese1, Domenico Martinelli2, Isabella Fanizza1, Luciano L’Abate3, Lucia Margari11Child Neurological and Psychiatric Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric sciences, University of Bari, Italy; 2Department of Biomedical science and Oncology, University of Bari, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Georgia State University Abstract: This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS, as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills.Keywords: autism, imitation, communication, language, pointing

  6. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omiya Tomoko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA, which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  8. Reflexões acerca do papel do fonoaudiólogo junto à família de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento: estudo de caso Considerations about the role of a speech-language pathologist with the family of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cecília Rabinovitsch Gertel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi refletir e discutir o papel do fonoaudiólogo na condução das estratégias terapêuticas junto à família de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida por meio de estudo de caso de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento atendida de julho/2002 a novembro/2004. Os recortes do material clínico retratam o percurso seguido ao longo do eixo da história do paciente enfatizando os momentos significativos que geraram desenvolvimento do processo terapêutico fonoaudiológico no que se refere à comunicação oral e integração social no ambiente familiar. O enfoque das estratégias clínicas foi direcionado para propiciar um ambiente físico e emocional capaz de promover experiências constitutivas que respeitem a singularidade de cada paciente levando em conta a realidade da família e da comunidade onde se encontra inserido aquele núcleo social. Portanto, em nosso entender, a atuação fonoaudiológica pode ser direcionada para a criação de situações que favoreçam o processo [de cada paciente] de inclusão na vida cotidiana, com o respeito que todas as pessoas merecem.The aim of this study was to reflect about and discuss the role of a speech-language pathologist with the family of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder. This case study reported the case of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder that attended speech-language therapy from July/2002 to November/2004. The excerpts of clinical material depict the course of the patient's history, emphasizing the significant moments that generated development of the therapeutical process related to oral communication and social interaction within his familiar setting. Clinical strategies focused a favorable physical and emotional environment, promoting constitutive experiences that respect the singularity of each patient, considering the realities of the family and the community it is part of

  9. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  10. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC

    1997-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in thre...

  11. Does routine child health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? – An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.

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    Ritchie Jane

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently changed guidelines for child health surveillance in the United Kingdom (U.K. suggest targeted checks only, instead of the previously conducted routine or universal screening at 2 years and 3.5 years. There are concerns that these changes could lead to a delay in the detection of children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. Recent U.K. studies have suggested that the prevalence of PDD is much higher than previously estimated. This study establishes to which extent the routine checks contributed to the early detection and assessment of cases of PDD. Simultaneously we have evaluated the process involved and estimate the prevalence of PDD in our district. Methods Retrospective study design utilising community medical files. Headteachers of schools (n = 75 within Maidstone district (Kent were asked to report all children with an established diagnosis of autism or PDD attending year 4 (born '91 and '92 / n = 2536 in October 2000 based on educational records. Results 59 schools (78.7% took part in the study. A total of 33 children were reported. 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (12 falsely reported. The prevalences were (per 10,000: PDD 82.8 (male to female ratio 6:1, childhood autism 23.7, Asperger's syndrome 11.8 and autistic spectrum disorder 47.3. Co-existing medical conditions were noted in 14.3%; 52.4% were attending mainstream schools. In 63.2% of cases concerns – mainly in the area of speech and language development (SLD – had been documented at the 2 year check. At the 3.5 year check concerns were noted in 94.1% – the main area was again SLD (76.5%, although behavioural abnormalities were becoming more frequent (47.1%. A total of 13 children (68.4% were referred for further assessment as a direct result of the checks. Conclusions The prevalences for different types of PDD were similar to figures published recently, but much higher than reported a few years ago. Analysis of our

  12. Behavior Change in a Student with a Dual Diagnosis of Deafness and Pervasive Development Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, S. R.; Handley, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    The broad term "pervasive developmental disorder" (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as "autism spectrum disorders" (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must…

  13. Psychological interventions in pervasive developmental disorder: An overview

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    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs are characterized by several impairments in the domains of social communication, social interaction and expression of social attachment, and other aspects of development like symbolic play. As the role of drugs in treating these impairments is extremely limited, a variety of psychological interventions have been developed to deal with them. Some of these have strong empirical support, while others are relatively new and hence controversial. Though it may prove to be a daunting task to begin with, the final reward of being able to improve the life of a child with PDD is enormous and hugely satisfying. Therefore, knowledge of these psychological interventions is important for a mental health professional, in order to be effective in the profession. Present paper presents an overview of these techniques in the management of PDD.

  14. Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), ages 2–11 years, using sleep diaries, the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and the Parenting Events Questionnaire. Two time periods were sampled to assess short-term stability of sleep–wake patterns. Before data collection, slightly more than half of the parents, when queried, reported a sleep problem in their child. Subsequent diary and CSHQ reports confirmed more fragmented sleep ...

  15. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  16. Infancy predictors of hyperkinetic and pervasive developmental disorders at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie;

    2014-01-01

    of autism spectrum disorders were problems of oral-motor development OR 5.02 (95% CI: 1.63-15.42) and overall development OR 4.24 (95% CI: 1.35-13.33). A deviant pattern of activity and interests were predictive of autism spectrum disorder, OR 5.34 (95% CI 1.45-19.70) and hyperkinetic disorder, OR 4.......20 (95% CI: 1.55-17.47). No significant infancy predictors were found regarding emotional and behavioural disorders at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: Predictors of autism spectrum/pervasive developmental disorders and hyperkinetic disorders at child age 5-7 years were identified between birth and child age...

  17. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive development...

  18. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.......4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009)....

  19. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.1% and...... 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  20. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  1. Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews whether Rett syndrome is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The paper analyzes internal and external diagnostic validity and discusses whether Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder or a mental disorder. The paper concludes that data support the idea of classifying Rett syndrome as a subtype of PDD.…

  2. Early Symptoms and Recognition of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Hutzelmeyer-Nickels, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are characterised by the presence of abnormalities in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive patterns of behaviours. Although early symptoms of the disorder often appear during the first two years of life, its diagnosis is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to analyse the delay between…

  3. Obsessive compulsive disorder with pervasive avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Parul; Sharma Ravi; Kumar Ramesh; Sharma Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common disorder, but some of its atypical presentations are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We report one such case which on initial presentation appeared to be psychotic protocol but after detailed workup was diagnosed as OCD with marked avoidance symptoms.

  4. [Review of assessment methods used to evaluate feeding for children with pervasive developmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, G; Ehrmann Feldman, D; Gisel, E

    2008-08-01

    Current evaluations used by occupational therapists to assess and treat feeding problems derive mainly from the domain of dysphagia. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with tools used, in research, for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and to determine if any of these meet the needs of occupational therapists. The following data bases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, HAPI and PsyINFO, using the terms pervasive developmental disorder, autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, eating behavior, eating disorder, food preference, food selectivity, feeding disorders, picky eater and child. All articles published between 1980 and 2006 (n=27) were reviewed. A total of 20 studies met our selection criteria. Assessment methods are compared using the Disability Creation Model (DCP). The DCP is the Quebec alternative to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). None of the evaluation tools reviewed met all factors that may influence eating in children with PDD. Implications for research and practice in occupational therapy are discussed. PMID:18562184

  5. The Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale: a reliability and validity study on a newly developed standardized psychodynamic assessment for youth with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Geneviève; Botbol, Michel; Graignic, Rozenn; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Bronsard, Guillaume; Kermarrec, Solenn; Clement, Marie-Christine; Cukierman, Annick; Druon, Catherine; Duprat, Andrée; Jardin, Françoise; du Chatellier, Anik Maufras; Tricaud, Jacqueline; Urwand, Simone; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Cohen, David; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2010-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the reliability and validity of the Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale, developed to assess the evolution in individuals with autism under treatment. The APEC scale focuses on the key role of impairment in body image construction, which requires cross-modal sensory integration through emotional communication with motor representations. Thus, the body image construction is associated simultaneously with spatial and temporal organization and allows the emergence of self- and others-representations. The use of the APEC scale, with its seven domains (expression of emotion in relationships, eye contact, body image, graphic productions, exploration of space and objects, time perception, and verbal language), underlines the importance in autistic disorder of anxieties related to body and spatial representations, and of impairment in the body ego construction which is closely linked to the emergence of individuation/separation processes. This study was conducted on 73 children and adolescents with autistic disorder. They were recruited in day care facilities where two caregivers independently gave their ratings based on their clinical observation on a daily basis during the same month. Analyses included assessing construct validity through correspondence analyses and inter-rater reliability using kappa coefficients. The APEC scale offers a reliable and validated psychodynamic assessment of interest for professionals (such as child psychiatrists, caregivers, therapists or teachers) and researchers working with children, adolescents and adults with autistic disorder, especially in the follow-up of their evolution. The APEC scale provides an approach at the interface of psychoanalysis and neuroscience, and is also of interest for clinical and developmental psychology. Using the APEC scale in a range of different practical and research settings will foster links between psychoanalytic perspectives and educational

  6. Brief report: Representational momentum for dynamic facial expressions in pervasive developmental disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of expressed emotion in 13 individuals with PDD and 13 typically developing controls. We presented dynamic and static emotional (fearful and happy) expre...

  7. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yalda Kazemi; Helen Stringer; Thomas Klee

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Ir...

  8. Pervasive developmental disorders in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilincaslan, Ayse; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autistic disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (NOS), in a clinical sample of 126 children and adolescents (75 males, 51 females; age range 4-18y, mean 8y 8mo, SD 3y 8mo) with tetraplegic, hemiplegic, diplegic, dyskinetic, or mixed types of cerebral palsy (CP); 28% could not crawl or walk even with support, 29% could move with support, and 43% walked independently. Participants were examined for PDD in two stages. In the first stage, probable participants were determined by direct observation, Autism Behavior Checklist score, and medical reports. In the second stage, those with 'probable' symptoms underwent psychiatric examination and their autistic symptoms were scored on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The final diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDD-NOS was given according to DSM-IV criteria. Fourteen (11%) and five (4%) of the participants met the criteria for autistic disorder and PDD-NOS respectively. Children with CP and PDD differed from those without PDD in terms of type of CP (p=0.02), presence of epilepsy (plearning disability, and low level of speech. The findings corroborate the notion that CP is a complex disorder, often associated with additional impairments. PDD is not rare in CP and should be considered in patients with comorbid conditions such as epilepsy, learning disability, and language delay and in the presence of tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP types. PMID:19335564

  9. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  10. Comparison of ability development between pervasive developmental disorder and mental retardation children%广泛性发育障碍与精神发育迟滞患儿能力发育比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大倩; 高鸿云; 来雍雍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the difference of neuropsychological development between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and mental retardation (MR) children. [Methods] All patients first diagnosed as PDD or MR in psychological counseling clinic of Children's Hospital of Fudan University during Jan 2003 to Jan 2009 without any intervention before were enrolled. The Psycho-educational Profile (PEP) test was administered to ail the children. According to the developmental age of PEP result, all the children were divided into three groups: 0 ~ 12 months. 13 ~ 36 months, 37 ~ 72 months. [Results] There were 341 PDD children and 209 MR children in the research. In the 0~12 months group, MR children got higher scores in imitation and cognitive (verbal) than PDD children. In the 13 ~ 36 months group, MR children got higher scores in all the fields than PDD children, including imitation, perception, gross motor, fine motor, eye-hand integration, cognitive (performance) and cognitive (verbal). In the 37 ~ 72 months group, MR children got higher scores than PDD children only in imitation. [Conclusion] 1)Without any treatment, the PDD children show totally delay in all the fields than the MR children in the 13 - 36 months developmental age. 2) The ability of imitation is always lower in PDD child than MR children in the developmental age 0~72 months without any intervention.%目的 比较广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorder,PDD)患儿与精神发育迟滞(mental retar dation,MR)患儿生长发育轨迹的差异 方法 使用《心理教育评定量表(中文版)》对2003年1月-2009年1月间所有首次诊断为PDD或MR,并未经任何干预的患儿进行评估 根据评估结果将两组患儿分别分为综合发育年龄达0~12个月、13~36个月、37~72个月三个年龄组段 比较两组患儿在三个年龄段中,在各分测验中的得分差异 结果 共有341例PDD和209例MR患儿 0~12月组别,MR组在模仿、表达分

  11. Social Skills Groups for Asperger’s Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    OpenAIRE

    Countryman, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) including Asperger’s disorder are relatively rare conditions that can be very disabling for individuals affected. This article focuses on social skills therapy, looking at research that has been completed in a group therapy format and then using composite case examples to review basic techniques that have been used to teach social skills to children with a diagnosis of PDD.

  12. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. Rett syndrome will be excluded from autism spectrum disorder due to its genetic basis. In addition, severity of symptoms will be measured among individuals with autism spectrum disorder based on the support level required due to the impairment in their lives. The basic rationale behind this revision is that it is better to conceptualize autism as a spectrum including various individuals whose symptoms in different developmental areas range from mild to severe. It is aimed to increase the specificity of autism diagnosis by using one single diagnostic category with its specified severity rather than differentiating several subtypes. The major concern raised over the DSM-5 proposal has been the possibility that some of the individuals who were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR might not get a diagnosis in this new system. After the DSM-5 is released, clinical, legal, and educational rearrengements regarding the use of new autism spectrum disorder diagnostic criteria are expected to accelerate worldwide and in Turkey. This paper aims to review briefly the upcoming autism spectrum disorder diagnosis planned to appear in the DSM-5, the rationale of the proposed revision, main critics to the DSM-5 draft that has been publicized, and some of the regulations expected to occur in practice after the changes.

  13. Preschool Boys with Pervasive Hyperactivity: Early Peer Functioning and Mother-Child Relationship Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise J.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the peer functioning of a community sample of preschool boys with pervasive hyperactivity (N=33) and comparison boys (N=34), and examined the extent to which any differences in peer functioning between these groups could be explained by comorbid child conduct problems and parenting factors. The quality of boys' peer relations…

  14. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  15. A Wearable Camera Detects Gaze Peculiarities during Social Interactions in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Magrelli, Silvia; Noris, Basilio; Jermann, Patrick; Ansermet, Francois; Hentsch, Francois; Nadel, Jacqueline; Billard, Aude G.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the study of gazes, conducted on children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), by using a novel head-mounted eye-tracking device called the WearCam. Due to the portable nature of the WearCam, we are able to monitor naturalistic interactions between the children and adults. The study involved a group of 3- to 11-year-old children (n=13) with PDD compared to a group of typically developing (TD) children (n=13) between 2- and 6-years old. We found significant differences be...

  16. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

  17. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  18. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  19. Program to encourage the process of attachment in children with developmental disorders pervasive through children’s massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ruiz Galán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During the first year of life, children develop a double-faced emotional tie with their parents or caregivers that provide them the essential confidence to approach psychological and social competences. This special link is called attachment.Attachment may be modified by different situations like the absence of an appropriate person to make tie, the absence of an identification through physical care are assured or the impossibility to assure the child psychical and emotional care (due to depression, psychosis, interest failing or any other wide range of subjects. So, during the first year of life, children may suffer from several kinds of disorders.According to DSM-IV-CR, Pervasive Developmental Disorder is characterized by difficulties in social relations, imaginative activities and verbal and nonverbal communication as well as reduced and repetitive interests.This work aims to decreasing anxiety and improving attachment between children with PDD and their mothers through the infantile massage. Establishing a program that involves 5 sessions of 90 minutes each, with theoretical and practical information about infantile massage, crying, birth, life changes, different roles, feelings of guilt, etcetera. Thanks to it, children with PDD get a quantitative and qualitative improvement of attachment that gets them closer to the external world, reduces their anxiety for changes and allows them a better adaptation to life.

  20. Pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders revealed by integrative analysis of multiple GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Can; Gelernter, Joel; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-11-01

    Although some existing epidemiological observations and molecular experiments suggested that brain disorders in the realm of psychiatry may be influenced by immune dysregulation, the degree of genetic overlap between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders has not been well established. We investigated this issue by integrative analysis of genome-wide association studies of 18 complex human traits/diseases (five psychiatric disorders, seven immune disorders, and others) and multiple genome-wide annotation resources (central nervous system genes, immune-related expression-quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and DNase I hypertensive sites from 98 cell lines). We detected pleiotropy in 24 of the 35 psychiatric-immune disorder pairs. The strongest pleiotropy was observed for schizophrenia-rheumatoid arthritis with MHC region included in the analysis (p = 3.9 x 10(-285), and schizophrenia-Crohn's disease with MHC region excluded (p = 1.1 x 10(-36). Significant enrichment (> 1.4 fold) of immune-related eQTL was observed in four psychiatric disorders. Genomic regions responsible for pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders were detected. The MHC region on chromosome 6 appears to be the most important with other regions, such as cytoband 1p13.2, also playing significant roles in pleiotropy. We also found that most alleles shared between schizophrenia and Crohn's disease have the same effect direction, with similar trend found for other disorder pairs, such as bipolar-Crohn's disease. Our results offer a novel bird's-eye view of the genetic relationship and demonstrate strong evidence for pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders. Our findings might open new routes for prevention and treatment strategies for these disorders based on a new appreciation of the importance of immunological mechanisms in mediating risk of many psychiatric diseases. PMID:26340901

  1. Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

  2. Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder and child sexual abuse on self-efficacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Amy S; Prout, Maurice F

    2002-04-01

    The symptoms of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect a child's self-efficacy. A child's self-efficacy beliefs impact the course and treatment of PTSD, because perceived self-efficacy plays a mediating role in children's ability to cope with trauma. Self-efficacy research indicates that emotional competence can be learned and may provide treatment for PTSD that provides symptom reduction as well as a means of substituting problem-solving coping skills for emotion-focused coping skills. PMID:15792065

  3. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  4. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  5. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  6. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  7. EMOTIONAL ROLE-TAKING ABILITIES OF CHILDREN WITH A PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.; Althaus, M.; Til, R.

    1995-01-01

    Seven to 12-year-old children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) were compared with normal, healthy children of the same age and sex on three different emotional role-taking tasks. In these tasks, children had to use person-specific information to make an infere

  8. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  9. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill, conc

  10. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  11. Brief Report: Representational Momentum for Dynamic Facial Expressions in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of…

  12. Sleep Correlates of Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a significant problem in the general pediatric population, and it occurs even more frequently in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Much time and energy have been spent examining the characteristics that predispose children to insomnia and it is likely that equivalent factors influence sleep in PDDs.…

  13. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 t

  14. Behavior change in a student with a dual diagnosis of deafness and pervasive developmental disorder: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, Susan R; Handley, C Michele

    The broad term pervasive developmental disorder (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must work with individuals with dual diagnoses, are at a loss for guidance from the literature. The authors review the literature on ASDs (also referred to as PDD) within the DHH population, provide results of a single-subject study to reduce PDD-type behaviors in a child with hearing loss, and argue that teachers of students who are DHH must learn about practices associated with applied behavior analysis as an tool for intervening therapeutically with children with dual diagnoses of hearing loss plus an ASD. PMID:16610472

  15. A second visually impaired, mentally retarded male with pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder and Ganser's syndrome: diagnostic classification and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbeshian, J; Burd, L

    The authors report a second visually impaired, mentally retarded male who presents with symptoms consistent with atypical pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder, and a syndrome of approximate answers (Ganser's syndrome). Both this case and an earlier reported case are significant in that they identify two children with strikingly similar long-standing symptoms and developmental histories. Since these findings may have broader relevance to children with multiple coexisting disorders, diagnostic and intervention strategies in this population are reviewed. PMID:3459721

  16. Genetic and neurological evaluation in a sample of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Carlos Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of analyzing which complementary tests are relevant in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, a protocol of clinical and laboratory evaluation was applied in 103 outpatients. The protocol included chromosomal analysis, screening for inborn errors of metabolism, cytogenetic and molecular study of the FRAXA, FRAXE, and FRAXF mutations, EEG, SPECT, and magnetic resonance imaging study. Eighty-four subjects concluded the complementary tests and were classified either as having autism, atypical autism or Asperger syndrome according to the DSM-IV criteria. Sixteen individuals, all bellonging to the two autistic groups, presented genetic or enviromental factors that may have lead to the behavioral disorders, showing the importance of diagnostic evaluation in this group of conditions. Neuroimaging and EEG findings were non-specific and occurred in similar proportion among the groups, being considered of relative low significance in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders.

