WorldWideScience

Sample records for child custody

  1. Race and Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myricks, Noel; Ferullo, Donna L.

    1986-01-01

    Examines race as a factor in determining the custody of children through judicial decisions of the federal and state courts and case reviews in journals and periodicals. Results revealed that where race becomes an issue in custody disputes it will be the most controversial factor. (Author/BL)

  2. Joint Legal Custody and Child Support Payments: Are There Lasting Custody Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Judith A.; Maralani, Vida J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Does joint legal custody increase child support payments? It describes differences in formal child support payments for those with and without joint legal custody among divorce cases. It examines legal custody differences in the short-term after divorce as well as in the intermediate term, through the sixth year after divorce, to assess whether any economic benefits of joint legal custody endure through a significant part of childhood. To the extent...

  3. Parent-Child Speech and Child Custody Speech Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Volokh, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The "best interests of the child" standard -- the standard rule applied in custody disputes between two parents -- leaves family court judges ample room to consider a parent's ideology. Parents have had their rights limited or denied partly based on their advocacy of racism, homosexuality, adultery, nonmarital sex, Communism, Nazism, pacifism and disrespect for the flag, fundamentalism, polygamy, or religions that make it hard for children to "fit in the western way of life in this society."...

  4. Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Family Law Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Family law proceedings encompass a broad range of issues, including custody, maintenance, support, valuation, visitation, relocation, and termination of parental rights. The following guidelines address what are commonly termed child custody evaluations, involving disputes over decision making, caretaking, and access in the wake of marital or…

  5. The Effect of Joint-Child-Custody Legislation on the Child-Support Receipt of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Brandeanna; Nunley, John; Seals, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Due to the preponderance of single mothers on public assistance, delinquent child support has been a contentious political issue in the U.S. for over 30 years. We examine whether joint-child-custody reform affects the child- support receipt of single mothers. We use variation in the timing of joint-custody reforms across states to identify the effect of joint custody on the child-support receipt of single mothers. Joint-custody enactment raises the probability of receiving child support for a...

  6. Attorney and Parent Attitudes Related to Successful Mediation Counseling of Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Leland C.; Heinish, D.

    The divorce explosion has placed a substantial burden on the judicial system of the United States. About 10 percent of divorce cases involve child custody battles. The adversarial legal process may be contrary to the children's best interest. Custody mediation has been used as an alternative to court litigation. California law requires an attempt…

  7. Child custody assessment: a field survey of spanish forensic psychologists’ practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Guàrdia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The participation of forensic psychologists has become common practice in proceedings involving families in dispute over child custody, and also to assess the suitability of joint custody. In order to know the practice, methodology, and decision-making criteria of Spanish forensic psychologists experienced in family cases, 66 Spanish forensic psychologists (error margin ±.06 responded to a Spanish adaptation of the questionnaire for the assessment of child custody evaluation practices by Keilin and Bloom (1986 and Ackerman and Ackerman (1997. The results showed that it was indifferent for the respondents to be retained by the court or one of the parties, and that the evaluation included a document review, each parent’s individual interview, each child’s individual interview, psychological tests run to parents and children, observation of parent-child interaction, and reports by other professionals. As regards the custody type, most of them chose sole custody. As for decision-making criteria for sole custody, the results showed that Spanish forensic psychologists follow a hierarchical decision-making model that begins, firstly, with the application of criteria concerning the child’s protection (e.g. cruelty, abuse, negligence, then moving on to parental abilities. The decision over joint custody also follows a hierarchical decision-making model, where suitability is assessed initially and, if applicable, a decision is made based on its possible success or failure.

  8. Assessing Impression Management With the MMPI-2 in Child Custody Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Ramón; Fariña, Francisca; Seijo, Dolores; Novo, Mercedes

    2015-12-01

    Forensic psychological evaluation of parents in child custody litigation is primarily focused on evaluating parenting capacity and underreporting. The biased responses of underreporting have been classified as Impression Management (IM) or as Self-Deceptive Positivity (S-DP), which are regarded to be conscious or unconscious in nature, respectively. A field study was undertaken to assess impression management on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in child custody cases, the accuracy of the MMPI-2 scales in classifying IM, and what parents in child custody litigation actually manipulate in terms of IM. A total of 244 parents in child custody litigation and 244 parents under standard instructions were administered the MMPI-2. The results revealed that the L, Mp, Wsd, and Od scales discriminated between both samples of parents; the rate of satisfactory classification (i.e., odds ratio ranged from 5.7 for Wsd to 23.3 for Od) and an incremental validity of Od over Mp and Wsd. As for the effects of IM, the results show IM effects in the Basic Clinical Scales, the Restructured Clinical Scales, the Personality Psychopathology Five Scales, the Content Scales, and the Supplementary Scales. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the forensic evaluation of parents in child custody litigation. PMID:25410722

  9. 25 CFR 11.608 - Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child... AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.608 Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody. (a) A decree of dissolution of marriage or...

  10. Divorce Law in the United States: A Focus on Child Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews legal issues related to child custody decision making during and following divorce, and abstracts relevant information from all states. Discusses best interests of the child (BIOC) standard, legal standing of third parties litigating with natural parents, rights and responsibilities of noncustodial parents, and the role of alternative…

  11. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  12. Assessing parental risk in parenting plan (child custody) evaluation cases involving internet sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Philip H.; Merdian, Hannah Lena; Connell, Mary; Douglas P. Boer

    2010-01-01

    One type of claim in parenting assessment (child custody)1 cases is that one parent, typically the father, is alleged to be engaging in improper or compulsive sexual behavior via the Internet. The sexual behavior at issue can range from frequent sexually explicit chats with other adults to compulsive viewing of adult pornography. In more extreme cases, the problematic behavior may involve viewing child pornography, and in some cases the parent faces actual criminal charges in this regard. The...

  13. 32 CFR 584.2 - Family support and child custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remarried and has two more family members (spouse and child) living in private housing. The soldier now has...) Example 2. A soldier has one child by a previous marriage. There is no court order for child support. The... so as to be able to order child support. The soldier has remarried and has a spouse and two...

  14. Beliefs and Recommendations Regarding Child Custody and Visitation in Cases Involving Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Professionals in Different Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G; Faller, Kathleen C; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Research is lacking on differing perspectives regarding custody cases involving domestic violence (DV). In a survey of judges, legal aid attorneys, private attorneys, DV program workers, and child custody evaluators (n= 1,187), judges, private attorneys, and evaluators were more likely to believe that mothers make false DV allegations and alienate their children. In response to a vignette, evaluators and private attorneys were most likely to recommend joint custody and least likely to recommend sole custody to the survivor. Legal aid attorneys and DV workers were similar on many variables. Gender, DV knowledge, and knowing victims explained many group differences. PMID:26475517

  15. Toward a child-centered approach to evaluating claims of alienation in high-conflict custody disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Allison M

    2014-02-01

    Theories of parental alienation abound in high-conflict custody cases. The image of one parent brainwashing a child against the other parent fits with what we think we know about family dynamics during divorce. The concept of a diagnosable "Parental Alienation Syndrome" ("PAS") developed as an attempt to explain this phenomenon, but it has been widely discredited by mental health professionals and thus fails the standard for evidentiary admissibility. Nevertheless, PAS and related theories continue to influence the decisions of family courts, and even in jurisdictions that explicitly reject such theories, judges still face the daunting task of resolving these volatile cases. In the midst of this highly adversarial process, children deserve independent representation to ensure that their interests remain front and center. Mandating the appointment of guardians ad litem in cases involving allegations of abuse or alienation will assist courts in conducting individualized, fact-specific investigations into such allegations to craft custody orders that serve the best interests of children. PMID:24446573

  16. In the Best Interests of the Abuser: Coercive Control, Child Custody Proceedings and the “Expert” Assessments That Guide Judicial Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Jeffries

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines why domestic violence (or more specifically, coercive control) should be crucial to child custody proceedings. What is known about parenting in the context of coercively controlling violence, and what the legislation directs courts to consider, is juxtaposed with the actuality of court decision making. Current knowledge about the recognition of domestic violence in judicial practice is overviewed, drawing particular attention to the role of the “expert” family assessment i...

  17. Mothers without Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    A national survey of 517 mothers without custody of at least one child revealed a great range in their reactions to their nontraditional role. Although many mothers reported feeling guilty and uncomfortable, a significant number felt well adjusted, and these two groups are contrasted. Offers practice implications for social workers. (Author)

  18. Co-providing in post-divorce families with joint child custody: parental practices and the construction of gender roles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohlídalová, Marta; Maříková, Hana

    Lublaň : Institut Jožef Stefan, 2011 - (Malacic, J.; Gams, M.), s. 29-32 ISSN 1581-9973. [INFORMATION SOCIETY – IS 2011, Facing Demographic Challenges. Lublaň (SI), 10.10.2011-11.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1839 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : joint physical custody * parenthood * gender Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  19. In the Best Interests of the Abuser: Coercive Control, Child Custody Proceedings and the “Expert” Assessments That Guide Judicial Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jeffries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines why domestic violence (or more specifically, coercive control should be crucial to child custody proceedings. What is known about parenting in the context of coercively controlling violence, and what the legislation directs courts to consider, is juxtaposed with the actuality of court decision making. Current knowledge about the recognition of domestic violence in judicial practice is overviewed, drawing particular attention to the role of the “expert” family assessment in determinations of a child’s “best interests”. A comprehensive synopsis of the existing research on these “expert” reports in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States is provided. It is concluded that, in court proceedings the reality of living with coercively controlling violence and the potential on-going risks it poses to children and non-abusive parents, is typically negated. Instead, “best interests” considerations prioritise the maintenance of perpetrator/child relationships, and thus “abuser’s rights” over victim safety. Judicial officers are not experts in domestic violence and they can only make decisions on the basis of the evidence before them, the assessments made by the “experts” likely play an important role in best interest considerations. Of concern is current research that calls into serious question the expertise of these “experts” when it comes to proceedings involving allegations of coercively controlling violence.

  20. The Custodial Parent-Child Relationship as a Mediating Factor in the Effects of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janis Carol

    Hess and Camara (1979) have shown that it is post-divorce family functioning, rather than family structure, that is most important in influencing the effects of divorce on children. A child's adjustment to divorce should be viewed as a developmental process rather than as a single event. Consequently, it is important to focus on the ways in which…

  1. Custody Evaluators' Beliefs about Domestic Violence Allegations during Divorce: Feminist and Family Violence Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselschwerdt, Megan L.; Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Hans, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately, 20% of divorcing couples in the United States require judicial intervention to reach a custody agreement. In such cases, courts often call on child custody evaluators to conduct comprehensive evaluations and recommend custody agreements and services that meet children's best interests. Estimates suggest that allegations of domestic…

  2. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  3. The custodial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we elucidate the meaning of the custodial symmetry and its importance at the phenomenological level in the framework of the standard model of the electroweak interactions and its possible extensions. (Author)

  4. Legal and Financial Problems of International Joint Custody of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kyncl, Libor

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze very interesting and currently up-to-date area of children living in international joint custody from the legal and financial point of view. This covers the situation when custody of a child is awarded to both parents living in different states of the European Union (or also other states). The number of marriages contracted between Czech nationals and foreign nationals and also between nationals from two different states (not necessarily inside European U...

  5. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... person who is a legitimate child, a child legally adopted before the age of 18 years, a stepchild who... having custody of a child prior to the time the child attains age 18 shall be considered to retain... legal custody. This applies without regard to when a child reaches the age of majority under...

  6. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  7. Custody of cocaine-exposed newborns: determinants of discharge decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuspiel, D R; Zingman, T M; Templeton, V H; DiStabile, P; Drucker, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Maternal cocaine use is a leading grounds for newborn foster placement. This study was initiated to investigate the factors that predict custody status of infants born to substance-abusing women. METHODS. A retrospective cohort design was used to study the correlates of discharge custody decisions for 99 consecutive infants testing positive for cocaine in a public hospital. RESULTS. The population was 49% Black, 40% Hispanic, and 11% other or unknown. Custody at discharge was to mothers (38%), other family members (25%), or agency foster care (36%). Placement outside the family was greater when mothers had prior child welfare records, in Blacks vs others, with no prenatal care, and when mothers were younger at their first delivery or older at the index birth. Denial of custody to the mother was higher with prior child welfare involvement, in Blacks, and when the mother did not live in her own home. Both models also controlled for parity, child sex, and birthweight. CONCLUSIONS. Earlier involvement with child welfare authorities, race, and other factors predict continued separation of mothers and children at newborn discharge, suggesting the need to reexamine current policies and practices. PMID:8259803

  8. MMPI-2-RF Characteristics of Custody Evaluation Litigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Elizabeth M.; Hagan, Leigh D.; Mason, Janelle; Handel, Richard; Archer, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a 338-item objective self-report measure drawn from the 567 items of the MMPI-2. Although there is a substantial MMPI-2 literature regarding child custody litigants, there has been only one previously published study using MMPI-2-RF data in this population that…

  9. The effects of domestic violence allegations on custody evaluators' recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Frey, Laura M

    2014-12-01

    Judges and attorneys often request professional assessments from child custody evaluators when allegations of adult domestic violence (DV) have been made, but it is unclear whether and how evaluators' recommendations are impacted by these allegations. Custody evaluators (N = 607) in the United States responded to a multiple-segment factorial vignette designed to examine the effects of 2 key factors in DV allegations: type of alleged violence (conflict-based, control-based) and counterallegations (none, mutual, and female-initiated). Effects of control- versus conflict-based DV allegations by the mother on custody recommendations were small and the majority of evaluators recommended joint custody regardless of violence type. Reported confidence in making a recommendation increased once the father responded to the allegation, but to a smaller degree when a counterallegation of mutual or female-initiated violence was made. Evaluators were no more skeptical about the potential motive of a counterallegation in the context of controlling behavior than in the context of conflict-based behavior. Overall, results indicate that most custody evaluators are not sufficiently sensitized to distinguish between situational couple violence and coercive controlling behavior, and the postseparation safety of mothers and their children may therefore be jeopardized. PMID:25180469

  10. [Problems in expert assessment in child custody cases according to sections 1666, 1666a BGB in the controversy between control and assistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, U

    1998-09-01

    The restriction of parental rights includes not only legal but also therapeutic aspects. The therapeutic aspects refer first to the child's disorder and then to its resulting needs. Furthermore a restriction of parental rights could be necessary for therapeutic reasons when the parents' reaction to reality is insufficient, usually caused by parental psychiatric disorders. The expert's counsel should facilitate the communication with disturbed parents thus engendering an improved reality-insight by the parents. Successful helping strategies can thus be made workable. The expert, the judge and the local authority social services should mutually respect specifically defined role-functions. The communication barriers between parents and helpers can only this way be partially resolved. The expert's evidence requires a high professional competence and responsibility and goes over and above the professional contribution from family therapy. PMID:9796361

  11. Effects of Divorce on Children: Differential Impact of Custody and Visitation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Carol R.; Settle, Shirley A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the research literature on children's experience of the restructuring of the family following divorce. The effects of divorce are organized according to differences observed as a function of the child's age and gender, parental conflict, post-divorce family stability, and parent-child relationships. Conflict reducing custody arrangements…

  12. Valoración del Informe Pericial sobre la Custodia de Menores en Sentencias Judiciales: Estudio comparativo entre informes privados y oficiales (Expert Assessment Report on Child Custody in Court Judgments: Comparative study between private and official reports)

    OpenAIRE

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez; Adolfo Jarne Espacia

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, divorce with children involved has led to a substantial increase in demand for expert reports. The aim was to analyse the valuation judgments of private forensic expert reports with specific training, private forensic expert reports without specific training and, expert reports of psychosocial teams of the Courts on the custody and visitation of the parent no custodian. Ad hoc protocol made by the authors to 111 litigation files of Family Courts was applied. Significant ...

  13. How to Understand Custodial Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Game

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Debates about ecological responsibility are interested in different forms of belonging. This article develops an understanding of a custodial form of belonging based on the logic of relation, which we distinguish from a proprietorial form of belonging based on the logic of identity. Theorists working on questions of belonging use a language of custodianship when describing a sense of responsibility and care that arises through connection or relation. We argue, however, that the full significance of custodial belonging cannot be appreciated when understandings of connection are derived from within the terms of identity logic. In other words, when belonging is understood in terms of identity and identification, custodianship is inadvertently reduced to a proprietorial form of responsibility and care. We develop this argument by addressing Australian research on custodial belonging. Focusing on the influential work of Deborah Bird Rose, we argue that there are tensions between, on the one hand, her attempts to recognise connected forms of belonging, and, on the other, her conceptual reliance on the assumptions of identity logic. Our primary concern here is to indicate relational possibilities in her work precluded by the language of identity. In particular, we suggest that the concept of ecological being allows for a specificity and inclusiveness that are not recognised by Rose’s concept of the ‘ecologically emplaced self’.

  14. Safeguarding the vulnerable in custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2009-10-01

    2009 saw two deeply disturbing coronial decisions about the deaths of persons in custody in different parts of Australia. Coroner Jamieson in Victoria made telling criticisms of the quality of medical care provided to a prisoner at Port Phillip Prison who died because he was unable to summon help when the intercom system in his cell failed while he was dying of an asthma attack. State Coroner Hope in Western Australia castigated government and private facilities that played a role in causing the death by heatstroke of an indigenous man who was transported in appalling conditions to Kalgoorlie. The facts of each death raise fundamental questions about the quality of care provided to those in custody in contemporary Australia and about cultures of inadequate respect for the human rights of those in confinement. The development of a rights consciousness throughout the custodial community by charters of rights and freedoms may play a role in engendering greater respect for the imprisoned. The strengthening of coronial legislation to mandate accessibility to coronial decisions and responsiveness to them on the part of entities the subject of recommendations for improved health and safety may also play a constructive role in adding to the checks and balances against abuses of the rights of prisoners to life, humane treatment and receipt of adequate health services. PMID:19998584

  15. 25 CFR 11.1002 - Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1002 Custody. A minor may be taken into custody by a law enforcement officer if: (a) The officer observes the minor committing a delinquent act; or (b) The officer has... adult, and that the minor has committed the delinquent act; or (c) A warrant pursuant to § 11.1001...

