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Sample records for child cohort study

  1. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children's neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  2. Correlates of regular exercise during pregnancy: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Owe, Katrine M.; Nystad, Wenche; Bø, Kari

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the level of exercise during pregnancy and to assess factors associated with regular exercise. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 34 508 pregnancies were included in the present study. Data were collected by self-completed questionnaires in gestational weeks 17 and 30, and analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with ...

  3. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ching Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  4. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) – Research opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoo, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the ...

  5. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success. PMID:20078824

  6. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  7. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability. PMID:26887648

  8. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.

  9. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    : Two thousand five hundred families actively participated in the study with 2549 children. Sixty-four per cent of the fathers and 60% and 58% of the mothers, respectively, donated a blood sample at 10 and 28 weeks of gestation. On average, 69% completed questionnaires, 78% of the children were...... regularly examined, and had a blood sample taken (46%). The participating pregnant women differed from the non-participants in several respects: age, body mass index, smoking, parity, education, and ethnicity. The infants were comparable with respect to gender and mode of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The OCC...

  10. Validation of self-reported recreational exercise in pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Owe, Katrine M.; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrethe; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the self-reported frequency of recreational exercise and corresponding metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes with physical activity measured with a position and motion sensor in pregnant women. One hundred and twelve women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) completed questions about weekly participation in recreational exercise by week 17 of pregnancy and participated in the validation study around week 20. Data from a validated motion sensor (ActiReg®) that measur...

  11. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Risk of Seizure in the Child: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jørn Olsen; Chun Sen Wu; Peter Laurberg; Stine Linding Andersen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diag...

  12. Child Maltreatment in the "Children of the Nineties": A Cohort Study of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…

  13. Occupational activity during pregnancy based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Poland conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium are one of the most common causes of sickness absence. The aim of the study was to analyze the occupational activity pattern during pregnancy and to evaluate the determinants of pregnancy-related temporary work disability confirmed by medical certificate. Materials and Methods: The presented analysis is based on data collected under the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 954 women who reported occupational activity during pregnancy. All women participating in the study were interviewed 3 times during pregnancy. Detail information on occupational activity during pregnancy and occupational stress, based on the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, was collected from all women. Results: The pregnant women had been issued medical certificate of temporary work disability because of conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or by the puerperium at 16 week of gestation on average and did not continue their activities until the end of pregnancy. The statistically significant determinants of receiving such medical certificate in the first trimester of pregnancy (≤ 12 weeks of pregnancy comprised poor health condition and complications during pregnancy (OR = 1.4; p = 0.01, lower education (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001, socio-economic status (OR = 9.6; p = 0.03, use of public transport to commute to work (OR = 2.7; p < 0.001, a longer work commute (OR = 1.4; p = 0.008 and a higher level of occupational stress (OR = 3.0; p < 0.01. Waitresses, nurses and saleswomen received medical certificate of temporary work disability in the first trimester of pregnancy more frequently than office workers (OR = 4.2; p = 0.005; OR = 3.3; p = 0.02; OR = 2.3; p < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: It is crucial to develop the model of cooperation between occupational medicine physicians and gynecologists and a

  14. Stress and epilepsy: a population-based cohort study of epilepsy in parents who lost a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study described here was to study the risk for epilepsy in parents exposed to severe stress caused by loss of a child. METHODS: The risk of being diagnosed with epilepsy (Danish National Hospital Register) in a cohort of parents who had lost a child under the age of 18...... was compared with the risk among parents who had not lost a child. RESULTS: The adjusted relative risk (RR) of epilepsy in parents who had lost a child was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.21-1.86). The RR was modified by time since bereavement and was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.49-4.07) in mothers and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.09-3.36) in fathers...... within the first 3 years of loss of a child, and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.53-2.88) in mothers and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.41-1.06) in fathers 4 to 18 years after loss. CONCLUSIONS: Stress was associated with a moderately increased risk of being diagnosed with epilepsy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  15. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Hunna J.; Leila Torgersen; Stephanie Zerwas; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cecilie Knoph; Camilla Stoltenberg; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Ann Von Holle; Hamer, Robert M.; Helle Margrete Meltzer; Ferguson, Elizabeth H.; Margaretha Haugen; Per Magnus; Rebecca Kuhns; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder stu...

