WorldWideScience

Sample records for child development cox

  1. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  2. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by

  3. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows how implicit racial biases are adversely affecting African American students--especially boys... read more Emphasis Areas ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three ...

  4. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child's Development: Newborn Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: recién nacido From the moment ... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice ...

  5. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  6. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  7. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  8. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 2 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 meses Your baby develops ... pose) fists remain unclenched half of the time Social and Emotional Development comforts himself or herself, maybe ...

  9. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  10. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  11. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 6 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 6 meses Notice your baby ... both ways (back to front, front to back) Social and Emotional Development recognizes and responds happily to ...

  12. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 15 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 15 meses Toddlers this age ... stacks three blocks scribbles with crayon on paper Social and Emotional Development begins to show preference for ...

  13. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 9 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds ... item in each hand at the same time Social and Emotional Development might be fearful of strangers ...

  14. Piaget's Theory of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robbie

    1972-01-01

    This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)

  15. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  16. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  17. Measuring Child Development and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Abbie

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal's "Education 2030" agenda includes an explicit focus on early childhood development. Target 4.2 states that all children are "developmentally on track" at the start of school. What does it mean for a child to be developmentally on track, and how should it be measured, especially in an…

  18. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Holiday Season School Bus Safety Second-Hand Smoke Self-Esteem Self-Esteem, Debunking the Myths, Podcast Sex Development, Disorders of, ... Sibling Rivalry Sibling Rivalry Podcast Siblings, Advice for Young, Podcast Siblings of Kids with Special Needs Siblings ...

  19. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  20. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  1. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  2. Stress and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses to chronic stress serve them poorly in situations, such as school and work, where they must concentrate and cooperate to do well. But thanks to the plasticity of the developing brain and other biological systems, the neurobiological response to chronic stress can be buffered and even reversed, Thompson writes, especially when we intervene early in children's lives. In particular, warm and nurturing relationships between children and adults can serve as a powerful bulwark against the neurobiological changes that accompany stress, and interventions that help build such relationships have shown particular promise. These programs have targeted biological parents, of course, but also foster parents, teachers and other caregivers, and more distant relatives, such as grandparents. For this reason, Thompson suggests that the concept of two-generation programs may need to be expanded, and that we should consider a "multigenerational" approach to helping children living in poverty cope and thrive in the face of chronic stress.

  3. Involvement of COX2–thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi; Peterson, Richard E.; Stegeman, John J.; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Kubota, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We establish a new indicator of pericardial edema in developing zebrafish (precardiac edema). • Property of precardiac edema by TCDD is similar to that for conventional pericardial edema. • COX2b (but not COX2a)–thromboxane pathway is involved in precardiac edema by TCDD. - Abstract: The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration–response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b

  4. Involvement of COX2–thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Hiroki, E-mail: hteraoka@rakuno.ac.jp [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Peterson, Richard E. [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Kubota, Akira [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We establish a new indicator of pericardial edema in developing zebrafish (precardiac edema). • Property of precardiac edema by TCDD is similar to that for conventional pericardial edema. • COX2b (but not COX2a)–thromboxane pathway is involved in precardiac edema by TCDD. - Abstract: The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration–response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b

  5. Bedtime routines child wellbeing & development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsaras, George; Goodwin, Michaela; Allan, Julia; Kelly, Michael P; Pretty, Iain A

    2018-03-21

    Bedtime routines has shown important associations with areas associated with child wellbeing and development. Research into bedtime routines is limited with studies mainly focusing on quality of sleep. The objectives of the present study were to examine the relationship between bedtime routines and a variety of factors associated with child wellbeing and to examine possible determinants of bedtime routines. A total of 50 families with children between 3 and 5 years old took part in the study. Data on bedtime routines, parenting styles, school readiness, children's dental health, and executive function were collected. Children in families with optimal bedtime routines showed better performance in terms of executive function, specifically working memory (t (44)= - 8.51, p ≤ .001), inhibition and attention (t (48)= - 9.70, p ≤ .001) and cognitive flexibility (t (48)= - 13.1, p ≤ .001). Also, children in households with optimal bedtime routines scored higher in their readiness for school (t (48)= 6.92, p ≤ .001) and had better dental health (U = 85.5, p = .011). Parents in households with suboptimal bedtime routines showed worse performance on all measures of executive function including working memory (t (48)= - 10.47, p ≤ .001), inhibition-attention (t (48)= - 10.50, p ≤ .001) and cognitive flexibility (t (48)= - 13.6, p ≤ .001). Finally, parents with optimal bedtime routines for their children deployed a more positive parenting style in general (i.e. authoritative parenting) compared to those with suboptimal bedtime routines (t (48)= - 6.45, p ≤ .001). The results of the present study highlight the potentially important role of bedtime routines in a variety of areas associated with child wellbeing and the need for further research.

  6. Empathic parenting and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Simonič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experience of the world and life is associated with our sense of ‘self’, which begins to grow in the preverbal period through the child’s primary relationships with his/her parents. Such relationships should be optimal and full of true, genuine and deep contact, marked with a parent’s empathic responsiveness. Empathic parents encourage positive development, while lack of empathy is many times associated with dysfunctional patterns of behaviour in later life. Empathy is a critical factor for the healthy development of a child, especially for the growth of a creative and genuine sense of ‘self’, which in adulthood is essential for a healthy and vibrant personality, one who is capable of coping with life and living empathic relationships. Empathy in the narrowest sense of the word is the ability to share and comprehend the feelings and thoughts of another, e.g. the ability to have insight into experiencing. In a broader sense, it is the basic dynamics of relationships that fully enable us to feel safe and accepted with others and thereby give us space for growth and development.

  7. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  8. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produce a desired effect, such as dropping a toy over a ledge so that you can pick it up will look at a book and turn the pages When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child shows ...

  9. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  10. A high-fat diet activates oncogenic Kras and COX2 to induce development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Bincy; Roland, Christina L; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Liu, Yan; Chatterjee, Deyali; Gomez, Sobeyda B; Ji, Baoan; Huang, Haojie; Wang, Huamin; Fleming, Jason B; Logsdon, Craig D; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it is not clear how obesity contributes to pancreatic carcinogenesis. The oncogenic form of KRAS is expressed during early stages of PDAC development and is detected in almost all of these tumors. However, there is evidence that mutant KRAS requires an additional stimulus to activate its full oncogenic activity and that this stimulus involves the inflammatory response. We investigated whether the inflammation induced by a high-fat diet, and the accompanying up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), increases Kras activity during pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice. We studied mice with acinar cell-specific expression of KrasG12D (LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice) alone or crossed with COX2 conditional knockout mice (COXKO/LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT). We also studied LSL-Kras/PDX1-Cre mice. All mice were fed isocaloric diets with different amounts of fat, and a COX2 inhibitor was administered to some LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice. Pancreata were collected from mice and analyzed for Kras activity, levels of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase, inflammation, fibrosis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and PDACs. Pancreatic tissues from LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed high-fat diets (HFDs) had increased Kras activity, fibrotic stroma, and numbers of PanINs and PDACs than LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed control diets; the mice fed the HFDs also had shorter survival times than mice fed control diets. Administration of a COX2 inhibitor to LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice prevented these effects of HFDs. We also observed a significant reduction in survival times of mice fed HFDs. COXKO/LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed HFDs had no evidence for increased numbers of PanIN lesions, inflammation, or fibrosis, as opposed to the increases observed in LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed HFDs. In mice, an HFD can activate oncogenic Kras via COX2, leading to pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis and development of PanINs and PDAC. This

  11. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  12. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  13. Child Welfare in Developing Countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2010930269 ... Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, ... The Impact of the Increase in Food Prices on Child Poverty and the Policy Response in Mali ... at the General Directorate of Statistics of the National Accounting Office of Togo.

  14. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Filipović; Milica Vojvodić

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age) has some implications on methodical acts considering artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural develop...

  15. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further ... Based on original research in Africa and South America and using a ... Related content ...

  16. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  17. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...

  18. Reading, Social Development, and the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Social development stresses the importance of working together with others in life. The home setting can emphasize social development and its objectives of instruction. How should parents assist the child in quality social development in which good human relations exist? First and foremost, parents should serve as models to children for good human…

  19. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  20. [Child wellbeing and development indicators in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Filipa; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Katz, Gregorio; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To provide evidence and input for monitoring child welfare and wellbeing in Mexico. Adjusting for sampling design, information from ENSANUT 2012 for children <10 years was compared with national and international parameters and goals. While 8.37% of infants were born with low birth weight (<2,500 g), neonatal screening was not performed on 9.4% of newborns. Of children <5 years, 78.03% were breastfed until at least four months. Among mothers of newborns, 69.5% received training in early stimulation. At the national level, 28% of children (23% in rural areas) received five medical consultations to monitor their early development. 29% of children either had a disability or were at risk of developing one. Progress has been made in Mexico in terms of services promoting early child development and wellbeing but important challenges persist. National standards and a system for monitoring, screening, referring and providing care for child development and wellbeing are necessary.

  1. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 1 Month Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 1 mes Have you ever ... lying on the tummy, holds head up briefly Social and Emotional Development recognizes mother's voice when upset, ...

  3. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  4. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  5. Child and Adolescent Development for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…

  6. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  7. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 3 Years Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 3 años Kids this age ... circle dresses and undresses with a little help Social and Emotional Development is toilet trained during the ...

  8. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  9. Day-care attendance and child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  10. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  11. Employer Child Care Resources: A Guide to Developing Effective Child Care Programs and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Increasing numbers of employers are responding to employee child care needs by revising their benefit packages, work schedules, and recruitment plans to include child care options. This guide details ways to develop effective child care programs and policies. Section 1 of the guide describes employees' growing child care needs and employers'…

  12. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  13. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  14. School Influences on Child and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…

  15. Insights on the Child Development Movement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Milton J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This monograph presents an oral history of selected aspects of the child development movement, based on interviews with prominent researchers since the 1920's. Topics include reactions to major figures and influences, the relationship of child development to pediatrics and child psychiatry, and the relevance of research to child care practices.…

  16. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC 50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox-2.

  17. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  18. Parental tobacco consumption and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine F; Costa, Raquel A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age. One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood. There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND) and the child's language development quotient; r=-0.41, p=0.005, r(2)=0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107)=5.51, p=0.021, ηp(2)=0.05. Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Filipović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age has some implications on methodical acts considering the artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural development of artistic capabilities from an early age. Various experts dealt with this phenomenon, particularly Bogomil Karlavaris. In his methodical research, he has given an unexceptional part to this problem. It has been a starting point for analysis of certain methodical questions which are included in this work.

  20. Development of otorhinological care of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    During the last third of the 20th century, pediatric otolaryngology became a defined specialty in many nations, resulting in focused training, fellowships, societies, journals, textbooks, etc. This development occurred as a result of an interaction between the changing sociological and economic status of the child and medical advances. In this paper the history of the status of children is investigated during the Reformation/Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment and Romantic periods, and during the recent era of Entitlement, and an analysis is made of the relationships between otolaryngological care of children during these periods, including a consideration of selected medical advances made during the 17th to 21st centuries, and the evolving status of children. Advances in education of the deaf, understanding the role of the adenoid and care of the airway were applied to the child patient not directly, as it may sometimes seem to physicians caring for a patient in a hands-on fashion, but rather via the bridge of the social and economic context of the time. This interactive process created a special body of knowledge that is now applied in a society that places a high value on the child. In the second half of the 20th century, i.e. during the period of Entitlement, the otolaryngological needs of the child became a demand, based in part upon a need for care of airway pathology in the premature infant, which fostered the establishment of pediatric otolaryngology as a specialty.

  1. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  2. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  3. Ahr2-dependance of PCB126 effects on the swimbladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swimbladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swimbladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swimbladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swimbladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swimbladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swimbladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swimbladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swimbladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos2 failed to inflate the swimbladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swimbladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swimbladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swimbladder cells. PMID:23036320

  4. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  5. Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452

  6. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  7. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa: Adaptive responses to ... on different services currently offered in the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Nurturing Your Child's Development from 24 to 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lots of conversations with your child. This will boost his language skills, introduce him to the pleasure ... self-confidence, and lang… Explore more from Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Resource | Disponible en español ...

  9. Bodily maps of emotions across child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Jari K; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-11-01

    Different basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise) are consistently associated with distinct bodily sensation maps, which may underlie subjectively felt emotions. Here we investigated the development of bodily sensations associated with basic emotions in 6- to 17-year-old children and adolescents (n = 331). Children as young as 6 years of age associated statistically discernible, discrete patterns of bodily sensations with happiness, fear, and surprise, as well as with emotional neutrality. The bodily sensation maps changed from less to more specific, adult-like patterns as a function of age. We conclude that emotion-related bodily sensations become increasingly discrete over child development. Developing awareness of their emotion-related bodily sensations may shape the way children perceive, label, and interpret emotions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  11. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  12. Child protection and the development of child abuse pediatrics in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusci, Vincent J

    2017-11-01

    The history of child abuse pediatrics reflects the development of medicine as a profession influenced by social movements reacting to poverty, economic exploitation, and child maltreatment. As physicians began to specialize in caring for children, egregious cases led them to recognize children were affected by special medical problems and diseases which were compounded by poor conditions and abuse and neglect. They developed the fields of pediatrics and child abuse pediatrics to advocate for their needs in courts and communities. Using a history of prominent physicians and cases, the objectives of this article are to: (1) rediscover the founding of pediatrics in NYC in the context of the environment which served as the setting for its development; (2) highlight our early understanding of the medical issues surrounding child maltreatment, with advocacy and forensic medicine becoming a growing part of medical care for children; and (3) explore the development of child abuse pediatrics in light of prominent physicians making major contributions to child protection. Timelines show the early interplay among social problems, publicized cases, private and governmental agencies, and the development of child abuse pediatrics. The article concludes with potential lessons to be learned and further questions about this interplay of child protection systems and the development of child abuse pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. [Homosexual parenthood and child development: present data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were

  14. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  15. Adverse Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish N. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs were developed with the prime object of minimizing gastrointestinal adverse effects, which are seen with the use of traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Their long-term use is limited by the development of hypertension, edema, and congestive heart failure in a significant proportion of patients. NSAIDs block the activity of both COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, which mediate the enzymatic conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 and other prostaglandin (PG metabolites. It is well established that the cardiovascular profile of COX-2 inhibitors can be accounted for by inhibition of COX-dependent PG synthesis. Following the COX-mediated synthesis of PGH2 from arachidonate, PGH2 is metabolized to one of at least five bioactive PGs, including PGE2, PGI2, PGF2, PGD2, or thromboxane A2 (TXA2. These prostanoids have pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, altering platelet function and renal function, and they are acting either as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors. Although COX-1 and COX-2 exhibit similar biochemical activity in converting arachidonate to PGH2in vitro, the ultimate prostanoids they produce in vivo may be different due to differential regulation of COX-1 and COX-2, tissue distribution, and availability of the prostanoid synthases. PGs have been established as being critically involved in mitigating hypertension, helping to maintain medullary blood flow (MBF, promoting urinary salt excretion, and preserving the normal homeostasis of thrombosis, and the researchers found that the use of COX-2 inhibitors caused many serious complications in altering the normal body homeostasis. The purpose of the present research is to explain briefly the side effects of COX-2 inhibitors on the renal and cardiovascular system.

  16. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  17. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) Training programs shall be conducted monthly to ensure that all child development center employees complete a minimum of 20 hours of training annually with respect to early childhood development... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9...

  18. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

  1. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  2. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  3. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  4. Empowering the family for girl child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses family interactions that devalue female children in India and the role of government in enriching family life. Child development is dependent upon the family and the social environment. Patriarchy establishes the structure, roles, and responsibilities of the family through hierarchies of age, gender, and generation. Males hold authoritative positions because of their control over resources and the assumption of their superiority. Family unity and stability is based on conformity with the community and kinship norms. The Indian family places a low priority on the development of individual family members and children. Female children are a low priority both as children and as girls. Girls carry a heavy domestic workload in the family, but girls do not receive recognition for their contributions. The family socializes children based on norms of gender and age inequalities. Deviation from patriarchal norms results in ostracism. Families without resources are vulnerable to deprivation and exploitation. Gaps have widened between rich and poor, and men and women. Particularly vulnerable groups are women in single-parent families and female-headed households. The combination of patriarchy, increased consumerism, and structural adjustment programs marginalizes girl children. Every family should be considered equal in dignity and worth and have the right to freedom, choices, life, security of person and privacy, and protection from domestic violence. Vulnerable family members need special attention. Every family member should take responsibility for promoting sensitivity and responsiveness, positive communication, companionable relationships, democratic decision making, respect for individual needs and differences, peaceful and nonviolent approaches for resolving conflicts, and support in crisis situations.

  5. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Internet Use and Child Development: The Techno-Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…

  8. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The…

  9. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  10. Development of Management, Child Development Centers Organization rule Local Government in Udon thani

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Sukram; Chaiyot Ruangsuwan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the composition and indications 1. The Child Development Centre under the local governments in UdonThani province 2. Study the current state and the desired operating child care centers under the jurisdiction of local governments in UdonThani province. 3. Develop the child development centers under the local governments in UdonThani province. The operation is divided. Phase one of the elements and indicators, the Child Development Center. By synthesi...