  16. Valoración del Informe Pericial sobre la Custodia de Menores en Sentencias Judiciales: Estudio comparativo entre informes privados y oficiales (Expert Assessment Report on Child Custody in Court Judgments: Comparative study between private and official reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, divorce with children involved has led to a substantial increase in demand for expert reports. The aim was to analyse the valuation judgments of private forensic expert reports with specific training, private forensic expert reports without specific training and, expert reports of psychosocial teams of the Courts on the custody and visitation of the parent no custodian. Ad hoc protocol made by the authors to 111 litigation files of Family Courts was applied. Significant differences in the evaluations expressed by judicial decisions on private expert reports and the expert reports of psychosocial teams were found. Analysis suggests that the judgments expressed a favourable opinion with preference for expert reports made by employees assigned to family courts psychosocial teams. Direct empirical evidence is provided. 56.8% of the judgments expressed a favourable opinion of the expert reports and urged the parties to follow the recommendations of the expert report.

  17. Custodial Parents Living in Poverty

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Child Support Enforecment (OCSE) Story Behind the Numbers - Child Support Fact Sheet #3. This fact sheet focuses on data reported in a recent U.S. Census...

  18. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents’ homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Methods: Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden’s yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007–2011 and child supplements with children 10–18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Results: Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Conclusions: Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. PMID:26553250

  19. Custodial Leptons and Higgs Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of extended fermion sectors, respecting custodial symmetry, on Higgs production and decay. The resulting protection for the Z->b_L b_L and Z->\\tau_R\\tau_R decays allows for potentially interesting signals in Higgs physics, while maintaining the good agreement of the Standard Model with precision tests, without significant fine-tuning. Although being viable setups on their own, the models we study can particularly be motivated as the low energy effective theories of the composite Higgs models MCHM_5 and MCHM_10 or the corresponding gauge-Higgs unification models. The spectra can be identified with the light custodians present in these theories. These describe the relevant physics in the fermion sectors of the models in a simplified and transparent way. In contrast to previous studies of composite models, we consider the impact of a realistic lepton sector on the Higgs decays. We find significant modifications in the decays to \\tau leptons and photons due to the new leptonic resonances. Whi...

  20. Mother vs. Father Custody Effects for Taiwanese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Su, Pang-Chieh

    2000-01-01

    Examined effects of divorce and custody arrangements on Taiwanese preschoolers' emotional adjustment and gender role development 2 years after divorce. Found no differences in maladjustment of children from divorced versus two-parent families. Found children with same-sex custodial parents were better adjusted than children in custody with…

  1. 50 CFR 20.37 - Custody of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of birds of another. 20.37 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.37 Custody of birds of another. No person shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person unless...

  2. 12 CFR 9.13 - Custody of fiduciary assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of fiduciary assets. 9.13 Section 9.13... NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.13 Custody of fiduciary assets. (a) Control of fiduciary assets. A national bank shall place assets of fiduciary accounts in the joint custody or control of not fewer than two...

  3. 27 CFR 24.92 - Products in customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Products in customs... Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.92 Products in customs custody. Products in customs custody may... products in customs custody are kept separate from wine and spirits on bonded wine premises. (Sec. 201,...

  4. 45 CFR 303.15 - Agreements to use the Federal Parent Locator Service (PLS) in parental kidnapping and child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service (PLS) in parental kidnapping and child custody or visitation cases. 303.15 Section 303.15 Public... parental kidnapping and child custody or visitation cases. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply... having an agreement under this section, who has the duty or authority under the laws of the State...

  5. Custody: An Attempt Toward Conceptual Clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Jan

    Approximately 10 to 15 years ago the Swedes became aware that the incidence of cohabitation under marriage-like conditions but without marriage had increased tremendously. This increasingly prevalent social behavior raised problems concerning the legal custody of the children of such unions and, ultimately, a way of granting unmarried parents…

  6. Local Clerical and Custodial Wage Administration Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Estelle

    Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC), Illinois, collected salary-related data for clerical and custodial personnel, in order to establish a compatible wage structure, provide business management course information, and improve secretarial career counseling. Limiting data sampling to the geographical boundries of the Moraine Valley District…

  7. 26 CFR 1.152-4 - Special rule for a child of divorced or separated parents or parents who live apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... decree, Grandmother has the right under state law to physical custody of Child from January 1 to July 31... Grandmother is determined under section 152(c) or (d). Example 4. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 3, except that Grandmother has the right to physical custody of Child from January 1 to March 31, 2009,...

  8. 29 CFR 779.505 - “Oppressive child labor” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standing in place of a parent employing his own child or a child in his custody under the age of 16 years... certifying that such person is above the oppressive child labor age. The Secretary of Labor shall provide by... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âOppressive child laborâ defined. 779.505 Section...

  9. Custodial Grandmothers' Psychological Distress, Dysfunctional Parenting, and Grandchildren's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Richardson, Rhonda A.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model (FSM) with hypothesized linkages between family contextual factors, custodial grandmothers' psychological distress, parenting practices, and grandchildren's adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling. Interview data from 733 custodial grandmothers of grandchildren between ages 4-17 revealed…

  10. 19 CFR 191.153 - Continuous Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous Customs custody. 191.153 Section 191.153 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody §...

  11. 19 CFR 134.54 - Articles released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles released from Customs custody. 134.54 Section 134.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... released from Customs custody. (a) Demand for liquidated damages. If within 30 days from the date of...

  12. 19 CFR 191.152 - Merchandise released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise released from Customs custody. 191.152 Section 191.152 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody §...

  13. 19 CFR 191.164 - Return to Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return to Customs custody. 191.164 Section 191.164 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... to Sample or Specifications § 191.164 Return to Customs custody. There is no time limit for...

  14. 27 CFR 40.236 - Release from customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... on Tobacco Products § 40.236 Release from customs custody. The release of tobacco products from customs custody, in bond, for transfer to the premises of a tobacco products factory, shall be...

  15. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in...

  16. 27 CFR 40.452 - Release from customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... § 40.452 Release from customs custody. Cigarette papers and tubes which were made in the United States, exported, and subsequently returned to the United States, may be removed from customs custody for...

  17. Family Law Effects on Divorce, Fertility and Child Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Mullins; Christopher Flinn; Meta Brown

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the child welfare impact of policies governing divorced parenting, such as child support orders, child custody and placement regulations, and marital dissolution standards, one must consider their influence not only on the divorce rate but also on spouses' fertility choices and child investments. We develop a model of marriage, fertility and parenting, with the main goal being the investigation of how policies toward divorce influence outcomes for husbands, wives and childr...

  18. Racist Parenting and the Best Interests of the Child: A Legal and Ethical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.; Heavin, Heather; Walker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a recent Manitoba child custody case to provide a legal and ethical account of the notion of the best interests of the child. We explore the tension between the best interests of the child and parental rights to expression of a racist nature. We consider how the interests of different actors--the state, parents and…

  19. Relationship between custodial status and psychosocial problems among cocaine-abusing parents initiating substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marilyn W; Petry, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Using the Addiction Severity Index and Brief Symptom Inventory, drug use and psychosocial problems are compared between 93 custodial and 125 non-custodial mothers and fathers initiating outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. Compared to non-custodial parents, custodial parents experienced more severe current cocaine and alcohol problems, including spending more money on cocaine and alcohol, as well as using more cocaine and being intoxicated on more days. Non-custodial parents demonstrated more psychological distress, more prior history of alcohol problems, and greater current employment and legal problems than custodial parents. Suggestions are made for differential treatment plans based on these findings. PMID:16257878

  20. Examining the Effectiveness of a Case Management Program for Custodial Grandparent Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenora Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified complex needs of custodial grandparent families and lack of access to needed resources such as housing, financial and legal assistance, and health care. Case management links these families with needed services while helping them develop skills to promote their health and well-being. This paper describes a case management program for custodial grandparent families using a nurse-social worker case management team. data were collected from 50 grandparents and 33 children using surveys and semi-structured instruments. Physical and mental health outcomes were measured using Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF 12 to measure the perceived quality of health for grandparents and the Child Behavior Checklist to measure the emotional and behavioral functioning of grandchildren. Grandparents more positively perceived their mental health after participating in the program. Perceptions about physical health were generally the same before and after the program. Grandparents' reported that many grandchildren had emotional and behavioral problems in the clinical range. These findings highlight the need for further research on the mental health needs of children being parented by grandparents as well as determining effective models and interventions to minimize adverse effects of parenting on grandparents.

  1. Joint Custody and Co-Parenting: Not By Law But By Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Theodore; Altis, Ruth

    1981-01-01

    Advocates wider recognition of joint custody and coparenting of children after divorce or separation, reviews pertinent legal and other related literature, identifies indications and contraindications for joint custody and coparenting, and briefly discusses implications for social workers. (Author/MP)

  2. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  3. A Community Support Group for Single Custodial Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…

  4. Understanding death in custody: a case for a comprehensive definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Géraldine; Wangmo, Tenzin; Mutzenberg, Patrick; Sinclair, Jessica; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Prisoners sometimes die in prison, either due to natural illness, violence, suicide, or a result of imprisonment. The purpose of this study is to understand deaths in custody using qualitative methodology and to argue for a comprehensive definition of death in custody that acknowledges deaths related to the prison environment. Interviews were conducted with 33 experts, who primarily work as lawyers or forensic doctors with national and/or international organisations. Responses were coded and analysed qualitatively. Defining deaths in custody according to the place of death was deemed problematic. Experts favoured a dynamic approach emphasising the link between the detention environment and occurrence of death rather than the actual place of death. Causes of deaths and different patterns of deaths were discussed, indicating that many of these deaths are preventable. Lack of an internationally recognised standard definition of death in custody is a major concern. Key aspects such as place, time, and causes of death as well as relation to the prison environment should be debated and incorporated into the definition. Systematic identification of violence within prison institutions is critical and efforts are needed to prevent unnecessary deaths in prison and to protect vulnerable prisoners. PMID:24965436

  5. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  6. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  7. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  8. [Treatment instead of punishment. The process of diversion from custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the functioning of treatment alternative to punishment principle (diversion from custody) is surveyed from legal, medical and financial points of views. In this regard, the philosophical aspects of the issue are also taken into account. The emergence of diversion from custody appeared in the Hungarian criminal code in relation to the joining process with European Union of Hungary. The history of the changes of legal regulations of diversion from custody and the current regulation of that are also made known. And afterwards the medical difficulties, particularly the motivation of clients, are discussed. The most serious criticism addressed from legal point of view can be given as to frequent changes of the rules, and the disharmonic and pro forma nature of law. Several critical points are seen from medical point of view, either. Among others and in particular, the lack of the differentiation of clients of various additional history according to their therapeutic needs, the unambiguous essence of therapy based on protocols fitting to health needs and follow-up studies. A critical factor is the motivation of clients, too. At the same time, further concern emerges in the regard of the lack of investigation of cost/benefit of diversion from custody and the missing definition of success. The author also rises the responsibility of patients and examines the dispute upon legalization of marihuana with particular interest in pros and cons. The reason for the existence of diversion from custody in the prison is, however, queried in this paper. Although the diversion from custody has been criticized by several and proposals have also been worked out, indeed, a system presenting the problem in a comprehensive manner has not been elaborated yet. Finally, the author outlines a uniform system of an addictional approach for the treatment alternative to punishment and hurries a decision along the stipulation of minima terms in the regard of personnel and material

  9. Strong electroweak phase transition from Supersymmetric Custodial Triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Pepin, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    The Supersymmetric Custodial Triplet Model, a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model, has proven to be an interesting modification of the MSSM. It extends the MSSM Higgs sector by three extra SU(2)L triplets in such a way that approximate custodial invariance is preserved and rho-parameter deviations are kept under control. By means of a sizeable triplet contribution to electroweak breaking the model is able to generate a barrier at tree level between the false vacuum and the electroweak one. This will result in a strong first order phase transition for an important region of the parameter space. We also look at the gravitational waves that could be generated as a result of the phase transition and show how future interferometers could be used as a probe of the model.

  10. Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company's automation objectives in the area; the field operator's interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method

  11. Assisted Custody and its Role in Substitute Family Care

    OpenAIRE

    FENCLOVÁ, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keywords: Children, Parent, Foster Parents, Assisted Custody, Foster Family Care The present thesis aims are to find out what opinions and attitudes have foster parents to an assisted contact. Whether they are informed of the possibility of mediation, or how many children in foster care with their biological parent encounters. it should be examined how foster parents learnd about the possibility of assiseted contact and if the service is currently used, or whether it will be used by ...

  12. Laboratory Information Management System Chain of Custody: Reliability and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Radosta, T.; W. Elliott-Smith; J. J. Tomlinson

    2006-01-01

    A chain of custody (COC) is required in many laboratories that handle forensics, drugs of abuse, environmental, clinical, and DNA testing, as well as other laboratories that want to assure reliability of reported results. Maintaining a dependable COC can be laborious, but with the recent establishment of the criteria for electronic records and signatures by US regulatory agencies, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) are now being developed to fully automate COCs. The extent of a...

  13. Surviving on Remand: a Study of how Young People Cope in Remand Custody in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Sinead

    2009-01-01

    The fusion of young people to the prison setting has been described as a toxic combination. This is especially pertinent when applied to youth in remand custody. Previous research studies have identified young people on remand as a highly vulnerable prison population and custodial remand to be a particularly stressful prison experience. Despite this, little research to date has examined how young people cope while remanded in custody. This thesis addresses this gap by providing an insight...

  14. 20 CFR 655.850 - Who has custody of the administrative record?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who has custody of the administrative record? 655.850 Section 655.850 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Applications and H-1B1 and E-3 Labor Attestations § 655.850 Who has custody of the administrative record?...

  15. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  16. 8 CFR 208.5 - Special duties toward aliens in custody of DHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... case of an alien who is in custody pending a credible fear determination under 8 CFR 208.30 or a reasonable fear determination pursuant to 8 CFR 208.31. Although DHS does not have a duty in the case of an alien who is in custody pending a credible fear or reasonable fear determination under either 8 CFR...

  17. 7 CFR 7.34 - Custody and use of books, records, and documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody and use of books, records, and documents. 7.34... STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.34 Custody and use of books, records, and documents. (a) All books, records, and documents of or used by the county committee in...

  18. 10 CFR 1.51 - Description and custody of NRC seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description and custody of NRC seal. 1.51 Section 1.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag § 1.51 Description and custody of NRC seal. (a) Pursuant to section 201(a) of the...

  19. 17 CFR 270.17f-5 - Custody of investment company assets outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-owned direct or indirect subsidiary of a U.S. Bank or bank-holding company. (2) Foreign Assets means any....17f-5 Custody of investment company assets outside the United States. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of investment...

  20. 27 CFR 41.85a - Release from customs custody of returned articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs..., Imported Into or Returned to the United States Release from Customs Custody of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Without Payment of Tax Or Certain Duty § 41.85a Release from customs custody...

  1. 19 CFR 191.184 - Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody. 191.184 Section 191.184 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... From Customs Territory § 191.184 Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody. (a)...

  2. Single Custodial Fathers' Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…

  3. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  4. Direct Search Implications for a Custodially-Embedded Composite Top

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Foren, Dennis; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    We assess current experimental constraints on the bi-doublet + singlet model of top compositeness previously proposed in the literature. This model extends the standard model's spectrum by adding a custodially-embedded vector-like electroweak bi-doublet of quarks and a vector-like electroweak singlet quark. While either of those states alone would produce a model in tension with constraints from precision electroweak data, in combination they can produce a viable model. We show that current precision electroweak data, in the wake of the Higgs discovery, accommodate the model and we explore the impact of direct collider searches for the partners of the top quark.

  5. A separação e disputa de guarda conflitiva e os prejuízos para os filhos (The Separation and Conflicting Custody Dispute and the Damage for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tsunemi Negrão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar sete casos de disputa de guarda periciados por psicólogo forense de uma comarca do Sul do Brasil, onde foram observados prejuízos substanciais e ou afastamento na relação entre a criança e um dos genitores. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo documental no qual levantou-se as categorias mais freqüentemente encontradas nos casos. Observou-se que quando um dos genitores não aceita a separação e fica com a guarda dos filhos, é possível que inicie processo de afastamento da criança com o ex cônjuge o que pode acarretar sérios prejuízos para o desenvolvimento infantil. Os principais prejuízos observados foram: agressividade, depressão, ansiedade, uso de mentiras para se comunicar, rejeitar o genitor não guardião e até mesmo incorporar falas do genitor guardião como se fossem próprias. ABSTRACT: The present research aims to analyze seven cases of custody dispute verified by a forensic psychologist in a county South of Brazil, where were observed substantial damage and/or alienation in the relationship between child and one of parents. A documentary retrospective study was conducted, which sought the categories most frequently found in each of the cases. It was noted that when one of parents does not accept the separation and remains in custody of children, it is possible this initiates a process of growing apart of the child with the ex spouse, which can cause serious harm to child development. The main damage observed were: aggression, depression, anxiety, use of lies to communicate, rejecting the parent who does not have custody, and even incorporating phrases of the parent who obtained custody as if they were their own.

  6. Dark Matter from the Supersymmetric Custodial Triplet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Ostdiek, Bryan; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The Supersymmetric Custodial Triplet Model (SCTM) adds to the particle content of the MSSM three $SU(2)_L$ triplet chiral superfields with hypercharge $Y=(0,\\pm1)$. At the superpotential level the model respects a global $SU(2)_L \\otimes SU(2)_R$ symmetry only broken by the Yukawa interactions. The pattern of vacuum expectation values of the neutral doublet and triplet scalar fields depends on the symmetry pattern of the Higgs soft breaking masses. We study the cases where this symmetry is maintained in the Higgs sector, and when it is broken only by the two doublets attaining different vacuum expectation values. In the former case, the symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the vectorial subgroup $SU(2)_V$ and the $\\rho$ parameter is protected by the custodial symmetry. However in both situations the $\\rho$ parameter is protected at tree level, allowing for light triplet scalars with large vacuum expectation values. We find that over a large range of parameter space, a light neutralino can supply the corre...