  16. Estimating the inbreeding depression on cognitive behavior: a population based study of child cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ scores and later mental health problems. Very few epidemiologic studies have been done to demonstrate the relationship between familial inbreeding and modest cognitive impairments in children. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on children's cognitive behavior in comparison with non-inbred children. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of 408 children (6 to 15 years of age was selected from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations of Jammu region. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC was used to measure the verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ and full scale IQ (FSIQ. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F. RESULTS: We found significant decline in child cognitive abilities due to inbreeding and high frequency of mental retardation among offspring from inbred families. The mean differences (95% C.I. were reported for the VIQ, being -22.00 (-24.82, -19.17, PIQ -26.92 (-29.96, -23.87 and FSIQ -24.47 (-27.35,-21.59 for inbred as compared to non-inbred children (p<0.001 [corrected].The higher risk of being mentally retarded was found to be more obvious among inbred categories corresponding to the degree of inbreeding and the same accounts least for non-inbred children (p<0.0001. We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The regression analysis showed a fitness decline (depression for VIQ (R2 = 0.436, PIQ (R2 = 0.468 and FSIQ (R2 = 0.464 with increasing inbreeding coefficients (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive assessment provides the evidence for inbreeding depression on cognitive abilities among children.

  17. Using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study to determine risk factors for delayed development and neuropsychiatric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Helene Bjørk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiepileptic drug (AED teratogenicity is suspected to be the main cause of impaired development in children of women with epilepsy. However, many factors may confound the reported risks. The purpose of this review is to characterize the epilepsy cohort in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa and show how it can be used to detangle various risk factors for adverse outcome in children of mothers with epilepsy.Methods: MoBa is a large, long-term prospective, family-based cohort study. The database is linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The epilepsy cohort consists of mothers and their children representing more than 700 pregnancies. Blood samples were obtained from the mother during pregnancy and from the umbilical cord after delivery, and AED concentrations were measured. Validated screening tools determined the frequency of maternal confounding risk factors and adverse offspring outcomes. Risk estimates were reported as adjusted odds ratios with confidence intervals using the remaining MoBa cohort as a reference (n=107,597. Outcome in offspring of women with epilepsy without AED treatment in pregnancy and of fathers with epilepsy were used to separate the effect of epilepsy from the effect of in utero exposure to AEDs.Results: Socioeconomic and psychiatric risk factors for adverse offspring outcomes were more frequent in mothers with epilepsy. The frequency of adverse offspring outcome was increased at 6, 18 and 36 months for verbal, motor and social development. Children of women with epilepsy without AED treatment and of fathers with epilepsy were generally similar to children of women without epilepsy.Conclusion: Children of mothers with epilepsy are at risk of adverse outcomes. AED exposure emerges as the most important risk factor.

  18. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunna J. Watson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  19. Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy and children's socio-emotional development at age 5: the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Hersi, Robleh; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Larroque, Béatrice; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Chollet, Aude; Galéra, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Background : There is debate as to whether maternal tobacco use in pregnancy is related to offspring behaviour later on. We tested this association examining multiple aspects of children's behaviour at age 5 and accounting for parental smoking outside of pregnancy, as well as child and family characteristics.Methods : Data come from a prospective community based birth cohort study (EDEN; n = 1113 families in France followed since pregnancy in 2003–2005 until the child's 5th birthday). Materna...