  17. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arrigo Valentina

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub

  18. Genetic and neurological evaluation in a sample of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner Carlos Eduardo; Guerreiro Marilisa Mantovani; Marques-de-Faria Antonia Paula

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of analyzing which complementary tests are relevant in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, a protocol of clinical and laboratory evaluation was applied in 103 outpatients. The protocol included chromosomal analysis, screening for inborn errors of metabolism, cytogenetic and molecular study of the FRAXA, FRAXE, and FRAXF mutations, EEG, SPECT, and magnetic resonance imaging study. Eighty-four subjects concluded the complementary tests a...

  19. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    OpenAIRE

    Hullmann Stephanie E; Fedele David A; Wolfe-Christensen Cortney; Mullins Larry L; Wisniewski Amy B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Resul...

  20. Development of Personal Wellness Information Model for Pervasive Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare and citizen-centered care paradigm are moving the healthcare outside the hospital environment. Healthcare delivery is becoming more personalized and decentralized, focusing on prevention and proactive services with a complete view of health and wellbeing. The concept of wellness has been used to describe this holistic view of health, which focuses on physical, social, and mental well-being. Pervasive computing makes it possible to collect information and offer services an...

  1. Child abuse in panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  2. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  3. The role of eating disorders for pregnancy, neonatal outcome and the child's early development

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of eating disorders (ED) on pregnancy, infant growth and cognitive development. Preliminary reports indicate increased complications during pregnancy and lower birth weight in children of mothers with ED. There is need of prospective long-term follow-up of growth and cognitive development of the children of these mothers. Aims: To study the impact of ED on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, maternal adjustment, and infant growth and cognitive development c...

  4. Neuroimaging in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Neuroimaging in child psychiatry is a rapidly developing field and the number of different techniques being used is increasing rapidly. This review describes the current status of neuroimaging in childhood psychopathology and discusses limitations of the various studies. As yet, no specific and consistent abnormality has been detected in childhood psychiatric disorders. Obsessive compulsive disorder has shown the most consistent findings so far, with orbitofrontal cortex and...

  5. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  6. Pervasive developmental disorder in the children of immigrant parents: comparison of different assessment instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pereira Ponde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe how the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS behaves in relation to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS and to clinical diagnosis based on the criteria defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th Edition (DSM-IV for children of immigrant parents. Forty-nine children of parents who had immigrated to Canada were evaluated. In this sample, the ADOS and the DSM-IV showed complete agreement. Using the standard cut-off point of 30, the CARS showed high specificity and poor sensitivity. The study proposes a cut-off point for the CARS that would include pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS. Reducing the cut-off point to 20/21 increased the specificity of the instrument for this group of children without significantly reducing its sensitivity.

  7. Child development

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Many of the challenges facing children now are a function of the changing times, including increases in urbanization, political violence, changing family forms, and, in some a cases, decreased supplies of adequate food. This paper reviews the evolving nature of these risks. In addition, the paper analyzes the development of formal and informal strategies to ameliorate the vulnerability and promote the resilience of young children to these risks. The paper identifies four stages in the researc...

  8. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  9. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross-sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty-six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0-5 months and 29.3% of children 6-23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0-5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20-23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub-Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast-milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale. Strengthened implementation and enforcement of Cambodia's subdecree 133

  10. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  11. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders. PMID:27015370

  12. Child- And Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Development and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Henry, David B.; Carbray, Julie A.; Heidenreich, Jodi; Miklowitz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CFF-CBT), a new developmentally sensitive psychosocial intervention for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) that is intended for use along with medication. CFF-CBT integrates principles of family-focused therapy with those of CBT. The theoretical framework is based on (1)…

  13. Platelet serotonin levels in pervasive developmental disorders and mental retardation : Diagnostic group differences, within-group distribution, and behavioral correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJ; Anderson, GM; Kema, IP; de Bildt, A; van Lang, NDJ; den Boer, JA; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, wi

  14. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), and (2) how profiles related to…

  15. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  16. Positive Effects of Methylphenidate on Social Communication and Self-Regulation in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Kasari, Connie L.; McCracken, James T.; Lee, Lisa S-Y.; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Witwer, Andrea; Kustan, Erin; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Posey, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of…

  17. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  18. Platelet Serotonin Levels in Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation: Diagnostic Group Differences, Within-Group Distribution, and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Erik J.; Anderson, George M.; Kema, Ido P.; De Bildt, Annelies; Van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Den Boer, Johan A.; Minderaa Ruud B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's and PDD-not otherwise…

  19. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  20. Pervasive Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    , it is not a specific place where you can access scarce information. Pervasive or ubiquitous communication opens up for taking the organizing and design of learning landscapes a step further. Furthermore it calls for theoretical developments, which can open up for a deeper understanding of the...... relationship between emerging contexts, design of contexts and learning....

  1. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  2. Autismo e doenças invasivas de desenvolvimento Autism and pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Gadia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos neurobiológicos do autismo e das doenças invasivas de desenvolvimento. Oferecer ao pediatra informações atualizadas sobre diagnóstico e tratamento. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica, abordando o tema por meio do sistema MEDLINE e procura direta. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Conforme dados da literatura, o autismo é a terceira mais comum desordem no desenvolvimento, ocorrendo em 40 a 130 casos por 100.000. O diagnóstico é clínico, baseado nos critérios do DSM-IV. Os exames de neuroimagem e neurofetologia e os estudos genéticos contribuem para o melhor entendimento da neurobiologia do autismo. CONCLUSÃO: O pediatra é o primeiro médico a entrar em contato com o paciente autista e deve estar apto para reconhecer os desvios do desenvolvimento e orientar a investigação e o tratamento multidisciplinar.OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on neurobiological aspects of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, as well as to provide pediatricians with up to date information on diagnosis and treatment of autism. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of MEDLINE and Internet. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Autism is the 3rd developmental disorder, with an incidence of 40 to 130/100,000 individuals. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, following DSM IV criteria. Neuroimaging, investigation of fetal neurological status, and genetic investigation contribute towards a better understanding of the neurobiology of autism. CONCLUSION: Pediatricians are the first health professional to come in contact with patients with autism. Thus, they should be able to diagnose and to coordinate the multidisciplinary treatment of these patients.

  3. Yokukansan (TJ-54) for treatment of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and Asperger’s disorder: a 12-week prospective, open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaoka Tsuyoshi; Wake Rei; Furuya Motohide; Liaury Kristian; Ieda Masa; Kawakami Kazunori; Tsuchie Keiko; Inagaki Takuji; Horiguchi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous medications have been tested on patients with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger’s disorder. Although many of these medications have been demonstrated to be useful, no clear primary treatment for PDD-NOS and Asperger’s disorder has emerged. Despite the efficacy of some of the medicines, the acceptability and side effects have proven to be barriers to their use. Recent studies indicate that the traditional Japanese herba...

  4. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...

  5. Towards a Tool-based Development Methodology for Pervasive Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cassou, Damien; Consel, Charles; Balland, Emilie; 10.1109/TSE.2011.107

    2012-01-01

    Despite much progress, developing a pervasive computing application remains a challenge because of a lack of conceptual frameworks and supporting tools. This challenge involves coping with heterogeneous devices, overcoming the intricacies of distributed systems technologies, working out an architecture for the application, encoding it in a program, writing specific code to test the application, and finally deploying it. This paper presents a design language and a tool suite covering the development life-cycle of a pervasive computing application. The design language allows to define a taxonomy of area-specific building-blocks, abstracting over their heterogeneity. This language also includes a layer to define the architecture of an application, following an architectural pattern commonly used in the pervasive computing domain. Our underlying methodology assigns roles to the stakeholders, providing separation of concerns. Our tool suite includes a compiler that takes design artifacts written in our language as...

  6. Detecção dos transtornos invasivos na criança: perspectiva das mães Detección de los trastornos invasivos en el niño: perspectiva de madres Detection of pervasive disorders in the child: a maternal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Braga

    2004-12-01

    , lo que permitiría la detección temprana de estos desvios minimizando, así, efectos negativos presentes y futuros.Invasive Developmental Disorders are characterized by the early occurrence of changes that come up in the areas of communication development, behavior and interpersonal relationship. This study aimed to discover how the disorder detection process took place from a maternal perspective. A quantitative and qualitative study was carried, based on a semi-structured survey with 20 mothers of children in this condition. Results were processed through content analysis and indicated that these disorders have been diagnosed after the established age and that early typical signs are noticed by the family, particularly by the mother. These findings that child health professionals do not seem to be aware of the importance of effective developmental follow-up, which would lead to the early detection of these disorders, thus minimizing its present and future negative effects.

  7. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  8. Overlapping phenotypes - a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging investigation of schizotypy and pervasive developmental disorders in adolescents with cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Stanfield, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The neurobiological bases of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and schizotypy are not well established. In addition there are clinical overlaps between the two which can make diagnostic determination difficult. The primary aim of this thesis was to explore the relationship between PDD and schizotypy by examining their associated clinical and brain structural features in a group of cognitively impaired adolescents. Methods: 138 adolescents receiving special educational a...

  9. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less…

  10. Quality of life of parents raising children with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Atsurou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs face higher levels of stress. The aims of the present study were; (i to evaluate the quality of life (QOL of parents caring for their children with PDDs, and (ii to explore the correlates of their QOL. Methods A consecutive sample of parents of children with PDDs aged 6 to 15 were approached. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 was used to measure the QOL of the parents by eight subscales and two summary measures. Parents’ personality and marital relationships were assessed with the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Intimate Bond Measure, respectively. We characterized the parents’ SF-36 profiles in comparison with the national normative scores and explored variables which correlated with their summary measures. Results Participants were 147 mothers and 122 fathers of 158 children with PDDs. Mothers had significantly lower scores in the areas of Role Physical (RP Social functioning (SF, General health perceptions (GH, Vitality (VT, Role emotional (RE and Mental Health (MH than those among the general female population. The maternal mental component summary (MCS was also significantly lower, but maternal physical component summary (PCS and paternal PCS and MCS scores were not lower. Maternal PCS and MCS scores were both significantly associated with the high Care and the low Control scores, but regarding fathers only the paternal PCS scores were significantly associated with the low Control scores. Maternal PCS and MCS and paternal MCS scores were significantly associated with the high Agreeableness scores and the low Neuroticism scores. Multiple regressions have shown that Neuroticism was significantly related to the low MCS scores of mothers and fathers. Next, Care was related to maternal high PCS, and Control was related to maternal low MCS and paternal low PCS. Conclusions The mothers of children with PDDs had lower

  11. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less at CDS stimuli. Boys with autism and language age-matched peers differed in patterns of looking at live versus videotaped CDS stimuli. Boys with aut...

  12. A Case Study of Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Using Systematic Analysis of Family Home Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Ruben; Thompson, Meagan; Colombi, Costanza; Cook, Ian; Goldring, Stacy; Young, Gregory S.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder that involves regression after a period of at least 2 years of typical development. This case study presents data from family home movies, coded by reliable raters using an objective coding system, to examine the trajectory of development in one child with a…

  13. Use of a Direct Observational Measure in a Trial of Risperidone and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    HANDEN, BENJAMIN L.; JOHNSON, CYNTHIA R.; Butter, Eric M.; LECAVALIER, LUC; SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James A.; White, Susan W.; Bearss, Karen; Hollway, Jill A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    A Structured Observational Analog Procedure (SOAP), an analogue measure of parent-child interactions, was used to assess treatment outcome in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and serious behavior problems. It served as a secondary outcome measure in a 24-week, randomized trial of risperidone (MED; N=49) versus risperidone plus parent training (COMB; n=75) (ages 4–13 years). At 24-weeks, there was 28 % reduction in child inappropriate behavior during a Demand Condition (p=.0002) and 12 %...

  14. Clinical Survey on Pervasive Developmental Disorders during the Last 12 Years in Shanghai%近12年广泛性发育障碍就诊情况的资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凌霄; 刘文文; 张林娜; 杨曹骅; 江文庆; 李焱; 张喜燕; 郝丽丽; 郝楠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the developing trend of pervasive developmental disorders(PDD)from 2000 to 2012 in Shanghai.Methods The samples were recruited randomly from medical recorders in outpatient department over the past 12 years.250 cases were recorded each year,in which we chose those who were diagnosed as PDD for further study.Results Pervasive developmental disorder accounted for 7.2% of all diseases of child and adolescent psychiatry.As the most important part of PDD,childhood autism ranked fourth in pediatric psychosis,and the number of asperger syndrome had significantly increased in recent years.The patients from Shanghai and those from other parts of China maintained a ratio of 1.5:1,while the stable ratio between male and female was 7.3..1,and for childhood autism,it was 6.9:1.For those patients coming for diagnosis and treatment,"aged 4to 6" was the largest proportion,but it tended to decrease recently.The average duration was 54.5 months before their first visit to hospital and the average number of visits was 2 times.Those who came for only one time had a obvious upward trend.Conclusion Chinese child and adolescent psychiatry comes up to a advanced level these years.As its important component,pervasive developmental disorder receives more and more attention now.As mental health professionals,we have responsibility to improve child and adolescent psychiatry.%目的 了解上海交通大学医学院附属精神卫生中心儿少心理咨询门诊12年间广泛性发育障碍(PDD)患儿的就诊情况,以预见其发展趋势.方法 自2000年1月-2011年12月间的病历中,每年随机抽取250份、共3000份,其中再选出诊断PDD的病历,逐一记载资料进行分析.结果 12年间PDD患儿占所有就诊儿童的7.2%,儿童孤独症占其中76.4%;Asperger综合征近年确诊人数明显上升.男女比例维持在7.3:1;上海与外地户籍比例维持在1.5:1;初诊年龄为4~6岁的患儿比例最多,但近年有下降趋势.

  15. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ullsperger, Josie M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD’s) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6–17 years (N=498; 50.4 % ADHD, ...

  16. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; de Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  17. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  18. Investigating the Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders According to Sex in a Sample of Iranian Children Referred to Medical-Rehabilitation Centers and Psychiatrics Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khushabi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: According to significance of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in children and the increasing rate of its prevalence in referred patients to clinic in recent years and due to absence of any report about the rate of PPD in our country, this study was carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Iranian children who referred to medical and rehabilitation centers.Materials & Methods: 248 children who referred to three medical-rehabilitation centers were participated in the research. Accessible sampling with diagnosis of PDD based on DSM-IV criteria was chosen. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods such as percent and frequency distribution. Results: Autistics disorder was most prevalent among pervasive developmental disorders. In this research Autistic disorder (proportion 4/1 to 1, Asperger disorder (proportion 3 to 1 and childhood disintegrative disease were more prevalent in boys than girls. Ret disorders was observed only in girls and pervasive developmental disease (NOS was seen in both sexes. Conclusion: The results showed that pervasive developmental disorders are 4 times more prevalent in boys than girls and the findings of this research were consistent with those of previous studies.

  19. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  20. Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Obstetric Complications in Children and Adolescents with Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebecca J.; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the role of obstetric complications in determining phenotypic manifestations in tuberous sclerosis (TS), a disorder associated with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison of 43 children with TS and 40 unaffected siblings found children with TS experienced more obstetric complications, but these were related to mild rather…

  1. Child maltreatment: the neurobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Childhood trauma due to physical abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse is a serious problem in the United States. Trauma can result in disruption or injury to the developing brain and lead to neurodevelopmental deficits that affect a child's functioning and can result in lifelong problems. Research has provided insight into how early childhood maltreatment affects brain development. This article examines the research on trauma, its effects on the brain, and evidence-based interventions. An overview of normal brain functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Implications for social work practice with children who have experienced child maltreatment are discussed. PMID:23879352

  2. The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...

  3. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  4. A Parent-Child Interactional Model of Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benoit, Kristy E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and…

  5. Metrics for Evaluating Pervasive Middleware

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudanan, J.; V. Prasanna Venkatesan

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive computing aims at developing smart environments which enable user to interact with other devices. Pervasive computing includes a middleware to support interoperability, heterogeneity and self-management among different platforms. It provides efficient communications and context awareness among devices. Middleware for pervasive computing provides much more attention to coordinate the devices in the smart environment. The evaluation of the pervasive middleware is a challenging endeav...

  6. What Matter for Child Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using a panel data of nine-year old children each with over two hundred home and school inputs as well as family background variables. A tree regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications. A small subset of inputs is found consistently important in explaining variances of child development results, including the number of books a child has at various ages and how often a mother r...

  7. The Impact of Caregiver Distress on the Longitudinal Development of Child Acute Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Pediatric Injury Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, Sarah A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Timothy J.; Irish, Leah; Christopher, Norman C.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study prospectively examined the development of child PTSD symptoms (PTSS) and the impact of caregiver PTSS on child PTSS following injury. Methods One hundred and eighteen ED patients and their caregivers were interviewed in-hospital and 2- and 6-weeks posttrauma. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear regressions examined the development of PTSS. Results A model combining child and caregiver 2-week PTSS into one latent family PTSS variable provided the be...

  8. A novel approach to developing applications in the pervasive healthcare environment through the use of archetypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Moraes, João Luís; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Tricai Cavalini, Luciana; Prado, do Antonio Francisco; Murgante, B.; Misra, S.; Carlini, M.; Torre, C.M.; Nguyen, H.Q.; Taniar, D.; Apduhan, B.O.; Gervasi, O.

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive Healthcare focuses on the use of new technologies, tools, and services, to help patients to play a more active role in the treatment of their conditions. Pervasive Healthcare environments demand a huge amount of information exchange, and specific technologies has been proposed to provide i

  9. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  10. Family environment and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it ...

  11. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  12. Family-based Treatment of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Sarah; Lock, James

    2015-07-01

    Best-practice guidelines for the treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders recommend the inclusion of parents. Family-based treatment (FBT) posits that families are not only important in supporting their children but are critical change agents in the recovery process. As originally developed for anorexia nervosa, parents take a central role in managing and disrupting eating disorder symptoms. The most evidence-based treatment model for adolescent anorexia nervosa, FBT has also recently been found to be useful in the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa. This article provides a summary of the theoretic model, evidence base, and application of FBT. PMID:26092743

  13. 创伤后应激障碍对儿童大脑发育的影响%The Effect of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder on Development of Brain in Child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 伍亚民

    2014-01-01

    After going through post-traumatic stress disorder, it may take more severe injury to the physiology and psychology in child because of their special characteristic during growth and development. But the mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in child is not clear completely. The pathogenesy of PTSD in child and its inlfuence on the development of brain were reviewed in this manuscript.%儿童由于其特殊的生长与发育特点,在经历创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)时对其身心的影响更加严重,但有关儿童(PTSD)的发生、发展机制尚不完全清楚。因此,文中就儿童PTSD发病特点及其对脑发育的影响进行综述。

  14. Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS: development and evaluation of a population-based screening scale for bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Papachristou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Early identification of Bipolar Disorder (BD remains poor despite the high levels of disability associated with the disorder. OBJECTIVE: We developed and evaluated a new DSM orientated scale for the identification of young people at risk for BD based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and compared its performance against the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-PBD and the CBCL-Externalizing Scale, the two most widely used scales. METHODS: The new scale, CBCL-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS, comprises 19 CBCL items that directly correspond to operational criteria for mania. We tested the reliability, longitudinal stability and diagnostic accuracy of the CBCL-MS on data from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a prospective epidemiological cohort study of 2230 Dutch youths assessed with the CBCL at ages 11, 13 and 16. At age 19 lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We compared the predictive ability of the CBCL-MS against the CBCL-Externalising Scale and the CBCL-PBD in the TRAILS sample. RESULTS: The CBCL-MS had high internal consistency and satisfactory accuracy (area under the curve = 0.64 in this general population sample. Principal Component Analyses, followed by parallel analyses and confirmatory factor analyses, identified four factors corresponding to distractibility/disinhibition, psychosis, increased libido and disrupted sleep. This factor structure remained stable across all assessment ages. Logistic regression analyses showed that the CBCL-MS had significantly higher predictive ability than both the other scales. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the CBCL-MS is a promising screening instrument for BD. The factor structure of the CBCL-MS showed remarkable temporal stability between late childhood and early adulthood suggesting that it maps on to meaningful developmental dimensions of liability to BD.