  7. Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized. PMID:24265878

  8. Effects of a Rural Family Drug Treatment Court Collaborative on Child Welfare Outcomes: Comparison Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, McLean D; Green, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that have examined the impact of family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) on child welfare outcomes have produced mixed results. This study evaluates the impact of a rural, FDTC collaborative on child welfare outcomes using propensity score analysis. Findings from the study show that children in the treatment group had longer stays in child welfare custody but were substantially less likely to experience future incidents of maltreatment than those in families with parental substance use disorders without these services. PMID:26827480

  9. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  10. 75 FR 7514 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Appointed Counsel in Involuntary Indian Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56208) requesting public comments on the proposed information... for an indigent Indian parent or Indian custodian in an involuntary Indian child custody proceeding... States to receive payment for counsel appointed to indigent Indian parents or custodians in...

  11. Health needs of detainees in police custody in England and Wales. Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekrut-Lapa, Tatyana; Lapa, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this systematic is to review and analyse the literature concerned with the health needs of detainees in police custody in England and Wales. The healthcare of detainees in police custody is regulated by the England and Wales Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians also sets quality standards for the provision of custodial healthcare. The provision of healthcare in custody presents a number of challenges including the patient group, the setting and the overlap between the legal and medical concerns that are addressed by the medical team. Currently, care to the detainees in custody is delivered by a mixture of private organisations, police-led forensic medical services and the NHS. A search of the PUBMED, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases undertaken using the search terms: (police custody) OR (detainees) OR (police detainees) yielded 830 publications. All of the titles were screened to identify potentially relevant publications concerned with the health needs of detainees in police custodies in England and Wales. There were no design specific criteria set for inclusion of the studies in this literature review. 77 articles were initially identified as relevant and obtained in full. After further analysis 28 publications were included in this literature review. A total sample of over 12,000 detainees was examined in this literature review. Approximately 20% of detainees seen by health care teams suffer from psychiatric conditions. On average, 50% of patients claim that they have problems with drugs and alcohol. Physical health conditions are also highly prevalent with up to 74% of detainees requiring regular medication. Forensic medical issues included the management of detainees who were restrained using handcuffs, irritant sprays and TASER. Detainees who are suspected of internal drug concealment also require intensive medical input. Injury documentation in custody is often requested

  12. Deaths in Custody: A 25-Year Review of Jail Deaths in Bexar County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Jason G; Molina, D Kimberley

    2015-12-01

    Although deaths in custody are an expected occurrence, they are often subjected to increased scrutiny and raise many questions as to circumstances surrounding the death as well as the cause and manner of death. It is usually the responsibility of the medical examiner to answer these questions. Relatively few studies have reviewed the causes and manners of death that occur while in custody and even fewer specific to jail populations. This study reviews the cause and manner of death of persons in custody in an urban county from 1985 to 2010. A retrospective review of death investigations, including death certificates and autopsy reports, was conducted on all deaths that occurred in custody during the period. The age and sex of the decedent as well as the place of death were also recorded. Most deaths were attributed to natural disease followed by suicide, and most deaths occurred either in the emergency department or in the hospital. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease followed by suicide by hanging accounted for the most number of deaths (25% and 20% of all deaths, respectively). It is recommended that all deaths in custody be reported to the medical examiner and that a thorough death investigation be conducted to properly define and document the cause and manner of death. This is particularly important given the increased scrutiny to which deaths in custody are often subjected. PMID:26196271

  13. Someone Has Led This Child To Believe

    OpenAIRE

    Louise, Regina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTSOMEONE HAS LED THIS CHILD TO BELIEVE is a true story and continuation of the best-selling memoir Somebody’s Someone. After 12 year-old Regina Louise, tired of being beaten, battles and escapes an illegal guardian; she jumps from a two-story window and runs to a local police station where she is taken into custody, locked in a holding cell, and delivered to the Edgar Children’s Shelter, in Martinez California. Regina is closed off about her parents, her past…until she meets Jeanne Ke...

  14. Novel kinematics from a custodially protected diphoton resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Jack H; Dror, Jeff Asaf; Lombardo, Salvator

    2016-01-01

    We study a simple, well-motivated model based on a custodial symmetry which describes the tree-level production of a 750 GeV diphoton resonance from a decay of a singly produced vector-like quark. The model has several novel features. The identification of the resonance as an SU(2)$_R$ triplet provides a symmetry explanation for suppression of its decays to hh, WW, and gg. Moreover, the ratio of the 13 TeV to 8 TeV cross sections can be larger than single production of a 750 GeV resonance, reaching ratios of up to 7 for TeV scale vector-like quark masses. This eliminates any tension between the results from Run I and Run II diphoton searches. Lastly, we study the kinematics of our signal and conclude that the new production mechanism is consistent with available experimental distributions in large regions of parameter space but, depending on the mass of the new vector-like quarks, can be differentiated from the background with more statistics.

  15. Novel kinematics from a custodially protected diphoton resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack H.; Csáki, Csaba; Dror, Jeff A.; Lombardo, Salvator

    2016-06-01

    We study a simple, well-motivated model based on a custodial symmetry which describes the tree-level production of a 750 GeV diphoton resonance from a decay of a singly produced vector-like quark. The model has several novel features. The identification of the resonance as an SU(2 ) R triplet provides a symmetry explanation for suppression of its decays to h h , W W , and g g . Moreover, the ratio of the 13 TeV to 8 TeV cross sections can be larger than single production of a 750 GeV resonance, reaching ratios of up to 7 for TeV scale vectorlike quark masses. This eliminates any tension between the results from Run I and Run II diphoton searches. Lastly, we study the kinematics of our signal and conclude that the new production mechanism is consistent with available experimental distributions in large regions of parameter space but, depending on the mass of the new vectorlike quarks, can be differentiated from the background with more statistics.

  16. Looking Behind the Increase in Custodial Remand Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Numbers, rates and proportions of those remanded in custody have increased significantly in recent decades across a range of jurisdictions. In Australia they have doubled since the early 1980s, such that close to one in four prisoners is currently unconvicted. Taking NSW as a case study and drawing on the recent New South Wales Law Reform Commission Report on Bail (2012, this article will identify the key drivers of this increase in NSW, predominantly a form of legislative hyperactivity involving constant changes to the Bail Act 1978 (NSW, changes which remove or restrict the presumption in favour of bail for a wide range of offences. The article will then examine some of the conceptual, cultural and practice shifts underlying the increase. These include: a shift away from a conception of bail as a procedural issue predominantly concerned with securing the attendance of the accused at trial and the integrity of the trial, to the use of bail for crime prevention purposes; the diminishing force of the presumption of innocence; the framing of a false opposition between an individual interest in liberty and a public interest in safety; a shift from determination of the individual case by reference to its own particular circumstances to determination by its classification within pre-set legislative categories of offence types and previous convictions; a double jeopardy effect arising in relation to people with previous convictions for which they have already been punished; and an unacknowledged preventive detention effect arising from the increased emphasis on risk. Many of these conceptual shifts are apparent in the explosion in bail conditions and the KPI-driven policing of bail conditions and consequent rise in revocations, especially in relation to juveniles. The paper will conclude with a note on the NSW Government’s response to the NSW LRC Report in the form of a Bail Bill (2013 and brief speculation as to its likely effects.

  17. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). 97.2 Section 97.2 Foreign Relations... HAGUE CONVENTION ADOPTION CASES § 97.2 Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). (a) Once the Convention has entered into force for the United...

  18. 22 CFR 97.4 - Issuance of a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). 97.4 Section 97.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... CONVENTION ADOPTION CASES § 97.4 Issuance of a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). (a) Once the Convention has entered into force for the United States,...

  19. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  20. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  1. The Experience of Young People Remanded in Custody: A Case for Bail Support and Supervision Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Sinead

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential role and benefits bail support and supervision(BSS) schemes may have for young people in the Irish context. This article is based on a wider Ph.D study examining the issue of coping on remand. The research used court observation and semi-structured interviews conducted with young prisoners aged 16 to 21 years in remand custody. The findings indicate that young people often end up in remand custody as a result of non-compliance with bail. The case i...

  2. NBS research on LNG thermophysical properties data and custody transfer measurement methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diller, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Developments in LNG thermophysical properties data research at NBS are reviewed and discussed. These include projects on the PVT, thermodynamic, electromagnetic and transport properties of pure LNG components; and on the liquid-vapor equilibrium properties and orthobaric liquid densities of mixtures of LNG components. Developments in LNG custody transfer measurement research are reviewed, with emphasis on accurate methods for determining LNG composition, density, specific heating value, flow rate and ship tank capacity tables for LNG custody transfer. The uncertainties in the determination of the total heating value of large quantities of LNG in tanks and pipelines are discussed.

  3. Whose Custody Is It, Anyway?: "Homeschooling" from a "Parens Patriae" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of "homeschooling" routinely claim it is legal for parents to rear their children as they see fit. This view ignores the "parens patriae" doctrine--the primary legal basis for the judicial regulation of custody and the legislative enactment of compulsory schooling laws for the benefit of all children. This article challenges claims that…

  4. 48 CFR 1852.245-73 - Financial reporting of NASA property in the custody of contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Financial reporting of NASA... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.245-73 Financial reporting of NASA property in the custody of contractors. As prescribed in 1845.106-70(d), insert the following clause: Financial...

  5. Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

  6. Children in Divorce, Custody and Access Situations: The Contribution of the Mental Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    Reviews literature concerned with the contribution of mental health professionals to the well-being of children of divorce. Topics include effects of divorce on children, divorce prevention, predivorce counseling, custody conflicts, postdivorce counseling, and changes in social and educational practices. (Author/DB)

  7. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  8. 19 CFR 141.113 - Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 141.113, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of merchandise released from Customs and... Merchandise § 141.113 Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody....

  9. 19 CFR 145.72 - Delivery to Customs custody for exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery to Customs custody for exportation. 145.72 Section 145.72 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Exportation by Mail § 145.72 Delivery to...

  10. Child Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)

    2006-01-01

    Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...

  11. Depression, Social Support, and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in African American Custodial Grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-03-01

    Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26798077

  12. Personality traits of drivers serving a custodial sentence for drink driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-04-01

    The men serving a custodial sentence for drink driving show intensified traits of antisocial personality, higher level of anxiety, intensified impulsiveness irritability, distrust, aggression, egocentrism, eccentricity, intensified need for recognition, breaking social standards, experiencing various stimuli, new impressions, greater adaptation difficulties, less self-discipline, lower self-esteem as well as more frequently used destructive, escapist and emotional stress coping strategies as compared to the people with no criminal record, who never drove while under the influence of alcohol. As regards the intensity of personality disorders, stress coping strategies and self-image no significant differences were found between the men serving a custodial sentence for drink driving and those imprisoned for assault and robbery.

  13. Best Interest of the Child and Parental Alienation: A Survey of State Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Asayan, Mariann; LaCheen-Baker, Alianna

    2016-07-01

    State statutes regarding the best interests of the child (BIC) in deciding disputed custody were reviewed and independently coded with respect to three issues (i) the child's preference and any limits (ii) parental alienation and (iii) psychological maltreatment. Results revealed that many states allowed for the child's preferences to be considered and none qualified that preference when undue influence has occurred; parental alienation as a term was not found in any state statutes but 70% of the states included at least one BIC factor relevant to its core construct of the parent supporting the child's relationship to the other parent; and many states included a history of domestic violence or child abuse but only three states explicitly mentioned psychological maltreatment. These findings highlight yet another way in which the BICS factors lack specificity in ways that could negatively impact children caught in their parents' conflict. PMID:27364282

  14. Residential Treatment and the Invention of the Emotionally Disturbed Child in Twentieth-Century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshow, Deborah Blythe

    2016-01-01

    In the 1930s, children who were violent, depressed, psychotic, or suicidal would likely have been labeled delinquent and sent to a custodial training school for punitive treatment. But starting in the 1940s, a new group of institutions embarked on a new experiment to salvage and treat severely deviant children. In the process, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers at these residential treatment centers (RTCs) made visible, and indeed invented, a new patient population. This article uses medical literature, popular media, and archival sources from several RTCs to argue that staff members created what they called the "emotionally disturbed" child. While historians have described the identification of the mildly "troublesome" child in child guidance clinics, I demonstrate how a much more severely ill child was identified and defined in the process of creating residential treatment and child mental health as a professional enterprise. PMID:27040027

  15. Psychological and behavioral characteristics that distinguish street gang members in custody

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Emma; Jane L Wood; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Using social dominance theory, the primary aim of this study was to examine the attitudes and beliefs that reinforce status hierarchies and facilitate aggressive behavior within and between gangs. The aim was also to determine whether these socio-cognitive processes distinguished gang-involved youth from non-gang offenders in a custodial setting. Methods. Gang-involved youth and non-gang offenders were recruited from a Young Offender Institution (YOI) located in the United King...

  16. Custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads: Pathways among marital distress, grandparent dysphoria, parenting practice, and grandchild adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on grandchildren's adjustment difficulties were mediated by dysfunctional parenting. The effects of family-related contextual forces on grandchildren's adj...

  17. Relation of Taser (electrical stun gun) deployment to increase in in-custody sudden deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron K; Vittinghoff, Eric; Whiteman, Dean; Park, Minna; Lau, Linda L; Tseng, Zian H

    2009-03-15

    Despite controversy concerning their safety, use of electrical stun guns (Tasers) by law enforcement agencies is increasing. We examined the effect of Taser deployment on rates of (1) in-custody sudden deaths in the absence of lethal force, (2) lethal force (firearm) deaths, and (3) officer injuries (OIs) requiring emergency room visits. Under the Public Records Act and the Freedom of Information Act, 126 police and sheriff departments from California cities were mailed surveys requesting rates of each of the outcomes of interest for each of the 5 years preceding Taser deployment through the 5 years after deployment. To control for population size and crime rates, we used total annual arrests per city as reported to the Department of Justice. Fifty cities provided predeployment and postdeployment data on in-custody sudden death, 21 cities reported firearm deaths, and 4 cities reported OIs. The rate of in-custody sudden death increased 6.4-fold (95% confidence interval 3.2-12.8, p = 0.006) and the rate of firearm death increased 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval 1.3-4.0, p = 0.003) in the in the first full year after Taser deployment compared with the average rate in the 5 years before deployment. In years 2 to 5 after deployment, rates of the 2 events decreased to predeployment levels. We observed no significant change in the rate of serious OIs after Taser deployment. In conclusion, although considered by some a safer alternative to firearms, Taser deployment was associated with a substantial increase in in-custody sudden deaths in the early deployment period, with no decrease in firearm deaths or serious OIs. PMID:19268749

  18. Parenting apart together. Studies on joint physical custody arrangements in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Sodermans, An Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, increasing numbers of children are commuting between the homes of their mother and father after parental divorce. Belgium provides an excellent context to study this phenomenon because divorce rates are among the highest in Europe and the legal system has recommended joint physical custody as the preferred post-divorce residential model since 2006. This dissertation consists of seven studies involved with measuring, defining and evaluating the consequences of joint physical cus...