  20. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    HARDY, R.; Lawlor, D A; Black, S.; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  1. Exposure to cows is not associated with diarrhoea or impaired child growth in rural Odisha, India: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W-P; Boisson, S; Routray, P; Bell, M; Cameron, M; Torondel, B; Clasen, T

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to animal livestock has been linked to zoonotic transmission, especially of gastrointestinal pathogens. Exposure to animals may contribute to chronic asymptomatic intestinal infection, environmental enteropathy and child under-nutrition in low-income settings. We conducted a cohort study to explore the effect of exposure to cows on growth and endemic diarrhoea in children aged synanthropic flies that may act as vectors for gastrointestinal pathogens. We found no evidence that environmental exposure to cows contributes to growth deficiency in children in rural India, neither directly by affecting growth, nor indirectly by increasing the risk of diarrhoea. We found no strong evidence that the presence of a cowshed increased the number synanthropic flies in households. PMID:26041605

  2. Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after one year. There were no differences in outcome measures across the different centers or between the individual and group treatments. Half of the PTSD variation at 12 months was explained by four factors: education, avoidance attachment, emotional coping, and social support. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicated a substantial reduction in mental health problems in survivors following 12 months of treatment and identified personality and social factors important for recovery.

  3. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  4. Child development in a birth cohort: effect of child stimulation is stronger in less educated mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alícia; Santos, Iná S.; Ricardo HALPERN

    2009-01-01

    Background Child health has improved in many developing countries, bringing new challenges, including realization of the children's full physical and intellectual potential. This study explored child development within a birth cohort, its psychosocial determinants and interactions with maternal schooling and economic position.

  5. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small...

  6. The many dimensions of child poverty: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, A.P.; Popli, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use a multidimensional framework to characterise child poverty in the UK. We examine the interdependencies amongst the different dimensions of multidimensional poverty, and the relationship of multidimensional poverty with income poverty. We also explore the links between multidimensional poverty, income poverty, and children's cognitive and non-cognitive development. Our findings suggest that multidimensional poverty identifies many but not all of the same children classifie...

  7. Adult physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and postpartum depression, a population based, prospective study of 53,065 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Lukasse, Mirjam; Schei, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) has detrimental consequences to the women, their infants and families. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between adult abuse and PPD. Methods This study was based on data from 53,065 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Women were recruited through a postal invitation in relation to a routine ultra-sound invitation at week 18 of gestation. Exp...

  8. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 1 1/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC...... 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish registers and data collected prospectively from birth in a general child health surveillance programme. Mental health outcome at 11/2 years was assessed by clinical and standardised measures including the Child Behavior Check List 11/2-5 (CBCL 11....../2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...

  9. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  10. Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy with Child Weight at Birth, Age 12 Months and 5 Years – A Population-Based Electronic Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kelly; Rahman, Mohammed; Atkinson, Mark; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Hill, Rebecca; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brophy, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. Methods A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs). Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offs...

  11. Maternal eating disorder and infant diet. A latent class analysis based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Leila; Ystrom, Eivind; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of infant diet and feeding practices among children of mothers with eating disorders is essential to promote healthy eating in these children. This study compared the dietary patterns of 6-month-old children of mothers with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified - purging subtype, to the diet of children of mothers with no eating disorders. The study was based on 53,879 mothers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort St...

  12. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928

  13. Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy - the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmann, Kristine; Nordeng, Hedvig; Holst, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes.Methods: The study is based on data from The Norwe...

  14. Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy – the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmann, Kristine; Nordeng, Hedvig; Holst, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Background Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. ...

  15. Peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

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    Maria C Magnus

    Full Text Available The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders.We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs by 36 months (n = 47,905 and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression.Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26 per standard deviation (SD increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19 per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19 per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis.Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors.

  16. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mot...

  17. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mot...

  18. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

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    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  19. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

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    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  20. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  1. 1970 British Cohort Study

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    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  2. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  3. Marital Quality and Stress in Pregnancy Predict the Risk of Infectious Disease in the Offspring: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