  11. Healthy Child Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...

  12. Influences of early child nutritional status and home learning environment on child development in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa; Kim, Nicole; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years. At 1 year, 14% of children were stunted, and 15%, 58%, and 28% of children lived in poor, medium, and high HOME environments, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear regression models, living in a high HOME environment was significantly associated with higher scores (0.10 to 0.13 SD) in each of the developmental domains. Stunted children scored significantly lower for cognitive, language, and motor development (-0.11 to -0.18), compared to nonstunted children. The negative associations between stunting on development were modified by HOME; the associations were strong among children living in homes with a poor learning environment whereas they were nonsignificant for those living in high-quality learning environments. In conclusion, child stunting the first year of life was negatively associated with child development at 2 years among children in Vietnam, but a high-quality HOME appeared to attenuate these associations. Early interventions aimed at improving early child growth as well as providing a stimulating home environment are critical to ensure optimal child development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): harbinger of safe motherhood and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S

    1993-01-01

    Editorial comment was provided on the features that made the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India unique and on whether or not the system could focus on younger age groups (e.g., 2-3 years of age). As part of a worldwide effort, India's ICDS program has been directed to human resource development. Over the past 17 years, the program has expanded to include almost 50% of the country's most vulnerable and deprived population. The focus on children aimed to improve their nutrition and health by reducing the incidence of morbidity, mortality, malnutrition, and school dropouts. The concern encompassed physical, social, and psychological development. The focus on mothers stressed enabling them to better care for the health and nutrition of their children. The program included prenatal care, safe delivery, and post natal concern for lactation, breast feeding, and physical growth monitoring in the early years. The program's unique features were its voluntary membership of community health workers, integrated services, and targeted coverage of economically weaker and deprived populations during critical child development periods. Indigenous Indian resources provided the primary financial support. Nation coverage was given for universal immunization, family welfare, child and maternal health, diarrheal disease control, vitamin A supplementation, and anemia screening and treatment. The multisectoral nature of the program has been realized at the village, sector, block, and district levels with linkages within Health, Education, and Social Welfare sectors, and with the Medical Colleges and Home Science Colleges. Feedback from operations research studies and other research activities was provided at the local program level, and interactions occurred between students in training programs and health care delivery systems. The program will be expanded to include the entire country. Health and nutrition education were considered the weakest part of ICDS

  14. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  15. Commentary: An Asian Americanist Perspective on Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Y J Kim, Adam; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    In this commentary, we put forth an Asian Americanist perspective on child development that frames, expands upon, and at times challenges the contextual, conceptual, and methodological ideas put forward by Kiang et al., Mistry et al., and Yoshikawa et al. (this volume). This Asian Americanist perspective draws upon scholarship in Asian American Studies and critical race theory to bridge the historical, conceptual, and methodological contributions of the three articles. We also aim to challenge current and future generations of scholars studying Asian American child development to look at Asian American youth and families as autonomous, self-determining agents who are capable of challenging, resisting, and affecting change in a racialized society. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Child care in Vrsac and its development

    OpenAIRE

    Šljapić Živa; Šljapić-Roganović Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarov...

  17. Selenium status during pregnancy and child psychomotor development-Polish Mother and Child Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Brodzka, Renata; Calamandrei, Gemma; Chiarotti, Flavia; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    The studies on the impact of selenium (Se) levels in different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal Se on child neurodevelopment. The study population consisted of 410 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Se levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery, and in cord blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Plasma Se levels decreased through pregnancy (from 48.3 ± 10.6 µg/l in the first trimester to 38.4 ± 11.8 µg/l at delivery; P development (β = 0.2, P = 0.002) at 1 y of age, and language development (β = 0.2, P = 0.03) at 2 y of age was observed. The positive effect of Se levels on cognitive score at 2 y of age was of borderline significance (β = 0.2, P = 0.05). Prenatal selenium status was associated with child psychomotor abilities within the first years of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are needed to confirm the association and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  18. Generalised shot noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a class of cox cluster processes called generalised shot noise Cox processes (GSNCPs), which extends the definition of shot noise Cox processes (SNCPs) in two directions: the point process that drives the shot noise is not necessarily Poisson, and the kernel of the shot noise can...

  19. Geometric anisotropic spatial point pattern analysis and Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Toftaker, Håkon

    . In particular we study Cox process models with an elliptical pair correlation function, including shot noise Cox processes and log Gaussian Cox processes, and we develop estimation procedures using summary statistics and Bayesian methods. Our methodology is illustrated on real and synthetic datasets of spatial...

  20. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mothers’ labor market choices and child development outcomes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers’ work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children’s lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance. These main effects did not remain significant with the inclusion of a wide range of socio-economic, demographic control variables, however. Our results were similarly null when using an IV analysis or a propensity score matching approach. We provide descriptive information on theoretical pathways by which maternal work may influence child development. Though several of these pathways (e.g. preschool, toys, maternal stress seem to be associated with both maternal work and child development outcomes, the pathways are not sufficiently strong to generate an association between maternal work and child development. We conclude that Chilean mothers’ employment in early childhood generally does not have an effect on child development.

  3. Relationship between birth spacing, child maltreatment, and child behavior and development outcomes among at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Gonsalves, Kay; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Prior research indicates that closely spaced births are associated with poor outcomes for the mother and subsequent child. Limited research has focused on outcomes for the index child (the child born immediately prior to a subsequent child in a birth interval). The objectives are to assess the association of short birth intervals in at-risk families with: (1) indicators of harsh and neglectful parenting behaviors towards the index child, including substantiated maltreatment reports across 6 years; and (2) the index child's behavior and development in first grade. This is a longitudinal study of 658 women screened to be at-risk for child maltreatment. Twenty percent of women had a rapid repeat birth (RRB), defined as the birth of a subsequent child within 24 months of the index child. Generalized estimating equations, survival analyses, and linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between RRB and index child outcomes. Women with an RRB were more likely than those without an RRB to report neglectful parenting of the index child. Children of mothers with an RRB were more likely than children of mothers without an RRB to have more behavioral problems and lower cognitive functioning in first grade. This study is among the first to focus on the associations of birth spacing with maltreatment, behavior and development outcomes in the index child. Future work regarding the effects of birth spacing should include a focus on the index child.

  4. Parent-Child Communication and Its Perceived Effects on the Young Child's Developing Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle

    In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…

  5. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  7. 33 CFR 55.11 - How are child development center fees established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are child development center... HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.11 How are child development center fees established? (a) Fees for the provision of services at child development centers shall be set by...

  8. Growing children's bodies and minds: maximizing child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice; Huffman, Sandra L

    2010-06-01

    For their optimal growth, and for greater long-term human capital development, children profit not only from improved nutrition but also from improved learning opportunities in the earliest years of life. This paper describes how actions to enhance optimal infant and young child nutrition can be linked with child development interventions for children under 3 years of age. In countries with high rates of malnutrition, linking these two components will result in synergies of program activities, and will bring about a greater impact at reduced cost than either activity conducted separately. New understanding of social marketing and communication strategies can increase effectiveness of linked interventions. Public-private partnerships to improve both child development and nutrition offer promise for sustainable interventions.

  9. Developing child autonomy in pediatric healthcare: towards an ethical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakis, Kyriakos; Brand, Helmut; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The changes initiated by the new National Civil and Commercial Code in Argentina underline the pediatric task to empower children's and adolescents' developing autonomy. In this paper, we have framed a model describing autonomy in child healthcare. We carried out a literature review focusing on i) the concept of autonomy referring to the absolute value of the autonomous individual, and ii) the age-driven process of competent decisionmaking development. We summarized our findings developing a conceptual model that includes the child, the pediatrician and the parents. The pediatricianchild relationship is based on different forms of guidance and cooperation, resulting in varying levels of activity and passivity. Parental authority influences the extent of autonomy, based on the level of respect of the child's moral equality. Contextual, existential, conceptual, and socialethical conditions shall be considered when applying the model to facilitate dialogue between pediatricians, children, parents and other actors. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Creativity and the Child's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…

  11. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  12. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  13. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  14. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  15. Religious women's groups help promote child survival and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, L Z

    1989-07-01

    Indonesia faces the 2 major problems of high infant mortality and high child mortality at present. To improve the situation, the government urges the participation of all community members, especially those already organized in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Because religion has a strong influence on people's daily lives in Indonesia, a special project called the Child Survival Project was established in 1986 as a joint undertaking of the government and UNICEF. Initially 12 religious NGOs (8 Islamic, 1 Hindu, 1 Protestant, and 2 Catholic) were involved as implementing agencies. The majority of members of these NGOs are women. The strategy used has been to establish, in cooperation with the 12 NGOs, a communication network through which child survival messages would be disseminated to help generate increased use of Posyandu services, especially immunization, oral rehydration therapy, and growth monitoring. Messages are incorporated into the normal activities of these religious groups, such as Al-Quran reading classes, Sunday schools, and Bible classes. In addition, guidelines for a reporting and feedback system have been prepared for use at village, subdistrict, district, and provincial levels for project monitoring. Religious women's NGOs can serve with their specific characteristics can serve as motivators, facilitators, and catalysts of child survival and development programs for their community target groups. NGOs should be considered as partners of the government in mobilizing the community to achieve a common goal. All endeavors undertaken so far in relation to child survival and development are expected to be institutionalized.

  16. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    A more pessimistic assessment to study the effects of maternal employment on children's learning abilities is presented. Parental investments during infancy and childhood not only result in improved cognitive development but also in overall improvement in learning abilities.

  17. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Years (24 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 años (24 meses) Tired ... and circular scribbles feeds himself or herself well Social and Emotional Development plays alongside other children fears ...

  18. Improving child nutrition | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are also assessing the extent of childhood obesity and developing ... former Head of Department, Nutrition and Food Science, at the University of Ghana. ... President of the Ghana Nutrition Association, and Africa's representative on the ...

  19. 30-36 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25–36 Months This valuable digital resource showcases growth and development by month, and offers strategies parents can tailor to ... gift helps ensure that all babies and toddlers have a strong start in life. Donate Become ...

  20. Child Development: New Diagnoses for the NANDA International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Juliana Martins de; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da; Veríssimo, Maria De La Ó Ramallo

    2018-04-01

    The paper proposes new diagnoses on child development (CD) for NANDA International. The study followed the recommended steps of Developmental Processes for NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses. It was a secondary analysis study on the findings of a concept analysis study on CD. A proposal of labels and components of three diagnoses: "Delayed child development," "Risk for delayed child development," and "Readiness for enhanced child development." The proposed diagnoses represent all the complexity of CD. The proposed diagnoses can support nurses in the development of a comprehensive care plan on the health of children. OBJETIVO: propor novos diagnósticos de enfermagem para a NANDA-International que abordem o desenvolvimento infantil. MÉTODO: Este estudo seguiu as etapas recomendadas para o desenvolvimento de diagnósticos de enfermagem da NANDA-International. Foi realizado a partir dos resultados da análise de conceito do termo desenvolvimento infantil. Propostos os títulos e os componentes de três diagnósticos: "Atraso no desenvolvimento infantil," "Risco de atraso no desenvolvimento infantil," e "Disposição para desenvolvimento infantil melhorado." CONCLUSÕES: Os diagnósticos propostos contemplam toda a complexidade do desenvolvimento infantil. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Os novos diagnósticos podem subsidiar o enfermeiro na elaboração de um plano de cuidados integrais à saúde da criança. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  1. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  2. A PSYCHOSOCIAL TOOL FOR CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT Nicholas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are often burdened with exceedingly great parental expectations particularly ... the life span, Smarts sees human development as: The scientific .... existence which is balance, speed and coordination. Dance: A ... In every work of art especially dance, what makes it more effective is .... The Benefits of Dance. Owerri: Ata ...

  3. Child Soldiers Initiative | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure to prevent children from being recruited - and effectively reintegrate those who have been - results in their continued vulnerability, undermines peace agreements, and ...

  4. Child Development and Curriculum in Waldorf Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Stegmann, Astrid

    Every educational theory has behind it a particular image of human beings and their development that supports a particular view of the learning process. This paper examines the image of children underlying Waldorf education. The paper identifies the individual and unique Self as the "third factor," that together with heredity and…

  5. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  6. COX-2 and p53 in human sinonasal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmila, Reetta; Cyr, Diane; Luce, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    The causal role of wood-dust exposure in sinonasal cancer (SNC) has been established in epidemiological studies, but the mechanisms of SNC carcinogenesis are still largely unknown. Increased amounts of COX-2 are found in both premalignant and malignant tissues, and experimental evidence link COX-2...... to development of cancer. Many signals that activate COX-2 also induce tumor suppressor p53, a transcription factor central in cellular stress response. We investigated COX-2 and p53 expressions by immunohistochemistry in 50 SNCs (23 adenocarcinomas, and 27 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); 48 analyzed for COX-2...... displayed adenocarcinoma. COX-2 was expressed at higher levels in adenocarcinoma as compared to SSC (p COX-2 expression showed significant association with occupational exposure to wood dust (p = 0.024), and with nonsmoking status (p = 0.001). No statistically significant associations between...

  7. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  8. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...

  9. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  10. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  11. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  12. Using a Virtual Simulation Program to Teach Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the use of technology in the classroom continues to grow. The current study included 100 students who registered for a 200 level child development class at a private university in Northern Virginia. Students were from 4 different sections taught by the same professor in different semesters. Two of the sections used a textbook. The…

  13. High School Child Development Courses Provide a Valuable Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…

  14. Laboratories and Demonstrations in Child Development with Unedited Videotapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Debra Ann

    1986-01-01

    Multipurpose demonstrations of child development are easy to produce by videotaping children while they interact with parents, siblings, or friends. Unlike commercial films, videotapes without narration allow students to formulate and test their own research questions. This article describes how to use unedited videotapes for laboratories in…

  15. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  16. Child Development Knowledge and Teacher Preparation: Confronting Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This paper questions the widely held assumption that acquiring knowledge of child development is an essential part of teacher preparation and teaching competence, especially among teachers of young children. After discussing the influence of culture, parenting style, and teaching style on developmental expectations and outcomes, the paper asserts…

  17. Literature Review The development of parent-infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes the form of an account of the emergence of the field of psychoanalytically informed parent-infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa. It traces the origins and the development of the South African field by locating local practice within the international field. The influential links between international ...

  18. A Mechanism for Gratitude Development in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…

  19. Emotional Development: Fostering the Child's Identity. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    "Emotional Development: Fostering the Child's Identity" is a manual for use in training families providing service to foster children. Consisting of information to be covered in eight class sessions and numerous appendices providing supplementary material, this instructor's manual contains instructor's materials and participants' course content.…

  20. Goal setting with mothers in child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsingdal, S; St John, W; Miller, V; Harvey, A; Wearne, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore mothers' perspectives of the processes of collaborative goal setting in multidisciplinary child development services involving follow-up home therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in South East Queensland, Australia with 14 mothers of children aged 3-6 years who were accessing multidisciplinary child development services. Interviews were focussed around the process of goal setting. A grounded theory of Maternal Roles in Goal Setting (The M-RIGS Model) was developed from analysis of data. Mothers assumed Dependent, Active Participator and Collaborator roles when engaging with the therapist in goal-setting processes. These roles were characterized by the mother's level of dependence on the therapist and insight into their child's needs and therapy processes. Goal Factors, Parent Factors and Therapist Factors influenced and added complexity to the goal-setting process. The M-RIGS Model highlights that mothers take on a range of roles in the goal-setting process. Although family-centred practice encourages negotiation and collaborative goal setting, parents may not always be ready to take on highly collaborative roles. Better understanding of parent roles, goal-setting processes and influencing factors will inform better engagement with families accessing multidisciplinary child development services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fatherhood in Kenyan Ethnic Communities: Implication for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…

  2. Properties of spatial Cox process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    Probabilistic properties of Cox processes of relevance for statistical modelling and inference are studied. Particularly, we study the most important classes of Cox processes, including log Gaussian Cox processes, shot noise Cox processes, and permanent Cox processes. We consider moment properties...... and point process operations such as thinning, displacements, and superpositioning. We also discuss how to simulate specific Cox processes....

  3. The Moxie of Kathy Cox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Kathy Cox, the superintendent of schools for Georgia, believes "excellence is not an accident". She made a name for herself by winning $1 million proving she was smarter than a fifth-grader on a popular television show. This article presents a profile of Cox, her family, her role as school superintendent, and her accomplishments.…

  4. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  5. Increasing adolescent mothers' knowledge of child development: an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A M; Murphy, K R; Anderson, S L

    1991-01-01

    This study focused upon an intervention program that allowed adolescent mothers to have major input in identifying knowledge they needed concerning their children's growth and their own parenting skills. Seventy-six females participated in the 4-month program. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure changes in self-esteem, knowledge of child development, and tendencies toward inappropriate interactions with children. Analysis of effectiveness of this program indicated that it had been effective. Results revealed significant differences between pre- and posttest measures of child development knowledge in the areas of infant and toddler development. Further analysis indicated a significant change in the subjects' child abuse potential at the end of the program. No significant difference could be found in measures of self-esteem between the beginning and end of the program. A 10-month follow-up study coordinated between two public agencies found that none of the adolescent parents who had completed the program had been reported for child abuse or neglect. The results support the importance of short-term intervention programs for adolescent parents.