  15. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Strulik

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  16. Integrating Family Capacity-Building and Child Outcomes to Support Social Communication Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Juliann J.; Brown, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the transactional relationship of research and practice for speech-language pathologists serving infants and toddlers with and at risk for autism spectrum disorder in Individuals with Disabilities Education Act supported early intervention. Specifically, information is provided on (a) the relationship between…

  17. Pervasive refusal syndrome - A clinical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Seshadri, Shekhar; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2015-10-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome is described as a condition comprising varying degrees of refusal across several domains; social withdrawal; resistance to treatment and is potentially life threatening with no detectable organic cause. Female predominance, refusal to eat with low weight, body image distortion, depressive features, premorbid personality issues similar to eating disorders have been noted, with 67% cases having complete recovery. In this paper, we describe what is probably the first case reported from India, of a child, who presented with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and treated with electroconvulsive therapy along with medications, but, sadly had a fatal outcome. PMID:26275914

  18. Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Bhanumathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of the five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development." ASD is characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interaction and restricted, repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders under PDD are autistic disorder, Asperger′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett′s disorder and PDD-not otherwise specified. ASD can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years and, in some cases, as early as 18 months. The appearance of any warning signs of ASD is reason to have the child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders.

  19. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder. PMID:25684446

  20. Interactive Tools to Track Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Interactive Tools to Track Child Development Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Watch for ... Do if I Suspect a Problem with My Child's Development? Talk with your child's doctor. If you or ...

  1. Personality disorders in a sample of paraphilic and nonparaphilic child molesters: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Daalder, Annelies; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias; Leeuw, Frans

    2008-02-01

    This article renders the results of research that investigated personality disorders in a sample of paraphilic and nonparaphilic child molesters. The sample contained 36 paraphilic child molesters and a matched comparison group of 34 nonparaphilic child molesters. The analyses of the research results show that four personality disorders discriminate between both groups. Only the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder contributes significantly to the explanation of paraphilic child molestation. This result also contributes to the development and differentiation of the treatment of paraphilia-related disorders. For several child molesters, psychological approaches to the treatment of sexual offending (e.g., cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychotherapy in general) are limited and cannot be expected to immediately reduce risk. Interest has been expressed in medical approaches to reduce recidivism, in combination with psychotherapy. PMID:17991902

  2. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  3. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion

  4. The Effects of Structured Musical Activity Sessions on the Development of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Rose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study sought to discover the effects of structured music activity sessions on eye contact and communication skills of Hunter; a six year old, high functioning child with autism. The research design consisted of two baseline observations in music class, six biweekly home activity sessions concurrent with three weekly music class observations, and two final music class observations. Activity sessions lasted approximately thirty minutes, and consisted of seven different activities, which were designed to increase joint attention through verbal, emotional, and social communication skills, as well as eye contact. Sessions were video recorded, and data analysis showed that Hunter’s eye contact increased from 76% in the first session to a high of 91% by the fifth activity session. Eye contact during the dedicated discussion activities increased from 21% in the first session to 46% by the sixth session. Observations and parent/teacher questionnaires revealed that he demonstrated higher levels of social functioning and both emotional and musical expression (including improvisation following activity sessions. Hunter transferred verbal communication, facial gestures and social cues from his sessions to music classes. In his concert following the fifth session, Hunter made contextually appropriate verbal improvisations and improved singing and movement synchronisation with the music

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  6. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  7. Transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento não-autísticos: síndrome de Rett, transtorno desintegrativo da infância e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Mercadante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A categoria "transtorno invasivos do desenvolvimento" inclui o autismo, a síndrome de Asperger, a síndrome de Rett, o transtorno desintegrativo da infância e uma categoria residual denominada transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Nesta revisão, a síndrome de Rett e o transtorno desintegrativo da infância, que são categorias bem definidas, serão discutidas, assim como as categorias não tão bem definidas que foram incluídas no grupo transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Diferentes propostas de categorização têm sido feitas, algumas baseadas em abordagem fenomenológica descritiva, outras baseadas em outras perspectivas teóricas, tais como a neuropsicologia. As propostas atuais são apresentadas e discutidas, seguidas por avaliações críticas sobre as vantagens e desvantagens desses conceitos.The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which are well-defined categories, will be discussed, as well as the not well defined categories that have been included in the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified group. Different proposals of categorization have been created, some of which based on descriptive phenomenological approach, and others based upon other theoretical perspectives, such as neuropsychology. Current proposals are presented and discussed, followed by critical appraisals on the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these concepts.

  8. Shedding Light on a Pervasive Problem: A Review of Research on Bullying Experiences among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jessica H.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Bebko, James M.; Pepler, Debra J.; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. As a result, individuals with ASD are at an increased risk of bullying victimization, compared to typically developing peers. This paper reviews the…

  9. Counseling the Conduct-Disordered Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Cindy

    Conduct disorder (CD), primarily a childhood disorder, is associated with oppositional defiance disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Differentiating between the disorders requires a preview of the intensity of the disorder. There are many approaches to treating CD. The traditional approach has been psychoanalytically oriented…

  10. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  11. Towards Developing a Semantic Mashup Personal and Pervasive Learning Environment: SMupple

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Ahmet; Wild, Fridolin; Mödritscher, Felix; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Personal Learning Environments have emerged as a complementary, even challenging, paradigm to Adaptive Learning Systems. One can argue that Pervasive Learning Environments aim at replacing the physical learning environment while Adaptive Learning Systems focus on replacing the instructor. We believe that amalgamation of these two approaches in a complementary manner, i.e. through setting an appropriate balance between learner and system control, is promising. Consequently, we consider mash-up...

  12. An adult version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    Many questionnaires exist for measuring anxiety; however, most are developed for children or adults only, or do not capture symptoms of all anxiety disorders. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) is a well-validated questionnaire for children, measuring symptoms of most

  13. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  14. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  15. Sports and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Felfe; Michael Lechner; Andreas Steinmayr

    2011-01-01

    Despite the relevance of cognitive and non-cognitive skills for professional success, their formation is not yet fully understood. This study fills part of this gap by analyzing the effect of sports club participation, one of the most popular extra-curricular activities, on children’s skill development. Our results indicate positive effects: both cognitive skills, measured by school performance, and overall non-cognitive skills improve by 0.13 standard deviations. The results are robust when ...

  16. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Pirdehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001. The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001. Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders.

  17. Child rights & child development in India: a regional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chandan

    2011-01-01

    Being the signatory of UNCRC (1992), India globally recognized the significance of child rights. The Constitutions of India also guarantees certain child rights covering basic issues, like ‘health’, ‘education’ and protection from ‘hazardous employment’ and ‘exploitation’. However, despite the existence of many legal provisions, the vulnerability of Indian children in different dimensions cannot be undermined. This paper attempts to locate the status of child in development ladder of Indian e...

  18. Household choices and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The growth in labor market participation among women with young children has raised concerns about the potential negative impact of the mother's absence from home on child outcomes. Recent data show that mother's time spent with children has declined in the last decade, while the indicators of children’s cognitive and noncognitive outcomes have worsened. The objective of our research is to estimate a model of the cognitive development process of children nested within an otherwise standard mo...

  19. Chain reaction or time bomb: a neuropsychiatric-developmental/neurodevelopmental formulation of tourettisms, pervasive developmental disorder, and schizophreniform symptomatology associated with PANDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry; Tait, Alison

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a boy who over time sequentially exhibited symptoms consistent with a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophreniform symptomatology, multiple motor and vocal tics, and myoclonus. During this period he experienced multiple episodes of group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal (strep) infection confirmed by culture and serological studies. We speculate that paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep (PANDAS) may have served as an element in a complex chain of causation influencing the expression of his symptoms. Our main emphasis is to utilize our case study as an example of the application in case formulation of the neuropsychiatric developmental model and of the neurodevelopmental model on symptom ontogenesis and clinical outcome. PMID:17654411

  20. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  1. Uptake and Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray in an Australian Child Development Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Mordaunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental disorder for which the range of genetic investigations has expanded considerably over the past decade. Introduction of chromosomal microarray (CMA to clinical practice has expanded the range of conditions which pediatricians are able to detect. This study reviewed the utilization, yield and cost of genetic investigations in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in an Australian metropolitan child development service. Six hundred and ninety eight patients with PDD were identified from the clinic population. One hundred and ten (15.7% of the clinic population had undergone investigation with chromosomal microarray, 140 (20.0% with karyotype (KT, and 167 (23.9% with Fragile X testing (FRGX. Twelve (10.9% CMA findings were reported, of which seven (6.3% were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Five (3.5% KT findings were reported, of which four (2.9% were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Two patients (1.2% were identified with Fragile X expansions. One fifth of the clinic’s recent PDD population had undergone testing with CMA. CMA appears to have increased the diagnostic yield of the genetic investigation of autism, in line with internationally reported levels. Number needed to test (NNT and cost per incremental diagnosis, were also in line with internationally reported levels.

  2. Influence of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology on Adult Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ramklint, Mia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals afflicted with childhood and adolescent mental disorders have an increased risk for poor outcome in adulthood. The progression of psychopathology from childhood to adult life may be influenced by a multitude of interacting variables, both biological and psychosocial. There is limited information on the relationships between child psychopathology and adult personality and personality disorders. The main aim of this thesis was therefore to gain better knowledge concerning adult pers...

  3. Current state and recent developments of child psychiatry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Xixi

    2015-01-01

    China has a population of 1.3 billion, of which 238 million are children under age 15. The rapid economic development and social reforms that have taken place in recent years all had a great influence on child and adolescent mental health. Though a nationwide prevalence study for child and adolescent mental disorders in China is lacking, several regional studies have shown the prevalence of mental disorders in children to be close to the worldwide prevalence of 20%. This article reviews the c...

  4. Analysis of Copper and Zinc Plasma Concentration and the Efficacy of Zinc Therapy in Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Russo; Robert deVito

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autistic disorder, and to analyze the efficacy of zinc therapy on the normalization of zinc and copper levels and symptom severity in these disorders. Subjects and methods Plasma from 79 autistic individuals, 52 individuals with PDD-NOS, 21 individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome (all meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria), and 18 age and...

  5. Psychometric properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Children (KOOS-Child) in children with knee disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Iversen, Maura D; Janarv, Per-Mats;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire for adults with joint injury or degenerative disease. Recent data indicate a lack of comprehensibility when this is used with children. Thus, a preliminary KOOS-Child was...... developed. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of the final KOOS-Child when used in children with knee disorders. METHODS: 115 children (boys/girls 51/64, 7-16 years) with knee disorders were recruited. All children (n=115) completed the KOOS-Child, the Child-Health Assessment Questionnaire...... better. CONCLUSIONS: The final KOOS-Child demonstrates good psychometric properties and supports the use of the KOOS-Child when evaluating children with knee disorders....

  6. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  7. Pervasive refusal syndrome as part of the refusal?withdrawal?regression spectrum: critical review of the literature illustrated by a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspers, Tine; Hanssen, G. M. J.; Valk, Judith A.; Hanekom, Johann H.; van Well, Gijs Th J.; Schieveld, Jan N. M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) is a rare child psychiatric disorder characterized by pervasive refusal, active/angry resistance to help and social withdrawal leading to an endangered state. Little has been written about PRS. A literature search yielded only 15 relevant articles, all published between 1991 and 2006. This article presents a critical review of the published literature, illustrated by a case report of an 11-year-old girl. PRS most often affects girls (75%). ...

  8. When the Child is Suspected to Have Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendation for Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina L.G.; Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Experts in the area of treatment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders provide parents with recommenda¬tions for situations when their children are suspected to have autism or have been diagnosed. These recommenda¬tions are universal and are appropriate for raising a child with any spectrum disorder. Following these recommenda¬tions will allow parents to comprehend the situation with the child’s development, access approaches, that are used by professionals, and will help them to not...

  9. Pervasive and mobile computing

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive and Mobile Computing Journal (PMC) is a professional, peer-reviewed journal that publishes high-quality scientific articles (both theory and practice) covering all aspects of pervasive computing and communications.

  10. Trastornos generalizados del desarrollo: Aspectos clínicos y genéticos Pervasive developmental disorders: Clinical and genetics aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ruggieri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo se expresan con compromiso en la socialización, trastorno en el desarrollo del lenguaje (verbal y no verbal e intereses restringidos con conductas repetitivas. La frecuencia estimada en la población general es de 27.5/10.000. En nuestro trabajo analizamos los aspectos clínicos y genéticos de los TGD: Autismo, Síndrome de Asperger, TGD no Especificado, Síndrome de Rett y Trastorno desintegrativo de la niñez. Desde el punto de vista clínico jerarquizamos los aspectos conductuales para su reconocimiento. En los aspectos genéticos puntualizamos diversas entidades con las que se asocian consistentemente estos trastornos, denominados cuadros sindrómicos, (aproximadamente el 20% de los casos y las bases genéticas actualmente propuestas para el 80% restante o formas no sindrómicas. El reconocimiento temprano de estos trastornos del desarrollo y el diagnóstico de una entidad específica asociada permiten un temprano y adecuado abordaje terapéutico, un correcto asesoramiento genético y un control evolutivo específico previendo posibles complicaciones relacionadas a la entidad de base. Finalmente, si bien las bases genéticas del autismo no están identificadas se han propuesto diversos genes candidatos ubicados en los cromosomas: 15q, 2q, 17q, 7q, 12q, y los relacionados al X, entre otros, los que son analizados en este trabajo y permitirán en un futuro cercano comprender mejor estos trastornos.Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD encompass a heterogeneous group of children with deficits of verbal and non-verbal language, social communication, and with a restricted repertoire of activities or repetitive behaviours. The frequency in general population is considered 27.5/10,000. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and genetic aspects of Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD Not Otherwise Specified, Rett Syndrome and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. We analyzed clinical, behavioural and

  11. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self...

  12. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  13. The Utility of Home Problem Pervasiveness and Severity in Classifying Children Identified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D.; Pinard, Ferne A.; Barry, Christopher T.; Garland, Beth H.; Lyman, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Given the propensity for clinical assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to focus on core behavioral symptoms, the current study examined how well other predictors classified children who were diagnosed with ADHD by licensed practitioners. Participants were 91 children (39 ADHD-identified, 52 without ADHD), aged 8 to 13…

  14. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  15. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... response might be "I can't." What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is similar to self-worth (how ...

  16. Maternalmental health after a child's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, EA; Kuo, AA

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Importance:The prevalence of psychological distress among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests a need for interventions that address parental mental health during the critical period after the child's autism diagnosis when parents are learning to navigate the complex system of autism services.Objective: To investigate whether a brief cognitive behavioral intervention, problem-solving education (PSE), decreas...

  17. Terapia de linguagem de irmãos com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento: estudo longitudinal Language therapy of brothers with pervasive developmental disorders: longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Regina Nunes Misquiatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de intervenção fonoaudiológica de dois irmãos com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento, por meio de um estudo longitudinal de caso clínico. Participaram dois irmãos, um de nove e outro de 11 anos de idade, ambos do gênero masculino, com autismo (Caso 1 e transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação (Caso 2. Como procedimento de coleta e análise de dados foi realizado um estudo longitudinal, por meio de acompanhamento dos casos ao longo de quatro anos de intervenção fonoaudiológica. Foram realizadas filmagens durante as sessões de terapia, análise documental de informações dos prontuários referentes à anamnese, avaliação e relatórios terapêuticos fonoaudiológicos, exames e avaliações multidisciplinares. Em ambos os casos houve melhora no contato visual, na interação social, no vocabulário e na brincadeira simbólica. No Caso 1 ocorreu aumento de 2,0 para 6,2 atos comunicativos por minuto, no Caso 2 de 3,5 para 8,0 atos e ambos demonstraram predominância do meio verbal e maior variedade de funções comunicativas. Outros fatores influenciaram estes resultados, como a deficiência intelectual, a dinâmica familiar, os conflitos no relacionamento entre os irmãos e o ambiente escolar em que estavam inseridos. Confirmou-se a relevância do fonoaudiólogo em intervenções nos transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento, junto a equipes multidisciplinares, para a discussão diagnóstica e de condutas mais adequadas. Estudos longitudinais podem contribuir para uma análise mais detalhada e fidedigna de intervenções terapêuticas nesses casos, para esclarecer lacunas existentes na literatura e subsidiar a atuação do fonoaudiólogo clínico.The aim of this research was to describe the language intervention process of two brothers with pervasive developmental disorders, through a longitudinal clinical case study. Two brothers - one nine and the other 11

  18. Incidence of aberrant behaviors in children with pervasive developmental disorders%广泛性发育障碍儿童异常行为的发生率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都萌萌; 康传媛; 李雪蓉; 万帅; 曹阳; 张艳; 杨润许

    2015-01-01

    目的 评估广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorders,PDDs)患儿多动、刻板、自伤、易激惹行为的发生情况.方法 使用异常行为量表(aberrant behavior checklist,ABC)、Conners多动指数问卷对符合精神障碍诊断和统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的138例PDDs患儿近一个月异常行为的发生情况进行评估.结果 (1) PDDs患儿1月内多动行为发生率为61.6%,刻板行为81.9%,自伤行为13.8%,易激惹行为58.7%;(2)孤独症的易激惹行为发生率高于阿斯伯格综合征(Asperger syndrome,AS)患儿(x2=5.623,P=0.018).结论 刻板、多动和易激惹行为是PDDs患儿常见伴发的异常行为,孤独症患儿较AS患儿更易出现易激惹行为.%Objective To evaluate the incidence of four aberrant behaviors in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs).Methods The abnormal behaviors during the last month in 138 PDDs patients were assessed with Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Conners Index of Hyperactivity.Results The incidence of aberrant behaviors was 61.6% for hyperactivity,81.9% for stereotyped behaviors,13.77% for self-injury,and 58.70% for irritability in PDDs patients.The occurance of irritability in autism patients was higher than that of asperger syndrome (AS) patients (x2 =5.623,P=0.018).Conclusion Stereotyped behaviors,hyperactivity and irritability are common in children with PDDs.Autism patients are more likely to exhibit irritability behaviors than AS patients.

  19. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  20. Development Tools for Context Aware and Secure Pervasive Computing in Embedded Systems (PECES Middleware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the PECES project is the development of system software to enable the communication among heterogeneous devices across multiple smart spaces, breaking the traditional barrier of “smart islands” where only the services offered in a nearby spatial area can be used easily. PECES development tools help the application developer to build and test the PECES middleware based applications. This paper presents a set of tools, namely Peces Project, Peces Device Definition, Peces Ontology Instantiation, Peces Security Configuration, Peces Service Definition, Peces Role Specification Definition,  Peces Hierarchical Role Specification Definition, Peces Event Editor, Peces Event Diagram and Peces Testing which enable application developers to build, model and test the PECES middleware based smart space application using the novel concepts such as role assignment, context ontologies and security.

  1. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. PMID:25535250

  2. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChrisMurgatroyd

    2011-04-01

    To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.

  3. A Conceptual Model for Pervasive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarletta, Laurent; Dima, Alden

    2000-01-01

    As an emerging field, pervasive computing has not had the opportunity to develop a conceptual model similar to the OSI Reference Model used to describe computer networks. Such a model would be useful in properly classifying design issues and providing needed context. Inspired by the layers of abstraction provided by the OSI Reference Model, we present our Layered Pervasive Computing (LPC) model to facilitate discussion and analysis of pervasive computing systems by providing a much needed con...