  19. Custody and prison deaths autopsied in Istanbul between 2010 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Volkan; Özgün Ünal, Esra; Çetinkaya, Zafer; İmalı, Murat; Gürler, Selçuk; Koç, Sermet

    2016-04-01

    The occurred death of a convict in prison, police custody cell or in a hospital always attracts public attention and can be considered as a complex phenomenon. The aim of this study is to evaluate the data obtained from autopsies performed to the custody and prison deaths in Istanbul and to discuss the possible solutions by comparing with the literature. It is also aimed to discuss the postponement of the sentence and presidential amnesty facts in Turkey. Deaths of inmates, which occurred in hospitals, prisons, prison medical rooms, police vans and police custody cells between 2010 and 2012 in Istanbul, Turkey were included in the study. Totally 125 cases were found and 98.4% of them were male. Natural deaths accounted for a great majority of deaths (83.2%). The most common natural cause was cardiovascular diseases. Unnatural deaths accounted for 15.2% of the deaths. Death reason cannot be determined for 1.6% of the cases. More than half of the cases (56%) were died at the hospital, 34.4% were died at the prison, 4% of them at the police van, 3.2% were died under police custody and 2.4% were died at the prison medical room. Moreover, twelve of these cases had applied to Third Specialization Board previously for postponement of the sentence or Presidential amnesty. Totally five of these cases found suitable for postponement of the sentence. Prison conditions should be improved, prisoners with chronic diseases should be examined periodically and if appropriate their sentences should be postponed until they heal. PMID:26807995

  20. Improving child support enforcement for children receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschke, S

    Less than half of all children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and live in a single-parent home receive child support services. Although filing for child support is a condition of eligibility for income assistance programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), it is not a condition of eligibility for SSI benefits. Requiring single custodial parents applying for SSI on behalf of their children to pursue child support payments might result in more children on SSI receiving child support, and since the Social Security Administration (SSA) excludes one-third of child support when determining benefit amounts, increased receipt of child support would enhance the financial well-being of SSI children. Improving access to data on child support would enhance the integrity of the SSI program by reducing overpayments to children receiving child support. This article looks at the child support provisions in SSI and other means-tested programs and discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support and access to related data. Requiring cooperation with child support enforcement agencies would be consistent with the philosophy that the SSI program should serve as a program of last resort. Whenever possible, both parents should take primary responsibility for their children. While such a requirement has the potential to improve the financial status of children receiving SSI, factors such as their low-income status and their involvement with the TANF program raise questions about how much those children will actually benefit from such a requirement. Even if many additional children do not receive child support, the requirement demonstrates SSA's dedication to the stewardship of the SSI program. However, if custodial parents fail to comply with the requirement, children may be worse off as a result of the requirement. SSA should carefully pursue a requirement to induce cooperation while protecting children to the greatest extent

  1. [Medical-legal conduct with individuals in judicial or police custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medallo Muñiz, Jordi; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Nuno Vieira, Duarte

    2014-03-01

    The problems involved in caring for individuals in custody, as well as deaths that occur during custody, are relevant aspects of legal and forensic medicine in terms of the possible criminal, civil and administrative responsibility of health professionals and/or public or private institutions that might hold individuals in custody and deprived of freedom. The rule of law should ensure that these cases comply with state law and international agreements and treaties related to human rights and the special treatment of individuals deprived of freedom in hospitals or detention centers. Of particular mention is the medical-forensic activity regarding deaths associated with the use of control holds and/or restraint during the detention of individuals by members of the armed forces or law enforcement or in healthcare centers by safety and healthcare personnel. In these cases, both the immediate healthcare treatment subsequent to the events and the medical-forensic study should be particularly careful. These situations, which are often high profile, cause social alarm and involve judicial actions that can result in especially severe liabilities. PMID:24913748

  2. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  3. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: an alarming face of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlawat, Pratibha; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Singh, Priti; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is emerging as a serious form of child abuse. It is an intentional production of illness in another, usually children by mothers, to assume sick role by proxy. It is poorly understood and a controversial diagnosis. Treatment is very difficult. We present a case of 9-year-old boy brought to Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, a tertiary care hospital in northern India by his father and paternal uncle with complaints of hematemesis since July 2012. He underwent many invasive procedures until the diagnosis of MSBP was finally considered. The examination of the blood sample confirmed the diagnosis. The child was placed under custody of his mother. The case was reported to social services, which incorporated whole family in the management. PMID:25722520

  4. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: An alarming face of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gehlawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP is emerging as a serious form of child abuse. It is an intentional production of illness in another, usually children by mothers, to assume sick role by proxy. It is poorly understood and a controversial diagnosis. Treatment is very difficult. We present a case of 9-year-old boy brought to Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, a tertiary care hospital in northern India by his father and paternal uncle with complaints of hematemesis since July 2012. He underwent many invasive procedures until the diagnosis of MSBP was finally considered. The examination of the blood sample confirmed the diagnosis. The child was placed under custody of his mother. The case was reported to social services, which incorporated whole family in the management.

  5. Family Characteristics, Custody Arrangements, and Adolescent Psychological Well-being After Lesbian Mothers Break Up

    OpenAIRE

    Gartrell, Nanette; Bos, Henny; Peyser, Heidi; Deck, Amalia; Rodas, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Based on the first longitudinal study on dissolutions among lesbian couples, this article suggests the importance of co-parent adoption for same-sex couples with children.  The study finds that the former couples were more likely to be sharing custody if there had been a co-parent adoption and that they had remained in their relationships longer — on average four years longer — than those without co-parent adoptions. In addition, their 17-year-old children were significantly more likely to re...

  6. Leptonic custodial symmetry, quantization of the electric charge and the neutrino in the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Machet, B

    1996-01-01

    I study, in the leptonic sector, the role of the SU(2)_V custodial symmetry \\ti{\\cal G} which was shown in ref. [1] to control the quantization of the electric charge in the J=0 mesonic sector. The electroweak theory is considered, according to ref. [2], as a purely vectorial model which interacts with a ``hidden'' sector of composite scalars. \\ti{\\cal G} can only be a symmetry of the former if the neutrino is a Majorana particle; the latter provides a dynamical modification of the leptonic weak couplings, reconstructing those of the Standard Model with a massless Majorana neutrino.

  7. Leptonic Custodial Symmetry, Quantization of the Electric Charge and the Neutrino in the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Machet, B.

    1996-01-01

    I study, in the leptonic sector, the role of the $SU(2)_V$ custodial symmetry $\\ti{\\cal G}$ which was shown in ref. [1] to control the quantization of the electric charge in the $J=0$ mesonic sector. The electroweak theory is considered, according to ref. [2], as a purely vectorial model which interacts with a ``hidden'' sector of composite scalars. $\\ti{\\cal G}$ can only be a symmetry of the former if the neutrino is a Majorana particle; the latter provides a dynamical modification of the le...

  8. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  9. Self-reported suicidal behavior in juvenile offenders in custody: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jenny; Hawton, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates in prisons in England and Wales are high, including those in juvenile detention centers. Previous deliberate self-harm (DSH) is the strongest predictor of suicide in the general population. There is limited information on how many juvenile offenders (15 to 18 year-olds) have a history of DSH at the time of entering custody, or on factors associated with previous DSH. We aimed to determine the prevalence of previous DSH and suicidal ideation in a population of juvenile offenders in custody and to identify factors associated with DSH and suicidal ideation. Seven out of 45 subjects (15.6%) reported an act of DSH in the past. Twelve (26.6%) reported past suicidal ideation. Peer relationship difficulties and sexual abuse were significantly associated with DSH (p population than in young males in the community. A larger joint project with juvenile detention centers is required to confirm the extent of previous DSH at the time young offenders are admitted, and the associated risk factors, in order to assist prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:15384651

  10. Frequency of traumatic lesions alleged by victims of assault during police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, G; Houssaye, C; Bourokba, N; Durigon, M

    2007-08-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the frequency of traumatic lesions found in individuals alleging police brutality during official custody in the département of Hauts-de-Seine, located in the west suburbs of Paris. All medical certificates relating to the examination of 11,653 individuals detained during the year 2004 were analysed. From this population, there were 119 cases where victimized individuals alleged police assault and 245 revealed aggressive police manhandling, as indicated by traces of tight handcuffs. Among the individuals alleging police violence, most of them showed recent traumatic lesions (n=91). The majority of lesions were superficial contusions frequently located in the cervico-cephalic area. All traumatic lesions were compatible with the allegations of police assault. Neurological complications secondary to the application of handcuffs were encountered in less than 2% of the cases. Although no death was recorded in police custody during the period of the study, approximately 5% of the population that had encountered some form of police violence was found to require emergency hospitalization. PMID:17631458

  11. Awareness Towards Chain of Custody Certification in Africa: the Case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan ATTAH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM. To date about 126,000 ha of forests have been certified by the different certification schemes in Africa, despite Africa accounting for 17% of the World�s forest cover. This has been due to the lack of awareness on forest certification and the low standards of forest management in the tropics. The authors conducted a survey of representative stakeholders, in particular export timber firms in Ghana to identify why Chain of Custody certification in the Ghana Timber sector remains undeveloped. A number of 103 stakeholders were consulted. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of a national scheme was cited as the primary reasons deterring the sector from adopting certification.

  12. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials are... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and...

  13. Brief cognitive behavioural therapy with male adolescent offenders in open custody or on probation: an evaluation of management of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, P M; Jensen, B; Raven-Brook, L

    1995-06-01

    A 6-wk. cognitive behavioural program administered to 24 adolescent male offenders assigned to open custody and 5 to probation showed no mean differences on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Significant correlations were found for the personality measures with pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. PMID:7568580

  14. Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  16. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  17. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  18. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  19. 750-GeV Diphoton Resonance as the Singlet of Custodial Higgs Triplet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The observation of diphoton excess around the mass of 750~GeV at the LHC motivates us to consider the singlet Higgs boson in the custodial Higgs triplet model as a good candidate. Based on an earlier study of comprehensive parameter scan for viable mass spectra, we show that the diphoton resonance data fall well within the allowed space. Moreover, we point out that a definite mass hierarchy emerges among the exotic Higgs bosons in the model. Further search channels for the singlet and those for the other exotic Higgs bosons in LHC Run-II are discussed. In particular, we present a simulation of distributions of two kinematic variables for the search of the doubly-charged Higgs boson.

  20. Are prisons safe? Death due to depression while in custody: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupeshkumar Naik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prisoners are not born but made. Custodial deaths were becoming crunch to the mistreated police control for so many decades. A 32-year-old male was found dead inside prison because of depression that he was prisoned. On examination, there was ligature mark over neck that was suicidal in nature. Proper care of the prisoners, motivation inside the prison, maintaining surprise visits by higher officials, and closed monitoring by CCTV may prevent these type of suicidal behaviours inside the prison. The present case gives the idea for the police personnel to motivate and monitor the prisoners to prevent suicidal behaviour. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1304-1306

  1. Child abuse and neglect by parents with disabilities: A tale of two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B F; Norman, K R; Searle, M S; Daniels, M; Lubeck, R C

    1995-01-01

    Two families, in which the children had been placed in foster care due to abuse and neglect by parents who had disabilities, were studied. In the first case, the mother was instructed in skills that our assessment suggested were important for her child's survival. The mother readily acquired and applied these skills, a fact reflected both in changes in her behavior and in changes in the child's well-being. In the second case, the parent's incremental resumption of child custody was made contingent upon completion of relevant parenting tasks. Initially, improvements in the completion of such tasks were evident, but over time and with the onset of militating factors, no further progress was made and all parental rights were terminated. The implications of these cases for behavior analysis and the effort to reunite and preserve families are discussed. PMID:16795873

  2. Astrophysical implications of a visible dark matter sector from a custodially warped GUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore, within the warped extra dimensional framework, the possibility of finding antimatter signals in cosmic rays (CRs) from dark matter (DM) annihilation. We find that exchange of order 100 GeV radion, an integral part of this class of models, generically results in a sizable Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation rate for DM mass at the TeV scale. No ad hoc dark sector is required to obtain boosted annihilation cross sections and hence signals. Such a mild hierarchy between the radion and DM masses can be natural due to the pseudo-Goldstone boson nature of the radion. We study the implications of a Sommerfeld enhancement specifically in warped grand unified theory (GUT) models, where proton stability implies a DM candidate. We show, via a partially unified Pati-Salam group, how to incorporate a custodial symmetry for Z→bb into the GUT framework such that a few TeV Kaluza-Klein (KK) mass scale is allowed by electroweak precision tests. Among such models, the one with the smallest SO(10) (fully unified) representation, with SU(5) hypercharge normalization, allows us to decouple the DM from the electroweak gauge bosons. Thus, a correct DM relic density can be obtained and direct detection bounds are satisfied. Looking at robust CR observables, we find a possible future signal in the p/p flux ratio consistent with current constraints. Using a different choice of representations, we show how to embed in this GUT model a similar custodial symmetry for the right-handed tau, allowing it to be strongly coupled to KK particles. Such a scenario might lead to an observed signal in CR positrons; however, the DM candidate in this case cannot constitute all of the DM in the Universe. As an aside and independent of the GUT or DM model, the strong coupling between KK particles and tau's can lead to striking LHC signals.

  3. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  4. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  5. Revisiting child-based objections to commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jason K M

    2010-09-01

    Many critics of commercial surrogate motherhood argue that it violates the rights of children. In this paper, I respond to several versions of this objection. The most common version claims that surrogacy involves child-selling. I argue that while proponents of surrogacy have generally failed to provide an adequate response to this objection, it can be overcome. After showing that the two most prominent arguments for the child-selling objection fail, I explain how the commissioning couple can acquire parental rights by paying the surrogate only for her reproductive labor. My explanation appeals to the idea that parental rights are acquired by those who have claims over the reproductive labor that produces the child, not necessarily by those who actually perform the labor. This account clarifies how commercial surrogacy differs from commercial adoption. In the final section of the paper, I consider and reject three further child-based objections to commercial surrogacy: that it establishes a market in children's attributes, that it requires courts to stray from the best interests standard in determining custodial rights, and that it requires the surrogate to neglect her parental responsibilities. Since each of these objections fails, children's rights probably do not pose an obstacle to the acceptability of commercial surrogacy arrangements. PMID:20690918

  6. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  7. The privatisation of non-custodial measures: an uneasy balance between legitimacy and immediacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hogg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available All developed countries with few exceptions are facing problems related to prison overpopulation and non-custodial measures are marketed as the solution. The public’s involvement and endorsement of non-custodial measures is imperative and the success of these measures will depend upon the contribution of the private sector. The private for-profit and non-profit sectors’ involvement in this area is not new and unlikely to decrease; however, the public sector must be the one to identify the needs and not fall victim to the courting of the private for-profit sector, which prioritises profit and for who the offender in this context has become a commodity. The non-profit sector can counter the effects of risk management and its plethora of requirements, which are partly responsible for increasing technical violations and obliging probation to take on a more adversarial role. Up until our expectations of probation and offenders in the community become more attainable and reflexive, the non-profit sector can temper the depersonalised and automatic feedback.The legitimacy of non-custodial measures depends upon them being cost-effective, efficient, socially acceptable and reflexive. This paper focuses on three genres of non-custodial sentences, which are characteristic of retribution, coercive treatment and restorative justice. The use of these in the United States, Canada, England and Wales, Sweden and Spain is briefly overviewed as well as the contribution of the private sector. Non-custodial measures aren’t the panacea for all offending in all cultures but surely are a step in the right direction. La mayoría de los países desarrollados se enfrentan a problemas relacionados con la sobrepoblación de las cárceles. Las medidas no privativas de libertad se presentan como una solución a este problema. Es necesario que la opinión pública participe y apruebe las medidas no privativas; el éxito de estas medidas dependerá también de la aportaci

  8. Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in police custody and in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Pollanen, M. S.; Chiasson, D A; Cairns, J T; Young, J G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may contribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unexpectedly. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 21 cases of unexpected death in people with excited delirium, which were investigated by the Office of the Chief Coroner for O...

  9. Perspectives and Attitudes of Forest Products Industry Companies on the Chain of Custody Certification: A Case Study From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Tolunay; Türkay Türkoğlu

    2014-01-01

    The perspectives and attitudes of the companies of the forest products industry operating in the fields of solid wood products, pulp, paper and paperboard products, engineered wood products and furniture manufacturing in Turkey on the chain of custody certification system and certified forest products were investigated. Within this scope, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers or owners of 177 companies. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire technique. The resea...

  10. Examining the Structural Validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a U.S. Sample of Custodial Grandmothers

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Smith, Gregory C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the structural validity of the parent informant version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with a sample of 733 custodial grandparents. Three models of the SDQ’s factor structure were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis based on the item covariance matrix. Although indices of fit were good across all 3 models, a model that included a newly hypothesized positive construal method factor in addition to the 4 symptom factors (Emotional Symptoms, Con...

  11. Perspectives and Attitudes of Forest Products Industry Companies on the Chain of Custody Certification: A Case Study From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives and attitudes of the companies of the forest products industry operating in the fields of solid wood products, pulp, paper and paperboard products, engineered wood products and furniture manufacturing in Turkey on the chain of custody certification system and certified forest products were investigated. Within this scope, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers or owners of 177 companies. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire technique. The research methods included descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test. As a result, it was detected that there are differences in the perspectives and attitudes towards the chain of custody certification system of the companies operating in the four main branches of the forest products industry in Turkey. It was revealed by this survey that chain of custody (CoC certification was known mostly by the companies operating in pulp, paper and paperboard companies. The certification most demanded is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC CoC certification, with a share of 15%; and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC CoC is demanded by 2% of companies.

  12. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    courts’ sentences. It notes that appeal by the child offender is made somewhat easier, as some child offenders need not obtain leave to appeal. These include children under the age of 16, or older children sentenced to imprisonment. Again, the meaning of “imprisonment” is at least somewhat ambiguous. The provisions on automatic review have attracted considerable judicial attention already. The majority of these judgments confirmed the apparently clear wording of the Act, in terms of which the cases of all child offenders under the age of 16 should be reviewed regardless of whether they were legally represented or of the sentence imposed. In the case of child offenders aged 16 or 17, only custodial sentences are reviewable. The judgments which found this to be an incorrect interpretation are dealt with in some detail, with the conclusion that they were incorrectly decided.

  13. [Specified expectant mother, Child Welfare Act, and community cooperation: the role of psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the amended provisions of Article 6 of the Child Welfare Act defined "Specified Expectant Mother" (Tokutei-ninpu) as an expectant mother with the need for potential support in nurturing her baby before its delivery. This term was subsequently supplemented with relevant notices and manuals of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare; it then became a new target of the community network built for the prevention of child abuse. The two notices issued on November 30, 2012 are of great significance. One notice indicates that pregnant females should be screened for psychiatric disorders as well as some other risk factors by officers of their municipalities as a precaution against child abuse. The other states that in the context of Article 5 of the Child Abuse Prevention Law, medical service workers are immunized from sanctions if they divulge privileged information about a "Specified Expectant Mother" with the potential risk for child abuse to municipalities without patient approval. As a result of the latter notice, medical staff must judge whether the privacy of a parent or health of an unborn child with potential risk is more worthy of protection. However, the official criteria for judging the potential for child abuse and those who fall into the category of "Specified Expectant Mother" have yet to be specified. Fetal abuse, as defined by Condon in 1986, serves as a suitable surrogate marker for possible harmful actions that would justify public community cooperation without patient approval. Parenting capacity has rarely been discussed in the field of child abuse and neglect in Japan. The capacity is a legal requirement for custody. Considering the capacity of a "Specified Expectant Mother" to prevent child abuse and neglect, health care workers supporting pregnant women with psychiatric disorders or intellectual disabilities should deliberate, first, their capacities to appreciate their situations and, then, their parenting capacities. A custody

  14. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  15. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  17. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  18. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  19. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Strulik

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  20. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...