  6. Maternal height and child mortality in 42 developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research reports mixed results about the association between maternal height and child mortality. Some studies suggest that the negative association might be stronger in contexts with fewer resources. This hypothesis has yet not been tested in a cross-nationally comparative design. We use data on 307,223 children born to 194,835 women in 444 districts of 42 developing countries to estimate the association between maternal height and child mortality and test whether this association is modified by indicators at the level of the household (like sex, age and twin status of the child and socio-economic characteristics of the mother and her partner), district (regional level of development, public health facilities and female occupational attainment) and country (GDP per capita). We find a robust negative effect of logged maternal height on child mortality. The effect of maternal health is strongest for women with least education and is more important in the first year after birth and for twin births. The indicators of development at the district and country level do not modify the effect of maternal height. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  8. Impact of Blood Type, Functional Polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 Gene Promoter and Clinical Factors on the Development of Peptic Ulcer during Cardiovascular Prophylaxis with Low-Dose Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Yao; Chen, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Angela; Tsay, Feng-Woei; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Peng, Nan-Jing; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Ping-I

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the impact of blood type, functional polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 gene promoter, and clinical factors on the development of peptic ulcer during cardiovascular prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin. Methods. In a case-control study including 111 low-dose aspirin users with peptic ulcers and 109 controls (asymptomatic aspirin users), the polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 gene promoter was genotyped, and blood type, H pylori status, and clinical factors were assessed. Results. Univariate analysis showed no significant differences in genotype frequencies of the COX-1 gene at position -1676 between the peptic ulcer group and control group. Multivariate analysis revealed that blood type O, advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, and concomitant use of NSAID were the independent risk factors for the development of peptic ulcer with the odds ratios of the 2.1, 3.1, 27.6, and 2.9, respectively. Conclusion. The C-1676T polymorphism in the COX-1 gene promoter is not a risk factor for ulcer formation during treatment with low-dose aspirin. Blood type O, advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, and concomitant use of NSAID are of independent significance in predicting peptic ulcer development during treatment with low-dose aspirin. PMID:25243161

  9. Child Development in a Changing World : Risks and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Boyden, Jo; Dercon, Stefan; Singh, Abhijeet

    2015-01-01

    This review explores current understandings of child development and the consequences for children of risk exposure in low- and middle-income countries by integrating empirical evidence from development economics with insights from allied social science disciplines. It provides a holistic perspective that highlights the synergies between children's developmental domains, drawing particular attention to dimensions such as self-efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations, which have had only limited ...

  10. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica Benítez; Veronika Mariana Diaz Abrahan; Nadia Romina Justel

    2018-01-01

    There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and ...

  11. Parental age and child growth and development: child health check-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Report of educational experience: integral development of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Freitas Marchiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary The study was conducted at the Centre Municipal Education Child (CMEI "Sinclair Phillips," located in the city of Vitoria / ES, in the quarter Caratoíra. It is worth emphasizing the importance of believing in the potential and the knowledge that each child brings from an early age, because it is a development and be in full in terms of broadening their knowledge from the opportunities given to it, aiming to form a citizen critical. It is for the purchase of motor skills, promote health, cognitive development (intellectual, literacy and transmission of knowledge and culture / art historically constituted. The creativity and autonomy of the child always been the guiding objectives of the proposed work. He had the following objectives: to consolidate the Body of Culture Movement, working with social learning; provide social inclusion, developing the creativity; lead and supporting construction of autonomy; stimulate the initiative and diversity; provoke awareness of social rules; literacy; provide access the arts; articulate knowledge lived / worked in the school; chance rescue experiences of childhood, and transmit the culture children. The classes are not based in a single perspective, but allowed diverse forms of work, taking the child and its development as the focus of work. Another point of support was the adoption of Culture, Body Movement and Critical-emancipatory to develop intervention and that enabled a rich and varied work. The results are perceived in the day-to-day life of children, demonstrated by the actions of acceptance of others, recognition of the rules of coexistence, the materialization of learning: reading, writing and interpretation of some children's stories - this includes its production / living standalone of children, beyond access to culture and arts offered during the school year. Key Words: Children's Education, Physical Education, school practice, teaching.

  13. Household and context determinants of child labor in 156 districts of 11 developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2008-01-01

    We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households

  14. Speech development delay in a child with foetal alcohol syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A female foetus in her mother’s womb was exposed to high concentrations of alcohol at each stage of pregnancy on a long-term basis, which resulted in a permanent disability. In addition to a number of deficiencies in the overall functioning of the body of the child, there are serious problems pertaining to verbal communication. This thesis aims to describe foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS disease and present the basic problems with communication functions in a child, caused by damage of brain structures responsible for speech development. The thesis includes a speech diagnosis and therapy program adapted to the presented case. In the Discussion Section we have presented characteristics of communication disorders in case of children with FAS and the description of developmental malformations, neurobehavioral disorders, and environmental factors affecting the development of the child’s speech.

  15. The last commodity: child prostitution in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, A

    1994-01-01

    growth of sex tourism in Asia during the Vietnam War, government complicity in the industry, and the need to develop political will to end child prostitution.

  16. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Topics in Development, Signaling... Review, OD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  17. Properties of spatial Cox process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Particularly, we study the most important classes of Cox processes, including log Gaussian Cox processes, shot noise Cox processes, and permanent Cox processes. We consider moment properties and point process operations such as thinning, displacements, and super positioning. We also discuss how...... to simulate specific Cox processes....

  18. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  19. State Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems as a Means for Ensuring Quality Child Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The development of a checklist for use in monitoring and evaluating the quality of child care services, and the implications of use of the checklist by day care providers, are discussed. Several research studies that used the indicator checklist model have attempted to determine whether compliance with state child care regulations has a positive…

  20. 75 FR 64734 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... 64735

  1. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  2. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-H MR 1. Date: April 23... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  4. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  5. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; PMTCT. Date: July 17-18, 2012. Time... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  6. 77 FR 33473 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-W 90. Date: June 26, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  7. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Developmental... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  8. 75 FR 49500 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  9. 76 FR 61719 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435...

  10. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 30, 2012. Time: 3:00 p... Institute Of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  11. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  12. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  13. 76 FR 61720 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, PAR-10-194, PAR10-203, PAR-11- 183... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  14. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular and Cellular Controls of... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  15. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Alexander Disease; Mechanisms... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100...

  16. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Training in Executive... Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD...

  17. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  18. 77 FR 37422 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z 41 2. Date: July 19, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  19. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  20. 45 CFR 1306.30 - Provisions of comprehensive child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions of comprehensive child development... Start Program Options § 1306.30 Provisions of comprehensive child development services. (a) All Head Start grantees must provide comprehensive child development services, as defined in the Head Start...

  1. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Neuroplasticity and the Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  2. 77 FR 61421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  3. 78 FR 19498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral Sciences... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  4. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...

  5. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Academic-Community Partnership... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  6. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. NICHD T32 Teleconference Review... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  7. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  8. 77 FR 61420 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  9. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Risk Genes and Environment... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  10. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Y 41 1. Date: November 15... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  11. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  12. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Prenatal Events-Postnatal... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  13. 78 FR 12765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: March... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of, Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  14. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z. Date: November 13, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  15. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee Date: June 14..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  16. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Congenital Defects Topics. Date: May..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  17. 33 CFR 55.5 - Who is eligible for child development services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for child development services? 55.5 Section 55.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.5 Who is eligible for child development services...

  18. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Pregnancy Adaptation and Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  19. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Children in Rural Poverty. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  20. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, FES Controller for Upper Limb... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  1. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group; Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  2. 76 FR 6146 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  3. 78 FR 47328 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asthma Cohort Support Contract. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892...

  4. Voyage through Childhood into the Adult World: A Guide to Child Development. Lifeways Series. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Eva A.

    Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…

  5. Socioeconomic development and girl child survival in rural North India: solution or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anand; Dwivedi, Purva; Gupta, Vivek; Byass, Peter; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Ng, Nawi

    2013-05-01

    Socioeconomic development has been considered as a solution to the problem of sex differentials at birth and under-five mortality. This paper analyses longitudinal data from the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in north India to check its veracity. A cohort of children born between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 at Ballabgarh HDSS were followed till death, emigration, 3 years of age or end of the study. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by caste, parental combined years of schooling and wealth index and divided into low, mid and high strata for each of them. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) was reported as the number of girls per 1000 boys. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn and a Cox Proportional HR of girls over boys was estimated. A total of 12 517 native born children (25 797 child years) were enrolled of which 710 died (death rate of 56.7/1000-live births and 27.5/1000 child-years. Socioeconomically advantaged children had significantly lower death rates. The SRB (10-16% lower) and neonatal death rate were consistently adverse for girls in the advantaged groups by all the three indicators of SES. The first month survival rates were better for girls in the lower SES categories (significant only in caste (HR 0.58; 0.37 to 0.91). High SES categories consistently showed adverse survival rates for girls (HR of 1.22 to 1.59). Better socioeconomic situation worsened the sex differentials, especially at birth. Therefore, specific interventions targeting gender issues are required, at least as a short-term measure.

  6. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course. Resumo: Objetivo: Revisar a epidemiologia e atualizar os conhecimentos científicos sobre os problemas do desenvolvimento e do comportamento na infância, e das recomendações do papel do pediatra na identificação e conduta frente aos transtornos da saúde mental infantil. Fontes de dados: Pesquisamos a literatura relevante nas bases de dados PubMed e Scopus e em publicações do National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Síntese dos dados: Com o declínio na incidência de doenças transmissíveis em crianças, problemas do desenvolvimento, comportamento e regula

  7. SEKULARISASI DALAM PANDANGAN HARVEY COX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Fauzan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar kaum agamawan (ortodoks memandang sekularisasi sebagai ancaman terhadap eksistensi agama. Namun sebaliknya, Harvey Cox memandang sekularisasi sebagai teologi perubahan sosial yang bertujuan mendobrak kebuntuan agama yang terbelenggu oleh ide “pemeliharaan” dan “kemapanan”. Tulisan ini membahas pandangan Harvey Cox tentang sekularisasi, konsepnya tentang Kota Sekuler (Secular City, dan Tuhan pada masyarakat sekuler. Cox melihat sekularisasi merupakan sebuah keniscayaan sejarah. Sekularisasi merupakan gerakan yang membebaskan manusia dari dogma yang membelenggu kebebasan manusia. Melalui simbol Kota Sekuler, Cox menghadirkan paradigma teologi yang lebih sesuai dengan keadaan masyarakat modern saat ini. Cox melihat bahwa Tuhan sebagaimana yang diajarkan oleh Kristiani –juga agama lain– bukanlah Tuhan yang sebenarnya. Tuhan tak lebih dari sebuah penamaan yang kehadirannya terkadang kosong dan ambigu. Semenjak penamaan dilekatkan dalam lingkungan sosio kultural tertentu, maka kata “Tuhan” tidak suci lagi. Apabila Tuhan dimaknai secara “ketat” dalam ruang tradisi yang berbeda-beda, maka akan terjadi benturan yang terkadang membutuhkan pengorbanan jiwa.

  8. Reconciling parenting and smoking in the context of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna

    2013-08-01

    In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior.

  9. 75 FR 7484 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Changing Parental Relationships and Child Well-Being. Date: March 5, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  10. 76 FR 12125 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Corpus Luteal Contribution to...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  11. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July..., Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  12. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  13. 78 FR 12767 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute, of Child...

  14. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Social-Cognitive Skill Intervention..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  15. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diet, Obesity.... Kandasamy, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...

  16. 75 FR 36101 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Slack and Slick Channels. Date: July..., PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...

  17. 77 FR 5035 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  18. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Environmental and Biological..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  19. 76 FR 71985 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group, Research on Children in Military Families: The Impact of Parental Military Deployment and Reintegration on Child and Family Functioning... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...

  20. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  1. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival analysis II: Cox regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards regression can provide an effect estimate by quantifying the difference in survival between patient groups and can adjust for confounding effects of other variables. The purpose of this article is to explain the basic concepts of the

  3. Early child care and child development: For whom it works and why

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are currently expanding access to child care for young children. But are all children equally likely to benefit from such expansions? We address this question by adopting a marginal treatment effects framework. We study the West German setting where high quality center - based care is severely rationed and use within state differences in child care supply as exogenous variation in child care attendance. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel provides comprehensive informa...

  4. Child-rights & child development in India - a socio-economic analysis under regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Every human being below the age of eighteen years is known as ‘child’ according to the universally accepted definition of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The need for special safeguard for the child had been stated in the Geneva Declaration, 1924. It was also proclaimed in that declaration that the child by the reason of his physical and mental immaturity needs this special safeguard including appropriate legal protection. The need to extend particular care to th...

  5. Radiolabeled COX-2 Inhibitors for Non-Invasive Visualization of COX-2 Expression and Activity — A Critical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Kniess

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is a key player in inflammation. Its overexpression is directly associated with various inflammatory diseases and, additionally, with several processes of carcinogenesis. The development of new selective COX-2 inhibitors (COXIBs for use in cancer treatment is in the focus of the medicinal chemistry research field. For this purpose, a set of methods is available to determine COX-2 expression and activity in vitro and ex vivo but it is still a problem to functionally characterize COX-2 in vivo. This review focusses on imaging agents targeting COX-2 which have been developed for positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT since 2005. The literature reveals that different radiochemical methods are available to synthesize COXIBs radiolabeled with fluorine-18, carbon-11, and isotopes of radioiodine. Unfortunately, most of the compounds tested did not show sufficient stability in vivo due to de[18F]fluorination or de[11C]methylation or they failed to bind specifically in the target region. So, suitable stability in vivo, matching lipophilicity for the target compartment and both high affinity and selectivity for COX-2 were identified as prominent criteria for radiotracer development. Up to now, it is not clear what approach and which model is the most suited to evaluate COX-2 targeting imaging agents in vivo. However, for proof of principle it has been shown that some radiolabeled compounds can bind specifically in COX-2 overexpressing tissue which gives hope for future work in this field.

  6. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Benítez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and their structure may vary from one person to another, depending on their musical experience. Throughout this review, we will present the background related to the benefits of musical training in cognitive development of children during early childhood, emphasizing differences that involves receptive training compared to active, extending the effects to the field of music therapy and the use of techniques with therapeutic purposes.

  7. The Role of Physical Education in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, M. L.; Wamukhoya, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that a child's early exposure to movement activities promotes a positive self concept. Elaborates that physical education gives training to body and mind as well as providing enjoyment as the child matures. (BSR)

  8. Implications for Effective Child Development System in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Child Rights Campaign and the Nigerian Family: Implications for Effective Child .... of socialization like: day-care centres, schools, peer groups, video bars, recreational parks and new social media have taken over this role. The outcome is that ...

  9. Congenital Heart Disease and Impacts on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alievi Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months. Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001. The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042, child's age (P=0.001 and income per capita (P=0.019. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up.

  10. Developing Communication with the Autistic Child Through Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxill, Edith Hillman

    The author's use of music therapy is illustrated in her account of therapy sessions with two autistic children. Music is seen to be particularly useful with the autistic child because it can make use of the child's rhythmic stereotypical actions to increase the child's self awareness. Techniques such as reflection (mimicking, through song and…

  11. Lévy based Cox point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar; Prokesová, Michaela; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LCPs) as Cox point processes with driving intensity function Λ defined by a kernel smoothing of a Lévy basis (an independently scattered, infinitely divisible random measure). We also consider log Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LLCPs......) with Λ equal to the exponential of such a kernel smoothing. Special cases are shot noise Cox processes, log Gaussian Cox processes, and log shot noise Cox processes. We study the theoretical properties of Lévy-based Cox processes, including moment properties described by nth-order product densities...

  12. Evaluation of integrated child development services program in rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Singh Rathore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS scheme is the largest program for promotion of maternal and child health and nutrition. Aims: The present study is aimed to evaluate ICDS program in terms of infrastructure of anganwadi centers (AWCs, characteristics of anganwadi workers (AWWs, coverage of supplementary nutrition (SN, and preschool education (PSE to the beneficiaries. Methods: A total of 39 AWCs from a rural area and 15 from the urban area were surveyed. AWWs were interviewed, and records were reviewed. Information was collected using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results: In the selected AWCs, 88.9% were running in Pucca buildings, 38.9% had electricity, 35.1% had a separate kitchen, 1.8% had cooking gas, and toilets were available in 59.3% AWCs. All the AWW have received job training, 83.3% AWW have received refresher training. 38.8% AWW have received orientation training, 37% have received skill training in World Health Organization growth standards and 18.5% AWW have received skill training in mother and child health. 86.9% registered pregnant women, 90.7% registered lactating women, 72.6% registered adolescent girls were availing SN. 95.4% registered children 6 months to 3 years and 92.4% registered children 3-6 years of age were availing SN. Interruption in SN in last 6 months was seen in 22.2% AWCs. Appropriate and adequate PSE material was available in 59.2% AWCs. Conclusion: There are program gaps in the infrastructure of AWCs, training of AWW, coverage of SN, interruption in the supply of SN.

  13. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  14. Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N=349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High-quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Psychosocial Influences upon the Workforce and Professional Development Participation of Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Wiley, Angela R.; A. Koziol, Natalie; Magerko, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family child care is commonly used in the US by families, including by those receiving child care subsidies. Psychosocial influences upon the workforce and professional development participation of family child care providers (FCCPs) have implications for the investment of public dollars that aim to improve quality and stability of…

  16. RISK FACTORS OF DELAYS OF CHILD PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Kaganova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research targeted studying risk factors for delays physical development of children (n = 70 aged 7–11 years. Control group was comprised of 30 children of normal height of the same age. Physical development was evaluated by centile method using regional and international standards, studying data of life and disease anamnesis, family anamnesis, living conditions. Children had their thyroid glands studied ultrasonically. Blood levels of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, ferrum, zinc were identified by photometry method for some children in both groups. Correlation analysis makes it possible to state risk factors of children dwarfism: low educational status of parents, child height figures at the age of 1 and 3 years, calcium and phosphor blood levels, as well as thyroid hypo plasy.Key words: dwarfism, children, risk factors, calcium deficit.

  17. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  18. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Laude

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.

  19. [Development of a mother-preschool child interaction scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hee; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2013-02-01

    This study was done to develop the self-report Mother-Preschool Child Interaction Scale (MPIS) for mothers of preschool children. The scale was based on items derived from literature review and in-depth interviews. A methodological study was used to check reliability and validity and participants were 334 mothers of preschool children enrolled in kindergarten or nursery. Data were analyzed using principal component factor analysis for construct validity, t-test for contrasted group validity, Pearson correlation for criterion related validity and test-retest reliability and Cronbach's α for reliability. In the final MPIS 34 items identified through factor analysis were included, 6 constructs were derived, and explanatory power was 64.2%. Items on the MPIS were verified through correlation with the interaction observation scale of Kim & Mahoney and MPIS. Results were significant as mothers in the normal group exhibited MPIS scores that were significantly higher than those of mothers in the depressed group. Reliability of MPIS was .96 and test-retest reliability was .92. MPIS has the advantage of being easy to use, economical, and useful. Consequently, it is expected to be used as a screening tool for promptly and simply identifying the mother-preschool child interaction in diverse nursing practice and research.