  4. Agile enterprise development framework utilizing services principles for building pervasive security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroha, Deborah; Farroha, Bassam

    2011-06-01

    We are in an environment of continuously changing mission requirements and therefore our Information Systems must adapt to accomplish new tasks, quicker, in a more proficient manner. Agility is the only way we will be able to keep up with this change. But there are subtleties that must be considered as we adopt various agile methods: secure, protect, control and authenticate are all elements needed to posture our Information Technology systems to counteract the real and perceived threats in today's environment. Many systems have been tasked to ingest process and analyze different data sets than they were originally designed for and they have to interact with multiple new systems that were unaccounted for at design time. Leveraging the tenets of security, we have devised a new framework that takes agility into a new realm where the product will built to work in a service-based environment but is developed using agile processes. Even though these two criteria promise to hone the development effort, they actually contradict each other in philosophy where Services require stable interfaces, while Agile focuses on being flexible and tolerate changes up to much later stages of development. This framework is focused on enabling a successful product development that capitalizes on both philosophies.

  5. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right now being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE?s differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used in...

  6. MAPREDUCE CHALLENGES ON PERVASIVE GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Steffenel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the advances on designing and implementing scalable techniques to support the development and execution of MapReduce application in pervasive distributed computing infrastructures, in the context of the PER-MARE project. A pervasive framework for MapReduce applications is very useful in practice, especially in those scientific, enterprises and educational centers which have many unused or underused computing resources, which can be fully exploited to solve relevant problems that demand large computing power, such as scientific computing applications, big data processing, etc. In this study, we pro-pose the study of multiple techniques to support volatility and heterogeneity on MapReduce, by applying two complementary approaches: Improving the Apache Hadoop middleware by including context-awareness and fault-tolerance features; and providing an alternative pervasive grid implementation, fully adapted to dynamic environments. The main design and implementation decisions for both alternatives are described and validated through experiments, demonstrating that our approaches provide high reliability when executing on pervasive environments. The analysis of the experiments also leads to several insights on the requirements and constraints from dynamic and volatile systems, reinforcing the importance of context-aware information and advanced fault-tolerance features to provide efficient and reliable MapReduce services on pervasive grids.

  7. Intellectual disability and multiple co morbid psychiatric disorders in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Priyanka; Bhatia, M S; Rathi, Anubhav

    2014-11-01

    Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

  8. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  9. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J.; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A.; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.M.; Unwin, Richard D.; Cooper, Garth J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  10. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  11. Development and usability of a personalized sensor-based system for pervasive healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidis, Andreas K; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    Although a plethora of remote health monitoring systems have been proposed for chronic conditions, the challenge posed by the changing patient needs and the requirement for personalization in health monitoring to move beyond proprietary, difficult to extend, and unsustainable solutions still pertains. In this direction, we describe a mobile health system based on a smartphone, portable/wearable sensors for measuring the patient's physiological parameters, and back-end platforms for the health professionals to monitor the patient condition and configure monitoring plans in an individualized manner. A prototype system was developed based on a Service-oriented Architecture and integrating commercially available sensing devices. An experimental study has been conducted with 53 patients in order to investigate the usability of the proposed system. The patients were able to perform the majority of the target tasks successfully (Success Rate = 77%), while the perceived usability using the System Usability Scale (SUS) was found to be above average (SUS score = 73%), indicating that the patients overall perceived the system as both easy to use and useful. PMID:25571514

  12. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  13. CBT for the treatment of child anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety affects 10% of all children and disrupts educational, socio-emotional development and overall functioning of the child and family. Research has shown that parenting factors (i.e. intrusiveness, negativity, distorted cognitions) contribute to the development and maintenance of childhood....... This article investigates possible reasons for this inconsistency and in particular differences in methodology and the theoretical relevance of the applied parental components are highlighted as possible contributory factors. Another factor is that treatment effect is mainly measured by change in the child...

  14. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders – case studies [Objawy obsesyjno-kompulsyjne, tiki, stereotypie ruchowe czy dążność do zachowania stałości otoczenia? Występowanie powtarzalnych aktywności u pacjentów z całościowymi zaburzeniami rozwoju – opis przypadków

    OpenAIRE

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elżbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one of the diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the...

  15. Notes on Pervasive Virtuality

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Luis; Feijo, Bruno; Silva, Alexandre Ribeiro; Clua, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes current notes about a new mixed-reality paradigm that we named as "pervasive virtuality". This paradigm has emerged recently in industry and academia through different initiatives. In this paper we intend to explore this new area by proposing a set of features that we identified as important or helpful to realize pervasive virtuality in games and entertainment applications.

  16. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE's differ...

  17. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE...

  18. Pervasive e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of pervasive learning environments is based on the successful combination and re-configuration of inter-connected sets of activities and contexts. This chapter presents a definition of Pervasive (e) Learning Environments and discusses the pedagogical potentials and challenges...

  19. Genetic and neurological evaluation in a sample of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders Avaliação genética e neurológica em uma amostra de indivíduos com transtornos globais do desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Steiner; Marilisa Mantovani Guerreiro; Antonia Paula Marques-de-Faria

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of analyzing which complementary tests are relevant in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, a protocol of clinical and laboratory evaluation was applied in 103 outpatients. The protocol included chromosomal analysis, screening for inborn errors of metabolism, cytogenetic and molecular study of the FRAXA, FRAXE, and FRAXF mutations, EEG, SPECT, and magnetic resonance imaging study. Eighty-four subjects concluded the complementary tests a...

  20. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. PMID:26560234

  1. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular...

  2. A failure to confirm the effectiveness of a brief group psychoeducational program for mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Masako Suzuki,1 Atsurou Yamada,1 Norio Watanabe,1 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Fujika Katsuki,2 Takeshi Nishiyama,3 Masayuki Imaeda,4 Taishi Miyachi,4 Kazuo Otaki,5 Yumiko Mitsuda,6 Akino Ota,6 Toshi A Furukawa7 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Nagoya City University School of Nursing, Nagoya, Japan; 3Clinical Trial Management Center, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Neonatology and Pediatrics, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 5Kazuo Mental Clinic, Toyohashi, Japan; 6Toyokawa Sakura Hospital, Toyokawa Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group psychoeducation to relieve the psychological distress of mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD and to improve the behaviors of the children. Methods: Seventy-two mothers of preschool outpatients with HFPDD were randomly assigned to a four-session brief group psychoeducational program (GP. The sessions were held every second week in addition to the usual treatment (GP + treatment as usual [TAU] group, or to a TAU-alone group. The primary outcome was self-reported symptoms of maternal mental health as assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 at 21 weeks post-randomization (week 21. The GHQ-28 at the end of the intervention (week 7, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC for the behavior of the children, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 were carried out at weeks 7 and 21. We tested the group effects with the interaction between the intervention and the evaluation points. Results: The GHQ-28

  3. Development of foster mother-child attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...

  4. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...

  5. Middleware for Pervasive Healthcare - A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    This white paper describes work-in-progress at the Center for Pervasive Computing (CfPC) at University of Aarhus. We describe our pervasive healthcare project, which is a collaboration between hospitals in the county of Aarhus, a Danish software company developing an electronic patient record...

  6. A Prospective Longitudinal Assessment of Medical Records for Diagnostic Substitution among Subjects Diagnosed with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGeier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, investigators suggested that diagnostic substitution from other diagnoses, e.g., mental retardation (MR and/or cerebral palsy (CP to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD is a driving factor behind increases in PDD. This study evaluated potential diagnostic substitution among subjects diagnosed with PDD vs MR or CP by examining birth characteristic overlap.Methods: SAS® and StatsDirect software examined medical records for subjects within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD database who were Health Maintenance Organization (HMO-enrolled from birth until diagnosed with an International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9 outcome of PDD (299.xx, n=84, CP (343.xx, n=300, or MR (317.xx, 318.xx, or 319.xx, n=51.Results: Subjects with PDD had significantly (p<0.01 increased: male/female ratio (PDD=5.5 vs CP=1.5 or MR=1.3, mean age of initial diagnosis in years (PDD=3.13 vs CP=1.09 or MR=1.62, mean gestational age in weeks at birth (PDD=38.73 vs CP=36.20 or MR=34.84, mean birth weight in grams (PDD=3,368 vs CP=2,767 or MR=2,406, and mean Appearance-Pulse-Grimace-Activity-Respiration (APGAR scores at 1 minute (PDD=7.82 vs CP=6.37 or MR=6.76 and 5 minutes (PDD=8.77 vs CP=7.92 or MR=8.04, as compared to subjects diagnosed with CP or MR.Conclusion: This study suggests diagnostic substitution cannot fully explain increased PDD prevalence during the 1990s within the United States.

  7. When the Child is Suspected to Have Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendation for Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodina L.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts in the area of treatment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders provide parents with recommenda¬tions for situations when their children are suspected to have autism or have been diagnosed. These recommenda¬tions are universal and are appropriate for raising a child with any spectrum disorder. Following these recommenda¬tions will allow parents to comprehend the situation with the child’s development, access approaches, that are used by professionals, and will help them to not waste precious time on finding primary information after the diagnosis.

  8. Parents' experiences of having and caring for a child with an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elin; Nilsson, Karin; Levi, Richard; Suarez, Nivia Carballeira

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are serious conditions that affect both patients and their families. Little is known about the influence of these disorders on family life in a Swedish population and the ways that affected families actually attempt to cope. The aim of this study was to specifically investigate parental experiences of having and caring for a child with ED. A qualitative approach was used and rich narratives were obtained from interviews with 10 parents. Results promote insights into lived experiences concerning social disruption, emotional impact, and coping strategies related to ED. This knowledge can be utilized to further develop programs to help affected families. PMID:24044596

  9. Explaining Management Innovation Pervasiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Mie

    behavioral theory of the firm, the determinants of firms’ adoption of pervasive management innovations are explored. I find that performance shortfalls have a direct positive effect on the pervasiveness of adopted innovations. Likewise, I find a direct effect of education level, richness of internal......Management innovation is the introduction of new management practices, processes, techniques or organizational structures that significantly alter the way the work of management is performed. This paper examines a particular characteristic of management innovation: i.e. pervasiveness. Based on the...

  10. Pervasive Emotions in Pervasive Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Vishal

    2009-01-01

    The capability of an intelligent environment to connect and adapt to real internal sates, needs and behavioral meaning of humans can be made possible by considering peoples emotional states as contextual parameters. In this paper, we build on enactive psychology and investigate the incorporation of emotions in pervasive systems. We redefine emotions, and discuss the coding of emotional human markers by smart environments. In addition, we compare several existing works and identify how emotions can be detected and modeled by a pervasive system in order to enhance its service and response to users. Finally, we analyze comprehensively an XML based language for representing and annotating emotions known as EARL and raise two important issues which pertain to emotion representation and modeling in XML based languages.

  11. The Effect of Child Gender on Teachers' Responses to Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Jill D.; Pope, Alice W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether child gender influences teachers' responses to oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Teachers (N = 145) read a vignette describing a fictional child's oppositional behavior. Two forms of the vignette were administered, identical with the exception of child gender, and included ODD symptoms descriptive of both boys…

  12. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  13. Potential Mediators of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kym L.; Williams, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined variables that might mediate the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 20 Australian child witnesses (ages 6-12) to domestic violence. Results found PTSD was not mediated by maternal emotional well-being, age and gender of the child, or the child's style of coping with parental conflict. (Author/CR)

  14. The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...

  15. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Residents' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…

  16. Middleware til Pervasive Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    Pervasive computing-begrebet står for en ny bølge inden for IT-verdenen hvor der er IT i alt fra vaskemaskiner til supertankere. Alle disse forskellige enheder er forbundet på forskellige måder der gør det muligt at tilbyde nye typer af services der har potentiale til at ændre den måde vi ser på IT...... på radikalt. Det er kompliceret at lave systemer bestående af alle mulige forskellige enheder der kommunikerer på kryds og tværs, og derfor er det vigtigt af have god middleware understøttelse. I denne pixibog gives en kort introduktion til middleware til pervasive communication. Vi karakteriser...... hvorledes middleware til pervasive communication adskiller sig fra traditionel middleware og præsenterer forskellige firmaers og forskningsinstitutioners bud på middleware til pervasive communication...

  17. Explaining Management Innovation Pervasiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Mie

    2011-01-01

    Management innovation is the introduction of new management practices, processes, techniques or organizational structures that significantly alter the way the work of management is performed. This paper examines a particular characteristic of management innovation: i.e. pervasiveness. Based on the behavioral theory of the firm, the determinants of firms’ adoption of pervasive management innovations are explored. I find that performance shortfalls have a direct positive effect on t...

  18. Forming learning skills of the child with autism spectrum disorder, organic damage of the central nervous system and intellectual deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulianova R.K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult stages of special education services for the child with autism spectrum disorder is establishing contact. When this problem is solved, a skilled educator would be able to reveal potential abilities and see a special interest (even maybe of a pathologic nature even in a child with intellectual deficits. These interests and abilities are the basis of the further work on the child's development. This article describes the prolonged educational work during the 1970s on the preparation for school of a girl diagnosed with autism, organic damage of the central nervous system, diminished intellect, heightened aggression and impulsive be­havior. The article provides detailed description of the techniques used by the special educator for the problem solving, as well as general commentary for the concrete situations of the sessions with the child, the results of the work on developing learning skills and raising a child.

  19. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  20. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  1. 30-36 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 30–36 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 Older toddlers are ... go?” Then you two can switch. Downloads Your Child's Development: 30–36 Months PDF 373 KB Read more ...

  2. Child and Adolescent Development for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…

  3. A Child Survival and Development Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)

  4. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  5. Child development: analysis of a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to perform concept analysis of the term child development (CD and submit it to review by experts. Method: analysis of concept according to the hybrid model, in three phases: theoretical phase, with literature review; field phase of qualitative research with professionals who care for children; and analytical phase, of articulation of data from previous steps, based on the bioecological theory of development. The new definition was analyzed by experts in a focus group. Project approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: we reviewed 256 articles, from 12 databases and books, and interviewed 10 professionals, identifying that: The CD concept has as antecedents aspects of pregnancy, factors of the child, factors of context, highlighting the relationships and child care, and social aspects; its consequences can be positive or negative, impacting on society; its attributes are behaviors and abilities of the child; its definitions are based on maturation, contextual perspectives or both. The new definition elaborated in concept analysis was validated by nine experts in focus group. It expresses the magnitude of the phenomenon and factors not presented in other definitions. Conclusion: the research produced a new definition of CD that can improve nursing classifications for the comprehensive care of the child.

  6. Pervasive computer systems : digital signage

    OpenAIRE

    Σιγάλας, Γεώργιος

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive Computing Systems are focusing on the development of applications that can be an integrated part of our environments without using classical types of computer hardware and where the user can interact with them by natural way and without using computer equipment (e.g. keyboard, mouse). Project will focus on the development of a completed environment of editing and distributing digital signage content. The output devises for the content will be rear projection screens where the user c...

  7. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  8. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia;

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child...... characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies...... published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty...

  9. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  10. The Child's Right to Development

    OpenAIRE

    N. Peleg

    2013-01-01

    Protecting children’s development is a key principle of international children’s rights law. However, while the meanings of children’s development are a central concern of disciplines such as psychology, sociology, neurology and pedagogy, so far there has been no systematic analysis of the meaning of the child’s legal right to development. This thesis remedies this significant gap in our knowledge by establishing the foundations for analysing the child’s right to development, as protected by ...

  11. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  12. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in longstanding eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabel, KariAnne R.; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Øyvind; Martinsen, Egil W.

    2009-01-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current five year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (1) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (2) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at one-,...

  13. A multi-agent system for pervasive healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shixiong; Liu, Kecheng; Li, Weizi

    2013-01-01

    Wireless technology based pervasive healthcare has been proposed in many applications such as disease management and accident prevention for cost saving and promoting citizen’s wellbeing. However, the emphasis so far is on the artefacts with limited attentions to guiding the development of an effective and efficient solution for pervasive healthcare. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a framework of multi-agent systems design for pervasive healthcare by adopting the concept of pervasive in...

  14. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis o...

  15. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  16. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  17. Pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Roteta Dorado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology children and youth in the province of Cienfuegos with menstrual disorders in 2008. Sample: 64 patients with rhythm disturbances of the menstrual cycle and excessive bleeding. Procedure: During the first consultation was found in the following medical records: age, onset of puberty, age at menarche, breast development and pubic hair development. The data were processed by SPSS program and expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: 43.8% of the adolescents studied were between 14 and 16 years, 29.7% began puberty at age 9, 31.3% had their menarche at age 11, 46, 87% were in Tanner stage IV of breast development and 56.25% in Tanner stage IV for pubic hair. Conclusion: There were no alterations in pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders studied.

  18. Parent-child gesture use during problem solving in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborative Tower of Hanoi task. Children with ASD had lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores and gestured less and at lower rates compared to typically developing children. Gesture use was unrelated to vocabulary for typically developing children, but positively associated with vocabulary for those with ASD. Demographic correlates of gesturing differed by group. Gesture may be a point of communication intervention for families with children with ASD. PMID:24535577

  19. The functional brain connectome of the child and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Brain connectomics is a relatively new field of research that maps the brain's large-scale structural and functional networks at rest. The connectome of the human brain develops progressively from early infancy to late adolescence, and this review describes the theory behind the concept and its applicability to studying the development and dynamics of brain networks through graph theoretical metrics. We also describe how the brain connectome concept could further our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) CONCLUSION: Further research into the functional child brain connectome concept could enhance our understanding of atypical brain connectivity patterns presumed to be linked to ASD. PMID:27228241

  20. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  1. Learning the Dance of Connection: Helping a Foster Mother and a Child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnegar, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol results in complex problems for the developing child, some of which are long lasting, and may be irreversible. The earlier the intervention, the higher the probability of a positive outcome. In this article, the author illustrates the complex challenges stemming from Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and how a…

  2. Multilingual Development in Children with Autism: Perspectives of South Asian Muslim Immigrant Parents on Raising a Child with a Communicative Disorder in Multilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of three Muslim families on multilingual development in their children with autism. Findings indicate that the families' goal of maintaining normalcy in their children's life could not be attained without immersion in multiple languages. They believe that immersion in multilingual contexts helped their children…

  3. Pervasive data mining engine

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Rui Daniel Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia e Gestão de Sistemas de Informação As ferramentas de Data Mining atuais necessitam de um conhecimento aprofundado na área para obter resultados otimizados. Esta dissertação apresenta como questão de investigação analisar “A viabilidade da construção de um sistema de Data Mining semiautónomo com características pervasive, sem perder a sua identidade e funcionalidades” e como objetivo desenvolver um protótipo de um sistema designado Pervasive D...

  4. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  5. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  6. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  7. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  8. The Risk of Schizophrenia and Child Psychiatric Disorders in Offspring of Mothers with Lung Cancer and Other Types of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael Eriksen; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2013-01-01

    Maternal immune responses and brain-reactive antibodies have been proposed as possible causal mechanisms for schizophrenia and some child psychiatric disorders. According to this hypothesis maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and interact with the developing CNS of the fetus causing future...... neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, we investigated if children of mothers with cancer might be at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders, with particular focus on small-cell lung cancer, which is known to induce production of antibodies binding to CNS elements....

  9. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background as...

  10. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) ... Sunsetted/For Reference Only The NICHD started the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), ...

  11. Development of the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Eric A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Hopkinson, Judy M.; Butte, Nancy F; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child feeding interactions during the first two years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasi...

  12. Pervasive e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This article falls within planning, production and delivery of innovative learning resources. The establishment of pervasive learning environments is based on the successful combination and re-configuration of inter-connected sets of learning objects, databases and data-streams. The text presents...