  1. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  2. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Tıraşçı; Süleyman Gören

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

  4. Muerte en privación de libertad (MPL Death in custody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Palomo Rando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las muertes de personas que se encuentran en situación de privación de libertad, presos, detenidos y pacientes ingresados involuntariamente en establecimientos psiquiátricos, conocidas en la literatura médico legal anglosajona como "Deaths in Custody", han motivado numerosas publicaciones y capítulos exclusivos en los textos más prestigiosos de la especialidad en los últimos años. Proponemos la denominación de Muerte en Privación de Libertad (MPL en lengua española en lugar de la traducción literal de Muerte en Custodia, así como una normativa legal que establezca la obligatoriedad de la autopsia e investigación judicial en todos estos casos. La autopsia de una persona fallecida en estas circunstancias es, en general, la más problemática que se puede plantear a un patólogo forense. Los datos existentes sobre la situación en España son incompletos, se analizan las causas más frecuentes de estas muertes, con especial atención al Delirium con agitación, y se hacen una serie de propuestas encaminadas a la prevención y mejor conocimiento de las mismas. Así mismo revisamos las publicaciones médico legales sobre tortura, los métodos utilizados y los protocolos internacionales para la investigación y documentación de la misma, tanto en el sujeto vivo como en el cadáver (Protocolos de Minnesota y Estambul.The deaths of people who find themselves deprived of liberty, for example, prisoners (inmates in prison, people who have been arrested, involuntary patients in psychiatric institutions, known in legal medical English publications as "Deaths in Custody" have been the focus of a lot of publications and special chapters in forensic medicine books and journals in the last few years. Our proposal in the Spanish language is the expression Death in a Freedom deprived state. We also propose the promulgation of a Law to perform compulsory autopsy and judiciary investigation in all these cases. These autopsies are among the most

  5. The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Global features and distinct flavor signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum offer possible solutions to the gauge hierarchy and flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we concentrate on the particularly well-motivated Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection of the T parameter and the ZbL anti bL vertex and carefully work out its flavor structure. Based on these results we study how the presence of additional Kaluza-Klein states affects particle-antiparticle oscillations and rare decays and derive analytic expressions for the most relevant K and B physics observables. In the course of the ensuing global numerical analysis we conform the stringent bound on the Kaluza-Klein mass scale which is imposed by indirect CP violation in K0 - anti K0 oscillations. Yet, we are able to show that agreement with all available data on ΔF=2 observables can be obtained for TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein masses without significant fine tuning. Furthermore we find large possible effects in CP violation in Bs- anti Bs oscillations as well as in rare K decays, which however are mutually exclusive. The impact on rare decay branching ratios of B mesons on the other hand turns out to be small and very challenging to measure in the near future. In addition we identify a number of distinct correlations between different observables and find that a very specific pattern of flavor violation is present. This pattern can be used to distinguish the model under consideration from other frameworks of new physics, as we demonstrate explicitly for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity and the Standard Model with a sequential fourth generation of quarks and leptons. (orig.)

  6. The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Global features and distinct flavor signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duling, Bjoern

    2010-04-19

    Models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum offer possible solutions to the gauge hierarchy and flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we concentrate on the particularly well-motivated Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection of the T parameter and the Zb{sub L} anti b{sub L} vertex and carefully work out its flavor structure. Based on these results we study how the presence of additional Kaluza-Klein states affects particle-antiparticle oscillations and rare decays and derive analytic expressions for the most relevant K and B physics observables. In the course of the ensuing global numerical analysis we conform the stringent bound on the Kaluza-Klein mass scale which is imposed by indirect CP violation in K{sup 0} - anti K{sup 0} oscillations. Yet, we are able to show that agreement with all available data on {delta}F=2 observables can be obtained for TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein masses without significant fine tuning. Furthermore we find large possible effects in CP violation in B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} oscillations as well as in rare K decays, which however are mutually exclusive. The impact on rare decay branching ratios of B mesons on the other hand turns out to be small and very challenging to measure in the near future. In addition we identify a number of distinct correlations between different observables and find that a very specific pattern of flavor violation is present. This pattern can be used to distinguish the model under consideration from other frameworks of new physics, as we demonstrate explicitly for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity and the Standard Model with a sequential fourth generation of quarks and leptons. (orig.)

  7. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  8. 非监禁刑的界限研究%On the Limits of Non-custodial Penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏尊文; 陈建军

    2011-01-01

    Freedom penalty went off to the core position of penal system by the end of the 18th century. People began to seek ways beyond imprisonment to deal with crime because the inherent disadvantages of imprisonment led to the failure of offender's re-socialization in prison, so non-custodial penalties came into being. Domestic academic circles' litigation was diverse for "non-custodial penalties" emerged from the reformation of criminal law in western countries. There are several types' views, such as sentence type theory, community corrections theory, sentence type and method of execution of punishment theory, sentence type and method of execution of punishment and annihilation of punishment theory, sentence type and means other than criminal punishment theory, non-custodial measures theory and so on. The divergence of views is not conducive to theoretical research and legislation or judicial practice. Thus it is necessary to be clarified. Studies will show that locate non-custodial penalties at sentence type are more appropriate, and probation should be included.%18世纪末,自由刑走上刑罚体系的核心地位。监禁的固有弊端导致犯罪人在监狱中再社会化的失败,人们开始在监禁之外寻求对付犯罪的办法,非监禁刑应运而生。对于西方国家刑法改革中出现的“非监禁刑”,国内学术界争讼纷纭,存在刑种说、社区矫正说、刑种兼刑罚执行方法说、刑种兼刑罚执行与消灭说、刑罚兼非刑罚处理方法说、非监禁措施说等几类观点。观点的分歧不利于理论研究与立法、司法实践,因而很有必要加以澄清。研究表明,将非监禁刑定位于刑种较为l晗当,其中包括缓刑。

  9. Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, WEN-HAO; Corak, Miles

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state i...

  10. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  11. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  12. Statistical test of a null hypothesis: Taser shocks have not caused or contributed to subsequent in-custody deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2009-03-01

    Since 1999 over 425 in-custody deaths have occurred in the USA after law enforcement officers (LEOs) used an M26 or X26 Taser, causing Amnesty International and the ACLU to call for a moratorium on Taser use until its physiological effects on people have been better studied. A person's Taser dose is defined as the total duration (in seconds) of all Taser shocks received by that person during a given incident. Utilizing the concept of Taser dose for these deaths, TASER International's claim of Taser safety can be treated as a null hypothesis and its validity scientifically tested. Such a test using chi-square as the test statistic is presented. It shows that the null hypothesis should be rejected; i.e., model M26 and X26 Tasers are capable of producing lethal effects non-electrically and so have played a causal or contributory role in a great many of the in-custody deaths following their use. This implies that the Taser is a lethal weapon, and that LEOs have not been adequately trained in its safe use!

  13. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  14. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  15. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  16. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  17. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  18. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 OCC has a variety of resources and tools related to the law. Visit our Reauthorization site to find webinars, program instructions, and other guidance and information. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  19. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  20. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  1. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  2. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  3. 27 CFR 70.225 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court. 70.225 Section 70.225 Alcohol... (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.225 Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6503(b)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court. 301.6503(b)-1 Section 301.6503(b)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6503(b)-1 Suspension of running...

  5. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  6. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child to return to school or daycare. This may be as soon as 2 to 3 weeks after surgery. Your child's activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for ...

  7. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  8. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-07-26

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  9. Father involvement in child welfare: Associations with changes in externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K

    2016-05-01

    Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care. Father involvement was measured through a review of case files and interviews with child welfare workers. Growth trajectories were fit to children's externalizing behavior across time and were predicted using Time 1 characteristics. Father involvement, total non-father relative involvement, and gender (girls) was associated with lower baseline externalizing behavior and the African American children in the sample experienced higher baseline externalizing behavior. However, only Time 1 father involvement predicted slope trajectories after controlling for Time 1 externalizing behavior; more father involvement was associated with lower externalizing behavior trajectories. These results suggest that even in the unique and stressful context of child welfare, father involvement can be protective regarding children's externalizing behaviors. PMID:27110849

  10. Considerations on occupational therapy in a custody and psychiatric treatment hospital: The psychosocial field versus the forensic psychiatry field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH is ambivalent and ambiguous in its essence, because it gathers not only the characteristics of a mental institution, but also those of a prison – epitomized by the security system. By analyzing this context, one can perceive the importance of implementing some knowhow able to attend the real needs of the individuals hospitalized in this type of institution. This interpretation of their needs must be done in association with a work in mental health based on the principles of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and Psychosocial Field Practice. The objective of this study is to reflect on the real possibilities of implementing mental health work based on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, inserted in the Psychosocial Field, in institutions such as CPTHs. This reflection occurs from the conflicts arisen in the beginning of Occupational Therapy service in a CPTH located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, as well as through the analysis of the reality in which this Custody Hospital is inserted. When studying the Psychiatric Reform Law, ordinance 28.195/1988, which deliberates on the functions of Occupational Therapy in the CPTHs of the state of Sao Paulo, and the Penal Execution Law, the reality was analyzed from its dimensions, to conclude that the institutional forces ruled the work process of occupational therapists. Therefore, the structural, particular, singular dimensions that rule the CPTH were understood and, after that, the “nodes” that hinder the implementation of mental health work in the Psychosocial Field in this type of institution were revealed.

  11. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan C

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. 'Meanings' have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades. PMID:25838721

  12. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyvadan C Shastri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. ′Meanings′ have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades.

  13. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  14. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  15. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  16. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  17. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  18. Child labor handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C.; Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys many aspects and issues of child labor, including its causes and effects as well as policies associated with it. Child labor has come to be considered an expression of poverty, both a cause and an effect of underdevelopment. Child labor cannot be viewed in isolation from educational, health, fertility, and technological issues; and is not necessarily an aberration but a rational household response to an adverse economic environment. With this in mind, the following proposit...

  19. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  20. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland. METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles...... importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....

  1. Is Child Labor Inefficient?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Baland; Robinson, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We build a model of child labor and study its implications for welfare. We assume that there is a trade-off between child labor and the accumulation of human capital. Even if parents are altruistic and child labor is socially inefficient, it may arise in equilibrium because parents fail to fully internalize its negative effects. This occurs when bequests are zero or when capital markets are imperfect. We also study the effects of a simple ban on child labor and derive conditions under which i...

  2. Co-Parenting: Sharing Your Child Equally. A Source Book for the Separated or Divorced Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, Miriam

    This source book introduces perspectives and skills which can contribute to successful "co-parenting" (joint custody, joint parenting, co-custody or shared custody) of preadolescent children after parents are separated or divorced. Chapter One introduces the concept of co-parenting. Chapter Two advances an approach to developing flexible…

  3. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Merikanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

  4. The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...

  5. Do market wages influence child labor and child schooling?

    OpenAIRE

    Wahba, Jackline

    2000-01-01

    Thispaper provides empirical evidence on the joint determinants of child labor, and child schooling, using individual level data from Egypt. The main findings are as follows: 1) A ten percent increase in the illiterate male market wage decreases the probability of child labor by 21.5 percent for boys, and 13.1 percent for girls. 2) Higher local regional income inequality increases the likelihood of child labor. 3) Parents who were child laborers themselves, are more likely to send their child...

  6. Child maintenance and child poverty: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hakovirta, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the Luxembourg Income Study datasets from circa 2004 to analyse the contribution child maintenance makes to the reduction of child poverty. The countries compared are Canada, UK, USA, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland representing countries with different child maintenance schemes. Results show that the contribution that child maintenance makes in reducing overall child poverty is minimal but it can reduce child poverty among non-widowed lone mother families if ma...

  7. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  8. The Economics of Child Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stéphane Pallage

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight the economic effects of the existence of child trafficking. We show that the risk of child trafficking on the labor market acts as a deterrent to supply child labor, unless household survival is at stake. An imperfectly enforceable legislation aiming at fighting child trafficking, by raising the expected gains parents derive from sending their children to work, will cause a rise in the number of child laborers. We show that it can even cause the incidence of child ...

  9. Mapping the introduction of a mental health awareness in custodial settings self-directed workbook across eight care services improvement partnership patches

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Charlie; Sirdifield, Coral

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 90% of prisoners experience mental health problems, substance misuse problems or both. However, prison reception screening tools are not always effective in enabling staff to identify mentally disordered prisoners. Therefore, to ensure that these individuals get access to appropriate care, custodial staff should be trained in recognising the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders, and in effectively working with these individuals. This paper cha...

  10. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  11. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  12. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  13. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  15. Choosing Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  16. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  17. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  18. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  19. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  20. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... Summer_flyer_508.pdf Read More "Reducing Childhood Obesity" Articles Healthy Weight, Healthy Child / Get Involved How Parents and Kids Can Get ...

  1. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  2. Child Schooling and Child Work in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malathy Duraisamy

    2000-01-01

    In India, about 62 percent of the children in the age group of 5-14 are currently enrolled in schools, and 4 percent of children are reported to be working. The remaining 34 percent of children in this age group are neither enrolled in school nor reported as participating in work. The twin problems of child schooling and child work in India have not been adequately addressed in the literature. Another important dimension to this problem is the gender disparity in school enrollment. Available ...

  3. AS CRIANÇAS PEQUENAS SOB UMA BOA GUARDA. SMALL CHILDREN IN SAFE CUSTODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Plaisance

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As limitações profissionais e de tempo dos pais, as possibilidades institucionais e sociais na guarda e no cuidado das crianças pequenas levaram os sociólogos a redefinir as “idades” da pequena infância: 0-2 anos, a creche; 2-3 anos, o “jardin d’éveil”3; a partir dos três anos, a escola maternal, à qual devemos acrescentar a guarda em casa e, para as classes mais ricas, a empregada doméstica. A partir deentrevistas com pais, E. Plaisance mostra que os interessados ressaltam a liberdade de escolha (mesmo quando as ofertas são raras e reforçam o tom da evidência de que a solução tomada era a melhor para eles e para a criança. Mas as respostas mostram também que eles buscam se informar, segundo meios que favorecem o “boca a boca” e que dão lugar aos fenômenos do rumor. De fato, a “escolha” dos atores é determinada, mas como para se tranquilizar e assumir suaresponsabilidade, eles a descrevem voluntariamente como “livre”.Due to the constraints of parental work schedules, the institutional and social opportunities in minding and caring for young children have grown. This has led sociologists to redefine the 'ages' of early childhood. These are: 0-2, the crèche, 2-3, the kindergarten and from three years old on, play school. To this must be added home care with a child-minder for wealthier classes. Based on interviewswith parents, É. Plaisance shows that those involved put freedom of choice first (even when the choices are rare and the weight of evidence underlines that the solution arrived at was the best for them and their child. But the responses also show that they try to inform themselves by ways that favor word of mouth and giveroom for rumor and hearsay. The 'choice' of those involved is constrained, but as if to reassure themselves and to show that they are assuming their responsibility, they willingly describe it as 'free'.

  4. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  5. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    OpenAIRE

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  6. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  7. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  8. Can the 750-GeV diphoton resonance be the singlet Higgs boson of custodial Higgs triplet model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Kuo, An-Li

    2016-09-01

    The observation of diphoton excess around the mass of 750 GeV in LHC Run-II motivates us to consider whether the singlet Higgs boson in the custodial Higgs triplet model can serve as a good candidate because an earlier study of comprehensive parameter scan shows that it can have the right mass in the viable mass spectra. By assuming the singlet Higgs mass at 750 GeV, its total width less than 50 GeV and imposing constraints from the LHC 8-TeV data, we identify an approximately linear region on the (vΔ , α) plane along which the exotic Higgs boson masses satisfy a specific hierarchy and have lower possible spectra, where vΔ denotes the triplet vacuum expectation value and α is the mixing angle between the singlet Higgs boson and the standard model-like Higgs boson. Although the diphoton decay rate can be enhanced by charged Higgs bosons running in the loop in this region, it is mostly orders of magnitude smaller than that required for the observed production rate, except for the small vΔ region when the diphoton fusion production mechanism becomes dominant. Nonetheless, this part of parameter space suffers from the problems of breakdown of perturbativity and large uncertainties in the photon parton distribution function of proton.

  9. 32 CFR 884.15 - Procedures involving a request by Federal or state authorities for custody of an overseas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... charges; or a contempt citation involving the unlawful or contemptuous removal of a child from the... disciplinary action (including removal) against the employee or withdrawing command sponsorship of the...

  10. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  11. Child income poverty and child deprivation: an essay on measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Bastos; Graca Leao Fernandes,; Jose Passos

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non-monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income-based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro-econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation ...

  12. Your Child's Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  13. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid activities that need concentration, such as reading, homework, and complex tasks. When you go home from the emergency room, it is okay for your child to sleep: For the first 12 hours, you may want ...

  14. Surviving Your Child's Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child that will never be answered. Depression Lack of energy, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, ... a zip code. Search Connect with us on Facebook Find Support Video Online Support Community Connect, share ...

  15. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  16. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dentist or doctor suggests it. Provide healthy foods and limit sweet snacks and drinks Schedule regular dental check-ups Forming good habits at a young age can help your child have healthy teeth ...

  17. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  18. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  19. Helping Your Overweight Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  20. The Facially Disfigured Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Georgia A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  1. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  2. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll need an accurate height and weight measurement. Bathroom scales and tape measures aren't always precise. ... child's health, level of physical activity, and eating habits, as well as your family medical history. The ...

  3. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  4. Child with NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead some ado- lescents to feelings of depression, anxiety and social isolation. Counseling and assisting the child in finding a social network can help significantly. In addition to promoting local ...

  5. Child Marriage in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saalfeldt, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Child marriage is a major health and security concern that still prevails in Bangladesh. The paper attempts to investigate and tries to understand the societal and cultural context of the problem. By applying Mary Douglas’ Socio-Cultural Viability theory and her parsimonious model onto the issue of child marriage in Bangladesh the four major opposing cultural camps are pointed out (Plan Bangladesh, Bangladesh government, the garment factory owners, and the individual Bangladeshi citizen). The...

  6. Microfinance and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Jonas; Breyer, Julika

    2011-01-01

    Aims to assess the role of microfinance as an instrument in combating child labour. Reviews the economic literature drawing on empirical evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty, income stability, overall household wellbeing and the demand for child labour taking a comprehensive perspective on microfinance which includes loans for consumption, savings, insurance, financial services for improving the access to education, and awareness raising. Examines the direct experience of microfi...