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    Roger Ekeberg Henriksen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the degree to which couples' relationship dissatisfaction and stressful life events during pregnancy predict the risk of infectious disease in the offspring during their first year of life.Data were obtained from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Pregnant women completed questionnaires in week 30 of pregnancy concerning the couples' relationship satisfaction and stressful life events. In follow-up questionnaires, the women reported whether their children (n = 74,801 had been subject to various categories of infectious disease: the common cold, throat infection, bronchitis, RS virus, pneumonia, pseudocroup, gastric flu, ear infection, conjunctivitis and urinary tract infection. Reports from two age groups of infants were used. Associations between the predictor and outcome variables were assessed via logistic regression and linear regression analyses.Separate logistic regression analyses for each disease and age group showed that prenatal relationship dissatisfaction and stressful life events were significantly associated with all reported categories of infectious disease. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, social support, smoking, breastfeeding, maternal depression, the sex of the offspring, and use of child care, 29 out of 32 tested associations were statistically significant. Finally, multivariate linear regression analyses showed that prenatal relationship dissatisfaction and stressful life events were significantly associated with the frequency, as well as the variety, of infectious disease in the offspring.

  4. Maternal eating disorder and infant diet. A latent class analysis based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Leila; Ystrom, Eivind; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of infant diet and feeding practices among children of mothers with eating disorders is essential to promote healthy eating in these children. This study compared the dietary patterns of 6-month-old children of mothers with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype, to the diet of children of mothers with no eating disorders (reference group). The study was based on 53,879 mothers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify discrete latent classes of infant diet based on the mothers' responses to questions about 16 food items. LCA identified five classes, characterized by primarily homemade vegetarian food (4% of infants), homemade traditional food (8%), commercial cereals (35%), commercial jarred baby food (39%), and a mix of all food groups (11%). The association between latent dietary classes and maternal eating disorders were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Infants of mothers with bulimia nervosa had a lower probability of being in the homemade traditional food class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class, than the referent (O.R. 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.99). Infants of mothers with binge eating disorder had a lower probability of being in the homemade vegetarian class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class (O.R. 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.99), but only before adjusting for relevant confounders. Anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype were not statistically significantly associated with any of the dietary classes. These results suggest that maternal eating disorders may to some extent influence the child's diet at 6 months; however, the extent to which these differences influence child health and development remains an area for further inquiry. PMID:25453594

  5. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population.

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    Charlotte Giwercman Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor in this development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life. METHOD: The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma, followed up for 7 years with scheduled visits every 6 months as well as visits for acute exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Risk of atopic dermatitis from any alcohol consumption during pregnancy was analyzed as time-to-diagnosis and adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: 177 of 411 children developed atopic dermatitis before age 7 years. We found a significant effect of alcohol intake during pregnancy on atopic dermatitis development (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99 p=0.024. This conclusion was unaffected after adjustment for smoking, mother's education and mother's atopic dermatitis. LIMITATIONS: The selection of a high-risk cohort, with all mothers suffering from asthma, and all children having a gestational age above 35 weeks with no congenital abnormality, systemic illness, or history of mechanical ventilation or lower airway infection. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake by pregnant women with a history of asthma, is significantly associated with an increased risk for the child for developing atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life.

  6. Variation in recorded child maltreatment concerns in UK primary care records: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN database.

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    Jenny Woodman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine variation over time and between practices in recording of concerns related to abuse and neglect (maltreatment in children's primary care records. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using a United Kingdom representative primary care database. SETTING: 448 General Practices. PARTICIPANTS: In total 1,548, 972 children (<18 y registered between 1995 and 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in annual incidence of one or more maltreatment-related codes per child year of registration. Variation between general practices measured as the proportion of registered children with one or more maltreatment-related codes during 3 years (2008-2010. RESULTS: From 1995-2010, annual incidence rates of any coded maltreatment-related concerns rose by 10.8% each year (95% confidence interval 10.5, 11.2; adjusted for sex, age and deprivation. In 2010 the rate was 9.5 per 1000 child years (95%CI: 9.3, 9.8, equivalent to a prevalence of 0.8% of all registered children in 2010. Across all practices, the median prevalence of children with any maltreatment-related codes in three years (2008 to 2010 was 0.9% (range 0%-13.4%; 11 practices (2.5% had zero children with relevant codes in the same period. Once we accounted for sex, age, and deprivation, the prevalence for each practice was within two standard errors of the grand mean. CONCLUSIONS: General Practitioners (GPs are far from disengaged from safeguarding children; they are consistently and increasingly recording maltreatment concerns. As these results are likely to underestimate the burden of maltreatment known to primary care, there is much scope for increasing recording in primary care records with implications for resources to respond to concerns about maltreatment. Interventions and policies should build on this evidence that the average GP in the UK is engaged in child safeguarding activity.