  13. Caregiver Perspectives about Assistive Technology Use with Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to examine how caregivers of infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder view their daily activities/routines and in what way, if any, assistive technology (AT) acts as a support. A total of 134 families who reported their child's disability as autism spectrum disorder/pervasive developmental disorder completed a survey…

  14. Randomized Social Policy Experiments and Research on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romich, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…

  15. Cognitive, affective and behavioural characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...

  16. Pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Roteta Dorado; Pilar Almaguer Sabina; Hussimy Marchena Morera; Maidelin Conde Cueto; Mónica González Brito

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology child...

  17. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  18. Mothers' experiences of their child's diagnosis with an autism spectrum disorder / Melinda Wiese

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurological condition that impairs social interaction, communication and behaviour. The current increase in the prevalence of ASD is alarming. A large population of parents is left searching for answers regarding their child’s developmental delays. Once their child has been diagnosed, they have to deal with the challenge of raising such a child. Parenting a child with ASD is particularly challenging for mothers as it has been reporte...

  19. The 2009 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Child Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index Project at Duke University issues an annual comprehensive measure of how children are faring in the United States. The Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is based on a composite of 28 "Key Indicators" of wellbeing that are grouped into seven "Quality-of-Life/Well-Being Domains,"…

  20. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  1. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  2. Social development and the girl child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general. PMID:12158018

  3. Cross-Informant Agreement on Child and Adolescent Withdrawn Behavior: A Latent Class Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist…

  4. Parent-Child Interaction of Mothers with Depression and Their Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Lin, Keh-chung; Robson, Deborah; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Niew, Wern-ing

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that may have a chronic and pervasive impact on the child's function and cause long-term stress to parents. A higher rate of depression is associated with mothers of children with ADHD. This observational study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal depression and the…

  5. Children with pervasive refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    LASK, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; M. Tranter

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  6. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. PMID:26234921

  7. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  8. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  9. The child opportunity index: improving collaboration between community development and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; McArdle, Nancy; Hardy, Erin F; Crisan, Unda Ioana; Romano, Bethany; Norris, David; Baek, Mikyung; Reece, Jason

    2014-11-01

    Improving neighborhood environments for children through community development and other interventions may help improve children's health and reduce inequities in health. A first step is to develop a population-level surveillance system of children's neighborhood environments. This article presents the newly developed Child Opportunity Index for the 100 largest US metropolitan areas. The index examines the extent of racial/ethnic inequity in the distribution of children across levels of neighborhood opportunity. We found that high concentrations of black and Hispanic children in the lowest-opportunity neighborhoods are pervasive across US metropolitan areas. We also found that 40 percent of black and 32 percent of Hispanic children live in very low-opportunity neighborhoods within their metropolitan area, compared to 9 percent of white children. This inequity is greater in some metropolitan areas, especially those with high levels of residential segregation. The Child Opportunity Index provides perspectives on child opportunity at the neighborhood and regional levels and can inform place-based community development interventions and non-place-based interventions that address inequities across a region. The index can also be used to meet new community data reporting requirements under the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25367989

  10. Estresse e relações familiares na perspectiva de irmãos de indivíduos com transtornos globais do desenvolvimento Stress and family relationships from the perspective of siblings of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fonseca Gomes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento (TGD caracterizam-se pelo comprometimento da interação social, pelo uso estereotipado e repetitivo da linguagem e pela presença de comportamentos repetitivos com interesses restritos. A maioria dos estudos nessa área focaliza o impacto dos TGD nos pais, ao passo que pouca atenção tem sido dada ao impacto nos irmãos. O presente estudo objetivou investigar a presença de indicadores de estresse e a qualidade das relações familiares em irmãos de indivíduos com e sem TGD. Participaram 62 crianças e adolescentes com idades entre 8 e 18 anos. Os resultados revelaram a ausência de indicadores de estresse nos grupos investigados. Os dados corroboram as premissas do metamodelo de Adaptação da Família à Doença Crônica, ao demonstrar que a presença de um membro com TGD na família não representa, obrigatoriamente, um evento adverso para os irmãos, desde que haja qualidade nas relações familiares e uma rede de apoio.The Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD can be described as a severe developmental disorder that presents deficits in reciprocal social interaction, communication and restricted and repetitive interests and behaviors. Most studies focus the impact of parenting an individual with PDD. However less research has investigated how autistic individuals affect their siblings. The goal of this study was to evaluate indicators of stress and the quality of family interactions in siblings of autistic individuals compared to siblings of normally developing individuals. Sixty-two siblings between the ages of 8 and 18 participated in this investigation. Results indicated that siblings of individuals with autism, as well as comparison siblings, do not report stress. The results of this investigation suggest that the presence of a family member with PDD does not necessarily represent an adverse event for the siblings. This could be due to the quality of family relations and availability of

  11. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  12. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  13. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a c...

  14. Child Poverty: Recent Developments and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrakos Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the dimensions of and recent developments in child poverty in EU countries as well as the determining factors in the case of Greece. Unlike what has been the case in most EU countries, the percentage of children (up to 15 years old) below the poverty line has increased over recent years in Greece, reaching 22% in 2006 (EU-15: 18%) based on the distribution of disposable income, although it is considerably smaller based on the distribution of consumption expenditure. The m...

  15. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, relationships, participation, and newly proposed environmental aspects. The corresponding subthemes and criteria are classified accordingly (e.g., nutrition, child mortality, immunization, etc., are assigned to the theme health. However, gaps in current studies, such as the heterogeneous classification of relevant aspects, regional and societal bias in addressing certain aspects, the limited number of subthemes, and criteria and the missing inclusion of environmental aspects impede the assessment of sustainable child development. To address the existing gaps, a comprehensive framework, the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI, is proposed. The SCDI is based on sustainable development as the core value, considers relevant aspects of CD with regard to newly-proposed environmental aspects and includes 26 aspects on an outcome and 37 indicators on a context level to tackle the heterogeneous classifications and interdependencies of relevant aspects. The proposed index intends to strengthen the stakeholder perspective of children in sustainability assessment.

  16. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  17. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  18. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  19. Risk of Schizophrenia Increases After All Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibing, Cecilie Frejstrup; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Benros, Michael Eriksen;

    2015-01-01

    -2000 and the cohort was followed until December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Results: A total of 25138 individuals with child and adolescent psychiatric disorders were identified, out of which 1232 individuals were subsequently diagnosed......Objective: Earlier smaller studies have shown associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia. Particularly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and autism have been linked with schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We......, therefore, conducted the first large-scale study on the association between a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all persons born during 1990...

  20. Child Support and Young Children's Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nonresident fathers’ provision of formal and informal cash child support on children's cognitive skills and behavior at 5 years of age. Taking advantage of the panel structure of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we control for child outcomes at age 3 and a rich set of child and family sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. We find that fathers’ provision of informal cash support (but not formal support), particularly at or above th...

  1. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Ju Chang; Laura Schneider; Matthias Finkbeiner

    2015-01-01

    Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD) in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, re...

  2. Speech and language development and disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Helen M; Hillenbrand, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    Language disorders are identified when a person has difficulty with expressive language, receptive language, or pragmatic language. Speech disorders are identified when a person's voice, fluency, or articulation call attention to the speaker because his or her speech is sufficiently different from the norm. Speech and language development should be consistent with a child's overall development and can be tracked using typical milestone markers. Differential diagnosis is critical to designing appropriate intervention, which should be tailored to the parents' goals along with the child's clinical and educational needs. Early identification and intervention assist in educational planning and are often associated with better long-term outcomes. Any speech-language therapy plan should be designed with measurable goals and consistent monitoring of progress toward those goals. PMID:18929058

  3. Family-Based Interventions for Child and Adolescent Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Broth, Michelle Robbins; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Collins, Marietta H.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral symptoms and disorders are prevalent in children and adolescents. There has been a burgeoning literature supporting evidence-based treatments for these disorders. Increasingly, family-based interventions have been gaining prominence and demonstrating effectiveness for myriad childhood and adolescent disorders. This article…

  4. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  5. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother–child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children’s descriptions of friendships (age 8–12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and with typical development (TYP) (n = 38). Overall, half of the HFASD sample (54.45%) reported maternal attachment security, corroborating data from yo...

  6. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2009-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother–child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children’s descriptions of friendships (age 8–12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and with typical development (TYP) (n = 38). Overall, half of the HFASD sample (54.45%) reported maternal attachment security, corroborating data from yo...

  7. Child development in a birth cohort: effect of child stimulation is stronger in less educated mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alícia; Santos, Iná S.; Ricardo HALPERN

    2009-01-01

    Background Child health has improved in many developing countries, bringing new challenges, including realization of the children's full physical and intellectual potential. This study explored child development within a birth cohort, its psychosocial determinants and interactions with maternal schooling and economic position.

  8. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Femal...

  9. A 3-year follow-up study of 2 - 6 years children with diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder%2~6岁儿童广泛性发育障碍的3年后随访

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘靖; 梁爱民; 贾美香; 杨晓玲; 邵翠霞; 李勇; 施继良; 曲成毅; 张致祥; 张秀玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the short terra prognosis and intervention of children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) . Methods: The 29 children who were diagnosed as PDD in 2004 were diagnosed a-gain after (38.07 ±0. 87) months according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and assessed with Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Gesell Developmental Schedule or Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Sensory Integrative Schedule, the self-made general condition questionnaire and questionnaire for psychiatric children. Results; Totally 26 children with PDD were followed up. Among them, 4(15.4%) cases got much improvement, 4(15.4%) got improve- mem, 15 (57. 7% ) got no improvement, 2 (7.1% ) got worse. Twenty-one (80. 8%) children had the same diagnosis with 2004, 1 child's diagnosis changed from autism to atypical autism, 2 children with autism and 2 children with atypical autism in 2004 did not meet with diagnosis of PDD at follow up. The rehabilitation intervention to these children was little. The education arrangement for these children was limited. The percentage of children co-morbid with mental retardation, sensory disintegration, hypcractivity, limb disability and epilepsy in children diagnosed as PDD at follow up were separately 90.9% , 76.2%, 52.4%, 18.2% and 18.2%. Conclusion; It suggests that most of children with PDD have poor short term prognosis, and only small part of children with PDD have relatively good prognosis.%目的:对2004年北京市2~6岁儿童广泛性发育障碍调查中诊断为广泛性发育障碍的儿童进行随访研究,了解广泛性发育障碍儿童的近期预后.方法:在3年后对2004年调查中确诊的广泛性发育障碍儿童进行随访,由儿童精神科医师根据美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版进行诊断,随访时用儿童孤独症评定量表、Gesell发展诊断量表或中国修订韦氏儿童

  10. The discovery of autism: Indian parents' experiences of caring for their child with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Miraj U; Divan, Gauri; Wertz, Frederick J; Patel, Vikram

    2012-07-01

    The current study investigated the lived experience of 12 parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in everyday cultural contexts in Goa, India. Narratives from parents collected between 2009 and 2010 were analyzed using the procedures of phenomenological psychology. Four temporal phases of parents' experience emerged from these data. Findings showed that the earliest phase of the child's life was a period of relative normalcy and social cohesion. In the second phase, the child's behaviors began to disrupt the everyday social order, but parents viewed these unexpected behaviors as temporary. In the third phase, parents' observations in public situations, along with assessments of others, led to a qualitative shift in which parents began to perceive that there was a persisting problem interfering with their child's social and practical activities. In the fourth phase, parents grappled with developing their child's capacities to meet existing practical opportunities in the local society, while attempting to reshape the social world to accommodate the abilities and limits of children like their own. Parents' fundamental concerns throughout their journey were: learning to meet new and unfamiliar challenges as parents, caring for their child's basic needs, and finding an engaging niche with a sense of belonging for their child in the everyday milieu. Both culture-specific and potentially universal levels of experience are delineated in the overall findings. Implications for culturally sensitive research and practice in India and other low- and middle-income countries are discussed. PMID:22722980

  11. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and vi...

  12. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-06-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 77) with a past year diagnosis of a depressive disorder and a child between the ages of ages 8-14 were administered a clinician interview and measures of maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) in a cross-sectional design. Results showed that more than half (58%) of the mothers had a comorbid anxiety disorder and a third had Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Regression analyses showed that comorbid PTSD and Social Phobia were positively associated with maternal depression severity. Maternal comorbid Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was associated with child internalizing symptoms. The findings are consistent with other research demonstrating negative outcomes with maternal comorbidity of depression and anxiety, however, there is limited research focused on maternal depression and OCD or PTSD. The study suggests that it is important to consider comorbid anxiety and cultural issues when conceptualizing, studying, and treating mothers with depression and their families. PMID:24040577

  13. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers’ emotion coaching and children’s emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children’s adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Dyads completed questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated with children’s emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, an...

  14. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Traut, A.; Kaminer, D; Boshoff, D; Seedat, S; S. Hawkridge; Stein, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with...

  15. Pediatric bipolar disorder with comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pervasive developmental disorder: A review%儿童少年双相障碍共患注意缺陷多动障碍和广泛性发育障碍的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何萤萤; 刘靖

    2012-01-01

    儿童少年双相障碍共患病多,共患率高,既增加双相障碍的诊断难度,也影响双相障碍的治疗疗效,并提示更差的预后.儿童少年双相障碍共患注意缺陷多动障碍、广泛性发育障碍是近年来国外研究的热点,故本文对儿童少年双相障碍共患注意缺陷多动障碍、广泛性发育障碍的研究进展进行综述,从而有助于儿童少年双相障碍及其共患病的诊断和治疗.%The comorbidity is common in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. The co-occurrence of comorbidities makes the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder more difficult and implies worse prognosis. Recently, more and more attention focus on pediatric bipolar disorder with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. This article reviewed the research progress in this area in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder with comorbidity.

  16. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Acaroglu; Ozcan Dagdemir

    2010-01-01

    This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via cross-country analysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply and gross domestic product per capita (PCGDP) can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicates that the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above $7500 since the net effect of glo...

  17. Pervasive media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes. PMID:8724228

  18. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  19. The negative effects of poverty & food insecurity on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Chyatte, Michelle; Breaux, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the first three years of life to the developing child, examines the importance of early childhood nutrition and the detrimental effects on child health and development due to poverty and food insecurity. As development experts learn more about the importance of the first three years of life, there is growing recognition that investments in early education, maternal-child attachment and nurturance, and more creative nutrition initiatives are critical to help break the cycle of poverty. Even the slightest forms of food insecurity can affect a young child's development and learning potential. The result is the perpetuation of another generation in poverty. Conceptualizing the poorly developed child as an embodiment of injustice helps ground the two essential frameworks needed to address food insecurity and child development: the capability approach and the human rights framework. The capability approach illuminates the dynamics that exist between poverty and child development through depicting poverty as capability deprivation and hunger as failure in the system of entitlements. The human rights framework frames undernutrition and poor development of young children as intolerable for moral and legal reasons, and provides a structure through which governments and other agencies of the State and others can be held accountable for redressing such injustices. Merging the development approach with human rights can improve and shape the planning, approach, monitoring and evaluation of child development while establishing international accountability in order to enhance the potential of the world's youngest children. PMID:18032801

  20. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  1. Divorce, Single Parenting, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Sharyn M.; Adams, Gerald R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated whether a preschool intervention program for children from single-parent households could be effective in establishing the conditions appropriate for allowing the child to recover from the harmful consequences of divorce and limited adult-child interaction. (Author/DB)

  2. Disorder in the Courtroom? Child Witnesses under Cross-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Rachel; O'Neill, Sarah; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    When a witness gives evidence in an adversarial criminal trial, there are two main questioning phases: direct examination and cross-examination. Special provisions are sometimes made for children to give direct evidence, but the majority of child witnesses are still cross-examined. While several decades of research have demonstrated how to elicit…

  3. Surveillance of child development: practices of nurses after training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of nurses regarding their practice in child care after training in child development surveillance, in the context of the Integrated Care for Childhood Prevalent Diseases. An exploratory study, using a qualitative approach, was developed between June and August 2009, by means of interviews with 11 nurses who participated in training workshops developed in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The thematic analysis helped identify three categories: weaknesses in child development surveillance before training; post-training qualified perspective: professional motivation and empowerment; and a new behavior in child development surveillance. The training was considered to be a powerful strategy for professional qualification and for changing the attitude of primary care nurses, motivating nurses to adopt a new behavior in child development surveillance.

  4. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

  5. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  6. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2000 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter provides announcements and notices of…

  7. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Tucker, Thelma, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2002 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  8. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Ehart, Bridget, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2003 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  9. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2001 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  10. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter. 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the three 1999 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  11. Development and validation of a newborn child dummy: Q0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, K. de; Waagmeester, C.D.; Ratingen, M.R. van

    2004-01-01

    The Q0 dummy is the newest addition to the multi-directional Q-series of child dnmmies developed in Europe. This dummy represents a 50 percentile six weeks old child. The biomechanical targets, design, materials and instrumentation are in line with the other Q-dummies. The Q0 dummy has been develope

  12. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN ATTENDING A CHILD-GUIDANCE CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S.; Chadda, R.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY This is a retrospective study of specific developmental disorders in children who attended a child guidance clinic of the department of Psychiatry, PGI over a span of 6 years. A total of twenty-eight such children were identified. Majority (22) had speech or language disorder and 10 had some associated psychiatric problem. There were no significant sex differences. Some clinical correlates are described.

  13. Disentangling the Relative Contribution of Parental Antisociality and Family Discord to Child Disruptive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Steve; McGue, Matt; IACONO, WILLIAM G.

    2012-01-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for a) co-parent parenting behaviors, and b) ...

  14. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  15. On the Effectiveness of Child Care Centers in Promoting Child Development in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Although the literature on the effectiveness of child care centers in developing countries is thin, most of the studies have concluded that the provision of these services are beneficial to enhance the development of poor children at early ages. Using different matching techniques, the results in this paper contrast with that conclusion as it finds no support of a positive effect of a large scale child care program in Ecuador on any of the dimensions considered of cognitive development. This ...

  16. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) h...

  17. Disorder of Sexual Development and Congenital Heart Defect in 47XYY: Clinical Disorder or Coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Latrech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 47XYY syndrome is a rare sex chromosome variation characterized by an additional Y chromosome. Most patients with 47XYY karyotype have normal phenotype. This disorder seems associated with a higher risk of developing behavioral and cognitive problems, tall stature, and infertility in adulthood. Sexual development disorder is a rare finding. We report a first case with an abnormal left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery in a 47XYY patient. Case. A one-month-old child was referred for ectopic testis and micropenis. Physical examination revealed facial dysmorphia, micropenis, and curvature of the penis with nonpalpable testis. Laboratory tests showed decreased total testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels. Blood karyotyping revealed a 47XYY chromosomal formula. At the age of 3 months, the patient developed dyspnea and tachycardia. Echocardiography revealed an anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with left ventricular dysfunction requiring surgical revascularization by direct reimplantation of the left coronary artery system. Our second case was a 3-year-old child referred for hypospadias with nonpalpable left testicle. Physical examination showed hypertelorism. Blood karyotyping revealed a 47XYY chromosomal formula. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of 47XYY syndrome associated with this congenital heart malformation and a sexual development disorder.

  18. Sensory integration disorderchild functioning at school and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Smovnik, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Sensory integration is a process of organising sensory information, planning and producing adaptive responses. This is one of the most important processes for academic and everyday work. Sensory integration has its roots in the nervous system. If a part of it isn't working appropriately, it causes sensory processing disorder (SPD). Between 5 and 15 % of children diagnosed with SPD (e.g. Miller, 2007), and symptoms of SPD often overlap with other disorders (e.g. ADHD, autism), therefore it is ...