  7. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  8. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ)

  9. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  10. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  11. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  12. Web measurement - a tool to achieve reliable information on custody transfer measurement systems in pipeline operations; Web medicao - uma ferramenta de consolidacao de informacoes sobre sistemas de medicao para transferencia de custodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Eliane Areas; Freitas, Surama de Oliveitra [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva; Dias, Gerson Vieira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The prompt and organized information about measurement systems is essential for custody transfer in the pipeline transportation business. This organized information can serve as a basis for operational, maintenance and commercial groups in pipeline transportation companies. This information can also help management in planning future improvements in hardware for custody transfer measurements. In nation-wide companies, like TRANSPETRO, information about custody transfer measurement systems, if not organized, will be scattered geographically and organizationally. In organizing this kind of information, distributed systems have a big advantage, with information maintained by operational groups and centralized in the headquarters of the company. This paper describes the implementation of a system for consolidating and updating company information about custody transfer measurement systems for liquid and gas. The system has been implemented on the Intranet, allowing initial data entry in a distributed way, and a centralized validation by the headquarters engineering group. The new methodology has sharply increased the reliability in the information of custody transfer measurement systems in the company. (author)

  13. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  14. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  15. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Eugene Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been a grandfather for only 12 years, but for 37 years I have lived a grandparent's dream: people pay me to tell them how to raise their children. This is only one of the many rewards child and adolescent psychiatry has offered me. Table 1 lists some more of them.Probably the greatest satisfaction in child psychiatry is the wide selection of options for specialization: psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, family therapy, parent guidance, custody and visitation advice, epidemiology, disorder specialization, research, consultation, public education and best of all, the chance to integrate it all and play at being a comprehensive physician. The myriad challenges provoke learning and continued development that keep one young at heart and mind. Sometimes I think I should pay to practice child psychiatry.It should be obvious by now to even the casual reader that I enjoy the privilege of being a child and adolescent psychiatrist and that enjoyment manifests in a playful attitude. That playful attitude includes not taking myself too seriously. In fact, I'm proud of my humility! It was earned at the expense of repeated humbling experiences in two ways:Confronting tragic situations that I could not help, where all my education, training, experience and brilliant diagnostic insight seemed useless; and Witnessing real heroism by some parents who struggle with sick children's difficult problems without complaining and with indefatigable hope. They outshine any professional pretensions of mine. By showing me my limitations and forcing me to compare myself to patients and parents (and occasional colleagues of superior moral caliber, child psychiatry has made a better, more honest person of me and for this I'm grateful.On the other hand, there is the mind-blowing exhilaration of watching a child improve after some prescription, potion or psychotherapeutic intervention and being allowed to believe that I had something to

  16. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health service...

  17. [Managing an autistic child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2010-03-20

    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  18. Death of a Special Needs Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of a Special Needs Child When a child ... Needs Child Dies The grief that follows the death of a special-needs child comes not only ...

  19. Marital Problems and the Exceptional Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoz, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    The exceptional child, because he/she does not fulfill the parental expectations of a child's behavior, becomes a disturbing child and frequently is labeled as disturbed. The case of one such child is presented and conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  20. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my child is having? General anesthesia Spinal or epidural anesthesia Conscious sedation When does my child need to ... upset stomach? If my child had spinal or epidural anesthesia, will my child have a headache afterwards? What ...

  1. Forgotten Children: Law Enforcement Agencies, Child Protective Services, and Children of Arrested Parents in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville, Kristin R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available When a child’s sole caretaker is arrested, a number of different outcomes can happen depending on how a law enforcement agency handles the situation. There is no single set of guidelines that all police departments follow. In fact, many departments do not have a policy that dictates practice. This can cause children to “fall through the cracks,” ranging from being left alone, to being turned over to unqualified care- givers, to being placed in the custody of someone they don’t know. This is a problem because not only can it put the child/children in physically dangerous situations, but also it can have long lasting psychological effects. There are some procedures and approaches that police departments have in place that can decrease the harm suffered by these children, their parents and the community when caregivers of minor children are arrested. However, more could be done in this important area. The goal of this research is to identify the possible gaps between law enforcement agencies and Child Protective Services in an effort to reduce harm and provide both agencies with a tool to aide in the development of more effective policies and practices.

  2. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  3. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  4. Reporting Child Abuse: Rights and Responsibilities for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.

    This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…

  5. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  6. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  7. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  8. Is child work necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the income from child wage work is necessary to the survival of rural households in Pakistan. It is by no means obvious that it is. For instance, children may work because the returns to work exceed the returns to school, or because parents are selfish or short-sighted. It is argued here that, if child work is necessary, then the income effect of a wage change will dominate the substitution effect and the labour supply curve will be "forward falling" or negativ...

  9. The visually impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  10. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  11. When Your Child Has Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in ... be continuous or sporadic. This often debilitating condition has been linked to ear injuries, circulatory system problems, ...

  12. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  13. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  14. Does child abuse cause crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  15. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  16. Death of an Adult Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  17. Child Care as Welfare Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Working for Change, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

  18. The Economics of Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, David M., Ed.

    Economic issues are an important part of the debate over child care policy. This volume presents findings from economic analyses of research on child care issues surrounding recent policy decisions and scholarly debates. The book's introduction discusses four main issues; government involvement in child care policies, its effect on quality of…

  19. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  20. Child Care and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  1. Cash transfers and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  2. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  3. Employment-Related Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  4. Cash Transfers and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  5. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  6. Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Does child labor decrease as household income rises? This question has important implications for the design of policy on child labor. This paper focuses on a program of unconditional cash transfers in Ecuador. It argues that the effect of a small increase in household income on child labor should be concentrated among children most vulnerable to transitioning from schooling to work. The p...

  7. A safe Taser dose: Evaluation of Taser-related in-custody deaths, with implications for law enforcement policy and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2007-03-01

    The Taser, an electroconductive skeletal-muscle-incapacitating device originally designed by Taser International Inc. as a non-lethal weapon, is used by increasing numbers of law enforcement agencies (LEAs) in the USA and Canada. Since 1999, over 200 people ``Tasered'' by law enforcement personnel (LEP) have collapsed and died, prompting public calls for a moratorium on LEA Taser use except when deadly force is justified. If a sufficiently long Taser shock can kill, as seems likely [metabolic acidosis climbs, impairing respiration and elevating the risk of ventricular fibrillation], the data on Taser-related in-custody human deaths collectively support a single-shock policy for LEAs (ideally, Taser use on people exhibiting physical exhaustion or any type of delirium, or who are taking drugs for mental health reasons, or are pregnant, is prohibited unless deadly force is justified), with a second shock permitted in emergencies only for people not in the foregoing ``prohibited'' category. If all Taser-using LEAs in North America were to adopt a policy of this type, a 10- to 20-fold reduction in the rate of Taser-related in-custody deaths is projected! To protect the public, LEP training should distinguish between lethal and non-lethal Taser deployment using a ``safe Taser dose'' concept.

  8. Natural gas large volumes measurement: going for on-line custody transfer; Medicao de grandes volumes de gas natural: rumo a transferencia de custodia on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercon, Eduardo G.; Frisoli, Caetano [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the structure of the natural gas flow measurement process in TRANSPETRO, and comments features and performance of existing or under-implantation equipment and systems, reviewing best practices and technology in use. This process runs through three interrelated segments: data flow measurement, strictly speaking; data transfer and acquisition; and data flow measurement certification (data consolidation to invoice). Initially, the work makes an approach to the data flow measurement segment, evaluating technical features of flow meters, and describing configurations and functions of the operating gas flow computers in TRANSPETRO's custody transfer stations. In this part it will also be presented the implantation of TRANSPETRO's system for gas chromatography data input on-line to flow computers. Further, in data transfer and acquisition, SCADA system technical aspects will be evaluated, considering communications protocols and programmable logic controllers functions in remote terminal units, and discussing their places in the measurement process. Additionally, TRANSPETRO's experience in data measurement certification tools is in discussion, as well as new upcoming tools and their potential features, from what new practices will be suggested. Finally, all the work has been conceived and carried out always aiming to the state-of-the-art technology in gas flow measurement: on-line custody transfer. (author)

  9. The Child Whisperer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  10. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  11. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos;

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  12. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage Copyright 2015 CCAoA. All Rights Reserved. Careers Privacy Policy Site Terms Newsroom Contact Us Pin It on ...

  13. Internet and child pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Çağlar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet use and access is becoming increasingly common as a great entertainment, communication and educational resource for children as well as for adults. Internet is a perfect environment for children, for exploring the world, learning and having fun. However, access to illegal sites that contain violence and sexuality, and contact dangerous people are among the particular risks for children using the internet. It is a known fact that, internet and developing technology make the production and distribution of child pornography cheaper and easier. There has been consensus on the need of creating a plan and increasing the awareness in the community for the fight against child pornography. Because of the increasing internet use and the risk for children mentioned, nurses got new responsibilities. Nurses have to inform society, especially families and children, about safe internet use. In this review, legal regulations about the fight against child pornography on the internet, the reasons that lay the ground for child pornography and their negative effects on children has been addressed.

  14. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian Society" (de Barros, Milhomen); and "India: Hope for a…

  15. Death of a child.

    OpenAIRE

    Goertzen, J

    1993-01-01

    The death of a small child from a terminal illness is an uncommon but influential event in a family physician's career. Through dialogue with colleagues and friends, self-reflection, and acknowledgment of some of the difficulties, this experience can stimulate personal growth.

  16. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  17. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  18. Preventing Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  19. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  20. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  1. Study on Labor Rights Protection of the Criminal Suspects in Custody%被羁押的犯罪嫌疑人劳动权保护问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴国

    2012-01-01

    被羁押的犯罪嫌疑人劳动权保护是学术界比较时新的研究课题,国内相关研究比较匮乏。国内关于被羁押犯罪嫌疑人劳动权的性质、理论基础及保护途径都有不同意见。探寻犯罪嫌疑人劳动权保护的相关问题,明确被羁押犯罪嫌疑人的劳动权应该受保护,有助于我国人权保护的进步。%How to protect the labor rights of the criminal suspects in custody is a relatively new research subject among the academic circle, and thus there are few related researches in China. Domestic experts have different opinions about the nature, theoretical basis and protection ways for the labor rights of the criminal suspects in custody. Doing research about the labor rights protection of criminal suspects in custody and making sure that the labor rights of criminal suspects in custody should be protected will be very helpful to make progress in the protection of human rights in China.

  2. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.;

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  3. CHILD LABOR DISGRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  4. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2005-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  5. Decomposing child poverty reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, J.; M Huby

    2014-01-01

    European countries vary in the extent to which they succeed in reducing poverty using social transfers. However, we do not have good ways of understanding how these different outcomes are achieved. It is therefore very difficult to learn lessons from abroad. This paper uses micro data from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Condition (SILC), and attempts to decompose reductions in child poverty rates and gaps into the contribution made by children, old age, social exclusion, housing and w...

  6. Child Care Subsidy Programs

    OpenAIRE

    David Blau

    2000-01-01

    Child care and early education subsidies are an important part of government efforts to increase economic independence and improve development of children in low-income families in the United States. This chapter describes the main subsidy programs in the U.S., discusses economic issues that arise in designing such programs and evaluating their effects, and surveys evidence on the effects of the programs. An important theme of the chapter is the tradeoff between the policy goals of increasing...

  7. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  8. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Devaraj Dutta

    2014-01-01

    The problem of child labour is a deep socio-economic problem faced by almost all countries of the world. It, however, is a serious problem mostly of the developing as well as under developing countries. Infact, children particularly from low-income countries are being exploited on the global market for monetary gains. This problem also is a big social problem in India as India still falls under the category of developing nations. Various studies have made it very clear that a ...

  9. Child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, K

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realized. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in their treatment. Despite their frequent occurrence among dental patients, neglect is the least known and identified type of abuse. The present case reports a 3-year-old girl suffering from abuse and neglect. The girl had dental neglect and als...

  10. [Child marriage in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J

    1984-07-29

    Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000. PMID:12159404

  11. CHILD IN INFORMAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabira S.D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Child labour is conventionally defined to include all ‘economically active’ children in the age group 5-14 years. A person is treated as economically active or gainfully employed if she does work on a regular basis and receives remuneration for it. The ILO defied child labor as “work that deprives children of their childhood and their dignity, which hampers their access to education and the acquisition if skills, and which is performed under deplorable conditions harmful to their health and their development.” Child work, on the other hand, includes all paid and unpaid work for the household or for the market whether it is full time or part time. Participation in household activities on a regular basis and for several hours in a day to relieve adults for wage employment is also included in this definition. The ILO argues tat it sis not concerned with children helping in family farms or doing household chores.

  12. Child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  13. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  14. Child rights & child development in India: a regional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chandan

    2011-01-01

    Being the signatory of UNCRC (1992), India globally recognized the significance of child rights. The Constitutions of India also guarantees certain child rights covering basic issues, like ‘health’, ‘education’ and protection from ‘hazardous employment’ and ‘exploitation’. However, despite the existence of many legal provisions, the vulnerability of Indian children in different dimensions cannot be undermined. This paper attempts to locate the status of child in development ladder of Indian e...

  15. How child labor and child schooling interact with adult labor

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ranjan

    1999-01-01

    Using data from Peruvian and Pakistani household surveys, the author tests the hypotheses of a positive association between child labor hours and poverty and a negative association between child schooling and poverty. Both hypotheses are confirmed using Pakistani data but not using Peruvian data. What explains these divergent results? The link between household poverty and child labor is much stronger in Pakistan than in Peru - perhaps partly because Pakistani schools are not as good as those...

  16. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J. Urquiza; Susan Timmer

    2012-01-01

    Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of a...

  17. The relation between child death and child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny, C; Isaac, R.

    2006-01-01

    The death of a child is a sentinel event in a community, and a defining marker of a society's policies of safety and health. Child death as a result of abuse and neglect is a tragic outcome that occurs in all nations of the world. The true incidence of fatal child abuse and neglect is unknown. The most accurate incidence data of such deaths have been obtained from countries where multi‐agency death review teams analyse the causes of child fatalities, as is done in the United States and Austra...

  18. Special needs and child welfare: healing the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Cindy S

    2007-01-01

    Passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 has placed the child at the center of the child welfare system. Courts bear the ultimate responsibility for the safety and well-being of these children, including those with disabilities. Findings from the Child and Family Service Reviews, however, indicate less-than-optimal conformity in a number of states regarding the physical and mental well-being of children. A multidisciplinary approach involving jurisprudence, science, and financing is required to bring about better compliance. Collaboration among legal, medical, dental, and child advocacy organizations is necessary for healing children in the welfare system to become a national imperative. PMID:17566535

  19. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  20. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I need to ...

  1. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  2. Parental health and child schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; Mendola, Mariapia

    2011-01-01

    Evidence on the role of parental health on child schooling is surprisingly thin. We explore this issue by estimating the short-run effects of parents\\' illness on child school enrollment. Our analysis is based on household panel data from Bosnia-Herzegovina, a country whose health and educational systems underwent extensive destruction during the 1992-1995 war. Using child fixed effects to correct for potential endogeneity bias, we find that — contrary to the common wisdom that shocks to the ...

  3. What Matter for Child Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using a panel data of nine-year old children each with over two hundred home and school inputs as well as family background variables. A tree regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications. A small subset of inputs is found consistently important in explaining variances of child development results, including the number of books a child has at various ages and how often a mother r...

  4. Family ties and child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, F

    1978-09-01

    The fundamental premise of this paper is the primacy of the child's experience of biological-familial continuity in establishing his sense of self and personal significance. This paper examines the effects of current child placement practices on the child's ties to his biological, foster, and adoptive families. It explores alternative practices that would take into account biological-familial continuity. Comment is invited. PMID:744218

  5. Clinical psychology and child protection

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Elaine; Carey, Sean; Carr, Alan.

    2000-01-01

    In this 1998 postal survey of 140 clinical psychologists working in eight Health Boards and Voluntary agencies in the Republic of Ireland, it was found that clinical psychologists from child mental health, adult mental health and services for people with physical and intellectual disabilities were involved in child abuse and protection work. Clinical psychologists' child protection work spanned a number of domains including validation, general assessment, risk assessment, treatment of victims...

  6. Child Labor and Coordination Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stephane Pallage

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we show how coordination failures may explain the prevalence of child labor in developing countries. We do so within a simple game-theoretic setup. Child labor arises in our environment because of the lack of a coordination mechanism between parental decisions to invest in the human capital of their children and firm's decisions to invest in skill-intensive technology. Governmental policies that help coordinate expectations lead to the disappearance of child labor.

  7. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon.Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them.Methods: Data were coll...

  8. The Supply of Child Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops a theoretical framework, and a diagrammatic apparatus, for explaining the supply of child labour. It examines the effect of credit, insurance, and poverty (defined as more than just low income). It also explains bonded child labour, a modern form of slavery closely associated with the worst forms of child exploitation. The analysis is positive, but provides some of the elements for a normative judgement.