  20. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Farkas, G; Duncan, GJ; Burchinal, MR; Vandell, DL

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were hig...

  1. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually

  2. Adult and Child Development in the Zone of Proximal Development: Socratic Dialogue in a Playworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for…

  3. Determinants of early child development in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Ingeborg G; Svensen, Erling; Lyngmo, Britt A; Mduma, Estomih; Hinderaker, Sven G

    2018-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 200 million children under the age of five do not reach their full potential in cognitive development. Much of what we know about brain development is based on research from high-income countries. There is limited evidence on the determinants of early child development in low-income countries, especially rural sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of cognitive development in children living in villages surrounding Haydom, a rural area in north-central Tanzania. This cohort study is part of the MAL-ED (The Interactions of Malnutrition & Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development) multi-country consortium studying risk factors for ill health and poor development in children. Descriptive analysis and linear regression analyses were performed. Associations between nutritional status, socio-economic status, and home environment at 6 months of age and cognitive outcomes at 15 months of age were studied. The third edition of the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development was used to assess cognitive, language and motor development. There were 262 children enrolled into the study, and this present analysis included the 137 children with data for 15-month Bayley scores. Univariate regression analysis, weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months were significantly associated with 15-month Bayley gross motor score, but not with other 15-month Bayley scores. Length-for-age z-scores at 6 months were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. The socio-economic status, measured by a set of assets and monthly income was significantly associated with 15-month Bayley cognitive score, but not with language, motor, nor total 15-month Bayley scores. Other socio-economic variables were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. No significant associations were found between the home environment and 15-month Bayley scores. In multivariate

  4. Generalised shot noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We introduce a new class of Cox cluster processes called generalised shot-noise processes (GSNCPs), which extends the definition of shot noise Cox processes (SNCPs) in two directions: the point process which drives the shot noise is not necessarily Poisson, and the kernel of the shot noise can...... be random. Thereby a very large class of models for aggregated or clustered point patterns is obtained. Due to the structure of GSNCPs, a number of useful results can be established. We focus first on deriving summary statistics for GSNCPs and next on how to make simulation for GSNCPs. Particularly, results...... for first and second order moment measures, reduced Palm distributions, the -function, simulation with or without edge effects, and conditional simulation of the intensity function driving a GSNCP are given. Our results are exemplified for special important cases of GSNCPs, and we discuss the relation...

  5. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item  Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach′s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  6. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S P; Jagan, Arati; Nagendra, H R

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution) have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). A 135-item Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI) scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A), pittaja (B), and kaphaja prakriti (C) characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists). Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years. CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84) with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  7. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  8. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  9. Child Labour Use in a Small Developing Country: Is it Luxury, Distributional or Substitution Axiom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Reddy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Child labour use in developing countries has been increasing over the years. In general, it’s characterized by low wages and long hours of work under dangerous, hazardous, unhealthy and unhygienic conditions, which could lead to poor physical and mental development. It deprives a child of education and natural development. In this paper, we examined the use of child labour in Fiji. The study utilized primary data collected using a structured survey to examine the determinants of child labour. The results from this study demonstrate that the variables such as household size, household income, and the gender of children significantly affect child labour supply. Furthermore, absence of adults from households is also a causal factor contributing towards child labour. Using these results, we make a case for “luxury” and “substitution” axioms for Fiji’s Child labour market.

  10. Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in the absence of myeloid cell-derived COX-2 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Duarte

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is a mediator of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI. While both global COX-2 deletion and pharmacologic COX-2 inhibition ameliorate liver IRI, the clinical use of COX-2 inhibitors has been linked to increased risks of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of COX-2 in different cell types may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for hepatic IRI. Macrophages of myeloid origin are currently considered to be important sources of the COX-2 in damaged livers. Here, we used a Cox-2flox conditional knockout mouse (COX-2-M/-M to examine the function of COX-2 expression in myeloid cells during liver IRI. COX-2-M/-M mice and their WT control littermates were subjected to partial liver ischemia followed by reperfusion. COX-2-M/-M macrophages did not express COX-2 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation and COX-2-M/-M livers showed reduced levels of COX-2 protein post-IRI. Nevertheless, selective deletion of myeloid cell-derived COX-2 failed to ameliorate liver IRI; serum transaminases and histology were comparable in both COX-2-M/-M and WT mice. COX-2-M/-M livers, like WT livers, developed extensive necrosis, vascular congestion, leukocyte infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression post-reperfusion. In addition, myeloid COX-2 deletion led to a transient increase in IL-6 levels after hepatic reperfusion, when compared to controls. Administration of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in significantly improved liver function and histology in both COX-2-M/-M and WT mice post-reperfusion, providing evidence that COX-2-mediated liver IRI is caused by COX-2 derived from a source(s other than myeloid cells. In conclusion, these results support the view that myeloid COX-2, including myeloid-macrophage COX-2, is not responsible for the hepatic IRI phenotype.

  11. Cultural Aspects on Child's Development and Parenting in Manggarai, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lon, Yohanes Servatius; Widyawati, Fransiska

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of culture in defining the concept of a child, the stages of development and parenting of children in Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. The main questions are how do Manggaraian people define a child in their culture? How do people divide the stages of child development? What do parenting styles develop by the people to their children? How are these concepts different and similar to the general psychological concept about children? This paper was based ...

  12. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    OpenAIRE

    Laude Monica

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...

  13. Music Education as a Key Factor in the Full Development of a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kłysz-Sokalska, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Music education is a field of pedagogy dedicated to the development of the individual through artistic action, which is manifested in various forms and activities. Properly conducted music education has a beneficial effect on the right development of child. Research shows that music education stimulates the competence of child's language and mathematical skills, affect the development of creative child's personality and its socialization. Neurodidactics points to the significance of playing t...

  14. Child healthcare nurses believe that bilingual children show slower language development, simplify screening procedures and delay referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeb, Laleh; Wallby, Thomas; Westerlund, Monica; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Sarkadi, Anna

    2015-02-01

    A significant number of children living in Sweden are bilingual, but how language screening is performed in this group is unknown. We investigated child healthcare nurses' perceptions of the language screening of bilingual children aged 30-36 months, together with their clinical practices. An online questionnaire was completed by 863 nurses who performed language screening of bilingual children in Sweden at least once a month, corresponding to 89% of the target population. Cox regression identified predictors of the nurses' tendency to simplify the screening of bilingual children. The nurses reported a greater lack of confidence and more difficulties in interpreting screening outcomes for bilingual than monolingual children (p bilingual children and 74% postponed referrals to speech and language services, basing these adaptations on their perceptions of the children's Swedish language skills (p bilingual children, and this was the strongest predictor of simplified screening practices (RR=2.00, 95% CI 1.44-2.77). Child healthcare nurses need easily accessible information and clear guidelines on the language development of bilingual children to ensure that bilingual and monolingual children receive equitable language screening services. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  16. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan

    2015-11-26

    Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  17. 77 FR 28888 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  18. 75 FR 10293 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...

  19. 76 FR 30732 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  20. 76 FR 9586 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  1. 77 FR 61418 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and...

  2. 76 FR 64092 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...

  3. 77 FR 12599 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  4. 75 FR 56118 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration and...

  5. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: November 19...

  6. Childhood Construction, Child Rights and Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child rights issues are becoming very important at policy arena and remarkable efforts and resources have been, and are still being committed to them. To demonstrate the seriousness being dedicated to the issues, particularly in line with international conventions, Nigeria enacted the Child Rights Acts (CRAs) in 2003 and ...

  7. Television and the Developing Imagination of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    The literature review discusses studies which have been conducted to determine whether television enriches a child's imagination or leads to distortions of reality, and whether adult mediation during a child's television viewing or immediately after can evoke constructive changes or stimulate make-believe play. Thirty-six references are cited.…

  8. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  9. 77 FR 21789 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Person: Ralph M. Nitkin, Ph.D., Director, B.S.C.D., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, DHHS, 6100...

  10. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  11. 77 FR 19676 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 RRG-K 52 1, Rehabilitation Research Career Development Programs. Date: April 17, 2012. Time: 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  12. 76 FR 67468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Hypoxia in Development: Injury and Adaptation Mechanisms. Date: November 22, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  13. 75 FR 20853 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the.... Contact Person: Ralph M Nitkin, PhD, Director, B.S.C.D., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive...

  14. Prevention of child abuse and neglect and improvements in child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2009-01-01

    of a standardised questionnaire covering a period of four years. The most damaging family conditions seemed to be psychological maltreatment, physical/sexual abuse and neglect. Maltreated children were more often in a depressed state, unhappy, socially isolated, or they had an eating disorder, inadequate or under....... The questionnaire explored the impact of various interventions, including services geared to strengthen the child's network, but results indicated that the child displayed reduced risk of reactive symptoms only when parental behaviour improved and abuse and neglect were reduced.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the implementation of a section in the Danish Social Assistance Act which encourages local authorities to offer families services in order to support children at risk of child maltreatment. The specific purpose of the present paper is to answer the question...

  15. Development of the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version. The instrument was developed in seven stages: 1 translation, 2 back-translation, 3 comparison of translated versions, 4 preparation of new stimuli, 5 data collection with healthy children to analyze comprehension of the stimuli and analyses by the authors against the psycholinguistic criteria adopted, 6 analyses conducted by judges who are specialists in neuropsychology or linguistics, and 7 the pilot study. Results: Twenty-four of the 72 sentences constructed were selected on the basis of 70-100% agreement between judges evaluating what they assessed and level of comprehensibility. The pilot study revealed better performance by older children, providing evidence of the instrument's sensitivity to developmental factors. Conclusions: Future studies employing this version of CHT with clinical pediatric populations who have frontal lesions and dysfunctions and in related areas are needed to test functional and differential diagnoses of preserved or impaired executive functions.

  16. Decomposition of variance for spatial Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    Spatial Cox point processes is a natural framework for quantifying the various sources of variation governing the spatial distribution of rain forest trees. We introduce a general criterion for variance decomposition for spatial Cox processes and apply it to specific Cox process models...

  17. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    2016-01-01

    and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae for the intensity...

  18. Decomposition of variance for spatial Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Spatial Cox point processes is a natural framework for quantifying the various sources of variation governing the spatial distribution of rain forest trees. We introduce a general criterion for variance decomposition for spatial Cox processes and apply it to specific Cox process models...

  19. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    of clustering and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae...

  20. Decomposition of variance for spatial Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    Spatial Cox point processes is a natural framework for quantifying the various sources of variation governing the spatial distribution of rain forest trees. We introducea general criterion for variance decomposition for spatial Cox processes and apply it to specific Cox process models with additive...

  1. Allan Cox 1926”1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Rob; Dalrymple, Brent

    More than 1000 friends, students, and colleagues from all over the country filled Stanford Memorial Chapel (Stanford, Calif.) on February 3, 1987, to join in “A Celebration of the Life of Allan Cox.” Allan died early on the morning of January 27 while bicycling, the sport he had come to love the most. Between pieces of his favorite music by Bach and Mozart, Stanford administrators and colleagues spoke in tribute of Allan's unique qualities as friend, scientist, teacher, and dean of the School of Earth Sciences. James Rosse, Vice President and Provost of Stanford University, struck a particularly resonant chord with his personal remarks: "Allan reached out to each person he knew with the warmth and attention that can only come from deep respect and affection for others. I never heard him speak ill of others, and I do not believe he was capable of doing anything that would harm another being. He cared too much to intrude where he was not wanted, but his curiosity about people and the loving care with which he approached them broke down reserve to create remarkable friendships. His enthusiasm and good humor made him a welcome guest in the hearts of the hundreds of students and colleagues who shared the opportunity of knowing Allan Cox as a person."

  2. Child development and pediatric sport and recreational injuries by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally

  3. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  4. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  5. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  6. The life mission theory IV. Theory on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-11

    We can identify five important needs that children have: the need for acknowledgment, acceptance, awareness or attention, respect, and care. If these needs are not met, children will modify themselves by denying central parts of their nature in order to adjust to their parents and the situation at large. When a child denies his or her talents, powers, and gender or aspects thereof, he or she loses quality of life, the ability to function, and physical or mental health. The loss of ability takes the form of diminished social ability, psychosexual potency, joy, energy, and fantasy while playing, as well as diminished ability to concentrate, focus, and learn. Many modifications result in a child with severely damaged self-confidence, self-worth, and poor performance. A child more or less deprived of self-worth cannot enjoy, give, or receive. A child deprived of emotions turns cold, rational, asocial, socially stiff, uncomfortable, and in the extreme case...intentionally "evil". When a child denies his or her own sex, it becomes invisible, uninteresting, and vague or becomes like the opposite sex in behavior and appearance. The general holistic solution to the vast diversity of symptoms in children with low quality of life is to improve the situation for the child and give the child the holding and support he or she needs. It is very important to realize that a negative belief often has survival value to the child as it helps the child to avoid taking responsibility for problems, which really belong to the parents or other adults. Children have a fine capability for spontaneous healing, and seem to enter this process more easily than adults, given sufficient holding. The symptoms of children with poor thriving ability are often difficult to understand, as they are caused by a complex combination of self-modification in five existential dimensions. This often leads to complex medical diagnosis, giving the idea that the child is sick and without therapeutic reach, while

  7. The Life Mission Theory IV. Theory on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We can identify five important needs that children have: the need for acknowledgment, acceptance, awareness or attention, respect, and care. If these needs are not met, children will modify themselves by denying central parts of their nature in order to adjust to their parents and the situation at large. When a child denies his or her talents, powers, and gender or aspects thereof, he or she loses quality of life, the ability to function, and physical or mental health. The loss of ability takes the form of diminished social ability, psychosexual potency, joy, energy, and fantasy while playing, as well as diminished ability to concentrate, focus, and learn. Many modifications result in a child with severely damaged self-confidence, self-worth, and poor performance. A child more or less deprived of self-worth cannot enjoy, give, or receive. A child deprived of emotions turns cold, rational, asocial, socially stiff, uncomfortable, and in the extreme case…... intentionally “evil”. When a child denies his or her own sex, it becomes invisible, uninteresting, and vague or becomes like the opposite sex in behavior and appearance. The general holistic solution to the vast diversity of symptoms in children with low quality of life is to improve the situation for the child and give the child the holding and support he or she needs. It is very important to realize that a negative belief often has survival value to the child as it helps the child to avoid taking responsibility for problems, which really belong to the parents or other adults. Children have a fine capability for spontaneous healing, and seem to enter this process more easily than adults, given sufficient holding. The symptoms of children with poor thriving ability are often difficult to understand, as they are caused by a complex combination of self-modification in five existential dimensions. This often leads to complex medical diagnosis, giving the idea that the child is sick and

  8. Developing Indicators for the Child and Youth Mental Health System in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Julie; Kurdyak, Paul; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    When the Government of Ontario launched a comprehensive mental health and addictions strategy, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) was tasked with developing a scorecard for ongoing monitoring of the child and youth mental health system. Using existing administrative and survey-based healthcare and education data, researchers at ICES developed a scorecard consisting of 25 indicators that described at-risk populations, child and youth mental healthcare and relevant outcomes. This scorecard is the first in Canada to report on performance indicators for the child and youth mental health system and provides a model for monitoring child and youth mental health using routinely collected administrative data.

  9. 77 FR 19022 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... under subsection (b) shall-- (1) Incorporate behavioral, emotional, educational, and contextual..., Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 31 Center Drive Room..., Analysis and Communications, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. [FR Doc. 2012-7589...

  10. 77 FR 37424 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  11. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special...

  12. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  13. 77 FR 16845 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  14. 75 FR 16151 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 3A01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451... the meeting. Name of Committee: National Children's Study Advisory Committee. Date: April 27, 2010...

  15. Henri Wallon's Theory of Early Child Development: The Role of Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veer, Rene

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the stage theory of early child development of French theorist Henri Wallon. Describes Wallon's efforts (in contrast to contemporary Piaget) to describe emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the child-caregiver bond. Argues that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, influenced theorists such as Vygotsky, and…

  16. Active Learning through Role Playing: Virtual Babies in a Child Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors designed an active learning project for a child development course in which students apply core concepts to a hypothetical baby they "raise" during the term. Students applied developmental topics to their unique, developing child. The project fostered student learning and enthusiasm for the material. The project's versatility makes it…

  17. 78 FR 49249 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program; Reopening of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 98 Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF... Development Fund (CCDF), published in the Federal Register of May 20, 2013. The proposed rule makes changes to..., Office of Child Care, 202-205-0750 (not a toll-free call). Deaf and hearing impaired individuals may call...

  18. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  19. 76 FR 26736 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Systematic Review of Neonatal Medicine. Date: May 23, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications...