  7. Comparison of child morbidity in regions of Ostrava, Czech Republic, with different degrees of pollution: a retrospective cohort study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Miroslav; Pastorková, Anna; Rychlík, Š.; Rychlíková, E.; Švecová, Vlasta; Schallerová, E.; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2013), s. 74. ISSN 1476-069X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA ČR GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air - pollution * respiratory symptoms * birth cohort Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2013

  8. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa’s first prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Meinck, F.; Cluver, LD; Boyes, ME

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Methods Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-...

  9. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Spigset, Olav; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Hatle, Marianne; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy. Aims To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P), along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0–6 months after pregnancy. Results The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54), 0.94% BN (n = 585), 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61) and 5.00% BED (n = 3104). The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7–22.2%) and EDNOS-P (3.3–9.8%) groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17–4.32). Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53–17.01) or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41–32.53) was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED) and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes) were high at all time periods investigated. Conclusions Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:26200658

  10. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

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    Angela Lupattelli

    Full Text Available Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy.To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy.This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, binge eating disorder (BED and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P, along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0-6 months after pregnancy.The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54, 0.94% BN (n = 585, 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61 and 5.00% BED (n = 3104. The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7-22.2% and EDNOS-P (3.3-9.8% groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17-4.32. Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53-17.01 or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41-32.53 was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes were high at all time periods investigated.Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum.

  11. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  12. Current status of medication adherence and infant follow up in the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission programme in Addis Ababa: a cohort study

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    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86% initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64% initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33% were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART. In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66% mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins, 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90% ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once, 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73% mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65 to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90% infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58% for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39% had documented HIV test results and six (8.4% were HIV positive. Conclusions We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually

  13. Self-reported data on medicine use in the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study compared to data from the Norwegian Prescription Database

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    Svetlana Skurtveit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study information on prescribed drug use (opioids, antidepressants and benzodiazepines (BZD recorded in the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD and to compare this information with selfreported drug use among pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 28 479 women who participated in MoBa and who answered all questionnaires in pregnancy and whose pregnancy started after 1 March 2004. Data on dispensed drugs in NorPD were extracted for three different time windows: a the pregnancy period, b 30 days prior to pregnancy in addition to pregnancy, c 60 days prior to pregnancy in addition to pregnancy. Data on self- reported drug use in MoBa were used as the reference standard in the validity analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated.Results: Sensitivity of drug use as recorded in NorPD for the pregnancy period was highest for antidepressants (66.9% and BZD-antiepileptics (100% and lowest for BZD-anxiolytics (44.8% and BZDhypnotics (27.8%. Expansion of the time windows for dispensed drugs in the NorPD to include intervals 30 and 60 days before pregnancy led to higher sensitivity, but lower specificity of all classes of drugs. For opioids, sensitivity increased from 48.8% to 53.6%, while specificity decreased from 98.7 to 97.6%. For antidepressants and BZD-anxiolytics, specificity decreased for both from 99.7 to 99.4%.Conclusion: Using self-reported data as reference standard, the prescription data provides valid information on current exposures to BZD-antiepileptics and antidepressants in pregnant women if time windows are selected with adequate consideration depending on the investigated problem. However, validity is lower for other benzodiazepines and opioids.

  14. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

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    Scott Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars, and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation. This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter

  15. Neurocognitive outcome of children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus infection: the CHIMERE cohort study on Reunion Island.