  9. Piecing Together the US Immigrant Detention Puzzle One Night at a Time: An Analysis of All Persons in DHS-ICE Custody on September 22, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a dataset of every person in the custody of the US Department of Homeland Security Immigration and Customs Enforcement (DHS-ICE or ICE on September 22, 2012, and compares this data with an earlier analysis of a similar dataset on detainees in DHS-ICE custody on January 25, 2009. DHS-ICE provided the 2012 and 2009 datasets in response to Freedom of Information Act (FOIA requests from the Boston Globe and Associated Press. The paper sets forth findings related to: (1 the removal adjudication processes to which the detainees were subject; (2 the facilities in which they were held; (3 their length of detention; and (4 their criminal histories, if any. It finds that on September 22, 2012:DHS-ICE held 35,197 people in its custody.18,470 detainees had pending removal cases, 14,674 had been ordered removed, and 2,053 cases included no information on whether or not the detainee had been ordered removed.Thirty-eight percent of detainees were subject to summary, non-court removal processes.Forty percent of detainees were from the Northern Triangle states of Central America and 34 percent from Mexico, compared to 37 percent from Mexico and 28 percent from Central America on January 25, 2009.Detainees were held in 189 facilities, with 77 percent concentrated in nine states and 51 percent in the four states that border Mexico.DHS-ICE held 67 percent of all detainees in facilities owned and/or administered by for-profit prison corporations and 90 percent of detainees in the 21 facilities with the largest detention populations.Forty-seven percent of detainees had been held for less than 30 days, and 4,179 (12 percent had been held for more than six months.Of those ordered removed and continuously detained in the interim, 553 persons had been detained for more than six months after being ordered removed, despite being presumptively eligible for release after six months.Sixty-one percent of detainees had criminal convictions, compared to 42

  10. Muerte traumática de personas privadas de libertad: descripción de un caso Traumatic death in custody: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lasso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de muerte en personas privadas de libertad o muerte en custodia incluye aquella que se produce durante la aprehensión, detención, transporte, dentro del centro penitenciario, e inclusive en un centro hospitalario después de haber sufrido una enfermedad o trauma. Presentamos el caso de una persona privada de libertad, cuya muerte sobrevino de forma secundaria a los traumatismos sufridos durante su recaptura después de haber participado en una fuga masiva del centro penitenciario en el cual se encontraba detenido.Death in custody is defined as the death occurred during the arrest, detention, transportation, within the prison, and even in a hospital after suffering an illness or trauma. We report the case of a detainee, whose death occurred secondary to trauma suffered during his recapture alter having participated in a mass escape from the prison in which he was arrested.

  11. Routing in « Delay Tolerant Networks » (DTN Improved Routing With Prophet and the Model of “Transfer by Delegation” (Custody Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mastapha Sammou, Abdelmounaim Abdali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of routing in “delay tolerant networks”(DTN. In such networks there is no guarantee of finding a completecommunication path connecting the source and the destination at any time,especially when the destination is not in the same region of the source, whatmakes the traditional routing protocols inefficient in that transmission of themessages between nodes. We propose to combine the routing protocol Prophetand the model of "transfer by delegation" (custody transfer to improve therouting in DTN network and to exploit the nodes as a common carriers ofmessages between the network partitioned.To implement this approach and assess those improvements and changes wedeveloped a DTN simulator.Simulation examples are illustrated in the article.

  12. Child Labor, Gender, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Parker, David L.; Oberg, Charles

    2005-01-01

    It is often forgotten that child labor is part of a multi-generational problem due in part to the failure to educate girls. Although the literacy rate for women has improved over the last two decades, in many countries it is less than half that of their male counterparts. This in turn leads to nutritional deficiencies, poverty, and poor health. While many researchers address the immediate health effects of child labor on the child laborers, this article addresses the issue of child labor from...

  13. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  14. Curbing child marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S I

    Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women. PMID:12280896

  15. Environment, Family and Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kocakurt, Özben; Seval Güven, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu, Ev Ekonomisi Bölümü; Güven, Seval; Seval Güven, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu, Ev Ekonomisi Bölümü

    2005-01-01

    The environment, generally speaking, is a system comprising the natural world, and human culture and history continually in interaction and from which people benefit. As with elsewhere in the world, the day by day increase in environmental pollution makes itself felt in our country. The issue of the effect of pollution on child health has come to prominence in many areas of science. It is essential that today’s generation do not destroy the assurance of a future in their quest to create an en...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    HROBAŘOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    My thesis deals with the problems of sexual abuse of children. It is divided into nine chapters, each of which has a subhead. In the first part, I focused on the term of child sexual abuse. In the second part, I focused on the problem of sexual abuse of children by family members. In the third part, I explained the term of commercial sexual violence committed against children. In the fourth part, I focused on the victims of sexual abuse and in the following part, I focused on the perpetrators...

  17. Child Rights in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is a densely populated country with populations about 160 millions. About half of the populations of Bangladesh are under the age of 18 who are considered as children and more than 20 million of them are under the age of 5. About 73% of children live in the rural areas and 27% live in the urban areas. One-third of these children continue to live below the international poverty line. The violation of child rights is a common matter in Bangladesh. The children have basic rights to e...

  18. Aggregate Economic Shocks, Child Schooling, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Do aggregate economic shocks, such as those caused by macroeconomic crises or droughts, reduce child human capital? The answer to this question has important implications for public policy. If shocks reduce investments in children, they may transmit poverty from one generation to the next. This paper uses a simple framework to analyze the effects of aggregate economic shocks on child schoo...

  19. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  20. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  1. Child Labor, Schooling, and Child Ability (Working Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Akresh; Emilie Bagby; Daien de Walque; Harounan Kazianga

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this working paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. The analysis uses variations in rainfall experienced in utero or early childhood to measure ability. It finds that rainfall shocks experienced in utero have direct negative impacts on a child's education and increase labor hours compared with the child's siblings.

  2. Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...

  3. Helping Your Child Deal with Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Helping Your Child Deal With Death KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Your Child Deal With ... important points to remember in all cases. Explaining Death in a Child's Terms Be honest with kids ...

  4. Interactive Tools to Track Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Interactive Tools to Track Child Development Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Watch for ... Do if I Suspect a Problem with My Child's Development? Talk with your child's doctor. If you or ...

  5. How to Talk to Your Child's Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  6. Safety for Your Child: 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Safety for Your Child: 10 Years Page Content Article ... out if your child's friends carry guns. Sports Safety At this age your child may be playing ...

  7. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  8. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Ahmed; Ranjan Ray

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  9. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  10. Our Father who art in prison: Conviction and rehabilitation for Australian Catholic clergy who are child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2015-12-01

    In light of the Royal Commission into Institutional Child Sexual Abuse, this article analyses the custodial sentences of 143 Australian Catholic clergy. The majority of these sentences were for convictions for indecent assault for which the median sentence was two years' imprisonment. It is doubtful whether the Australian community would consider such sentences as adequate, particularly where offences were against children. Current Australian legislation allows for ongoing long-term sanctions, including judicial orders for chemical castration, to be imposed on convicted sex offenders, especially those assessed as being at high risk of re-offending. Clergy on parole are likely to be prohibited from resuming most pastoral responsibilities on the grounds of high actuarial risk of re-offending, but what limited data are available suggests that priests may have low rates of re-offending. If priests do have low rates of recidivism, what then should the Catholic Church do about priests convicted of child sexual abuse offences who want to return to pastoral work and how might they be managed and monitored? Laicisation of offender priests will inevitably produce ostracism and isolation which are conducive to re-offending. PMID:26939512

  11. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown that there ......Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  12. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  13. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  14. National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awareness Month Month of the Military Family / Child Child Abuse Prevention Month National Alcohol Awareness Month National Day of ... Suicide Prevention Month (September 2016) and World Suicide Prevention Day (September 10, 2016) Upcoming Events ... types Family-youth-provider partnerships TREATMENT & SERVICES ...

  15. Illinois: Child Care Collaboration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Care Collaboration Program promotes collaboration between child care and other early care and education providers, including Early Head Start (EHS), by creating policies to ease blending of funds to extend the day or year of existing services. While no funding is provided through the initiative, participating programs may take…

  16. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  17. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  18. Family environment and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it ...

  19. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  20. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  1. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies If Your Child Is Raped KidsHealth > For Parents > If Your Child Is Raped Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Si su hijo es víctima de una violación Rape — forced, unwanted sexual intercourse — can happen to males ...

  2. Child Labor and Aggregate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Pallage; Alice Fabre

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we build a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to measure the welfare effect of banning child labor in an economy with aggregate fluctuations and idiosyncratic shocks to employment. We then design an unemployment insurance system that generates the endogenous elimination of child labor.

  3. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  4. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  5. Children in Different Activities: Child Schooling and Child Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2003-01-01

    Using primary data from two districts of Pakistan, this article analyses the supplyside determinants of child labour. The study finds that the birth-order of the child has a significant association with schooling and labour decision of child: first school enrolment of children is delayed; there exists gender disparity in favour of male children; the children from female-headed households are more likely to go to school; the education of the head of household has a positive impact on child’s s...

  6. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic......The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...

  7. Child neglect: injuries of omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, P S

    1999-01-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360

  8. Proposal for data acquisition system of gas chromatograph and natural gas transfer custody via web; Proposta para um sistema de aquisicao de dados de cromatografia e medicao fiscal de gas natural via web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jose Paulo C.; Guimaraes, Marcelo F.; Zeitoune, Rafael J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, is presented a proposal of a Chromatograph and Transfer Custody Measurement Data Acquisition System through Web, complementary to the SCADA System, responsible for control and monitoring PETROBRAS Gas Pipelines, intended to comply with the requirements of the Gerencias de Qualidade e Medicao (MQD) and Planejamento Integrado da Logistica (PCL) from PETROBRAS Gas e Energia, regarding the evaluation of the quality of the natural gas that is being commercialized, as well as its billing. (author)

  9. Reflexões teóricas sobre o comportamento informacional na era pós-custodial: perspectivas para um estudo de utilizadores em redes sociais na Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Leandro; Silva, Armando Malheiro; Autran, Marynice; Borges, Maria Manuel

    2011-01-01

    An infocommunicational phenomenon can be clearly seen on the Internet Social Networks (ISN). The new behavior in network confirms changes in the socialization enhanced by mobile access in digital platforms. Based on this, the paper aimed to understand the theory of Information Behavior (IB) to support an investigation with users of ISN. These theoretical discussions were held in light of the emerging paradigm called the Post-Custodial, Informational and Scientific. This is an expl...

  10. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  11. Child pornography and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporini, Humberto

    2012-12-01

    The dramatic increase in child pornography offenses over the past 10 years is directly related to the availability of such material on the Internet. Child pornography can be found on the Web, in newsgroups, and on peer-to-peer networks (the most common source at present). Offenders are a heterogeneous group, with different motivations and levels of risk. The possibility of crossover to a contact sexual offense exists, depending on the presence of other risk factors. Possession of child pornography without a history of contact offenses does not appear to increase the risk of future contact reoffending. PMID:23107565

  12. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  13. Why is child labor illegal?

    OpenAIRE

    Dessy, Sylvain; Knowles, John

    2007-01-01

    We argue from an empirical analysis of Latin-American household surveys that per capita income in the country of residence has a negative effect on child labor supply, even after controlling for other household characteristics. We then develop a theory of the emergence of mandatory-education laws. If parents are unable to commit to educating their children, child-labor laws can increase the welfare of altruistic parents in an ex ante sense. The theory suggest that measures that reduce child w...

  14. PROTECTION OF CHILD AND CHILD RIGHTS IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Pujan Singh Ariya

    2015-01-01

    India is home to almost 19 percent of the world's children. More than one third of the country's population, around 440 million, is below 18 years. According to one assumption 40 percent of these children are in need of care and protection, which indicates the extet of the problem . Independent India has taken large strides in addressing issues like child education, health and development. However, child protection has remained largely unaddressed. There is now a realization...

  15. Child poverty and child benefits in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Immervoll, Herwig; Sutherland, Holly; Vos, Klaas de

    2000-01-01

    Using evidence from the European Community Household Panel we find that family benefits vary in their importance to household incomes and in the prevention of child poverty across Europe. In one group of countries family benefits appear to have a significant effect on the protection of children from financial poverty. The UK and the Netherlands are both members of this group, and we use the microsimulation model EUROMOD to examine the extent to which differences in child benefits explain the ...

  16. Child nutrition, child health, and school enrollment : a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Lavy, Victor; Menon, Rekha

    1997-01-01

    Better health and nutrition are thought to improve children's performance in school, and therefore their productivity after school. Most literature ignores the fact that child health and schooling reflect behavioral choices, so the estimated impact of health and nutrition on a child's schooling reflects biases in the studies. Using an explicit dynamic model for preferred estimates, the authors use longitudinal data to investigate how children's health and nutrition affect school enrollment in...

  17. Child Poverty and Child Well-Being in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Child poverty matters directly as children constitute a large share of the population and indirectly for future individual and national well- being. Measures of child poverty are dominated by incomepoverty, although education and well-being are now often included. Data in the most recent international and EU reports indicate that Italy performs worse than most developed countries in this respect, in spite of the extremely low fertility rates. The purpose of this report is to examine several d...

  18. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau of... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section...

  19. The economics of child well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an integrated economic approach that organizes and interprets the evidence on child development. It also discusses the indicators of child well-being that are used in international comparisons. Recent evidence on child development is summarized, and policies to promote child well-being are discussed. The chapter concludes with some open questions and suggestions for future research.

  20. Workshop Two: Child Protection; Relative Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne Sinclair

    1996-01-01

    Presents salient features of workshop discussion examining child abuse. Topics discussed include cross-cultural definitions of abuse, prevalence rates, family-centered versus child-centered approaches, educational perspectives on child protection work, the need for international research, abuses of child protection systems, emotional demands on…

  1. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  2. Child Labour: The View from the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jim; Hobbs, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    Reports British research findings that challenge the bias that child labor is a problem of only economically underdeveloped countries. Argues that child employment is evident within developed countries, but is largely invisible. Addresses positive and negative effects, and challenges to child labor/child work dichotomy. Debates underlying causes…

  3. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  4. 液化天然气动态贸易交接计量研究%Study on LNG’ s Dynamic Custody Transfer Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 李丽

    2014-01-01

    总结了国外对液化天然气流量计标定研究的现状,结合国际液化天然气进口商组织贸易交接计量手册和主流液体超声波流量计的现场应用,对比液化天然气输运船舱液位测量与液体超声波流量计在液化天然气体积测量方面的准确度;简要介绍国外计量机构对液化天然气动态计量标定装置的研究现状,以及德国KROHNE Altometer的计量表和美国CAMERON公司的Caldon液体超声波流量计在国外液化天然气接收站中作为比对计量表和内部分配计量表的应用情况。同时结合国内对液化天然气计量的需求,分析了国内液化天然气动态贸易交接计量研究的方向。%The study on calibrating the LNG flowmeters abroad were summarized;basing on the custody trans-fer measurement manual from the international LNG importers and the field application of ultrasonic flowmeter, the accuracy of applying a level meter to measuring the volume of ship’ s tank and that of employing a ultrason-ic flowmeter to measure the ship tank’ s volume were compared, including the application of KROHNE Altome-ter and CAMERON Caldon liquid ultrasonic flowmeter in LNG receiving stations both at home and abroad.The study direction for home LNG’ s dynamic custody transfer measurement was analyzed.

  5. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  6. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  7. Birth of a Second Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many ways — some physically and others emotionally. Increased exhaustion and mild anxiety is a normal occurrence after ... Your first child may experience a range of emotions, from excitement to jealousy or even resentment. Younger ...

  8. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides in...... the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic...... illness do have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  9. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  10. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most...

  11. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  12. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our ...

  13. A Child Becomes a Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ...

  14. Help Your Child Get Organized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above and show your child the kids' article Organize, Focus, Get It Done . Read it together and ... Helping Your Gradeschooler With Homework Getting Homework Help Organize, Focus, Get It Done Organize, Focus, Get It ...

  15. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Vitamin D and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Vitamin D ... to get it. Who's at Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency? Things like a lack of direct sunlight ...

  16. Croup and Your Young Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Size Email Print Share Croup and Your Young Child Page Content Article Body Croup is a co​ ...

  17. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  18. When your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000693.htm When your child has diarrhea To use the sharing features on this page, ... sports drinks is OK. Diet for Children With Diarrhea In many cases, you can continue feeding your ...

  19. Your child and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a cough. Other symptoms you may notice: Chills, sore muscles, and headache Runny nose Acting tired ... extra clothes, even if your child has the chills. This may keep their fever from coming down, ...

  20. The Child Rights System in Romanian Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    OANA-CARMEN RĂVAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Child rights are a set of international conventions which define the conditions for the normal development of a child. In Romania, child rights are now the subject of a specific law, law nr. 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child, which is in accordance with the international conventions. All children have their own rights - whether at home with their natural parents, in foster families, child care institutions or at school. Parents and families, the professional ...

  1. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    OpenAIRE

    David Bishai; Heena Brahmbhatt; Ron Gray; Godfrey Kigozi; David Serwadda; Nelson Sewankambo; El Daw Suliman; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Maria Wawer

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright’s coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of ...

  2. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  3. Child Labor, Fertility and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Hazan; Binyamin Berdugo

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of child labor, fertility, and human capital in the process of development. In early stages of development the economy is in a development trap where child labor is abundant, fertility is high and output per capita is low. Technological progress, however, increases gradually the wage differential between parental and child labor, thereby inducing parents to substitute child education for child labor and reduce fertility. The economy takes-off to a sustained g...

  4. Measuring and analyzing child labor: methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2002-01-01

    Current statistics on child labor are generally based on economically active children. This paper will argue that these figures are not a workable proxy for data on child labor, generating numbers of child laborers, and their gender composition that do not represent the group described by the international definition of child labor. This raises the question of reliable alternatives ways of measuring children's activities, with the aim of analyzing the incidence of child labor. The paper addre...

  5. Measuring and analyzing child labor : methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2001-01-01

    The paper argues that the current statistics on child labor (generally based on economically active children), are not a workable proxy for data on child labor, generating numbers of child laborers, and their gender composition, that do not represent the groups described by the international definition of child labor. This raises the question of reliable alternative ways of measuring children's activities, with the aim of analyzing the incidence of child labor. The paper addresses this, and p...

  6. Child Labor in Transition in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Eric; Turk, Carrie

    2002-01-01

    Vietnam experienced a dramatic decline in child labor during the 1990s. The authors explore this decline in detail and document the heterogeneity across households in both levels of child labor and in the incidence of this decline in child labor. The authors find a strong correlation between living standards improvements and child labor so that much of the variation in declines in child la...