  19. This pervasive day the potential and perils of pervasive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pitt, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Imagine a world where your clothes sense your blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature. Suppose the sensors transmit this information to 'the cloud', continuously and unobtrusively. Suppose artificial intelligence in 'the cloud' detects an anomaly. Suppose it tells your doctor: sighs of relief all round. But then suppose it tells an actuary, who tells your insurer, who tells your employer … This is the world of pervasive adaptation. This Pervasive Day explores the potential - and perils - of daily living with pervasive adaptive computing. This is the result of saturating ourselves and o

  20. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... understand my feelings and others’ feelings too. Read books that talk about feelings. Stay calm during tantrums. ...

  1. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  2. Functional analysis and treatment of elopement for a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodak, Tiffany; Grow, Laura; Northup, John

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of elopement in an outdoor setting for a child with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A subsequent treatment consisting of noncontingent attention and time-out was demonstrated to be effective in eliminating elopement. Modifications of functional analysis procedures associated with the occurrence of elopement in a natural setting are demonstrated.

  3. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  4. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  5. Parenting Stress in Mothers and Fathers of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi Ornstein; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated parenting stress is observed among mothers of older children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about parents of young newly-diagnosed children. Associations between child behavior and parenting stress were examined in mothers and fathers of 54 toddlers with ASD (mean age = 26.9 months). Parents reported elevated…

  6. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  7. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    A. Traut

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD.

  8. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Traut

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD.

  9. Examining the Link between Child Maltreatment and Delinquency for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Kimber W.; Meisel, Sheri M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined service delivery and risk factors for 93 youth with emotional and behavioral disorders who were served by one jurisdiction's child welfare, juvenile justice, and special education agencies. The researchers collected data through an archival review of agency records. The article discusses findings as they relate to the link…

  10. Context-Situated Communicative Competence in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Katja J. S.; Laitila, Aarno; Kärnä, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often linked with difficulties in triadic interaction or joint attention. This paper investigated the communicative competencies that children with ASD might have in these skills. We report findings from a pilot case study that focused on a school-aged child with ASD who interacted with his adult co-participants…

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  12. Anvendelser af Pervasive Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    I øjeblikket er den måde, vi kommunikerer på, ved at ændre sig drastisk. Fra at vi for få år siden var nødt til at nøjes med Internetkommunikation mellem stationære computere, forbindes en masse nye typer af enheder i dag på nye måder. Da vi nu ikke længere er bundet til en computer, der ikke kan...... flytte sig, bliver en masse nye ting mulige, fordi vi er forbundet med omverdenen i enhver kontekst. Da vi traditionelt ikke tænker i at være forbundet altid overalt er det ikke let at se, hvordan dette nye paradigme påvirker os i vores hverdag og hvordan vi kan udnytte det til nye forretnings- og...... forskningsmuligheder. For at gøre det hele lidt mere konkret, præsenteres i dette dokument en række eksempler på brug af Pervasive Communication. Udvalget af eksempler skal ikke ses som værende udtømmende, men snarere som håndplukkede eksempler der hver repræsenterer en genre. I dokumentet er både valgt...

  13. Child Rights in Perspective of Their Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Bijendr Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    The future of the Nation, our children turn to be the most vulnerable section of human society. The vulnerability of children could be seen from the prospective of their persistent physical strength, mental maturity and socio-cultural understanding. Considering these, degrading strength and the emerging up bringing needs of the child; The Constitution of India, Directive Principle of state policies, International Commitment such as The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Child (UNCRC),...

  14. Challenges in participation: Users and their roles in the development of home-based Pervasive Healthcare applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten

    2010-01-01

    . Based upon ongoing design-work, related to home-based rehabilitation of elderly suffering from vestibular dysfunction (dizziness), this paper presents lessons learned and initial outcomes related to patient/citizen-focused development of healthcare solutions for private homes. We present initial ideas...

  15. The relationship between alliance and client involvement in CBT for child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D; Islam, Nadia Y; Chiu, Angela W; Smith, Meghan M; Chu, Brian C; Wood, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of the relationship between the alliance and client involvement in child psychotherapy. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between these therapy processes over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety disorders. The sample was 31 child participants (M age = 9.58 years, SD = 2.17, range = 6-13 years, 67.7% boys; 67.7% Caucasian, 6.5% Latino, 3.2% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 22.6% mixed/other) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder. The participants received a manual-based individual CBT program for child anxiety or a manual-based family CBT program for child anxiety. Ratings of alliance and client involvement were collected on early (Session 2) and late (Session 8) treatment phases. Two independent coding teams rated alliance and client involvement. Change in alliance positively predicted late client involvement after controlling for initial levels of client involvement. In addition, change in client involvement positively predicted late alliance after controlling for initial levels of the alliance. The findings were robust after controlling for potentially confounding variables. In CBT for child anxiety disorders, change in the alliance appears to predict client involvement; however, client involvement also appears to predict the quality of the alliance. Our findings suggest that the nature of the relationship between alliance and client involvement may be more complex than previously hypothesized. In clinical practice, tracking alliance and level of client involvement could help optimize the impact and delivery of CBT for child anxiety. PMID:24245994

  16. Child maltreatment moderates the association of MAOA with symptoms of depression and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Gunter, Tracy D; Packer, Hans; Wernett, Pamela; Philibert, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    There is a growing body of data indicating that Gene x Child Maltreatment interactions at monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) play a role in vulnerability to symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) but not major depression (MD). Using a sample of 538 participants from the Iowa Adoption Studies, we introduce a conceptual model that highlights two distinct pathways from child maltreatment to symptoms of MD, suggesting that maltreatment has different effects depending on genotype and highlighting the importance of including the indirect pathway through ASPD. As predicted by the model, high activity alleles predispose to symptoms of MD in the context of child maltreatment whereas low activity alleles predispose to symptoms of ASPD. We conclude that the Gene x Environment interplay at this locus (MAOA) contributes to both symptoms of ASPD and MD and that careful specification of child maltreatment may be essential if genetic association research is to produce replicable results. PMID:20175604

  17. Genetic influences on the development of childhood psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thapar, Anita; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    This review covers the key types of genetic research design, the methodology involved and emerging, and established findings in relation to child and adolescent psychiatry. Traditional family, twin, and adoption studies show that child and adolescent psychiatric disorders are familial and genetically influenced. Genes and environment contribute to all disorders. Genetic factors seem especially important for autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Twin and adoption study designs a...

  18. Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J

    1993-01-01

    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school. PMID:12317893

  19. Internet Use and Child Development: The Techno-Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…

  20. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…

  1. [Guiltless guilty--trauma-related guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder in former Ugandan child soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Schrage, Jana; Post, Manuela; Adam, Hubertus

    2011-01-01

    Despite international bans, more than 250,000 children and adolescents are exploited as soldiers worldwide, almost half of them in Africa. These children are exposed to a tremendous amount of violence and are often forced to commit atrocities themselves. In the present study, 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17, female: 48.5%) were interviewed regarding traumatic experiences, trauma-related guild, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Affective and cognitive aspects of guilt were assessed with the Trauma-related Guilt Inventory (TRGI) and PTSD with a diagnostic interview (MINI-KID). Children had been abducted at a mean age of 10.75 years and served for an average period of 19.81 months. They were exposed to numerous traumatic experiences during abduction, e. g., 86.4% were exposed to killings, 87.9% were threatened with death, 52.6% were forced to kill another person, and 25.8% were raped. Diagnostic criteria for PTSD were fulfilled by 33% of the children. Higher guilt cognitions were significantly related to posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children. PMID:21425638

  2. Anaesthetic management of a child with congenital afibrinogenemia - A rare inherited coagulation disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sham Sunder Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital afibrinogenemia is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder, results from mutation that affects plasma fibrinogen concentration. It is frequently associated with bleeding diathesis of varying severity. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child diagnosed of congenital afibrinogenemia who presented to hospital with subperiosteal haematoma and was posted for incision and drainage. Replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment of bleeding episodes in this patient and plasma-derived fibrinogen concentrate is the agent of choice. Cryoprecipitate and fresh frozen plasma are alternative treatments. Appropriate amount of cryoprecipitate were transfused pre-operatively to the child. Individuals with congenital afibrinogenemia should be managed by a comprehensive bleeding disorder care team experienced in diagnosing and managing inherited bleeding disorders. Anaesthesiologist, surgeons and haematologist should work like a unit to manage the surgical emergencies.

  3. Curriculum development: Preparing trainees to care for children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kimberly P; Haggerty, Treah S; Harrison, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Family physicians provide care for about one-third of the children and adolescents in the United States, many of whom present with psychological concerns. Family physicians often do not recognize these psychological disorders and therefore do not diagnose or treat them. This report describes the implementation of a curriculum designed to increase family medicine trainees' level of awareness that children/adolescents experience psychiatric conditions. This goal is achieved through the addition of a clinical child/adolescent psychologist faculty member, resident self-assessment of training needs and subsequent development of didactic presentations to address these needs. The curriculum relies on the acquisition of child/adolescent psychiatric screeners, development of child/adolescent-focused bibliotherapy materials, and the development of a longitudinal behavioral sciences curriculum. To facilitate the screening of child/adolescent psychiatric disorders, a comprehensive collection of age-appropriate psychiatric screeners were compiled and made readily available in all precepting areas. To assist with the identification of specific child/adolescent psychiatric deficit areas, family medicine resident physicians were presented with an inventory of child/adolescent psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral topics, based upon American Academy of Family Practice guidelines and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition psychiatric disorders, and self-selected training deficiencies. PMID:26113643

  4. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitlich-Bilyk, Back; Goodman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and the pattern of comorbidity in a population-based sample of 7- to 14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Method: Random sampling of schools (stratified into private, public rural, and public urban) was followed by random sampling of pupils from school lists. In 2000-2001, a total of 1,251…

  5. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  6. Achievements in preventing morbidity and mortality by researchers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsett, Mortimer B.

    1983-01-01

    In the 20 years since its creation, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has become a world leader in promoting research on fertility, high-risk pregnancy, care of newborns, nutrition, learning disorders, mental retardation, development of better contraceptives, and factors that influence family planning. NICHD also supports basic research that sheds light on normal processes in human development.

  7. Improving Child Nutrition Outcomes in India : Can the Integrated Child Development Services Program Be More Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...

  8. Improving child nutrition outcomes in India : can the integrated child development services be more effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...

  9. Increasing father involvement in child care: What do we know about effects on child development?

    OpenAIRE

    Pia S. Schober

    2015-01-01

    The time fathers spend and the activities they perform with children have risen continuously in most Western countries. Increasing father involvement in child care has also been an explicit policy objective with many European countries implementing individual parental leave entitlements for fathers. Whereas these policies mainly aimed at facilitating reconciliation of market work and family care and promoting maternal employment, consequences for child development have received less attention...

  10. Current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychiatric disorders: Fertility rates, parent-child relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362490

  11. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually

  12. Intellectual Disability and Multiple Co Morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Child: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Priyanka; Bhatia, M.S.; Rathi, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diag...

  13. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI, self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.

  14. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Acaroglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via crosscountryanalysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment(FDI and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply andgross domestic product per capita (PCGDP can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicatesthat the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above 7 500USD since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution effect is biggerthan the negative income effect. Data have been collected from UNICEF and World Bank.

  15. Uma Abordagem Para o Desenvolvimento de Aplicações no Cuidado de Saúde Pervasivo Através do Uso de Arquétipos (An Approach to Developing Applications in the Pervasive Healthcare Environment through the use of Archetypes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Moraes, João Luís; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai; Prado, do Antonio Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to develop applications in the Pervasive Healthcare environment, through the use of Archetypes. Materials and methods: Pervasive Healthcare focuses on the use of new technologies, tools, and services, to help patients to play a more active role in the treatment of the

  16. Developmental Horizons: Legacies and Prospects in Child and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.

  17. Exploring the Perception of Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Donna M.; Tyson, Graham A.; Gullifer, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    With current preparation for the release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-5) in 2013, many changes have been proposed for the diagnostic criteria, including changes to the pervasive development disorder category--of which Asperger's disorder is a part. Using focus group discussions this study…

  18. See Me, See My Child: Glimpses into Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is on the rise, with one in 68 children diagnosed with ASD. Families of children with ASD speak of being othered-feeling like outsiders in social situations. Because of ASD prevalence, all nurses need to understand current research, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and how to offer effective support. Nurses within the faith community, especially parish/faith community nurses, can play a significant role in creating a welcoming and supportive environment for children with ASD and their families. PMID:26548173

  19. Transfers to Households with Children and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we utilize a model of household investments in the cognitive development of children to explore the impact of various transfer policies on the distribution of child cognitive outcomes in target populations. We develop a cost criterion that can be used to compare the cost effectiveness of unrestricted, restricted, and conditional cash transfer systems, and ï¬nd that conditional cash transfers are the most cost efficient way to attain any given gain in average child quality in a t...

  20. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…

  1. Pervasive service computing: community coordinated multimedia, context awareness, and service composition

    OpenAIRE

    J. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This thesis introduces a novel Web service-centric solution to pervasive computing, called Service-oriented Pervasive Computing (also called Pervasive Service Computing), which enables computer systems to deal with context in the user’s environment, to dynamically discover and compose existing services, and to develop Internet-scale multimedia applications that support users’ activities. First, this thesis introduces the concept of Pervasive Service Computing and its relation...

  2. Parent-child interactions: contributions to the development of social competence in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...

  3. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made. PMID:15918540

  4. Maternal sick leave due to psychiatric disorders following the birth of a child with special health care needs

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kornstad, Tom; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Landolt, Markus A.; Eskedal, Leif Torvald; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Child-related stress following the birth of a child with special health care needs (SHCN) can take a toll on parental health. This study examined how the risk of sick leave due to psychiatric disorders (PD) among mothers of children with SHCN compares with that of mothers of children without SHCN during early motherhood.  Methods Responses from 58,532 mothers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were linked to national registries and monitored f...

  5. Provisional Tic Disorder: What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kevin J; Black, Elizabeth Rose; Greene, Deanna J; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    The child with recent onset of tics is a common patient in a pediatrics or child neurology practice. If the child's first tic was less than a year in the past, the diagnosis is usually Provisional Tic Disorder (PTD). Published reviews by experts reveal substantial consensus on prognosis in this situation: the tics will almost always disappear in a few months, having remained mild while they lasted. Surprisingly, however, the sparse existing data may not support these opinions. PTD may have just as much importance for science as for clinical care. It provides an opportunity to prospectively observe the spontaneous remission of tics. Such prospective studies may aid identification of genes or biomarkers specifically associated with remission rather than onset of tics. A better understanding of tic remission may also suggest novel treatment strategies for Tourette syndrome, or may lead to secondary prevention of tic disorders. This review summarizes the limited existing data on the epidemiology, phenomenology, and outcome of PTD, highlights areas in which prospective study is sorely needed, and proposes that tic disorders may completely remit much less often than is generally believed. PMID:27158458

  6. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  7. Profile of the Linguistic and Metalinguistic Abilities of a Gifted Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the case of a gifted child (9;6 year) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a particularly high verbal IQ (146) and a specific cognitive, linguistic, and metalinguistic profile. A description of some salient behavioral characteristics of the child is provided. A metalinguistic ability test assessing metagrammatical,…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  9. CHILD LABOUR IN PAKISTAN AND OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Himayatullah Khan

    2007-01-01

    Child labor has been acknowledged as a serious and challenging issue in the civilized societies around the globe. Its continued existence remains a source of concern for all segments of human society. In spite of the threats of trade barriers, in spite of the call of moral understanding of the issue and active participation of government employers, workers and NGO’s, the prevalence of child labor in the developing nations is one proof that practical dependence on working children still has an...

  10. International Labor Mobility and Child Work in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli, Anna; Mendola, Mariapia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the labor market effect of international migration on child work in countries of origin. We use an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international migration with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-14 in a wide range of developing countries. By exploiting both within- and cross-country variation and controlling for country fixed effects, we find a strong empirical regularity about the role of international mobility ...

  11. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Hartmut; Brandeis Daniel; Banaschewski Tobias; Albrecht Björn; Rothenberger Aribert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a gr...

  12. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, B.; Banaschewski, T; Brandeis, D.; Heinrich, H.; Rothenberger, A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of n...

  13. Child Abuse in Group of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hadianfard, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very difficult to handle. It can be very frustrating and needs an outstanding tolerance. Behavioral difficulties in ADHD children may increase the risk of child abuse for them. The aim of this research was to compare child abuse, and neglect between ADHD group and normal children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 ADHD students (10 girls and 20 boys) were selected from regional mental behavior disord...

  14. Predictors, Moderators, and Treatment Parameters of Community and Clinic-Based Treatment for Child Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Kolko, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines predictors, moderators, and treatment parameters associated with two key child outcomes in a recent clinical trial comparing the effects of a modular treatment that was applied by study clinicians in the community (COMM) or a clinic (CLINIC) for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Based on a literature review, moderator and predictor variables across child, parent, and family domains were examined in relation to changes in parental r...

  15. The occurrence and nature of early signs of schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2008-10-01

    .4 and corresponding median age was 18. Behavioural changes and positive symptoms were the most frequent signs associated with a diagnosis of "F20–F29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" made during child and adolescent psychiatric care. In cases where a specific psychopathology developed later on the initial admission to child and adolescent psychiatry involved unspecified psychopathology. Conclusion In summary, it appears that psychotic disorders are relatively uncommon among patients admitted to child and adolescent psychiatric care in Sweden. However, individuals experiencing early onset of disorders categorized as "F20–29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" may already exhibit typical symptoms upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care of the age of 13–17; whereas late-onset disorders it appear not be associated with any obvious signs or symptoms years before the disorder has developed fully. Finally, certain cases of psychotic disorder during adolescence seem to have been episodic.

  16. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869

  17. Ethical perspectives on the management of disorders of sex development in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lathrop, Breanna

    2015-01-01

    Breanna Lathrop,1,2 Teresa B Cheney3 1Good Samaritan Health Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2South University, Savannah, GA, USA; 3AppleCare Immediate Care, LLC, Statesboro, GA, USA Abstract: The management of a child with disorders of sex development is complex from both a medical and sociocultural perspective. Decisions impacting the future sexual function and sex identity of the child are made on behalf of the child by their parents and health care providers. Such decisions are rarely straightf...

  18. Gestural Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…

  19. Successful child psychotherapy of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: an agitated depression explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitler, Burton Norman

    2008-09-01

    Science tries to explain phenomena in ways that are demonstrable and replicable to develop logical, coherent, parsimonious, and predictive theoretical systems. Yet hyperactive children are given stimulants to "calm" them down, despite the fact that science would predict stimulants would increase hyperactivity. Bradley (1937, 1950) observed that half of the behavior-problem children to whom he administered a stimulant for one week became subdued. He called this finding paradoxical, speculating that inhibitory centers of the central nervous system were stimulated. While Bradley's assertion of a paradoxical reverse effect in children may be an empirical observation, it is not an explanation. The Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is inferred to exist from hyperactive behavior, which in turn, is inferred to be neurological in origin, a circular argument. An inevitable consequence of the belief in the hypothetical neurological etiology of ADHD is that children are typically given stimulants. Using the case of a seven-year old child, described as experiencing ADHD, who was treated successfully without medication as an illustration, the author provides an alternative, more parsimonious explanation of the etiology, suggesting that ADHD is related to agitated depression. PMID:18756317

  20. Autism and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) a...

  1. Child care in Vrsac and its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljapić Živa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716 are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851 during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971. .

  2. 33 CFR 55.11 - How are child development center fees established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are child development center... HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.11 How are child development center fees established? (a) Fees for the provision of services at child development centers shall be set...