  20. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  1. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  2. Tough Times: Community Coordination and Development in Child Protective Services in a Rurban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Bob; Morgan, Dan

    The origins and development of the Missoula Council for Child Protection and Family Support are traced during its first 9 months as a community group focusing upon projects and issues to alleviate child abuse and neglect. The approach used is described as a mixture of rural community development and planning. Among projects listed as completed…

  3. Endocrine Responses to Exercise in the Developing Child and Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of exercise training on the neuroendocrine control of the pituitary in the developing child is complex and the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple determinants influence adaptive hypothalamic-pituitary secretory responses to physical stress, namely, training intensity and duration, nutrition and energy balance, gender, age, sex, and sexual maturation status. The increase in growth hormone (GH) in response to acute exercise is dependent on pubertal status; children in more advanced pubertal stages respond with larger peak GH concentrations compared to those in earlier stages. The adolescent female athlete is more prone to menstrual disorders than the more mature athlete, and recent data suggest that athletes may be able to reverse menstrual disorders by increasing their dietary energy intake without decreasing their exercise levels. The thyroid changes observed are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. Studies that evaluated changes in cortisol secretion during aerobic exercise in children and adolescents show either an increase or no change in response to the exercise bout. Recent research showed that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and increasing levels of physical activity during childhood likely enhance optimal bone strength. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  5. Misclassification due to age grouping in measures of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Scott; Rodriguez, Christine; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John

    2015-03-01

    Screens for developmental delay generally provide a set of norms for different age groups. Development varies continuously with age, however, and applying a single criterion for an age range will inevitably produce misclassifications. In this report, we estimate the resulting error rate for one example: the cognitive subscale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). Data come from a general population sample of 594 children (305 male) aged 1 month to 42.5 months who received the BSID-III as part of a validation study. We used regression models to estimate the mean and variance of the cognitive subscale as a function of age. We then used these results to generate a dataset of one million simulated participants and compared their status before and after division into age groups. Finally, we applied broader age bands used in two other instruments and explored likely validity limitations when different instruments are compared. When BSID-III age groups are used, 15% of cases are missed and 15% of apparent cases are false positives. Wider age groups produced error rates from 27% to 46%. Comparison of different age groups suggests that sensitivity in validation studies would be limited, under certain assumptions, to 70% or less. The use of age groups produces a large number of misclassifications. Although affected children will usually be close to the threshold, this may lead to misreferrals. Results may help to explain the poor measured agreement of development screens. Scoring methods that treat child age as continuous would improve instrument accuracy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD and child development: A Manitoba population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Comaskey

    Full Text Available To examine the association between maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD and child development assessed during the kindergarten year.Administrative data from several health and social databases in Manitoba, Canada, were used to study 18,331 mother-child pairs. MDAD over the period from one year prior to the child's birth to the kindergarten year was defined using physician diagnoses and filled prescriptions. Child development was assessed during the kindergarten year using the Early Development Instrument (EDI which measures vulnerability across five domains of development. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between timing, recurrence and severity of MDAD and child outcomes. Health at Birth (preterm, low birth weight, neonatal intensive care stay and long birth hospitalization, Family Context (teen mother, lone parent, socio-economic status (SES, child age and child sex were covariates.MDAD had a modest negative association with child EDI scores across all models tested, particularly for social, emotional and physical development. Prenatal MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than other time periods; however, recurrent MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than any specific time period or MDAD severity. The influence of MDAD was mediated by Family Context, which had a strong, negative association with outcomes, particularly language and cognitive development.The number of time periods a child was exposed to MDAD in early childhood was more negatively associated with five areas of child development than timing or severity. Prenatal exposure may be more sensitive to MDAD than other time periods. The familial context (teen mother, lone parenthood and low SES had a stronger influence on child outcomes than MDAD. Findings can be used to inform interventions which address maternal mental health from the prenatal period onward, and to support disadvantaged families to encourage

  7. Developing Collaborative Maternal and Child Health Leaders: A Descriptive Study of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alina Nadira; Cilenti, Dorothy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose An assessment of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center (the Center) was conducted to describe (1) effects of the Center's training on the use of collaborative leadership practices by MCH leaders, and (2) perceived barriers to collaboration for MCH leaders. The Center provides services to strengthen MCH professionals' skills in three core areas: Change Management/Adaptive Leadership, Evidence-Based Decision Making, and Systems Integration. Description This descriptive qualitative study compares eight interview responses from a sample of the Center's participants and findings from a document review of the training curriculum against an existing framework of collaborative leadership themes. Assessment Systems thinking tools and related training were highly referenced, and the interviewees often related process-based leadership practices with their applied learning health transformation projects. Perceived barriers to sustaining collaborative work included: (1) a tendency for state agencies to have siloed priorities, (2) difficulty achieving a consensus to move a project forward without individual partners disengaging, (3) strained organizational partnerships when the individual representative leaves that partnering organization, and (4) difficulty in sustaining project-based partnerships past the short term. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that investments in leadership development training for MCH professionals, such as the Center, can provide opportunities for participants to utilize collaborative leadership practices.

  8. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  9. COX-1 vs. COX-2 as a determinant of basal tone in the internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Neeru; Rattan, Satish

    2009-02-01

    Prostanoids, produced endogenously via cyclooxygenases (COXs), have been implicated in the sustained contraction of different smooth muscles. The two major types of COXs are COX-1 and COX-2. The COX subtype involved in the basal state of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone is not known. To identify the COX subtype, we examined the effect of COX-1- and COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively, on basal tone in the rat IAS. We also determined the effect of selective deletion of COX-1 and COX-2 genes (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) mice) on basal tone in murine IAS. Our data show that SC-560 causes significantly more efficacious and potent concentration-dependent decreases in IAS tone than rofecoxib. In support of these data, significantly higher levels of COX-1 than COX-2 mRNA were found in the IAS. In addition, higher levels of COX-1 mRNA and protein were expressed in rat IAS than rectal smooth muscle. In wild-type mice, IAS tone was decreased 41.4 +/- 3.4% (mean +/- SE) by SC-560 (1 x 10(-5) M) and 5.4 +/- 2.2% by rofecoxib (P IAS from wild-type mice and significantly less (0.080 +/- 0.015 mN/mg) in the IAS from COX-1(-/-) mice (P IAS tone.

  10. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-09-17

    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  11. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  12. MOTOR STRUCTURE AND BASIC MOVEMENT COMPETENCES IN EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Pišot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.

  13. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.

  14. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-06-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Political Economy, Capability Development, and Fundamental Cause: Integrating Perspectives on Child Health in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Burroway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.

  16. Cox1 mutation abrogates need for Cox23 in cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dela Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cox23 is a known conserved assembly factor for cytochrome c oxidase, although its role in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO biogenesis remains unresolved. To gain additional insights into its role, we isolated spontaneous suppressors of the respiratory growth defect in cox23∆ yeast cells. We recovered independent colonies that propagated on glycerol/lactate medium for cox23∆ cells at 37°C. We mapped these mutations to the mitochondrial genome and specifically to COX1 yielding an I101F substitution. The I101F Cox1 allele is a gain-of-function mutation enabling yeast to respire in the absence of Cox23. CcO subunit steady-state levels were restored with the I101F Cox1 suppressor mutation and oxygen consumption and CcO activity were likewise restored. Cells harboring the mitochondrial genome encoding I101F Cox1 were used to delete genes for other CcO assembly factors to test the specificity of the Cox1 mutation as a suppressor of cox23∆ cells. The Cox1 mutant allele fails to support respiratory growth in yeast lacking Cox17, Cox19, Coa1, Coa2, Cox14 or Shy1, demonstrating its specific suppressor activity for cox23∆ cells.

  17. Parental Schooling and Child Development: Learning from Twin Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...

  18. CDC Kerala 1: Organization of clinical child development services (1987-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; George, Babu; Nair, G S Harikumaran; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC), Kerala for piloting comprehensive child adolescent development program in India, has been to understand the conceptualization, design and scaling up of a pro-active positive child development initiative, easily replicable all over India. The process of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala for research, clinical services, training and community extension services over the last 25 y, has been as follows; Step 1: Conceptualization--The life cycle approach to child development; Step 2: Research basis--CDC model early stimulation is effective; Step 3: Development and validation of seven simple developmental screening tools; Step 4: CDC Diagnostic services--Ultrasonology and genetic, and metabolic laboratory; Step 5: Developing seven intervention packages; Step 6: Training--Post graduate diploma in clinical child development; Step 7: CDC Clinic Services--seven major ones; Step 8: CDC Community Services--Child development referral units; Step 9: Community service delivery models--Childhood disability and for adolescent care counselling projects; Step 10: National capacity building--Four child development related courses. CDC Kerala follow-up and clinic services are offered till 18 y of age and premarital counselling till 24 y of age as shown in "CDC Kerala Clinic Services Flow Chart" and 74,291 children have availed CDC clinic services in the last 10 y. CDC Kerala is the first model for comprehensive child adolescent development services using a lifecycle approach in the Government sector and hence declared as the collaborative centre for Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), in Kerala.

  19. Development of directives in child language: A case study of Czech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chejnová Pavla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the longitudinal development of directives in first-language acquisition is described, and examples of the development of directive speech acts in one Czech child from the ages of 2.8 to 4.1 are included. The results show that the child acquires communicative strategies gradually and that he usually prefers one concrete strategy initially, which is later replaced by a new strategy corresponding with the acquisition of morphological categories. The child’s grammatical development is divided into two stages: the stage of protomorphology, when the child acquires basic morphological categories, and the stage of morphology proper / modular morphology, when the child uses a variety of grammatical means. In the stage of morphology proper, pragmatic factors become more influential as the child is no longer limited by a lack of grammatical competence.

  20. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…

  1. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…

  2. Implementing the Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization: A Guide for States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schulman, Karen; Vogtman, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Blank, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014, with broad bipartisan support, Congress reauthorized CCDBG [Child Care and Development Block Grant] (the major federal child care program) for the first time since 1996. The new law strengthens CCDBG's dual role as a major early childhood education program and a work support for low-income families. This implementation guide is…

  3. The Future of Child Development Lab Schools: Applied Developmental Science in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nancy, Ed.; McBride, Brent A., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Child development laboratory schools are found on college and university campuses throughout the U.S. Over the last century, they have acquired a long, rich history. Originally seen as settings for the new field of child study in the early 1900s, their functions have evolved over time. These programs often play a central role in supporting…

  4. New Evidence of the Causal Effect of Family Size on Child Quality in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence of the causal effect of family size on child quality in a developing-country context. We estimate the impact of family size on child labor and educational outcomes among Brazilian children and young adults by exploring the exogenous variation of family size driven by the presence of twins in the family. Using the…

  5. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  6. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  7. You and Your Child: Practical Child Development Information from High/Scope for Parents, with Helpful Support Strategies To Use at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nancy

    This document is comprised of 12 issues of a High/Scope newsletter designed to give parents information on child development and to provide suggestions for ways parents can support their preschool child's development at home. Each issue focuses on one aspect of development or learning. The topics for the 12 issues are: (1) dramatic play; (2)…

  8. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p early childbearing was not the sole pathway through which girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 281 Igbo Symbols: Developing Aesthetic Values on the Igbo Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child has lost the grip of the meaning and value of these symbols. It is difficult for .... language has equally reduced the use of indigenous language (Igbo as the case may .... body of Christ on July22, 1999 as quoted by Nwaorgu (200 1:243).

  10. Girl-Child Education and Nigeria's Development Agenda: a Literary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have therefore taken a literary trajectory of select literary female characters with a view to positioning them against the background of their access or otherwise to education (formal and informal), and how this plays out in the shaping of their lives vis-à-vis the Nigerian girl-child's prospect of enhancing herself with a view ...

  11. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 août 2010 ... Topics considered include monetary poverty, asset poverty, nutrition, mortality, access to education and school attendance, child labor, and access to health services. The book's findings demonstrate that while current government programs offering financial assistance, supplementary food, and free or ...

  12. A Comprehensive Child Development Program; Title XX, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Juanita T.

    This booklet describes the Comprehensive Child Day Care Program for the Atlanta Public School System, a Title XX Program. This program provided day care services for children of clients in various categories. The program goals for 1975-76 were geared toward providing comprehensive day care to encompass social services to the family and…

  13. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  14. Developing Child-Centered Social Policies: When Professionalism Takes Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hennum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No nation today can be understood as being fully child-centered, but many are pursuing social policies heavily favoring children. The emphasis on individual rights and the growth of scientific knowledge underpinning many of these policies have led to the improvement of the lives of a great many children. Paradoxically, these same knowledge bases informing social policies often produce representations and images of children and their parents that are detrimental for both of these groups. Using Norwegian child welfare policies and practices as examples, I will examine some of the possible pitfalls of child-centered praxis. The key question here is one asking whether the scientific frame central to child welfare professionalism has positioned children and parents as objects rather than subjects in their own lives and, in so doing, required them to live up to standards of life defined for them by experts. A central question will involve exploring the extent to which scientific knowledge has erased political and ethical considerations from the field when assessing social problems.

  15. Effects of child development accounts on early social-emotional development: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    This study, based on Oklahoma's statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being. To examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood. A statewide randomized experiment of CDAs was conducted in 2008, drawing a probability sample of 7328 children from all infants born in two 3-month periods in Oklahoma (April 1 through June 30 and August 1 through October 31, 2007). After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 1358) and control groups (n = 1346). Approximately 84% of participants completed a follow-up survey in the spring of 2011. The intervention offered CDAs, built on the existing Oklahoma 529 college-savings plan, to treatment participants. It also provided additional financial incentives and information. The primary outcome-child social-emotional development-is measured by scores from a 17-item version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Caregivers completed it in the 3-year follow-up survey. Lower scores indicate better functioning. The CDAs have positive effects on social-emotional development for children at approximately age 4 years. The nonweighted treatment-control difference is -1.56 (90% CI, -2.87 to -0.22; P = .06), but the weighted difference is nonsignificant. The effects appear to be greater for disadvantaged subsamples, such as low-income households (weighted mean difference, -2.21; 90% CI, -4.01 to -0.42; P = .04). As a complement to other early education and health interventions, CDAs may improve social-emotional development in early childhood. Their effects may be explained as a mediating

  16. Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Burmenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

  17. Family: critical pathway in the emotional development of the child in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Amor Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, some considerations are explicit about the role of the family in the most sensitive period of life, the first year. It highlights the changes that have occurred in this educational agency today and its impact on child development, with emphasis on socio - affective area. It is a lso emphasized the stimulatin g role that everyone in the household must meet with the child, indicating affection as the fundamental nutrient not only to the physical development but also the psychological development of the child, since the leadership activity of the age is the emoti onal communication with the adult.

  18. Leadership for child health in the developing countries of the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Rami; Duke, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership. PMID:23198107

  19. Leadership for child health in the developing countries of the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Subhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership.

  20. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2003-09-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior

  1. More than Just Openness: Developing and Validating a Measure of Targeted Parent-Child Communication about Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Kam, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Research addressing parent-child communication on the topic of alcohol use relies heavily on assessing frequency of discussions and general assessments of openness in parent-child communication, ignoring the complexity of this communication phenomenon. This study adds to the literature by articulating a conceptualization and developing a measurement of parent-child communication—targeted parent-child communication about alcohol—and comparing the efficacy of targeted parent-child communication...

  2. The Impact of Gender Equality and ICT on Child Development: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcılar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study uses a cross-sectional data set collected in 2006 for 136 countries in order to examine the relationship between child development and its determinants, such as the gender equality, information communication technology (ICT, and institutional variables. We test whether the child development is related to gender equality, by using Gender Development Index (GDI and Child Development Index (CDI to take into account more than one dimension of gender equality and child development, respectively. The study finds that the impact of gender equality is most robust and significant variable in all regressions and its impact never disappears when control variables, such as the institutional quality and ICT, are incorporated into the regressions.

  3. 75 FR 39030 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diabetes Risk Across Women's... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room...

  4. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... conducted by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including..., Scientific Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH...

  5. 77 FR 16247 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-L 55 2. Date: April 10... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  6. 75 FR 39698 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Craniofacial Synostosis: Critical... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  7. 75 FR 36429 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... Institute of Child, Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  8. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Geisha. Date: July 13... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  9. 78 FR 12069 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Demographic/Behavioral Population... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda...

  10. 75 FR 34462 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Adolescent Medicine Trials Network... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd. Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  12. Regulation of COX and LOX by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is extensively used as a household remedy for various diseases. For the last few decades, work has been done to establish the biological activities and pharmacological actions of curcumin, the principle constituent of turmeric. Curcumin has proven to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators that are intimately involved in inflammation are biosynthesized by pathways dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes. The role of LOX and COX isoforms, particularly COX-2, in the inflammation has been well established. At cellular and molecular levels, curcumin has been shown to regulate a number of signaling pathways, including the eicosanoid pathway involving COX and LOX. A number of studies have been conducted that support curcumin-mediated regulation of COX and LOX pathways, which is an important mechanism by which curcumin prevents a number of disease processes, including the cancer. The specific regulation of 5-LOX and COX-2 by curcumin is not fully established; however, existing evidence indicates that curcumin regulates LOX and COX-2 predominately at the transcriptional level and, to a certain extent, the posttranslational level. Thus, the curcumin-selective transcriptional regulatory action of COX-2, and dual COX/LOX inhibitory potential of this naturally occurring agent provides distinctive advantages over synthetic COX/LOX inhibitors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we discuss evidence that supports the regulation of COX and LOX enzymes by curcumin as the key mechanism for its beneficial effects in preventing various inflammatory diseases.

  13. In vitro and In Silico Studies on Curcumin and Its Analogues as Dual Inhibitors for cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Yuniarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been widely reported as an anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the plant Curcuma longa L. (turmeric. This anti-inflammatory activity was associated with the ability of this compound to inhibit the activity of both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in arachidonic acid metabolism. Dual COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors are preferred to be employed in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases compared to selective inhibitors, since it was reported that the use of selective inhibitors led to severe adverse side effect. In the present study, in vitro and in silico assays on curcumin and its analogues as dual inhibitors for both COX-1 and COX-2 were performed. The results provide theoretical contribution in understanding the ligand-protein interactions at the molecular level to develop new curcumin analogues which possess better anti-inflammatory activity as well as to avoid unsolicited side effects.

  14. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate r...