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    Patrick Gérardin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neurocognitive outcome in children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus (p-CHIKV infection.The CHIMERE ambispective cohort study compared the neurocognitive function of 33 p-CHIKV-infected children (all but one enrolled retrospectively at around two years of age with 135 uninfected peers (all enrolled prospectively. Psychomotor development was assessed using the revised Brunet-Lezine scale, examiners blinded to infectious status. Development quotients (DQ with subscores covering movement/posture, coordination, language, sociability skills were calculated. Predictors of global neurodevelopmental delay (GND, DQ ≤ 85, were investigated using multivariate Poisson regression modeling. Neuroradiologic follow-up using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans was proposed for most of the children with severe forms.The mean DQ score was 86.3 (95%CI: 81.0-91.5 in infected children compared to 100.2 (95%CI: 98.0-102.5 in uninfected peers (P<0.001. Fifty-one percent (n = 17 of infected children had a GND compared to 15% (n = 21 of uninfected children (P<0.001. Specific neurocognitive delays in p-CHIKV-infected children were as follows: coordination and language (57%, sociability (36%, movement/posture (27%. After adjustment for maternal social situation, small for gestational age, and head circumference, p-CHIKV infection was found associated with GND (incidence rate ratio: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.45-5.34. Further adjustments on gestational age or breastfeeding did not change the independent effect of CHIKV infection on neurocognitive outcome. The mean DQ of p-CHIKV-infected children was lower in severe encephalopathic children than in non-severe children (77.6 versus 91.2, P<0.001. Of the 12 cases of CHIKV neonatal encephalopathy, five developed a microcephaly (head circumference <-2 standard deviations and four matched the definition of cerebral palsy. MRI scans showed severe restrictions of white matter areas

  16. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  17. Effect of Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure on Birth Outcomes: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PAH exposure on various anthropometric measures of birth outcomes. The study population consisted of 210 nonsmoking pregnant women. Urine samples collected between 20th and 24th week of pregnancy were used for analysis of the following PAH metabolites: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-OH-PHE, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR, 1,6 + 1,8-dihydroxypyrene (DI-OH-PYR, phenanthrene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol (PHE-1,2-diol, and phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol (PHE-9,10-diol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS was assessed by cotinine level in saliva using a stable isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The mean PAH metabolite concentrations were in the range of 0.15 µg/g creatinine for 9-OH-PHE to 5.9 µg/g creatinine for PHE-9,10-diol. It was shown that none of the individual PAH exposure markers demonstrate a statistically significant influence on birth outcomes. Interestingly a statistically significant association was found between the sum of OH-PHE along with cotinine level and the cephalization index after adjusting for potential confounders (P=0.04. This study provides evidence that combined exposure of pregnant women to common environmental pollutants such as PAH and ETS might adversely affect fetal development. Thus, reduction of human exposure to these mixtures of hazardous compounds would in particular result in substantial health benefits for newborns.

  18. The benefits and harms of providing parents with weight feedback as part of the national child measurement programme: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, CL; Park, MH; Croker, H.; Skow, Á; Black, J; Saxena, S; Kessel, AS; Karlsen, S.; MORRIS, S.; Viner, RM; Kinra, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small-scale evaluations suggest that the provision of feedback to parents about their child's weight status may improve recognition of overweight, but the effects on lifestyle behaviour are unclear and there are concerns that informing parents that their child is overweight may have harmful effects. The aims of this study were to describe the benefits and harms of providing weight feedback to parents as part of a national school-based weight-screening programme in England. MET...

  19. Parental Child-Rearing Strategies Influence Self-Regulation, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Psychopathology in Early Adulthood: Evidence from a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Courtney N.; Hoerger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU – a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents’ child-rearing behaviors – as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavio...

  20. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    Full Text Available Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status.A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500-3999 g. Sensitivity analyses included 'large for gestational age' (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, which was relative to 'appropriate for gestational age' (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles. Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI, 11%-28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%-16%, P < 0.001 for LGA neonates.Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates.

  1. The prevalence of mental health problems in children 1(1/2) years of age - the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;

    2007-01-01

    The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population.......The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population....

  2. Sexualized behaviors in cohorts of children in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533

  3. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990, and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006 and drug prescription (2005-2008, for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health.

  4. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be pro...

  5. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C; Cesar G Victora

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (63...