  3. 广泛性发育障碍筛查问卷中文版的信度、效度分析%Reliability and validity of Chinese version of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽娜; 李响; 王佳; 郭岚敏; 孙彩虹; 夏薇; 武丽杰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]修订广泛性发育障碍筛查问卷(Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire,PDDSQ),并进行信度、效度及敏感度、特异度分析,为我国大样本人群开展孤独症早期筛查提供简便、有效的工具. [方法]选择孤独症、脑瘫和精神发育迟滞、正常对照儿童12~47月共639名、4~18岁727名作为研究对象,检验PDDSQ中文版的信度和效度. [结果]采用探索性因素分析,两个年龄段问卷各提取2个因子,用AMOS 17.0进行结构方程模型的验证性因素分析,结果显示具有较好的效度.2个年龄段的筛查问卷内部一致性信度Cronbach α系数分别为0.903和0.925,分半信度分别为0.818和0.861,一个月后重测信度分别为0.707和0.641. [结论]修订后的PDDSQ中文版具有较好的信度和效度,适用于中国开展孤独症人群筛查.%[Objective] To revise the questionnaire of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire, ( PDDSQ) ( Chinese version),analyze the reliability,validity,sensitivity and specificity of PDDSQ,and supply the simple,convenient and effective tool for the autism screening of large sample size in our country. [Method] A total of 639 aged 12~ 47 months and 727 aged 4-18 years children's (consist of autism, mental retardation/cerebral palsy and normal control) parents were tested to analyse the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. [Results] Using exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the Chinese version of the PDDSQ,two factors were selected in each age category,and AMOS 17. 0 was used in the confirmatory factor analysis of structure equation models. The results showed a good validity. The alpha reliability coefficients for the total scale of the two ages were 0. 903 and 0. 925,the split-half reliability coefficients were 0. 818 and 0. 861, and the 1-month re-test reliability were 0. 707 and 0. 641. [Conclusion] The Chinese version of the PDDSQ shows good validity and reliability for autism

  4. Risk and Consequences of Child Abuse in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    s. Gulin Evinc; Dilsad Foto-Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Awareness about child physical and emotional abuse and ndash;as well as sexual abuse- is increasing day by day. It is stated that the physical or emotional harm given to a child can result in serious psychological problems both in short and long terms. In addition to this, it is known that, the traditional discipline styles, especially applied in developing countries, can be physically and emotionally harmful and sometimes abusive. The stress level of the parent determines the parent's choic...

  5. Parenting in Relation to Child and Adolescent Vocational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brenda K.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Reynolds, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Processes of child and adolescent vocational development include acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, and values about work options and requirements, exploration of interests that will be relevant for occupational interest development, development of academic aspirations, self-efficacy, expectations, and attainment. These elements serve to provide…

  6. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... investigates development throughout the entire life process, including fetal development and early childhood. This infog​​​raphic describes what ... in obstetrics, maternal and pediatric infectious diseases, child development, rehabilitation and vaccine research, will deliver lectures and ... Obstetricia​n/ Gynecologist, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist, Researcher, Mom​ Enhancing our flexibility to ...

  7. The effects of child maltreatment on the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Lasting effects of child abuse and neglect are well recognised. Apart from physical effects resulting from injuries and neglect, the effects are on behaviour, emotional well-being, interpersonal relationships and cognitive functioning. These psychological aspects are now known to have their counterparts in brain structure, chemistry and function. The growing knowledge of brain development has shed new light on our understanding of the processes by which especially early abuse and neglect may have a profound effect on the child's later adjustment. The brain undergoes its greatest growth and development in the first years of life, (with a second phase in adolescence). While the sequence of development within the brain is genetically determined, the nature of this development is determined to a considerable extent on the young child's experiences. The absence of some experiences, such as extreme deprivation during sensitive periods of development may mean that certain functions will not develop. For most functions, the nature of experience will shape brain development. Negative experiences and certain ways of interaction will be incorporated into the brain's connectivity. While learning and new experiences continue throughout life, and their effects continue to be incorporated into brain structure and functioning, previous patterns cannot be erased, only added on to and more slowly. As we know from our adult experiences, learning is far faster in childhood. A further aspect of child maltreatment which has a profound effect on brain development is the significant neurobiological stress which the young, maltreated, child experiences. It is interesting to learn that secure attachment organisation protects the developing brain from the worst effects of the stress response. The effects of the experiences interact with the child's genetic resilience or vulnerability. PMID:25228749

  8. Parent-Child Communication and Its Perceived Effects on the Young Child's Developing Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle

    In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…

  9. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Kelly; Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder. PMID:27051550

  10. For-Profit/Nonprofit Differences in Center-Based Child Care Quality: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…

  11. Appliance design for pervasive computing

    OpenAIRE

    Roussos, George

    2003-01-01

    The First International Conference on Appliance Design offered the opportunity for computer scientists, electronic engineers, designers, architects, and business strategists to discuss and to blend all the perspectives of design—physical, functional, interaction, graphical, and information—of pervasive computing systems and infrastructures.

  12. [A "condemned" child. Case of borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, A

    1983-12-15

    The import of this observation resides in the significance of the patient's destiny and in the poor organization of his personality, indicating that defense mechanisms may have been prevented from building up as a result of the bearing of real and phantasmic events on his mental working. We speculate that a mechanism as essential as interiorization could not develop, as a direct result of the continuous confrontation of conflicts with a disrupted reality and the recollection of this last. The limits constituted by death and incest could not be normally interiorized and integrated within the psychic organization of this young boy, "doomed" at the age of four, and perhaps even earlier. PMID:6320412

  13. Parent and Family Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review and Proposed Model for Intervention Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Jeffrey S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2012-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an overwhelming experience for parents and families. The pervasive and severe deficits often present in children with ASD are associated with a plethora of difficulties in caregivers, including decreased parenting efficacy, increased parenting stress, and an increase in mental and…

  14. Promoting Attachment and Emotional Regulation of Children with Complex Trauma Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aideuis, Dianna

    2007-01-01

    Complex trauma is the result of repeated or chronic traumatic experiences in childhood. The traumatic experiences have a pervasive impact on the child's physical, sensory, emotional, cognitive and social growth. This paper discusses how the proposed diagnostic category, Complex Trauma Disorder, identifies clusters of symptoms and behaviors that…

  15. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  16. Communicative Development in Bilingually Exposed Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetzke, Rachel; Zou, Xiaobing; Sheng, Li; Katsos, Napoleon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the association of bilingual exposure with structural and pragmatic language development in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: The parents of 54 children with ASD exposed to 1 (n = 31) or 2 (n = 23) Chinese languages completed (a) a questionnaire to evaluate their child's competence in structural…

  17. The Role of Family Experiences and ADHD in the Early Development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Herbert, Sharonne D.; Fanton, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of family experiences in the early development and maintenance of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in preschool-age children with behavior problems. Method: Participants were 199 3-year-old children with behavior problems who took part in 4 annual child and family assessments. Results:…

  18. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  19. Representations of the caregiver–child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation in the narratives of young children whose mothers have borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4–7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver–child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons ...

  20. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  1. Classroom Research and Child and Adolescent Development in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…

  2. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  3. Pervasive games in modern mobile technology: A user study

    OpenAIRE

    Akselsen, Are Sæterbø; Kristiansen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. This master thesis presents the results from investigating usage patterns on portable devices and finding gamers attitudes towards different pervasive game elements.The main motivation of this project is to help developers create a better game experience with the use of pervasive elements and mobile technology, finding some pointers as to what players are likely to enjoy (or not). At the same time, the usage patterns will help us understand how players currently use games, which is ...

  4. Authentic Refinement of Semantically Enhanced Policies in Pervasive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Julian; Kuntze, Nicolai; Fuchs, Andreas; Badii, Atta

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive systems are characterised by networked heterogeneous devices. To fulfill the security requirements of an application, these devices have to abide by certain policies. However, as the contingent interaction between devices in all possible contexts within evolving pervasive systems devices cannot be known at development time, policies cannot be dedicated to concrete security mechanisms which might later not be supported by the devices present in the network. Therefore, policies need t...

  5. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  6. Challenges, coping strategies, and unmet needs of families with a child with autism spectrum disorder in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Gauri; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Desai, Miraj U; Strik-Lievers, Luisa; Patel, Vikram

    2012-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are increasingly recognized in developing countries like India. However, little is known about the experiences of parents raising a child with ASD. This study aimed to describe the experiences of families in Goa, India with a view to understanding the unmet needs of families raising a child with ASD. Twenty in-depth interviews and nine focus group discussions were carried out with families of children with ASD and key community stakeholders such as special educators, teachers, and parents of typically developing children. This qualitative data was triangulated to explore the experiences, life impact, and unmet needs of raising a child with ASD. Key findings suggest that raising a child with ASD puts a tremendous strain on families due to competing commitments, often leading to initial social withdrawal with later reintegration into social networks. Second, the impact is multidimensional, involving the personal sphere but also extending into the wider community with negative experiences of discrimination. Third, parents actively respond to these challenges through a range of approaches with help from existing and new social support networks and health care providers. Fourth, professionals from the health, education, and religious sectors have a low awareness of the unique needs of families living with ASD which leads to a considerable economic and emotional burden on families. Finally, as a consequence of these experiences, several unmet needs can be identified, notably for supporting increasingly isolated families and the limited access to multidisciplinary evidence-based services for ASD. Autism Res 2012, 5: 190-200. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22473816

  7. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  8. Provisional Tic Disorder: What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kevin J; Black, Elizabeth Rose; Greene, Deanna J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    The child with recent onset of tics is a common patient in a pediatrics or child neurology practice. If the child’s first tic was less than a year in the past, the diagnosis is usually Provisional Tic Disorder (PTD). Published reviews by experts reveal substantial consensus on prognosis in this situation: the tics will almost always disappear in a few months, having remained mild while they lasted. Surprisingly, however, the sparse existing data may not support these opinions. PTD may have just as much importance for science as for clinical care. It provides an opportunity to prospectively observe the spontaneous remission of tics. Such prospective studies may aid identification of genes or biomarkers specifically associated with remission rather than onset of tics. A better understanding of tic remission may also suggest novel treatment strategies for Tourette syndrome, or may lead to secondary prevention of tic disorders. This review summarizes the limited existing data on the epidemiology, phenomenology, and outcome of PTD, highlights areas in which prospective study is sorely needed, and proposes that tic disorders may completely remit much less often than is generally believed.

  9. Using Context Awareness for Self Management in Pervasive Service Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2011-01-01

    Context-awareness is an important feature in Ambient Intelligence environments including in pervasive middleware. In addition, there is a growing trend and demand on self-management capabilities for a pervasive middleware in order to provide high-level dependability for services. In this chapter......, we propose to make use of context-awareness features to facilitate self-management. To achieve self-management, dynamic contexts for example device and service statuses, are critical to take self-management actions. Therefore, we consider dynamic contexts in context modeling, specifically as a set of...... OWL/SWRL ontologies, called the Self-Management for Pervasive Services (SeMaPS) ontologies. Self-management rules can be developed based on the SeMaPS ontologies to achieve self-management goals. Our approach is demonstrated within the LinkSmart pervasive middleware. Finally, our experiments with...

  10. The Intergeneratonal Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relation between mothers and fathers schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins and their children to estimate the causal effect of parental schooling...... find that endowments counts for a substantial part of the correlation between parents' schooling on the devel-opment of the child. Father's schooling increases children's length of schooling, but decreases 9th grade academic achievement. Mother's schooling increases short run outcomes and the...... on both short-run and long-run outcomes. By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account and as an important reference point to the general population we do a parallel study on a sample of same sex DZ twins. We...

  11. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development ...

  12. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Child speech and language: preschool language disorders. Available at http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/childsandl.htm. Accessed June 24, 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development ...

  13. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  14. Maternal eating disorder and infant diet. A latent class analysis based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Leila; Ystrom, Eivind; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of infant diet and feeding practices among children of mothers with eating disorders is essential to promote healthy eating in these children. This study compared the dietary patterns of 6-month-old children of mothers with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype, to the diet of children of mothers with no eating disorders (reference group). The study was based on 53,879 mothers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify discrete latent classes of infant diet based on the mothers' responses to questions about 16 food items. LCA identified five classes, characterized by primarily homemade vegetarian food (4% of infants), homemade traditional food (8%), commercial cereals (35%), commercial jarred baby food (39%), and a mix of all food groups (11%). The association between latent dietary classes and maternal eating disorders were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Infants of mothers with bulimia nervosa had a lower probability of being in the homemade traditional food class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class, than the referent (O.R. 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.99). Infants of mothers with binge eating disorder had a lower probability of being in the homemade vegetarian class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class (O.R. 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.99), but only before adjusting for relevant confounders. Anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype were not statistically significantly associated with any of the dietary classes. These results suggest that maternal eating disorders may to some extent influence the child's diet at 6 months; however, the extent to which these differences influence child health and development remains an area for further inquiry. PMID:25453594

  15. A Multitrait–Multimethod Analysis of the Construct Validity of Child Anxiety Disorders in a Clinical Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.; Langer, David Adam

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic. Parent and child ratings of symptom severity were assessed using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Diagnostician ratings were obtai...

  16. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  17. Positive Development in a Disorderly World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents need to develop competencies to navigate an adult world that is complex and disorderly: a world of heterogeneous macro- to microecological systems containing contradictions and catch-22s. This exploratory essay examines adolescents' conscious processes of developing pertinent competencies for pursuing goals (agency) in these kinds of…

  18. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  19. Atualização sobre comorbidade entre transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento (TID Update on the comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Segenreich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente, a comorbidade transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento (TID não pode ser estabelecida por meio dos critérios da DSM-IV. Entretanto, diversos pesquisadores questionam esta impossibilidade descrevendo quadros clínicos de pacientes que apresentam características de ambos os transtornos. Esta revisão busca estes achados e propõe uma reflexão sobre o assunto. OBJETIVO: Revisar, de modo seletivo, estudos mais significativos da literatura para compilar uma atualização sobre a comorbidade transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento (TID. MÉTODO: Por meio de busca no sistema Medline, selecionaram-se todos os artigos em inglês, publicados entre 2000 e 2005, sobre sintomas de TDAH em pacientes com TID, sintomas autistas em pacientes com TDAH e duplo diagnóstico TDAH/TID, utilizando-se os termos "ADHD", "pervasive", "autism", "ADD", "Asperger" e "PDD". RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se 10 artigos que atendiam aos critérios. Embora haja poucos estudos com amostras pequenas, diferentes autores identificaram um subgrupo distinto de pacientes com TID e maior freqüência e gravidade de sintomas de desatenção e hiperatividade, que aparentemente apresentam menor resposta ao tratamento com estimulantes. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o diagnóstico duplo TDAH e TID não seja corroborado pelo DSM-IV, alguns resultados sugerem que essa comorbidade não deva ser desconsiderada.BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/pervasive developmental disorder (ADHD/PDD comorbidity is not accepted by DSM-IV criteria. However, researchers from both areas put in check this impossibility and describe patients who have both clinical aspects from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD. In this article we search for this findings proposing new insights on this assumption

  20. Zen Shiatsu: A Longitudinal Case Study Measuring Stress Reduction in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that manifests as impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if Zen Shiatsu can reduce short- and long-term stress levels in a child with ASD. Methods This is a longitudinal case study of a seven-year-old male with a diagnosis of autism who was given 20-min Zen Shiatsu sessions weekly for six consecutive weeks. Using a five-point stress scale des...

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; John R. Seeley; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2–18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1 grandparents. Results indicated that G1 MDD conferred risk for G2 MDD, but not for G3 CBCL scores. G2 MDD predicted higher G3 Internalizing and Anxious/Depre...

  2. Creativity and the Child's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…

  3. Attachment in Toddlers with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n = 20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n = 14), Mental Retardation (n = 12), Language Development Disorder (n = 16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n = 18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often…

  4. Emotions in Pervasive Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Jungum, Nevin Vunka

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an intelligent environment to connect and adapt to real internal sates, needs and behaviors' meaning of humans can be made possible by considering users' emotional states as contextual parameters. In this paper, we build on enactive psychology and investigate the incorporation of emotions in pervasive systems. We define emotions, and discuss the coding of emotional human markers by smart environments. In addition, we compare some existing works and identify how emotions can be detected and modeled by a pervasive system in order to enhance its service and response to users. Finally, we analyze closely one XML-based language for representing and annotating emotions known as EARL and raise two important issues which pertain to emotion representation and modeling in XML-based languages.

  5. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:7593660

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases...

  7. Distributed Pervasive Worlds: The Case of Exergames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Teemu H.; Sedano, Carolina Islas

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive worlds are computing environments where a virtual world converges with the physical world through context-aware technologies such as sensors. In pervasive worlds, technology is distributed among entities that may be distributed geographically. We explore the concept, possibilities, and challenges of distributed pervasive worlds in a case…

  8. A Mechanism for Gratitude Development in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…

  9. The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

    This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

  10. Fatherhood in Kenyan Ethnic Communities: Implication for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…

  11. High School Child Development Courses Provide a Valuable Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…

  12. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  13. Using a Virtual Simulation Program to Teach Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the use of technology in the classroom continues to grow. The current study included 100 students who registered for a 200 level child development class at a private university in Northern Virginia. Students were from 4 different sections taught by the same professor in different semesters. Two of the sections used a textbook. The…

  14. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  15. CHILD DEVELOPMENT STUDY (NCDS): CHILDREN OF THE BRITISH NCDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is one of Britain's birth cohort studies, surveying all the children born in U.K. in a week of March 1958 (a complete enumeration, not a sample). They have been re-interviewed several times over the past forty years: first, at the time ...

  16. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  17. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  18. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  19. The Influence of Touch on Child Development: Implications for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Patricia L.

    2000-01-01

    This article outlines historical, socio-cultural, and research information that attests to the fundamental relationship between touch and child development. It describes applications including touch therapies with very low-birthweight infants, with fragile premature infants, and with infants of depressed mothers. (Contains extensive references.)…

  20. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTCHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.A.SUSIKARAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Language development is the crucial part of the human cognitive nature, understanding language development is important aspect to understand the base and to recall its various components of linguistics. Language development is a process starting early in human life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry. Scholars share the conviction that key aspects of personality and ability including linguistic and communication ability, are formulated in the earliest stages of life. But they are divided on the role of human intuition on one hand and heredity or environment has in childhood development of knowledge, aptitude and skill. Equally they are divided on how skills emerge and develop. A number of different theories have been advanced that are meant to explain language acquisition. This paper therefore examines the acquisition and theories based on the language development.

  1. Human Development and the One-Child Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Julie Grønborg; Sitez, Punah; Sitez, Lalah; Samuelsen, Abigail Bethany May; Lund-Hansen, Søren Kristoffer Koch

    2012-01-01

    This project examines the relationship between the One-child policy and the human development of China. This is carried out by first analysing the actual implementation of the policy, second looking at the population compared with the human development, third examining one of the social consequences of the policy, the unregistered percentage of China. Our theoretical framework consists of a sociological law theory, population theory, sociological theory, and the concept of development. Throug...

  2. Distributional effects of OPORTUNIDADES on early child development

    OpenAIRE

    J.L. Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    Adequate health, nutrition, and education during childhood are essential for human development. Deficits in these realms undermine the capacity to acquire the necessary skills to perform in life. Social policies addressing the causes of disadvantages in child development take up an important place in the social agenda. The Mexican Oportunidades program is such a policy. Investments in children’s health, nutrition, and education by the program are expected to facilitate children’s development....

  3. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  4. Child obesity and motor development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity has been associated with delays in motor development using weight-for-length z-scores and subcutaneous fat. To study this further, percent body fat and motor development were assessed in children ages 3 to 24 months. Included were 455 children with a total of 1882 longitudinal obse...

  5. A Survey of Parents' Use of Music in the Home With Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Building the Capacity of Families

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Anne Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Preschool aged children with disabilities including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) typically receive early childhood intervention services that adopt a family-centred approach to supporting child and family outcomes. Family-centred approaches aim to build the capacity of parents to support their child’s development immediately and into the future, and therefore offer parents a variety of resources. One indication of whether these resources have been relevant and useful to the family is to con...