  15. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF DRUGS ON THE ORGANISM OF A FUTURE CHILD DURING FETAL STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Article assesses the impact of adverse factors on intrauterine development of the child, first of all, drugs. The author stresses that the importance of drug safety (D is due to the large number of unintended pregnancies worldwide. A list of the D, providing proven teratogenic effects on a child organism is presenting. It is shown that the D teratogenic effect in humans can not be assessed on the basis of experimental data obtained in animals due to the difference between metabolic and detoxification processes in a different mammals and individuals. Key words: drugs, safety, teratogenic effects, fetal development, the unborn child. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 57–60.

  16. 75 FR 18217 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Gene Therapy for Urea Disorders... prior to the meeting due to the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue...

  17. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male Germline. Date: October 17..., Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; 93.209, Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program...

  18. 75 FR 29774 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee; Function, Integration and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee. Date: June...

  19. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  20. Estimating functions for inhomogeneous Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples.......Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples....

  1. The impact of nutrition on child development at 3 years in a rural community of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Breast feeding has a positive effect on the overall development of the child and should be promoted in the present generation. In India, child malnutrition is responsible for a higher percentage of the country′s burden of disease. Undernutrition also affects cognitive and motor development and undermines educational attainment; and ultimately impacts on productivity at work and at home, with adverse implications for income and economic growth.

  2. Individual approach to the development of graphomotor skills by child with diparetic form of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMOLÍKOVÁ, Anežka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the development of graphomotoric skills in a child with diparetic form DMO in the form of cerebral palsy. Describes the DMO, its causes, manifestations and classification of interventions. A case study is focused on the development of graphomotoric skills by using the individual program, created for the nursery school, as well as for parents and their work with the child at home.

  3. The Simultaneous Effects of Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Child Health on Children’s Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot

    2018-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and child health are so strongly related that scholars have speculated child health to be an important pathway through which a “cycle of poverty” is reproduced across generations. Despite increasing recognition that SES and health work reciprocally and dynamically over the life course to produce inequality, however, existing research has yet to address how these two pathways simultaneously shape children’s development. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and marginal structural models, we ask three questions: 1) how does the reciprocal relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and child health affect estimates of each circumstance on children’s cognitive development?; 2) how do their respective effects vary with age?; and 3) do family SES and child health have differential effects on cognitive development across population subgroups? The results show that the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health are insensitive to their reciprocal relationships over time. We find divergent effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health on children’s cognitive trajectories, with a widening pattern for family SES effects and a leveling-off pattern for child health effects. Finally, the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage are similar across all racial/ethnic groups, while the effects of child health are largely driven by white children. We discuss theoretical and policy implications of these findings for future research. PMID:28836169

  4. Engendering Development: Some Methodological Perspectives on Child Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Burman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address when and why it is useful to focus on gender in the design and conceptualisation of developmental psychological research. Since methodological debates treated in the abstract tend to lack both the specificity and rigour that application to a particular context or topic imports, I take a particular focus for my discussion: child labour. In doing so I hope to highlight the analytical and practical gains of bringing gendered agendas alongside, and into, developmental research. While child labour may seem a rather curious topic for discussion of developmental psychological research practice, this article will show how it indicates with particular clarity issues that mainstream psychological research often occludes or forgets. In particular, I explore analytical and methodological benefits of exploring the diverse ways gender structures notions of childhood, alongside the developmental commonalities and asymmetries of gender and age as categories. I suggest that the usual assumed elision between women and children is often unhelpful for both women and children. Instead, an analytical attention to the shifting forms and relations of children's work facilitates more differentiated perspectives on how its meanings reflect economic and cultural (including gendered conditions, and so attends better to social inequalities. These inequalities also structure the methodological conditions and paradigms for research with children, and so the article finishes by elaborating from this discussion of child labour four key principles for engendering psychological research with and about children, which also have broader implications for conceptualisations of the relations between gender, childhood, culture and families. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060111

  5. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rezai Abhari, Farideh; Zarghami, Mehran

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD) on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009), 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204) and control (N=467) groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively). PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  6. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdollahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009, 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204 and control (N=467 groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively. PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  7. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, M.P.C.M.; Linting, M.; Henrichs, J.; Herba, C.M.; Verhage, M.L.; Schenk, J.J.; Arends, L.R.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.; Van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Methods: Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal

  8. 77 FR 43344 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  9. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  10. 77 FR 5029 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Perinatal HIV-Infected Youth. Date...., Scientific Review Officer Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  11. 75 FR 36431 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel--Assays of Biological Specimens in..., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  12. 78 FR 56240 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Further...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  13. LC-MS/MS confirms that COX-1 drives vascular prostacyclin whilst gene expression pattern reveals non-vascular sites of COX-2 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Kirkby

    Full Text Available There are two schools of thought regarding the cyclooxygenase (COX isoform active in the vasculature. Using urinary prostacyclin markers some groups have proposed that vascular COX-2 drives prostacyclin release. In contrast, we and others have found that COX-1, not COX-2, is responsible for vascular prostacyclin production. Our experiments have relied on immunoassays to detect the prostacyclin breakdown product, 6-keto-PGF1α and antibodies to detect COX-2 protein. Whilst these are standard approaches, used by many laboratories, antibody-based techniques are inherently indirect and have been criticized as limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. To address this question, we measured production of prostanoids, including 6-keto-PGF1α, by isolated vessels and in the circulation in vivo using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and found values essentially identical to those obtained by immunoassay. In addition, we determined expression from the Cox2 gene using a knockin reporter mouse in which luciferase activity reflects Cox2 gene expression. Using this we confirm the aorta to be essentially devoid of Cox2 driven expression. In contrast, thymus, renal medulla, and regions of the brain and gut expressed substantial levels of luciferase activity, which correlated well with COX-2-dependent prostanoid production. These data are consistent with the conclusion that COX-1 drives vascular prostacyclin release and puts the sparse expression of Cox2 in the vasculature in the context of the rest of the body. In doing so, we have identified the thymus, gut, brain and other tissues as target organs for consideration in developing a new understanding of how COX-2 protects the cardiovascular system.

  14. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  15. The Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ): development and first validation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Sleddens, Ester Fc; Raaijmakers, Lieke Ch; Gies, Judith M; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2016-08-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure food-related and activity-related practices of child-care staff, based on existing, validated parenting practices questionnaires. A selection of items from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) questionnaire was made to include items most suitable for the child-care setting. The converted questionnaire was pre-tested among child-care staff during cognitive interviews and pilot-tested among a larger sample of child-care staff. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation and internal consistencies were used to examine the scales. Spearman correlations, t tests and ANOVA were used to examine associations between the scales and staff's background characteristics (e.g. years of experience, gender). Child-care centres in the Netherlands. The qualitative pre-test included ten child-care staff members. The quantitative pilot test included 178 child-care staff members. The new questionnaire, the Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ), consists of sixty-three items (forty food-related and twenty-three activity-related items), divided over twelve scales (seven food-related and five activity-related scales). The CFAPQ scales are to a large extent similar to the original CFPQ and PPAPP scales. The CFAPQ scales show sufficient internal consistency with Cronbach's α ranging between 0·53 and 0·96, and average corrected item-total correlations within acceptable ranges (0·30-0·89). Several of the scales were significantly associated with child-care staff's background characteristics. Scale psychometrics of the CFAPQ indicate it is a valid questionnaire that assesses child-care staff's practices related to both food and activities.

  16. [Child health care and its development in Vrsac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.

  17. Sex-role patterns, paternal rearing attitudes and child development in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelbladt, P; Uddenberg, N; Englesson, I

    1981-07-01

    Sex-role patterns, the father's rearing attitude and the child's intellectual and emotional development in different social classes were studied in a randomly selected sample of 58 Swedish unbroken families of a small child. Working class men and women married younger and the women were more often house-wives. Working class men had more often been reared in an "authoritarian" way and more often reared their children in the same way. Upper middle class men had taken a more active part in the care of the child. Working class children scored lower on the intelligence tests, especially the verbal ones and were more often estimated as socially immature.

  18. A children's nurse's role in the global development of a child with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Jodie; Corkin, Doris

    2013-11-01

    The nursing care of a six year old with type 1 diabetes reveals the importance of accurate control of the condition for normal physical, emotional and cognitive development. Clearly the children's nurse can educate and support the child, parents and extended family towards achieving independence and self-care. Theoretical knowledge of normal child maturation can guide nurses to constantly adapt their modes of communication and nursing skills, so as to promote every aspect and stage of the child's growth. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes is increasing, and nurses should use their close professional involvement with patients to assist research at every opportunity.

  19. Teacher-Child Relationships and the Development of Academic and Behavioral Skills during Elementary School: A within- and between-Child Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent growth in research highlighting the potential of teacher-child relationships to promote children's development during the early years of school, questions remain about the importance of these relationships across elementary school. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364), this study examines between- and…

  20. Books, toys, parent-child interaction, and development in young Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Flynn, Virginia; Rovira, Irene; Tineo, Wendy; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2006-01-01

    To describe the interrelationships between books and toys in the home, parent-child interaction, and child development at 21 months among low-income Latino children. Latino mother-infant dyads enrolled in a level 1 nursery and infants were followed to 21 months. The subjects consisted of the control group of a larger intervention study. At 6 and 18 months, the number of books and toys in the home and the frequency of reading aloud were measured by the StimQ. At 21 months, child cognitive and language development and parent-child interaction were assessed by the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI), the Preschool Language Scale-3 (PLS-3), and the Caregiver-Child Interaction Rating Scale, respectively. Eligibility for early intervention (EI) services was determined on the basis of the MDI and PLS-3. Data were obtained for 46 (63.0%) of 73 at 21 months. In multiple regression analysis, books provided at 18 months predicted both cognition (semipartial correlation [sr] = .49, P= .001) and receptive language (sr = .37, P= .02), whereas toys provided at both 6 and 18 months predicted 21-month receptive language (sr = .40, P= .01; sr = .32, P= .047, respectively). Reading aloud by parents > or =4 days a week was associated with decreased EI eligibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.99). Reading aloud and provision of toys are associated with better child cognitive and language development as well as with decreased likelihood of EI eligibility.

  1. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  2. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yalda Kazemi; Helen Stringer; Thomas Klee

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Ir...

  3. Heroes and housewives: the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight into the role of child gender, parent gender, and sibling gender composition in the socio-emotional development of children. In Chapter 2 the extent to which mothers and fathers use differential cont...

  4. Family Structure Transitions and Child Development: Instability, Selection, and Population Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dohoon; McLanahan, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature documents the importance of family instability for child wellbeing. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the impacts of family instability on children’s cognitive and socioemotional development in early and middle childhood. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing between the number and types of family structure changes; (2) by accounting for time-varying as well as time-constan...

  5. Decomposition of Variance for Spatial Cox Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2013-03-01

    Spatial Cox point processes is a natural framework for quantifying the various sources of variation governing the spatial distribution of rain forest trees. We introduce a general criterion for variance decomposition for spatial Cox processes and apply it to specific Cox process models with additive or log linear random intensity functions. We moreover consider a new and flexible class of pair correlation function models given in terms of normal variance mixture covariance functions. The proposed methodology is applied to point pattern data sets of locations of tropical rain forest trees.

  6. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Development of an Arabic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abduwani, Jumana; Sidebotham, Peter; Al Saadoon, Muna; Al Lawati, Mohammed; Barlow, Jane

    2017-10-01

    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a well-validated screening tool for assessing potential for child physical abuse, and has been translated into many different languages. To date the CAPI has not been translated into Arabic or used in any studies in Arabic-speaking populations. This study reports on the process of adapting the CAPI into Arabic Language which was undertaken following the International Society of Pharma-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines. The translation/adaptation process was multi-stage, and involved the use of a Delphi process, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and a pilot testing of the Arabic CAPI at two primary health care centers with a population of pregnant women (n=60). Following "literal translation" 73 out of the 160 items needed re-phrasing to adapt the items to the Oman context. No differences were found when comparing results of the translated or back-translated versions to source; however, eight items needed further amendment following translated to back-translated comparison and feedback from the pilot. Iterations were resolved following in-depth interviews. Discrepancies were due to differences in culture, parenting practices, and religion. Piloting of the tool indicated mean score value of 155.8 (SD=59.4) and eleven women (18%) scored above the cut off value of 215. This Arabic translation of the CAPI was undertaken using rigorous methodology and sets the scene for further research on the Arabic CAPI within Arabic-speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the psychological and pedagogical factors of effective implementation and use of electronic educational tools in secondary schools. Determination of individual development by complex of psychological and pedagogical, ergonomic, aesthetic and hygienic factors of information technology use is grounded. The basic psychological and educational factors that influence child development are considered. Main groups of ergonomic requirements, which should emphasize the development and evaluation of electronic tools to maximize development and mental and physical health of the child, are described.

  8. The Life Cycle of the Child Care Center -- Understanding Center Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Gary; Ratekin, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Identifies the seven stages of the life cycle for child care centers: entrepreneurial; development; formalization; maturity; stagnation; death; and renewal. Suggests that critical transition points exist for organizational development, and that, if they are aware of and understand each stage of development, administrators may intervene at those…

  9. A Transactional Model of Temperamental Development: Evidence of a Relationship between Child Temperament and Maternal Stress over Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Komsi, Niina; Jarvenpaa, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Although there is growing consensus that parental stress is a risk factor in child development, longitudinal studies of its effects are few. This study tested a sample of 231 mother-child dyads in terms of whether the relations between the global experience of stress in mothers (perceived stress scale) and child temperamental characteristics…

  10. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  11. Risky play and children's safety: balancing priorities for optimal child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L; Pike, Ian; Sleet, David A

    2012-08-30

    Injury prevention plays a key role in keeping children safe, but emerging research suggests that imposing too many restrictions on children's outdoor risky play hinders their development. We explore the relationship between child development, play, and conceptions of risk taking with the aim of informing child injury prevention. Generational trends indicate children's diminishing engagement in outdoor play is influenced by parental and societal concerns. We outline the importance of play as a necessary ingredient for healthy child development and review the evidence for arguments supporting the need for outdoor risky play, including: (1) children have a natural propensity towards risky play; and, (2) keeping children safe involves letting them take and manage risks. Literature from many disciplines supports the notion that safety efforts should be balanced with opportunities for child development through outdoor risky play. New avenues for investigation and action are emerging seeking optimal strategies for keeping children "as safe as necessary," not "as safe as possible." This paradigm shift represents a potential for epistemological growth as well as cross-disciplinary collaboration to foster optimal child development while preserving children's safety.

  12. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  13. Mother-child interaction and cognitive development in children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica; Melinder, Annika

    2016-10-01

    To assess the influence of mother-child interaction on children's cognitive development in a group of children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine. The study is part of a prospective longitudinal project investigating the development of children born to women in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). The sample includes 67 children born between 2005 and 2007, 35 of which prenatally exposed to either methadone or buprenorphine and 32 non-exposed comparison children. Both groups scored within the normal range of development. However, the OMT group scored significantly lower on measures of cognitive development and mother-child interaction compared to the comparison group. Cognitive development was found to be affected by both group status, F(1,54)=5.65, p=0.02, η(2)=0.10 and mother-child interaction F(1,54)=5.26, p=0.03, η(2)=0.09. Behavioral inhibition (statue), sensorimotor function (imitating hand positions), and short-term memory (sentences) was influenced by group status while narrative memory and vocabulary were found to be more influenced by mother-child interaction. Different risk factors may influence different cognitive functions in children of women in OMT. Specifically, language-related cognitive skills may be more related to mother-child interaction while performance in higher cognitive functions requiring precise control over sensorimotor responses may be more sensitive to other factors such as prenatal OMT exposure, genetics, and/or prenatal exposure to other substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention plays a key role in keeping children safe, but emerging research suggests that imposing too many restrictions on children’s outdoor risky play hinders their development. We explore the relationship between child development, play, and conceptions of risk taking with the aim of informing child injury prevention. Generational trends indicate children’s diminishing engagement in outdoor play is influenced by parental and societal concerns. We outline the importance of play as a necessary ingredient for healthy child development and review the evidence for arguments supporting the need for outdoor risky play, including: (1 children have a natural propensity towards risky play; and, (2 keeping children safe involves letting them take and manage risks. Literature from many disciplines supports the notion that safety efforts should be balanced with opportunities for child development through outdoor risky play. New avenues for investigation and action are emerging seeking optimal strategies for keeping children “as safe as necessary,” not “as safe as possible.” This paradigm shift represents a potential for epistemological growth as well as cross-disciplinary collaboration to foster optimal child development while preserving children’s safety.

  15. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  16. Child behaviour problems and childhood illness: development of the Eczema Behaviour Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K

    2017-01-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and

  17. Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent–child coregulation and the development of child behavior problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUNKENHEIMER, ERIKA S.; OLSON, SHERYL L.; HOLLENSTEIN, TOM; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.; WINTER, CHARLOTTE

    2018-01-01

    Parent–child dyadic rigidity and negative affect contribute to children’s higher levels of externalizing problems. The present longitudinal study examined whether the opposite constructs of dyadic flexibility and positive affect predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior problems across the early childhood period. Mother–child (N = 163) and father–child (n = 94) dyads engaged in a challenging block design task at home when children were 3 years old. Dynamic systems methods were used to derive dyadic positive affect and three indicators of dyadic flexibility (range, dispersion, and transitions) from observational coding. We hypothesized that the interaction between dyadic flexibility and positive affect would predict lower levels of externalizing problems at age 5.5 years as rated by mothers and teachers, controlling for stability in externalizing problems, task time, child gender, and the child’s effortful control. The hypothesis was supported in predicting teacher ratings of child externalizing from both mother–child and father–child interactions. There were also differential main effects for mothers and fathers: mother–child flexibility was detrimental and father–child flexibility was beneficial for child outcomes. Results support the inclusion of adaptive and dynamic parent–child coregulation processes in the study of children’s early disruptive behavior. PMID:23786697

  18. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  19. The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael H; Racine, Yvonne; Georgiades, Katholiki; Snelling, Dana; Hong, Sungjin; Omariba, Walter; Hurley, Patricia; Rao-Melacini, Purnima

    2006-10-01

    This study estimates the relative importance to child health (indicated by weight and height for age) of economic development level [gross domestic product (GDP) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates: GDP-PPP], household wealth and maternal education and examines the modifying influence of national contexts on these estimates. It uses information collected from mothers aged 15-49-years participating in Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 42 developing countries. In multilevel regression models, the three study variables exhibited strong independent associations with child health: GDP-PPP accounted for the largest amount of unique variation, followed by maternal education and household wealth. There was also substantial overlap (shared variance) between maternal education and the other two study variables. The regressions of child health on household wealth and maternal education exhibited substantial cross-national variation in both strength and form of association. Although higher education levels were associated with disproportionately greater returns to child health, the pattern for household wealth was erratic: in many countries there were diminishing returns to child health at higher levels of household wealth. We conclude that there are inextricable links among different strategies for improving child health and that policy planners, associating benefits with these strategies, must take into account the strong moderating impact of national context.