  7. Play of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRÁČKOVÁ, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with the problems in the life of a pre -school child. The theoretical part is based on the general views and attitudes, supported by professional literature, which relate to the characteristics of the game, its importance and the diagnostic and educational opportunities. There is the part of the development characteristics of preschool age in terms of games and toys too. The research (practical) part finds out the perception of the game of pre- school child by a teache...

  8. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  9. Improvements in child resistant containers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, J R; Clarke, A J; Mitchell, M P

    1985-01-01

    The numbers of children under 5 years in South Glamorgan admitted to hospital because of accidental poisoning have been analysed for 1980-4. There has been no significant fall in those taking solid dose, prescribable medications since the voluntary agreement between the government and the pharmaceutical profession in 1981 on child resistant containers. Most children still take these poisons from containers of an ordinary, non-child resistant type. Aspirin poisoning has remained at the same lo...

  10. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Pala; Murat Ünalacak; İlhami Ünlüoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficien...

  11. the Parent Child Purchase Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Catriona, (Thesis)

    2009-01-01

    This is an interpretive inquiry into the ‘parent-child purchase relationship’. This study aims to understand the parent-child purchase relationship from the consumer perspective, rather than the much reported ‘vested interest’ perspective, in order to enhance and inform an understanding of the phenomenon. Commencing with an overview of current literature, specifically that of the pester power phenomenon, to contextualise the theoretical framework, the extant construct of pester power is exami...

  12. Globalization, consumerism and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights the implication of consumerism on the incidence of child in a developing economy using a two-sector general equilibrium model. It finds that although consumerism raises incomes of the poor households and decreases the earning opportunities of the children, this is not sufficient to control the flow of children to workplace and is likely to worsen the child labour situation. The analysis provides a theoretical framework that can be used for explaining the positive linkage...

  13. Neighbourhood Child Poverty in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Björn; Österberg, Torun

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a fresh look at child poverty at the neighbourhood level in the three metropolitan regions of Sweden using unique data for 1990, 1996 and 2002. We find that the number of neighbourhoods with high child poverty rates is much larger in 2002 than in 1990, but also that most poor children in the three regions live outside poor neighbourhoods. A disproportionally large fraction of children with backgrounds from low- and middle-income countries live in poor neighbourhoods. Regressi...

  14. Inequality, Productivity, and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A Swinnerton

    1999-01-01

    We extend the “general model” in Basu and Van (1998) to allow for different types of hosueholds, and extend the model in Swinnerton and Rogers (1999) to allow for a more general utility function. Our new findings are (i) while in some contexts, a more equal income distribution can reduce or eliminate child labor, in others, a more equal distribution of income can exacerbate child labor. (ii) In these latter contexts, increases in total factor productivity are particularly effective in reducin...

  15. Child's right to special care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Gupta, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284

  16. Market imperfections and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Christelle

    2011-01-01

    There is some indirect evidence that child labor is affected by market imperfections. This paper provides a theoretical model to discuss the effect of improvements on the labor market, when households cannot rely on neither the land nor the credit markets. The predictions differ by land ownership: landless or large landowners should decrease child labor when labor market imperfections decrease. Households who had chosen not to supply any labor on the wage market (households with intermediate-...

  17. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  18. Child Poverty across Industrialized Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Jantti; Bruce Bradbury

    1999-01-01

    While child poverty is everywhere seen as an important social problem, there is considerable variation in both anti-poverty policies and poverty outcomes across the industrialized nations. In this paper we present new estimates of patterns of child income poverty in 25 nations using data from the Luxembourg Income Study. These estimates are presented using a range of alternative income poverty definitions and describe the correlations of outcomes with different demographic patterns and labour...

  19. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. Methods The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. Results The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children’s health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children’s health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage. PMID:27152596

  20. Comparative analysis of the Λb→Λ ℓ+ℓ- decay in the SM, SUSY, and RS model with custodial protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Olgun, A. T.; Tavukoǧlu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We comparatively analyze the rare Λb→Λ ℓ+ℓ- channel in the standard model, supersymmetry, and Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc). Using the parametrization of the matrix elements entering the low-energy effective Hamiltonian in terms of form factors, we calculate the corresponding differential decay width and lepton forward-backward asymmetry in these models. We compare the results obtained with the most recent data from LHCb as well as lattice QCD results on the considered quantities. It is obtained that the standard model, with the form factors calculated in light-cone QCD sum rules, cannot reproduce some experimental data on the physical quantities under consideration, but the supersymmetry model can do it. The RSc model predictions are roughly the same as the standard model, and there are no considerable differences between the predictions of these two models. In the case of differential decay rate, the data in the range 4 GeV2/c4≤q2≤6 GeV2/c4 cannot be described by any of the considered models.

  1. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  2. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    OpenAIRE

    SimonaDe Falco

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  3. The hospital child protection teams in approaching issues of child abuse and neglect Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beyazova, Ufuk; Şahin, Figen

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children A multidisciplinary approach like the “Child Protection Team” is strongly encouraged to ensure adequate evaluation treatment and follow up of a potentially abused child Recently the increasing interest in the community regarding child abuse and neglect and the construction of child protection services are nbsp; important improvements for our country Child abuse and neglect should be a part of graduate ...

  4. Policies to reduce child poverty: Child allowances vs. tax exemptions for children

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the regressive nature of tax exemptions for children compared to child allowances and estimates the decline in child poverty in several developed countries due to child allowances. The paper then estimates the decline in child poverty in the US due to tax exemptions for children and simulates the impact of various possible child allowance programs on child poverty in the US. It finds that a $3000-$4000 child allowance would reduce child poverty in the US to the level of o...

  5. [Child raising without violence--a right for every child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Marie; Lucas, Steven

    The view of children and child rearing has undergone a marked change in our country over the past 50 years. As the first country in the world, Sweden passed legislation 1979 on the prohibition of corporal punishment in the home. Many countries have followed suit, but at present, only 5,4% of the world's children have legal protection against violence and abuse. Children's rights are on the agenda, including work towards implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Child abuse is nevertheless a major public health problem with serious implications in both childhood and adulthood, and is tied into both economic and social disadvantage. The childhood adversity we see is only the tip of the iceberg and continued efforts are necessary to identify and reduce the vulnerability of children and protect children's rights. Health care professionals have an important role to play. PMID:25405625

  6. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  7. Child labor: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health

  8. Trainable Mentally Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Listed in the annotated bibliography, one of a series of over 50 similar selected bibliographies on exceptional (both handicapped and gifted) children, are 78 references to research dealing with the trainable and custodial mentally retarded. The research treats such subjects as behavior modification, use of reinforcement and operant conditioning,…

  9. Child Labour: Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Padhi

    2004-01-01

    “I am the child,All the world waits for my coming.All the earth watches with interest to see what I shall become.Civilization hangs in the balance.For what I am, the world of tomorrow will be.I am the child.You hold in your hand my destiny.You determine, largely, whether I shall succeed or fail,Give me, I pray you, these things that make for happiness.Train me, I beg you, that I may be a blessing to the worldâ€.-Mamie Gene ColeChild is the future father and mother, future worker and future ...

  10. Child labour and the violation of child rights : a case of child workers on tea and tobacco plantations in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Makwinja, Simon Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The study attempts to determine the extent to which child labour constitutes a violation of child rights. The international documents, especially the CRC, depart from the universal conception of childhood, making children all over the world the same and deserving similar treatment, more so claiming their rights. Using the case of child workers on tea and tobacco estates in Malawi, it examines the notion of childhood which forms the basis to any child rights claims. Employing the cultural poli...

  11. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:9280385

  12. Education, Poverty and Child Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Augeraud-Veron, Emmanuelle

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the effects of poverty and educational policies on school attendance, child labour and growth. We consider an OLG model, with parental educational choices. It is assumed there is a trade off between child labour and human capital accumulation. If parents don't choose for quality of education, it is shown that a poverty trap may occur in the presence of a consumption subsistence or when the quality of education is inadequate. A private education syste...

  13. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  15. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000222.htm Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  16. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... set of child and parental characteristics; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge...

  17. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  18. When to Seek Help for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs which may indicate that a child and adolescent psychiatric evaluation will be useful. Younger Children Marked fall in ... medical school in general (adult) and child and adolescent psychiatry. Facts ... or educational use without written permission, but cannot be included ...

  19. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs a ... and is prepared for the challenges ahead. About Heart Transplants A heart transplant is a surgery in which ...

  20. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  1. The inconvenient truth about child brides

    OpenAIRE

    Ustek, Funda; Alyanak, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    It is easy for states to ratify all the necessary conventions and take all the necessary legal steps in outlawing child marriages. However, it is the very social system that produces child brides that should be put under investigation.

  2. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-10-01

    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  3. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

  4. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  5. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

  6. Teaching HIV/AIDS through a Child-to-Child Approach: A Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Bosire Monari

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from a larger study conducted in Kenya, which was a narrative inquiry into a teacher's experiences of teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child approach. The two major research questions of this study were: 1) What are the experiences of a teacher teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child curriculum…

  7. Grandparents as Child Care Providers : Factors to Consider When Designing Child Care Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Posadas, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Formal child care services can expand women's economic opportunities and promote equity through early childhood development. However, academics and policy makers often overlook the role of relatives as child care providers. This note discusses how grandparent-provided child care can be factored into child care policies in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developmen...

  8. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  9. Child Art Therapy and Parent Consultation: Facilitating Child Development and Parent Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Explores outpatient art therapy methodology which integrates D. W. Winnicott's (1971) model of parent consultation, child art therapy theories, and contemporary theories of child and brief psychotherapy. Two case studies that illustrate effective symptom management and structural change with the child and the child-parent bond are presented.…

  10. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  11. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  12. Burden of Child Maltreatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah; Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David; Chen, Jingqi; Lannen, Patricia; Dunne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the health and economic burdens of child maltreatment in China. Methods We did a systematic review for studies on child maltreatment in China using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL-EBSCO, ERIC and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We did meta-analyses of studies that met inclusion criteria to estimate the prevalence of child neglect and child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. We used data from the 2010 global burden of disease estimate...

  13. Disruption strategies for online child pornography networks

    OpenAIRE

    Joffres, Kilauea

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has allowed for the creation of online child pornography networks, in which websites link to one another and facilitate access to child pornographic materials. This project seeks to use social network analysis tools to identify effective disruption strategies against online child pornography networks. For this purpose, four networks of child exploitation material were extracted using a specially designed web-crawler. These networks were then submitted to three diffe...

  14. Reported child awareness of parental depression

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, Olga; Jones, Rhys Bevan; Mars, Becky; Hammerton, Gemma; Sellers, Ruth; Potter, Robert; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To determine rates of parent-reported child awareness of parental depression, examine characteristics of parents, children and families according to child awareness, and explore whether child awareness is associated with child psychopathology. Data were available from 271 families participating in the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression (EPAD) study, a longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Results Seventy-three per cent of participating ch...

  15. Consumer boycott, household heterogeneity and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Michele DI MAIO; Fabbri, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Consumer boycott campaigns against goods produced using child labour are becoming increasingly popular. Notwithstanding, there is no consensus on which are the effects of such type of activism on child labour. If some agreement is to be found in the recent economic literature, it is that the boycott does not reduce child labour. We contribute to this debate presenting a simple model which shows, instead, that there are conditions under which a consumer product boycott does reduce child labour...

  16. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...

  17. Child labour, human capital and life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...

  18. Child Support and Young Children's Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nonresident fathers’ provision of formal and informal cash child support on children's cognitive skills and behavior at 5 years of age. Taking advantage of the panel structure of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we control for child outcomes at age 3 and a rich set of child and family sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. We find that fathers’ provision of informal cash support (but not formal support), particularly at or above th...

  19. Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Charlotta

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

  20. Family rationales behind child begging in Antananarivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Ballet; Augendra BHUKUTH; Felana Rakotonirinjanahary; Miantra Rakotonirinjanahary

    2010-01-01

    Child beggars form a specific category of child workers. They are generally associated with street-living children, as defined by UNICEF. Analysis of begging thus generally focuses on children?s survival strategies. Using data from an exploratory survey conducted in Antananarivo in autumn 2009, this research paper shows that in the Madagascan capital, the vast majority of child beggars are in fact exploited by their family and do not live on the streets. It proposes a typology of child beggar...

  1. The cultural significance of the child star

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Jane Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This study provides a sociological account of the child star as both a universal and culturally specific phenomenon. Arguing against dominant 'common-sense' definitions of child stars as precociously deviant, I relocate the child star as a product of wider social contradictions and constructions surrounding children and childhood more generally. Through an analysis of the way in which child s...

  2. Child Care Arrangements and Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses several approaches to examining the relationship between child care and mothers' labor supply. The focus is on child care for children aged 0-3, because this is a critical period for working mothers and their children and because most European and American households with children aged 3-5 already use child care centers. The paper provides data concerning availability of, government spending on, and quantity and quality standards for child care in different countries, the...

  3. The Macroeconomics of Child Labor Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    We construct a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous policy choice to analyze the adoption of child labor laws. The key mechanism in our model is that parents’ decisions on family size interact with their preferences for child labor regulation. If policies are endogenous, multiple steady states with different child labor policies can exist. Consistent with empirical evidence, the model predicts a positive correlation between child labor, fertility, and inequality. In addition, the...

  4. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...

  5. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-01-01

    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  6. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Trends and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Arif; Saman Nazir; Maryam Naeem Satti; Shujaat Farooq

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this paper to examine the determinants of child malnutrition, based on the Pakistan Panel Household Survey (PPHS-2010). The study has focused on individual (child), household and community variables to understand differentials in child malnutrition. Child illness, health status of their mothers and poverty status of households are the key factors utilized in this study to understand the malnutrition phenomenon. [PIDE Working paper]. URL:[http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Worki...

  7. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  8. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Legal Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews federal and state legal mandates to report child abuse. It addresses the issue of immunity from civil suit and criminal prosecution for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect, along with the criminal prosecution that may result if suspected child abuse or neglect is not reported. (CR)

  9. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  10. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  11. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  12. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  13. 38 CFR 3.210 - Child's relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be required to establish the legality of the marriage of the mother of the child to the veteran or to... birth as outlined in § 3.209, evidence of the marriage of the veteran to the natural parent of the child... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child's relationship....

  14. Every Child. Volume 12, Number 2, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Alison, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child" is Australia's premier early childhood publication, aimed at anyone involved in the care and education of children from birth to eight years--in particular child care professionals, teachers, child care students and the parents of young children. Published quarterly, it contains informative and entertaining articles on such issues as…

  15. Safety for Your Child: 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Your Child: 8 Years Ages & Stages ... rules. But your child can learn safety rules with your help and reminders. Your child now goes out more without you ...

  16. 75 FR 81894 - Safeguarding Child Support Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the safety of an individual thought to be a victim of family violence or child abuse. The intention of... involving domestic violence or child abuse. Section 453A of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 653a, requires States to... disclosure of information if there is a reasonable evidence of domestic violence or child abuse and...

  17. The One Child Family in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    The increase in one child families in the 1980's is analogous to the one child family rate during the Depression years. Although family size was limited for economic reasons during the Depression, current increases in the number of one child families are attributed to advances in contraceptive technology, increased employment of women, inhibiting…

  18. The Whole Child: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent report, "Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries," UNICEF's Innocenti Research Centre looks at the well-being of children and young people in 21 nations of the industrialized world. The report measures child well-being in six categories: (1) material well-being; (2) health and safety; (3)…

  19. Parents Who Have a Child with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to distract or entertain your child Playing video games or watching movies can help your child to ... limits, learn about other activities such as music, games, or writing that may ... to get the academic support your child needs during treatment: Meet with ...

  20. Child Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…

  1. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  2. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  3. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  4. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    2002-01-01

    The author uses the Ecuador Living Standards and Measurement Surveys (LSMS 1998 and 1999) to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. She shows how interventions at the level of adults affect child labor and school enrollment. For example, an employment policy encouraging employment in the formal modern sector reduces child labor and increases schooling. I...

  5. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  6. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  7. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  8. Diagnosis of the Bleeding Child

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, İnci

    1995-01-01

    Hemostasis is the body response to bleeding with the interaction of the blood vessel the platelets and the coagulation factors This article reviews the normal physiologic mechanism of hemostasis together with the diagnostic approach to the bleeding child The commonly used tests of hemostasis are described Key words: Bleeding Diagnosis Tests

  9. Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child": Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Judith; Rudd, David

    2004-01-01

    Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child" was published in Australia by Penguin Books in 2000. Editions are available in the UK (Walker Books, 2002), the USA (Candlewick, 2002), as well as in Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Denmark. In 2002, the book was awarded the "Guardian's" Children's Fiction Prize in the UK. Like Harper, the narrator of the…

  10. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  11. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  12. Child Violence Can Be Stopped

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Knot

    2000-01-01

    Mehr Khan argues that education, love and support can stop child violence. He argues that the idea that some children are born ‘bad’ and destined to be violent is outdated. Children become violent because of the violence and depravation they experience. Development (2000) 43, 53–54. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110117

  13. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  14. When your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hydrated. These products can be bought at the supermarket or pharmacy. Popsicles and Jell-O can be good sources of fluids, especially if your child is vomiting. You can slowly get large amounts of fluids into children with these products. ...

  15. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  16. Quality in Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERS Spectrum, 1998

    1998-01-01

    A significant correlation exists between quality child care and outcomes. Quality-related outcomes include cooperative play, sociability, creativity, ability to solve social conflicts, self-control, and language and cognitive development. Legislatures and agencies should strengthen standards; require initial and ongoing staff training; recruit,…

  17. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  18. Child Care in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how to set up child day-care services within a school to allow teen mothers to continue their education. Among the advice given are to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be…

  19. Music Learning and Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Danette

    1998-01-01

    Reviews various studies on childs play and its relation to young childrens development in music learning processes and explores the role that cognitive and social play categories have in studying childrens play with music. Provides strategies for initiating music-play opportunities in a preschool classroom. (CMK)

  20. Article Omission across Child Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…