  6. Sensory symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder, other developmental disorders and typical development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S; Rogers, Sally J

    2016-07-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time points from 2 to 8 years of age: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. At each time point, parents filled out questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning. At the initial time point, parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported more sensory symptoms in their children than parents in the typical development group. Parents in the autism spectrum disorder group reported more sensory symptoms than parents in the developmental delay group within smell, taste, and auditory domains. While the typical development group decreased in reported sensory symptoms across the study period, the clinical groups demonstrated no significant change across assessment points. Sensory symptoms for all groups were not independently predictive of adaptive functioning when verbal mental age was also included in the model. The young age range at the initial assessment and pattern of results suggest that sensory symptoms are present early in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders and remain stable over time. PMID:26395236

  7. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  8. Food for Thought? Breastfeeding and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernandez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We show that children who are born at the weekend or just before are less likely to be breastfed, owing to poorer breastfeeding support services at weekends. We use this variation to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on children’s development for a sample of uncomplicated births from low educated mothers. We find that breastfeeding has large effects on children’s cognitive development, but not on non-cognitive development or health. Regarding mechanisms, we estimate how breastfeeding a...

  9. PREVALENCE OF VARIOUS MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS IN CHILD CARE WORKERS IN DAY CARE SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariet Caroline, MPT,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child care workers are those who take care of children in the absence of their parents. Child care workers are exposed to various kinds of occupational injuries which include infections, sprains and strains, trauma like bites from children, trip falls and noise exposure. The risks of injury among these workers are due to their nature of the job. One of the common occupational risks found in these workers is musculoskeletal injury, it occurs as a result of working in awkward postures such as bending, twisting, lifting and carrying in incorrect positions, which may result in various injuries like strain, sprain and soft tissue ruptures. Workers with poor physical conditioning may tend to undergo these changes very rapidly. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders in child care workers who are taking care of the babies. The study was conducted around various day care centres, among 160 women from who were chosen for the study and were given musculoskeletal analysis questionnaires (Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire , The Questionnaires were evaluated using descriptive statistics, analysed using SPSS and the results were computed in percentage. Following the analysis, it was concluded that low back injury was predominant among 44% of workers followed by 18% with neck pain, 11% of shoulder pain, 9% of knee pain, 7% of elbow, 6% of wrist, 4% of others and surprisingly 1 % had no musculoskeletal complaints.

  10. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR CHILD LABOUR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CHILD LABOUR PARTICIPATION RATES OR SCHOOL NON-ATTENDANCE RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan Dagdemir; Hakan Acaroglu

    2010-01-01

    Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-200...

  11. Prenatal management of disorders of Sex development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chitty (Lyn); P. Chatelain (Pierre); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); Y. Aigrain (Yves)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDisorders of sex development (DSD) rarely present prenatally but, as they are very complex conditions, management should be directed by highly specialised medical teams to allow consideration of all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and ethical issues. In this brief review, we present an o

  12. Household and context determinants of child labor in 156 districts of 11 developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2008-01-01

    We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households w

  13. Delivering Evidence-Based Treatments for Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the Context of Parental ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Christine H.; Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) and stimulant medications are efficacious treatments for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is some evidence to suggest that parental ADHD may reduce the effectiveness of both treatment modalities. This review paper summarizes the literature related to the evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatment of child ADHD in the context of parental ADHD. We also review the literature on the effects of treating parents’ ADH...

  14. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse....

  15. Speech in Mobile and Pervasive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rajput, Nitendra

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together the latest research in one comprehensive volume that deals with issues related to speech processing on resource-constrained, wireless, and mobile devices, such as speech recognition in noisy environments, specialized hardware for speech recognition and synthesis, the use of context to enhance recognition, the emerging and new standards required for interoperability, speech applications on mobile devices, distributed processing between the client and the server, and the relevance of Speech in Mobile and Pervasive Environments for developing regions--an area of explosiv

  16. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  17. The Effect of Maternal Work Conditions on Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Felfe; Amy Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study goes beyond the much-studied impact of mothers' labor force participation on children's development and investigates how mothers' working environment affects children's cognitive and non-cognitive performance. Using data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network and applying a value added plus specification we find a negative impact of the hazards involved in mothers' jobs on their children’s non-cognitive a...

  18. [Preschool education impact on child development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness. PMID:27606651

  19. Child Art Therapy and Parent Consultation: Facilitating Child Development and Parent Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Explores outpatient art therapy methodology which integrates D. W. Winnicott's (1971) model of parent consultation, child art therapy theories, and contemporary theories of child and brief psychotherapy. Two case studies that illustrate effective symptom management and structural change with the child and the child-parent bond are presented.…

  20. Preschool education impact on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin

    2016-10-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment. PMID:27606665

  1. Child Development and Behavior Branch (CDBB), NIHCD, Report to the NACHHD Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…

  2. Development of Child-Teen Obesity Treatment Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166

  3. Experiences of emergency department care from the perspective of families in which a child has autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Muskat, Barbara; Craig, William R; Newton, Amanda S; Kilmer, Christopher; Greenblatt, Andrea; Roberts, Wendy; Cohen-Silver, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly recognized as difficult. Communication, sensory and behavioral challenges in a high intensity environment pose risks for negative experiences and outcomes. Through semi-structured interviews, parents (n = 31) and their children (n = 4) with ASD shared their perspectives on ED care. Participants identified issues that negatively affected care experiences, including care processes, communication issues, insufficient staff knowledge about ASD, and inadequate partnership with parents. Elements contributing to an improved ED experience were also cited, including staff knowledge about ASD, child- and family-centered care, and clarity of communication. Findings inform an emerging model of ED care. Recommendations for capacity building and practice development are offered. PMID:27315287

  4. 普适计算综述%A Survey of Pervasive Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑增威; 吴朝晖

    2003-01-01

    Pervasive computing has being now considered and noticed universally, which is the 21st century compute mode. This article first analyzes the origins of generating Mark Weiser's pervasive computing idea and the thrusts of researching it in the process of computing development. It then simply describes the pervasive computing projects of scientific research organizations of main developed countries, such as enterprise and universities, to realize Mark Weiser's idea. Next, it sketches a Layered Pervasive Computing (LPG) model and its related terms. Finally, the article closes with a discussion of great influence of pervasive computing technologies, and makes prospects of human being living environments such as economic, daily life, work, etc., according to the current development of computer hardware and software technologies and the evolvement of researching pervasive computing.

  5. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  6. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  7. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  8. Application coordination in pervasive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majuntke, Verena Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications' interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through

  9. A review of the father-child relationship in the development and maintenance of adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested. PMID:23597275

  10. Utility of the Child Behavior Checklist as a Screener for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havdahl, K. Alexandra; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer L.

    2016-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) has been proposed for screening of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in clinical settings. Given the already widespread use of the CBCL, this could have great implications for clinical practice. This study examined the utility of CBCL profiles in differentiating children with ASD from children with other clinical disorders. Participants were 226 children with ASD and 163 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability, language disorders, or emotional disorders, aged 2–13 years. Diagnosis was based on comprehensive clinical evaluation including well-validated diagnostic instruments for ASD and cognitive testing. Discriminative validity of CBCL profiles proposed for ASD screening was examined with area under the curve (AUC) scores, sensitivity, and specificity. The CBCL profiles showed low discriminative accuracy for ASD (AUC 0.59–0.70). Meeting cutoffs proposed for ASD was associated with general emotional/behavioral problems (EBP; mood problems/aggressive behavior), both in children with and without ASD. Cutoff adjustment depending on EBP-level was associated with improved discriminative accuracy for school-age children. However, the rate of false positives remained high in children with clinical levels of EBP. The results indicate that use of the CBCL profiles for ASD-specific screening would likely result in a large number of misclassifications. Although taking EBP-level into account was associated with improved discriminative accuracy for ASD, acceptable specificity could only be achieved for school-age children with below clinical levels of EBP. Further research should explore the potential of using the EBP adjustment strategy to improve the screening efficiency of other more ASD-specific instruments. PMID:26140652

  11. Redesigning a Child Development Laboratory Program to Meet the Changing Needs of Students, Faculty, and Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Lindauer, Shelley L. Knudsen; Austin, Ann Marie Berghout

    1999-01-01

    Since the first child development laboratory school opened its doors in the 1920s (Wortham, 1992), the fields of child development and early childhood education have looked to child development laboratory programs as essential contributors of knowledge about theory and practice (Osborne, 1991). Traditionally, laboratory programs have operated under a three-pronged mission: 1) training pre-service and inservice early childhood education and child development professionals; 2) conducting and di...

  12. Reflections about educational inclusion of a child with a diagnostic of autism in nursery schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kemp de Mattos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at relating a psychoeducational intervention experience of an educational context with a nursery school group. The principal focus was to help in the development promotion and social interaction of a student with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD. Autism leads to differentiated behavior of the individual with regard to social and communication reciprocity and therefore specific mediations articulated with the singular characteristics of the child were necessary for the student to be able to participate in social interactions valorizing the inter-regulation of the individual’s participation in social communication. The results were very meaningful and showed the importance of pedagogical mediation in psychosocial development. Significant improvement was observed in general in the interaction and communication quality of the student in question and furthermore improvements were noted in the capacity of the group in accepting the differences and of the teacher in terms of flexibility as to educational practices in light of the inclusion perspectives.

  13. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  14. The last commodity: child prostitution in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, A

    1994-01-01

    growth of sex tourism in Asia during the Vietnam War, government complicity in the industry, and the need to develop political will to end child prostitution. PMID:12288929

  15. The longitudinal development of emotion regulation capacities in children at risk for externalizing disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Halligan, Sarah L; Cooper, Peter J; Fearon, Pasco; Wheeler, Sarah L.; Crosby, Michelle; Murray, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The development of emotional regulation capacities in children at high versus low risk for externalizing disorder was examined in a longitudinal study investigating: a) whether disturbances in emotion regulation precede and predict the emergence of externalizing symptoms; and b) whether sensitive maternal behavior is a significant influence on the development of child emotion regulation. Families experiencing high (n=58) and low (n=63) levels of psychosocial adversity were recruited to the st...

  16. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child’s Disorder of Sex Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rolston, Aimee M.; Melissa Gardner; Eric Vilain; Sandberg, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child’s condition. ...

  17. The Child Labor in Developing Countries: A Challenge to Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Rena

    2009-01-01

    The problem of child labour is immense and has been growing. Wherever poverty exists, child labour there prevails and it is one of the most striking issues in the developing countries. Hence, there is a need to identify the vulnerable children and point out the problems in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), particularly poverty eradication, education for all, gender equality, combating HIV/AIDS and creation of a global partnership for development. To understand household labo...

  18. The Child Labour in Developing Countries – A Challenge to Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    The problem of child labour is immense and has been growing. Wherever poverty exists, child labour there prevails and it is one of the most striking issues in the developing countries. Hence, there is a need to identify the vulnerable children and point out the problems in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), particularly poverty eradication, education for all, gender equality, combating HIV/AIDS and creation of a global partnership for development. To understand household labo...

  19. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion ...

  20. The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, D. L.; Frongillo, E. A.; Schroeder, D. G.; Habicht, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional methods of classifying causes of death suggest that about 70% of the deaths of children (aged 0-4 years) worldwide are due to diarrhoeal illness, acute respiratory infection, malaria, and immunizable diseases. The role of malnutrition in child mortality is not revealed by these conventional methods, despite the long-standing recognition of the synergism between malnutrition and infectious diseases. This paper describes a recently-developed epidemiological method to estimate the p...

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, CHILD LABOR AND POVERTY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Tauhidur; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing debate on regional economic inequality and polarization in India. The specific objectives of this paper are to: (1) analyze regional development disparities amongst various states in India to determine if they are on a convergent course; (2) analyze the evolution of regional inequalities amongst states with respect to a number of socioeconomic indicators and factors that have been suggested to affect the incidence of child labor; (3) investigate and test ...

  2. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context. PMID:26906641

  3. 33 CFR 55.5 - Who is eligible for child development services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for child development services? 55.5 Section 55.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.5 Who is eligible for child development...

  4. 78 FR 70309 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel... Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  5. 76 FR 50743 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maintenance of Child Health and Development Studies Name and Address Files... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  6. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Development, Special Emphasis Panel. The Role of Human-Animal Interactions in Child Health and Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  7. 77 FR 9666 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will... purpose of this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  8. 77 FR 14530 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National... the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development* to conduct a national longitudinal...

  9. 77 FR 19022 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development* to conduct a... Child Health and Human Development* shall establish a consortium of representatives from...

  10. Voyage through Childhood into the Adult World: A Guide to Child Development. Lifeways Series. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Eva A.

    Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…

  11. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ambikile Joel; Outwater Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD), depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of ...

  12. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunna J. Watson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  13. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…

  14. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect

  15. Dynamic Privacy Management in Pervasive Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Nan-Wei; Laibowitz, Mathew; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a dynamic privacy management system aimed at enabling tangible privacy control and feedback in a pervasive sensor network. Our work began with the development of a potentially invasive sensor network (with high resolution video, audio, and motion tracking capabilities) featuring different interactive applications that created incentive for accepting this network as an extension of people's daily social space. A user study was then conducted to evaluate several privacy management approaches - an active badge system for both online and on-site control, on/off power switches for physically disabling the hardware, and touch screen input control. Results from a user study indicated that an active badge for on-site privacy control is the most preferable method among all provided options. We present a set of results that yield insight into the privacy/benefit tradeoff from various sensing capabilities in pervasive sensor networks and how privacy settings and user behavior relate in these environments.

  16. Examining the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorder-71 as an Assessment Tool for Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…

  17. Disorders of cognitive and emotional development in children of mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta Jussi; Raitasalo Kirsimarja

    2015-01-01

    AIMS – The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mother’s substance abuse, psychiatric problems and socio-economic situation are related to 1) disorders of psychological development, 2) behavioural and emotional disorders, and 3) mood disorders and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders in children aged 0–12 years.

  18. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922

  19. Resolution of the Diagnosis among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Child and Parent Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Shahaf; Yirmiya, Nurit; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Levi, Shlomit

    2010-01-01

    Resolution with the diagnosis of one's child involves coming to terms with and accepting the diagnosis and its implications. Parental resolution with the diagnosis was examined among 61 mothers and 60 fathers of 61 children with autism spectrum disorders aged 2-17 years. We investigated resolution rates and subtypes, and associations between…

  20. Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…

  1. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  3. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......Med), and retrieved studies were analysed according to the box-score method of counting significant findings. RESULTS: 24 studies with a sample size ≥ 60 were located. Most studies dealt with the following predictors: child age, gender, comorbidity, symptom severity and parental psychopathology. There was some......-treatment child and family predictors of outcome in CBT for youth anxiety disorders have until now resulted in few findings of clinical or theoretical significance....

  4. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors......Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...

  5. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237

  6. The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children. PMID:17551896

  7. Service Composition Issues in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ingstrup, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Providing new services by combining existing ones—or service composition—is an idea pervading pervasive computing. Pervasive computing technologies seek to concurrently exhibit context awareness, manage contingencies, leverage device heterogeneity, and empower users. These four goals prompt service......-composition-mechanism design requirements that are unique to pervasive computing. This article catalogs service composition mechanisms and describes their variation points, which indicate how well the resulting compositions meet the four goals....

  8. Pervasive CSCW for smart spaces communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lima C.; Gomes D.; Aguiar R.

    2012-01-01

    Future pervasive environments will take into consideration not only individual users' interest, but also social relationships. In today's scenarios, the trend is to make use of collective intelligence, where the interpretation of context information can be harnessed as input for pervasive systems. Therefore, social CSCW applications represent new challenges and possibilities in terms of use of group context information for adaptability and personalization in pervasive computing. The objective...

  9. Examining intensity and types of interagency collaboration between child welfare and drug and alcohol service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S

    2015-08-01

    The co-occurrence of child maltreatment and caregiver substance use disorders (SUDs) is a pervasive problem, with an estimated two thirds of child welfare (CW) systems cases involving SUDs. Interagency collaboration between CW and drug and alcohol service (DAS) providers shows promise in improving connections to and delivery of SUD services for CW-involved families. However, interagency collaboration between CW and DAS providers continues to be difficult to achieve and little is known about organizational characteristics and contexts that influence collaboration between these two entities. Using data from the second cohort of families from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examined national trends in interagency collaboration between CW and DAS providers and organizational factors that influence the nature and intensity of interagency collaboration. Results indicated that collaboration intensity was greater for CW agencies that reported increased caseloads and those located in more populated counties. However, collaboration intensity decreased for CW agencies located in counties with higher child poverty. Study findings have implications for policy leaders and directors of CW agencies throughout the United States, especially because collaborating with DAS providers may increase CW agencies' organizational capacity and relieve job stress related to high caseloads. Development of strategies that spur engagement in more intense and multiple types of collaboration between CW agencies and DAS providers has the potential to relieve service burden on CW staffs and expedite service delivery to CW-involved families dealing with SUDs. PMID:26188423

  10. Context-Aware Middleware for Pervasive Elderly Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao; Xue, Wenwei;

    2009-01-01

    -aware service management. It can be used to support the development and deployment of various homecare services for the elderly such as patient monitoring, location-based emergency response, anomalous daily activity detection, pervasive access to medical data and social networking. We have developed a prototype...... devices. In this paper, we present our design and implementation of such a context-aware middleware for pervasive homecare (CAMPH). The middleware offers several key-enabling system services that consist of P2P-based context query processing, context reasoning for activity recognition and context...

  11. Trade Liberalization in Agriculture in Developed Nations and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbajit Chaudhuri; Jayanta Kumar Dwibedi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to analyze the consequence of trade liberalization in agriculture in the developed countries on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three- sector general equilibrium model with informal sectors. Adult labour and child labour are substitutes to each other in the two informal sectors of the economy and are used together apart from capital in producing two exportable commodities. The interesting result that appears from the analysis is tha...

  12. Fertility Issues in Disorders of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Gabriela; Costanzo, Mariana; Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2015-12-01

    Fertility potential should be considered by the multidisciplinary team when addressing gender assignment, surgical management, and patient and family counselling of individuals with disorders of sex development. In 46,XY individuals, defects of gonadal differentiation or androgen or anti-Müllerian hormone synthesis or action result in incomplete or absent masculinization. In severe forms, raised as females, motherhood is possible with oocyte donation if Müllerian ducts have developed. In milder forms, raised as males, azoospermia or oligospermia are frequently found, however paternity has been reported. Most 46,XX patients with normal ovarian organogenesis are raised as females, and fertility might be possible after treatment. PMID:26568498

  13. Adaptable Service Component Interface Framework in Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S.D. Wahidabanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pervasive computing refers to visionary new ways of applying Information and Communication Technologies (ICT to our daily lives. Interoperability among pervasive networked systems, in particular accounting for the heterogeneity of protocols from the application down to the middleware layer, which is mandatory for today's and even more for tomorrow's open and highly heterogeneous networks. Approach: The high demand of mobile and wireless network for Ubiquitous computing, motivate to present an Adaptable Service Component Interface Framework (ASCIF to efficiently build pervasive computing environment suiting to recent needs of heterogeneity networks (Desktop, Web and Mobile applications. Results: In this Adaptable service component interface framework in pervasive computing gives, how a domain specific language for service composition can be designed to capture the common design patterns for service composition. Conclusion: Adaptable Service Component Interface Framework for constructing pervasive computing environment to fulfils the interoperability and manageability requirements of Web services based applications. The interactive service components are developed as application programming interface entities to bind with different heterogeneity environment.

  14. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  15. 75 FR 54897 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

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    2010-09-09

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Review of T32 Applications from the... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  16. 75 FR 8974 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

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    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Maternal and Child Health in Poor Countries: Evidence from Randomized... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  17. 77 FR 10758 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

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    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ]...

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    2011-11-09

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Special Emphasis Panel; Infertility Treatment, Child Growth and Development to age Three Years... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  19. 78 FR 37233 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

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    2013-06-20

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in Pregnancy... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; 68-2 Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child...

  20. 77 FR 30294 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

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    2012-05-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... 1995, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of....--It is the purpose of this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and...