  20. Child malnutrition and the Millennium Development Goals: much haste but less speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruamabo, Raphael S

    2015-02-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a framework for measuring the progress of nations. Several of these goals relate to child malnutrition, which remains an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 45% of child deaths globally. A high proportion of undernourished children still live in Africa and parts of Asia, and the uneven rate of reduction in the prevalence of various types of child malnutrition among different income groups worldwide is worrying. Attempts to reduce child malnutrition should therefore begin from the grassroots by improving primary healthcare services in developing countries with particular focus on basic requirements. Adequate nutrition should be provided from birth, through infancy, preschool and early childhood to adolescence. The overall strategy should be one of careful and meticulous planning involving all development sectors with an emphasis on a bottom-up approach within a stable and disciplined polity; the MDGs will be only be useful if they are seen not as narrow objectives with unidirectional interventions but as multifaceted and co-ordinated. The setting of deadlines, whether 2015 or 2035, should not be emphasised so as to avoid hasty decision making. The top priority should be the implementation of the essential social services of basic education, primary healthcare, nutrition, reproductive health care, water and sanitation in partnership with the developed economies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986–2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. PMID:27056961

  2. Parental knowledge of child development and the assignment of tractor work to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Marlenga, Barbara; Berg, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    Many childhood farm tractor injuries occur during the performance of work that was assigned by parents, and some tractor work is beyond the developmental capabilities of children. This has been highlighted recently by a policy statement authored by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The objective of this study was 1) to assess child development knowledge of farm parents who received a new resource, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT), and 2) to determine whether this knowledge was associated with use of NAGCAT in the assignment of tractor jobs and with compliance with 2 aspects of the NAGCAT tractor guideline. Secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized controlled trial that involved 450 farms in the United States and Canada was conducted. Variables assessed included 1) parental knowledge of child development across several age groups and 3 domains of child development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial), 2) documentation of the most common tractor jobs assigned to each child, and 3) a report of whether NAGCAT was used in assigning these tractor jobs. High parental knowledge of child development was associated with enhanced use of NAGCAT and fewer violations when assigning tractor work to children. However, even in the presence of high knowledge, some farm parents still assigned to their children work that was in violation of NAGCAT. Educational interventions by themselves are not sufficient to remove many farm children from known occupational hazards. These findings are discussed in light of the recent policy statement on agricultural injuries from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Development of a Child Abuse Level Management (CALM) Guide for Research with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda C; Schim, Stephanie Myers

    2016-05-01

    Reporting child abuse or neglect is an ethical expectation and a legislated mandate of behavioral and health care professionals in the United States. In particular, researchers who investigate parent-child dyads are responsible for submitting procedures and informed consent documents to institutional review boards that provide for the protection of children. The challenge for researchers is to recognize failing quality of parent-child interaction, prior to any event of maltreatment and to intercede in a deteriorating dynamic. The obligation to report any suspicions of child maltreatment supersedes the responsibility to provide for confidentiality of research data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for the development of a research protocol guide, Child Abuse Level Management (CALM), and address protection of children in research. The CALM is a brief, flexible guide designed for use by researchers to help identify and respond to negative trends in the parent-child interaction during data collection. Suggested intervention scripts are provided that can be modified for specific culture-focused samples. The CALM guide can be used for training of data collectors using simulations prior to initiating any study involving higher-risk dyads. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhago, George M; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Norheim, Ole F

    2012-12-27

    Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of -0.11 (maternal) and -0.12 (children) to a more equitable concentration index of -0,03 and -0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  5. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  6. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  7. Twelve tips for teaching child development and disability to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    Child development is a marker of well-being in childhood and recognition of developmental delay allows timely investigation and intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Despite this, child development and disabilities are not given emphasis in the medical curriculum. This under representation of teaching combined with the stigma associated with disabilities contributes to the sub-optimal health care of people with disabilities. As well as, addressing the stigma of disability a medical undergraduate curriculum should include: the key concepts of child development; the clinical presentation of the most common developmental disabilities; developmental history taking and the infant neurodevelopmental examination. The following twelve tips provide practical advice about how to teach this knowledge and these skills during medical training.

  8. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…

  9. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  10. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  11. Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbink, Ellen; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new theoretical framework that explains the engagement in child labor of children in developing countries. This framework distinguishes three levels (household, district and nation) and three groups of explanatory variables: Resources, Structure and Culture. Each of the three groups refers to another strand of the literature;…

  12. A Comparative Study of Vygotsky's Perspectives on Child Language Development with Nativism and Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastpak, Mehdi; Behjat, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the similarities and differences between Vygotsky's perspectives on child language development with nativism and behaviorism. Proposing the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, Vygotsky emphasized the role of collaborative interaction, scaffolding, and guided participation in language learning. Nativists, on…

  13. 76 FR 53686 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Development Council; NACHHD Subcommittee on Planning and Policy. Date: September 6, 2011. Closed: 9 a.m. to 10... National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council. The meeting will be closed to the public in... Mothers and Children; 93.929, Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; 93.209, Contraception and...

  14. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  15. Child Psychopathy: Theories, Measurement, and Relations with the Development and Persistence of Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and…

  16. Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with child growth and development: Evidence from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Friedman, Jed; Kak, Mohini; Menon, Purnima; Alderman, Harold

    2018-05-17

    Maternal depression has been suggested as a risk factor for both poor child growth and development in many low- and middle-income countries, but the validity of many studies is hindered by small sample sizes, varying cut-offs used in depression diagnostics, and incomplete control of confounding factors. This study examines the association between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child physical growth and cognitive development in Madhya Pradesh, India, where poverty, malnutrition, and poor mental health coexist. Data were from a baseline household survey (n = 2,934) of a randomized controlled trial assessing an early childhood development programme. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for socio-economic factors to avoid confounding the association of mental health and child outcomes. MDS (measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale) was categorized as low, medium, and high in 47%, 42%, and 10% of mothers, respectively. The prevalence of child developmental delay ranged from 16% to 27% for various development domains. Compared with children of mothers with low MDS, those of high MDS mothers had lower height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores (0.22, 0.21, and 0.15, respectively), a higher rate of stunting and underweight (~1.5 times), and higher rate of developmental delay (partial adjusted odds ratio ranged from 1.3-1.8 for different development domains and fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.4 for fine motor). Our results-that MDS is significantly associated with both child undernutrition and development delay-add to the call for practical interventions to address maternal depression to simultaneously address multiple outcomes for both women and children. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  18. Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J C; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Persson, Lars Å; Arifeen, Shams E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population. The study focused on the follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh (ISRCTN16581394), with TI measured longitudinally in infancy (at birth and weeks 8, 24 and 52 of age) and accurate recording of mortality up to 5 years of age. A total of 3267 infants were born into the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study; data on TI were available for 1168 infants at birth, increasing to 2094 infants by 52 weeks of age. TI in relation to body size was largest at birth, decreasing through infancy. For infants with at least one measure of TI available, there were a total of 99 deaths up to the age of 5 years. No association was observed between TI and subsequent mortality when TI was measured at birth. However, an association with mortality was observed with TI at 8 weeks of age [odds ratio (OR) for change in mortality risk associated with 1 standard deviation change in TI: all deaths: OR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.038; and infection-related deaths only: OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.74; P = 0.008]. For TI when measured at 24 and 52 weeks of age, the numbers of infection-related deaths were too few (3 and 1, respectively) for any meaningful association to be observed. These results confirm that thymus size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in a lower mortality setting than West Africa. The absence of an effect at birth and its appearance at 8 weeks of age suggests early postnatal influences such as breast milk trophic factors.

  19. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ching Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  20. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  2. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of…

  3. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  4. Money vs. time: Family income, maternal labor supply, and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinelli, Francesco; Sorrenti, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We study the effect of family income and maternal hours worked on child development. Our instrumental variable analysis suggests different results for cognitive and behavioral development. An additional 1,000 USD in family income improves cognitive development by 4.4 percent of a standard deviation but has no effect on behavioral development. A yearly increase of 100 work hours negatively affects both outcomes by approximately 6 percent of a standard deviation. The quality of parental investm...

  5. 78 FR 13363 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  6. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Sun Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p ≤ 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors

  7. Teaching the Whole Child through Physical Education and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucre, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Make-A-Difference: Guard East New York program, a sports-based youth development program that utilizes the holistic teaching approach of teaching for personal and social responsibility.

  8. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung development in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Insa; Ramsey, Kathryn; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has also been linked to decreased lung function in infancy and childhood, increased respiratory symptoms, and the development of childhood asthma. In addition, impaired lung development contributes to infant mortality. The mechanisms of how prenatal air pollution affects the lungs are not fully understood, but likely involve interplay of environmental and epigenetic effects. The current epidemiological evidence on the effect of air pollution during pregnancy on lung function and children's respiratory health is summarized in this review. While evidence for the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution on lung development and health continue to mount, rigorous actions must be taken to reduce air pollution exposure and thus long-term respiratory morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-omics facilitated variable selection in Cox-regression model for cancer prognosis prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Wang, Xujun; Genchev, Georgi Z; Lu, Hui

    2017-07-15

    New developments in high-throughput genomic technologies have enabled the measurement of diverse types of omics biomarkers in a cost-efficient and clinically-feasible manner. Developing computational methods and tools for analysis and translation of such genomic data into clinically-relevant information is an ongoing and active area of investigation. For example, several studies have utilized an unsupervised learning framework to cluster patients by integrating omics data. Despite such recent advances, predicting cancer prognosis using integrated omics biomarkers remains a challenge. There is also a shortage of computational tools for predicting cancer prognosis by using supervised learning methods. The current standard approach is to fit a Cox regression model by concatenating the different types of omics data in a linear manner, while penalty could be added for feature selection. A more powerful approach, however, would be to incorporate data by considering relationships among omics datatypes. Here we developed two methods: a SKI-Cox method and a wLASSO-Cox method to incorporate the association among different types of omics data. Both methods fit the Cox proportional hazards model and predict a risk score based on mRNA expression profiles. SKI-Cox borrows the information generated by these additional types of omics data to guide variable selection, while wLASSO-Cox incorporates this information as a penalty factor during model fitting. We show that SKI-Cox and wLASSO-Cox models select more true variables than a LASSO-Cox model in simulation studies. We assess the performance of SKI-Cox and wLASSO-Cox using TCGA glioblastoma multiforme and lung adenocarcinoma data. In each case, mRNA expression, methylation, and copy number variation data are integrated to predict the overall survival time of cancer patients. Our methods achieve better performance in predicting patients' survival in glioblastoma and lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  10. Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Effect of anemia on child development: long-term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Nelly; Astete-Robilliard, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Anemia in children younger than 3 years is a public health problem in Peru and worldwide. It is believed that one of the primary causes of anemia is iron deficiency. Numerous studies and reviews have reported that iron deficiency limited psychomotor development in children and that, despite the correction of anemia, children with iron deficiency experienced poorer long-term performance in cognitive, social, and emotional functioning. These outcomes were reported in observational studies, follow-up studies, and experimental studies with a control group. Anemia can decrease school performance, productivity in adult life, quality of life, and the general income of affected individuals. Here we describe possible mechanisms underlying the effect of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, on childhood development. The high rate of anemia in this age group is a cause for concern. Moreover, anemia should be prevented in the first year of life to avoid long-term negative effects on individual development.

  12. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  13. Founding Editorial — Child Health and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of life called childhood is of worldwide interest, and is nicely illustrated by numerous stories about children’s life around the globe in a recent series of books published by John Wiley & Sons as part of the Open University course on “Childhood”[1,2]. Adolescence and later adulthood are also important parts of the human development that shape us and our future generations. In addition to genetics, the conditions and environment during our first few years of life will have a binding impact on the development taking place years ahead concerning our achievements in life, our accomplishments, and our health.

  14. Teaching child growth and development: the Christmas shoebox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Sheila M; McAulay, Judy E

    2008-01-01

    Teaching growth and development to nursing students can be dry, uninteresting, and labor-intensive. Engaging students in learning this material was the challenge of a short, 4-week pediatric experience. Students use growth and development knowledge to select toys and activities that fit in a shoebox and explain to their classmates the rationale for their selection. The Christmas shoebox activity increases their ability to transfer knowledge to both the examination questions and the clinical setting and provides a charitable service to the community.

  15. Threat-detection in child development: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Pascal; Bergstrom, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Evidence for developmental aspects of fear-targets and anxiety suggests a complex but stable pattern whereby specific kinds of fears emerge at different periods of development. This developmental schedule seems appropriate to dangers encountered repeatedly during human evolution. Also consistent with evolutionary perspective, the threat-detection systems are domain-specific, comprising different kinds of cues to do with predation, intraspecific violence, contamination-contagion and status loss. Proper evolutionary models may also be relevant to outstanding issues in the domain, notably the connections between typical development and pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy induced changes in Cox-1, Cox-2 and NOSIII vascular and renal expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, Rosa A; Bracho, Ismael; Alvarez, Victor M Pérez; Anguiano, Liliana; López, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish if there is a mutual regulation between COX and NOS in vascular and renal tissue during pregnancy, we measured the protein expression of COX-1, COX-2 and NOSIII by Western blot comparing the thoracic and abdominal aorta and the renal cortex and medulla of non pregnant and pregnant (21st day) Wistar rats. We found there was no difference in the quantity of protein of any of the two isoforms of COX between the two segments of the aorta of non pregnant animals while an increased expression of both COX-1 And COX-2 was found in the abdominal compared to the thoracic segment of the pregnant rats. An increased expression of NOS III was found in the abdominal segment of the aorta form pregnant rats. No changes were found between pregnant and no pregnant animals in the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the renal cortex or medulla while an increased expression of NOS III was found in the cortex from pregnant compared to non pregnant animals. These results suggest the influence of pregnancy is not homogeneous along the aorta and also that a balance between prostaglandins and nitric oxide is responsible of the blunted vascular reactivity during pregnancy in the rat.

  17. Important Evidence Highlights the Meaning of Teacher-Child Relationships for Child Development. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Sagi-Schwartz evaluates the article by Beckh and Becker-Stoll (2016) on attachment relationships with non-parental caregivers and how it may contribute to public child care. Beckh and Becker-Stoll first describe important background about research on early parent-child relationships, and how their nature and quality might…

  18. An appreciation of Richard Threlkeld Cox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribus, Myron

    2002-05-01

    Richard T. Cox's contributions to the foundations of probability theory and inductive logic are not generally appreciated or understood. This paper reviews his life and accomplishments, especially those in his book The Algebra of Probable Inference and his final publication Inference and Inquiry which, in this author's opinion, has the potential to influence in a significant way the design and analysis of self organizing systems which learn from experience. A simple application to the simulation of a neuron is presented as an example of the power of Cox's contribution.

  19. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  20. Your Child's Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Years (30 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2,5 años (30 meses) ... assistance jumps in place throws a ball overhand Social and Emotional Development enjoys pretend play starts to ...

  1. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Years (18 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 1,5 años (18 meses) ... takes off some clothes scribbles with a crayon Social and Emotional Development begins to engage in pretend ...

  2. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  3. The moral development of the child: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative, and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture.

  4. The Moral Development of The Child: An Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung eMa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1 Physical Survival, Selfishness and Obedience, (2 Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism and Instrumental Purpose; and (3 Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture.

  5. Malnutrition and Adoption: Two Variables in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusminsky, Marcos; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes effects of differentiated stimulation over the indexes of growth and development on severely malnourished children during their hospitalization and after being adopted. The sample consisted of 26 children who presented second and third degrees of malnutrition and who were younger than two years of age when adopted. (RH)

  6. An Easy Guide to Developing an Emergency Child Care System (Free Child Care in the Aftermath of Major Disasters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Karl

    A program and related materials for providing child care free of charge in the aftermath of widespread disaster to children ranging in age from infancy through second grade are described in this guidebook. In Section I, the Temporary Emergency Child Care (TECC) program is discussed. In particular, the nature of TECC services is indicated, the…

  7. Caregiver Behavior Change for Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A.; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H.; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3–4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25315597

  8. Caregiver behavior change for child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3-4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given.

  9. A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Hopkins, Jessica; Biscaro, Anne; Srikanthan, Cinntha; Feller, Andrea; Bremberg, Sven; Verkuijl, Nienke; Flapper, Boudien; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin

    2013-11-06

    The social environment is a fundamental determinant of early child development and, in turn, early child development is a determinant of health, well-being, and learning skills across the life course. Redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as a welfare state and labour market policies, have shown a positive association with selected health indicators. In this study, we investigated the influence of redistributive policies specifically on the social environment of early child development in five countries with different political traditions. The objective of this analysis was to highlight similarities and differences in social and health services between the countries and their associations with other health outcomes that can inform better global early child development policies and improve early child health and development. Four social determinants of early child development were selected to provide a cross-section of key time periods in a child's life from prenatal to kindergarten. They included: 1) prenatal care, 2) maternal leave, 3) child health care, and 4) child care and early childhood education. We searched international databases and reports (e.g. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and UNICEF) to obtain information about early child development policies, services and outcomes. Although a comparative analysis cannot claim causation, our analysis suggests that redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities are associated with a positive influence on the social determinants of early child development. Generous redistributive policies are associated with a higher maternal leave allowance and pay and more preventive child healthcare visits. A decreasing trend in infant mortality, low birth weight rate, and under five mortality rate were observed with an increase in redistributive policies. No clear influence of redistributive policies was observed on breastfeeding and immunization

  10. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Nicole L.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. EXPOSURE Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children’s scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. RESULTS Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence

  11. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Nicole L; Hanson, Jamie L; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2015-09-01

    Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. Children's scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence observed among children from the poorest households. Regional gray matter volumes of children below 1

  12. Developing effective child psychiatry collaboration with primary care: leadership and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Barry D; Wegner, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    By working in collaboration with pediatric primary care providers, child and adolescent psychiatrists have the opportunity to address significant levels of unmet need for the majority of children and teenagers with serious mental health problems who have been unable to gain access to care. Effective collaboration with primary care represents a significant change from practice-as-usual for many child and adolescent psychiatrists. Implementation of progressive levels of collaborative practice, from the improvement of provider communication through the development of comprehensive collaborative systems, may be possible with sustained management efforts and application of process improvement methodology.

  13. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. The study results suggest that this position is developed by parents independently and on a rational basis. In accordance with the existential criterion mentioned above, characteristics of the educational position of parents indicate normality of their personality. It is shown that a balanced style of parenting contributes to developing child personality type with a dual, contradictory orientation for both children and their parents when solving life problems. Children with this type of personality, as well as their parents, manifest inherent willingness to compromise position towards the same existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. Thanks to a balanced style of parenting favourable personal prerequisites for the development of normal personality are shown. As balanced style of parenting contributes to the normal development of child personality, these children have lack personal prerequisites for emerging difficulties in social adaptation, and therefore in families with such style of solving parent-child problems, due to these difficulties are completely absent.

  14. Maternal Verbal Responsiveness and Directiveness: Consistency, Stability, and Relations to Child Early Linguistic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola-Ruotsalainen, Leila; Lehtosaari, Jaana; Palomäki, Josefina; Tervo, Immi

    2018-01-01

    Maternal responsive and directive speech to children at ages 0;10 and 2;0 was investigated by applying a procedure frst introduced by Flynn and Masur (2007) to a new language community (Finnish). The issues examined were consistency and stability over time, and also the role of responsiveness and directiveness in child linguistic development at…

  15. 75 FR 19980 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Gene Therapy for Urea Cycle Disorders. Date: April 30, 2010. Time: 1:30 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications... prior to the meeting due to the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue...

  16. The Effects of Knowledge of Child Development and Social Emotional Maturity on Adolescent Attitudes Toward Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John L.; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    Parenting, always a complex and difficult task, is even more difficult for teenage parents who are generally less able financially, emotionally, and cognitively than adults to nurture and care for their children. The relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to…

  17. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  18. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  19. Child Development in the Context of Adversity: Experiential Canalization of Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of poverty-related adversity on child development, drawing upon psychobiological principles of experiential canalization and the biological embedding of experience. They integrate findings from research on stress physiology, neurocognitive function, and self-regulation to consider adaptive processes in response to…

  20. The impact of a Caribbean home-visiting child development program on cognitive skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, W.; Rosemberg, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short-term impact evaluation of a home-visiting Early Child Development (ECD) program in the Caribbean aimed at vulnerable children from birth to three years. The analysis is based on a quasi-experimental research design including approximately four hundred children in

  1. Desarrollando el IEP de su Hijo. Guia para Padres (Developing Your Child's IEP. A Parent's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhorn, Theresa

    This Spanish language guide for parents of children with disabilities explains the basics of the special education process, especially parent participation developing the child's individualized education program (IEP). The first section reviews the IEP process, including what's involved, the IEP meeting, who attends the IEP meeting, the role of…

  2. Early Head Start: Factors Associated with Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development, Parenting Behavior, and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…

  3. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. The Effects of Course-Related Service Projects in a Child Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David B.

    2004-01-01

    A Head Start volunteer project was designed for a college-level child development course and implemented in three different sections of the class across two semesters. Overall, 70 students participated (65 females and 5 males) with assessment data collected from student volunteers and Head Start teachers and administrators. Students reported a…

  5. Socioeconomic Gradients and Child Development in a Very Low Income Population: Evidence from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150…

  6. A new generation: How refugee trauma affects parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this dissertation refugee and asylum seeker parents with traumatic experiences were assessed with their young non traumatized children to investigate the effect of

  7. How Moroccan Mothers and Fathers View Child Development and Their Role in Their Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Gail L.; Perlman, Michal; Karam, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Despite the documented importance of parental engagement in early learning, little is known about how parents in the Middle East and North Africa understand child development. To inform the literature, a small-scale study involving four focus groups was conducted with parents of children aged six years and under living in Casablanca. The purpose…

  8. The Role of Child Characteristics and Peer Experiences in the Development of Peer Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Cox, R.F.A; Hunnius, Sabine

    Cooperation with peers is challenging for young children, and there are large individual differences in the development of cooperation. The roles of child characteristics and peer experiences for peer interaction during free play have been studied extensively, but it is unclear which factors predict

  9. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  10. Development of an Instrument to Assess Parent-College Child Communication Regarding Alcohol Use Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Beth H.; Cremeens, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past research suggests that parent-child communication can serve as protective factors to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged children. Purpose: This article presents the methodology used and preliminary findings for developing and validating an instrument to assess parent-college student communication regarding alcohol use.…

  11. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  12. Economic Intervention and Parenting: A Randomized Experiment of Statewide Child Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Wikoff, Nora; Sherraden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examine the effects of Child Development Accounts (CDAs) on parenting stress and practices. Methods: We use data from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment. SEED OK selected caregivers of infants from Oklahoma birth certificates using a probability sampling method, randomly assigned caregivers to the treatment (n = 1,132)…

  13. Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy on Child Mental Development in Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.; Zeng, L.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.; Yan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the brain growth spurt begins in the last trimester of pregnancy and extends through the first 2 years of life. Studies show poor cognitive and motor development among children who have iron deficiency anemia in infancy. Prenatal iron deficiency anemia in the third trimester affects child

  14. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1995-1996, No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kunio, Ed.; Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.; Furutsuka, Takashi, Ed.; Shirotani, Yukari, Ed.

    This annual report discusses several topics related to the work of the Research and Clinical Center for Child Development at Hokkaido University in Japan. The articles are: (1) "Heart to Heart (Inter "Jo") Resonance: Taking Japanese Concept of Intersubjectivity Out of Everyday Life" (Shigeru Nakano); (2) "Intersubjectivity…

  15. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1994-1995, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kunio, Ed.; Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.

    This annual report discusses several topics related to the work of the Research and Clinical Center for Child Development. Seven topics are covered in the report. The articles are: (1) "Fathers' Participation in the Lives of Their 4-Month-Old Infants: The United States and Japan" (Marguerite Stevenson Barratt, Koichi Negayama and…

  16. Introduction to the Development of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The "World Report on Children and Violence", (Pinheiro, 2006) was produced at the request of the UN Secretary General and the UN General Assembly. This report recommended improvement in research on child abuse. ISPCAN representatives took this charge and developed 3 new instruments. We describe this background and introduce three new measures…

  17. A Project to Help Child Development Students Recognize Piagetian Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Ann

    This practicum report was designed to help child development students differentiate between the preoperational and concrete operational stages of the Piagetian cognitive hierarchy. The 36 on-campus and 63 instructional television students used a Piagetian Game booklet, which is included in the appendix. Using this booklet, students were able to…

  18. Predictors of Morphosyntactic Growth in Typically Developing Toddlers: Contributions of Parent Input and Child Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Bahnsen, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of morphosyntactic development must account for between-child differences in morphosyntactic growth rates. This study extends Legate and Yang's (2007) theoretically motivated cross-linguistic approach to determine if variation in properties of parent input accounts for differences in the growth of tense productivity. Method:…

  19. Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2009-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

  20. On the importance of families and public policies for child development outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosero Moncayo, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates how public interventions in developing countries can promote human capital accumulation of children at different stages of life (pre-school, compulsory and post-compulsory school) and how a specific characteristic of a child, the order of birth, might affect the

  1. Child Development and the Coworking of Doctor and Teacher: A Waldorf School Doctor's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Gerald F.

    This paper draws on the nearly 20 years' experiences of a school doctor working with teachers at the Rudolf Steiner School in New York City to describe general principles of assessing child development in relation to educational progress. The paper contrasts the customary role of school doctors (related to conducting physical examinations for…

  2. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-08-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant-toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy-toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant-toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. More than just openness: developing and validating a measure of targeted parent-child communication about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Kam, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    Research addressing parent-child communication on the topic of alcohol use relies heavily on assessing frequency of discussions and general assessments of openness in parent-child communication, ignoring the complexity of this communication phenomenon. This study adds to the literature by articulating a conceptualization and developing a measurement of parent-child communication-targeted parent-child communication about alcohol-and comparing the efficacy of targeted parent-child communication about alcohol in predicting positive expectancies of alcohol use and recent alcohol use. The predictive power of general openness in parent-child communication and frequency of communication about alcohol also were assessed. Students in fifth and sixth grade (N = 1,407) from 29 public schools completed surveys. Targeted parent-child communication about alcohol was negatively associated with both outcomes. Frequency and general openness were only negatively associated with positive expectancies regarding alcohol. Implications of these findings for the etiology and prevention of substance use are discussed.

  4. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector.

  5. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  6. Social capital and child nutrition in India: The moderating role of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Kriti

    2018-03-01

    Empirical studies of social capital rarely take into account the socioeconomic context of the region in which it operates, indeed as most of this research has been located in high income countries. It is imperative to investigate how development may influence the impact of social capital, especially in developing countries. This paper examines the relationship between social capital and child nutrition using the India Human Development Survey, 2005-2006. Using a multilevel framework and a sample of 6770 rural children under the age of five, it finds that household based bridging social capital, expressed as connections with development based organizations, is positively associated with child nutrition. Bonding social capital, expressed as ties with caste and religious based organizations, has the opposite impact. At the village level, contextual measures of social capital are associated with nutritional status of children, but their influence is conditional on local development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Slum residence and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Günther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Continued population growth and increasing urbanization have led to the formation of large informal urban settlements in many developing countries in recent decades. The high prevalence of poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation observed in these settlements-commonly referred to as "slums"-suggests that slum residence constitutes a major health risk for children. In this article, we use data from 191 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 73 developing countries to investigate this concern empirically. Our results indicate that children in slums have better health outcomes than children living in rural areas yet fare worse than children in better-off neighborhoods of the same urban settlements. A large fraction of the observed health differences appears to be explained by pronounced differences in maternal education, household wealth, and access to health services across residential areas. After we control for these characteristics, children growing up in the slums and better-off neighborhoods of towns show levels of morbidity and mortality that are not statistically different from those of children living in rural areas. Compared with rural children, children living in cities (irrespective of slum or formal residence) fare better with respect to mortality and stunting but not with respect to recent illness episodes.

  8. Social Group Stories in the Media and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Ramasubramanian, Srividya; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Scharrer, Erica; Burgess, Melinda C R; Lemish, Dafna

    2017-11-01

    How do children and youth come to understand what it means to be a member of a particular race, gender, and other social groups? How do they come to hold beliefs about the groups that they do and do not belong to? Both news stories and fictional narratives that we are tuned into as a culture tell stories about what it means to be a member of a particular social group. In this review article, we relate the latest scientific knowledge on news and entertainment media representations of race, gender and other social categories and what they tell us about how these messages are taken in and processed by developing minds. We include research on identity development, social learning about members of other groups, and both positive and negative behavioral outcomes to cultural messages about race, gender, and other social categories. We offer recommendations for stakeholders to understand the role of the media in educating youth about race, gender and other social categories. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. The attitudes of family physicians toward a child with delayed growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Kınalı, Ömer; Şimşek Karadağ, Elif; Korkmaz, Tuğba

    2017-09-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of family physicians toward a child with delayed growth and development. Primary healthcare professionals play a key role in monitoring growth and development, the best indicator of the child's health status. If delayed growth and development can be detected early, then it is usually possible to restore functioning. This descriptive study was performed in Samsun, Turkey, in May and June 2015. In total, 325 family physicians were included. The study consisted of two parts. In the first session of the research, the story of an 18-month-old child with delayed growth and development was presented using visual materials. An interview between the child's mother and a member of primary healthcare staff was then enacted by two of the authors using role-playing. Subsequently, participants were given the opportunity to ask the mother and member of primary healthcare staff questions about the case. During the sessions, two observers observed the participants, took notes and compared these after the presentation. In the second part of the study, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of three open-ended questions. Findings When asking questions of the mother, family physicians generally used accusatory and judgmental language. One of the questions most commonly put to the mother was 'Do you think you are a good mother?' Family physicians were keen to provide instruction for the patient and relatives. Family physicians to a large extent thought that the problem of a child with delayed growth and development can be resolved through education. Family physicians' manner of establishing relations with the patient and relatives is inappropriate. We therefore think that they should receive on-going in-service training on the subject.

  10. Causal effects on child language development: A review of studies in communication sciences and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Clare R; Nulty, Karissa L; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; DeThorne, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent studies published across key journals within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) to survey what causal influences on child language development were being considered. Specifically, we reviewed a total of 2921 abstracts published within the following journals between 2003 and 2013: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS); American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP); Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR); Journal of Communication Disorders (JCD); and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (IJLCD). Of the 346 eligible articles that addressed causal factors on child language development across the five journals, 11% were categorized as Genetic (37/346), 83% (287/346) were categorized as Environmental, and 6% (22/346) were categorized as Mixed. The bulk of studies addressing environmental influences focused on therapist intervention (154/296=52%), family/caregiver linguistic input (65/296=22%), or family/caregiver qualities (39/296=13%). A more in-depth review of all eligible studies published in 2013 (n=34) revealed that family/caregiver qualities served as the most commonly controlled environmental factor (e.g., SES) and only 3 studies explicitly noted the possibility of gene-environment interplay. This review highlighted the need to expand the research base for the field of CSD to include a broader range of environmental influences on child language development (e.g., diet, toxin exposure, stress) and to consider more directly the complex and dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental effects. Readers will be able to highlight causal factors on child language development that have been studied over the past decade in CSD and recognize additional influences worthy of consideration. In addition, readers will become familiar with basic tenets of developmental systems theory, including the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors

  11. Promoting Early Child Development With Interventions in Health and Nutrition: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Maternal depression and personality traits in association with child neuropsychological and behavioral development in preschool years: Mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  14. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  15. Exploring QSAR with E-state index: selectivity requirements for COX-2 versus COX-1 binding of terphenyl methyl sulfones and sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Santanu; Sengupta, Chandana; Roy, Kunal

    2004-09-20

    An attempt has been made to explore selectivity requirements for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) versus cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) binding of terphenyl methyl sulfones and sulfonamides using electrotopological state (E-state) index and suitable indicator parameters. Multiple linear regression analyses produced statistically acceptable equations: the best relation based on 'all-possible-subsets regression' for COX-1 binding (n=18) showed predicted variance and explained variance of 0.675 and 0.777, respectively, while in case of the best equation for COX-2 binding (n=38), these values rose to 0.842 and 0.874, respectively. For the selectivity relation (n=17), predicted variance and explained variance values were 0.601 and 0.687, respectively. Based on the results of the analyses, three important sites have been suggested: sites A (methylsulfonyl or aminosulfonyl moiety), B (central phenyl ring), and C (terminal phenyl ring containing different substituents). All three sites are important for COX-2 binding while sites B and C are important for COX-1 binding. For COX-2 selectivity, only site C plays an important role. The study shows the utility of E-state index in developing statistically acceptable model having direct physicochemical significance.

  16. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liqiang; Li, Guangyao; Mao, Haojie; Marek, Stanley; Yang, King H

    2013-12-01

    Although a number of finite element (FE) adult cervical spine models have been developed to understand the injury mechanisms of the neck in automotive related crash scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to develop a child neck model. In this study, a 10-year-old ligamentous cervical spine FE model was developed for application in the improvement of pediatric safety related to motor vehicle crashes. The model geometry was obtained from medical scans and meshed using a multi-block approach. Appropriate properties based on review of literature in conjunction with scaling were assigned to different parts of the model. Child tensile force-deformation data in three segments, Occipital-C2 (C0-C2), C4-C5 and C6-C7, were used to validate the cervical spine model and predict failure forces and displacements. Design of computer experiments was performed to determine failure properties for intervertebral discs and ligaments needed to set up the FE model. The model-predicted ultimate displacements and forces were within the experimental range. The cervical spine FE model was validated in flexion and extension against the child experimental data in three segments, C0-C2, C4-C5 and C6-C7. Other model predictions were found to be consistent with the experimental responses scaled from adult data. The whole cervical spine model was also validated in tension, flexion and extension against the child experimental data. This study provided methods for developing a child ligamentous cervical spine FE model and to predict soft tissue failures in tension.

  17. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Effects of Knowledge of Child Development and Social-Emotional Maturity on Adolescent Attitudes toward Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John J.; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to which this relationship affects adolescent attitudes toward parenting. Negative attitudes toward parenting were associated with lack of knowledge of child development and low levels of…

  19. 75 FR 36431 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd... Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Children's Study...

  20. 78 FR 69857 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute, of Child Health and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of... research opportunities and needs; Renewing research infrastructure network program. Place: Hyatt Regency...