  6. Observational cohort study of HIV-infected African children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  8. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkala Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. Methods We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed and those that had not (unexposed and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Results Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0. Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19% at both the first (unexposed and second (exposed delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. Conclusion These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  9. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among antenatal patients and incidence of mother- to- child transmission using single dose nevirapine: a cohort study in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal A. Bhuyar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective was to study the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in antenatal patients and to find out the incidence of mother to child transmission (MTCT using single dose nevirapine (sdNVP to mother- baby pairs in labour. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. PDMMC, Amravati, Maharashtra from February 2010 to May 2015. All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were subjected to pretest counseling and HIV testing after informed consent. The HIV +ve pregnant patients who opted for delivery at our hospital were included in the study. sdNVP was administered to mother- baby pairs according to NACO guidelines. Babies of these patients were followed up to 18 months of age for HIV testing. Results: 12077 antenatal patients underwent pretest counseling. 11957 antenatal patients were tested for HIV of which 28 were detected positive. Therefore, the seroprevalence in this study was found to be 0.23%. 23 patients delivered at our hospital during the study period and babies of 2 patients tested positive for HIV. Hence the incidence of MTCT was found to be 9.5% in our study. Conclusions: Universal screening of pregnant patients for HIV and judicious use of PPTCT regimens can significantly reduce MTCT of HIV and prevalence of pediatric HIV infection. Single dose nevirapine use over last few years has successfully reduced MTCT, but our aim should be to reduce it further with more effective ART regimens for the seropositive antenatal patients and their babies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1436-1441

  10. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing. PMID:24839402

  11. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  12. Associations of child temperament with child weight and breakfast habits: A population study in five-year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Skogheim, Thea Steen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate potential associations of child temperament with child weight and breakfast habits. It was hypothesised that children with externalising temperament were more likely to be overweight/obese, and that externalising temperament was associated with not eating daily breakfast. Temperament was controlled for by various child and parental covariates. The sample consisted of 18,047 five-year-olds from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study...

  13. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ridvan; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Merletti, Franco; Pizzi, Costanza; Pivetta, Emanuele; Rusconi, Franca; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New...

  14. Functional somatic symptoms and associated impairment in 5-7-year-old children: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Olsen, Else Marie; Elberling, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    ,327 children. The newly introduced parent interview, the soma assessment interview, was used to assess the child's FSS. Impairing symptoms were defined as FSS that caused substantial discomfort, impairment of everyday life, absence from day-care or school and/or help-seeking in the health care system. The 1......Research on somatisation or functional disorders, characterised by the subjective report of physical symptoms in the absence of clear physical pathology, in young children is limited. This study investigates the distribution, types and co-occurrence of parent-reported functional somatic symptoms...... (FSS) and their impairment in a population-based sample of Danish 5-7-year-old children. Data were obtained from a 5-7-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The entire study population included 3,000 randomly sampled children from the cohort. Among these FSS measures were obtained for 1...

  15. Air pollution effects on fetal and child development: A cohort comparison in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tongliang, China, a coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source until its shutdown in 2004. We enrolled two cohorts of nonsmoking women and their newborns before and after the shutdown to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fetal and child growth and development. PAHs were used to measure exposure to air pollution generated by the power plant. Using PAH–DNA adduct levels as biomarkers for the biologically effective dose of PAH exposure, we examined whether PAH–DNA adduct levels were associated with birth outcome, growth rate, and neurodevelopment. Head circumference was greater in children of the second cohort, compared with the first (p = 0.001), consistent with significantly reduced levels of cord blood PAH–DNA adducts in cohort II (p < 0.001) and reduced levels of ambient PAHs (p = 0.01). -- Highlights: • We compare cohorts of mothers and newborns before and after a power plant closure. • We measure prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). • We examine birth outcomes, child growth rate and neurodevelopment in each cohort. • Cord PAH–DNA adducts and ambient PAH levels were reduced in the second cohort. • Consistent with exposure data, head circumference was greater in the second cohort. -- The associations found between PAH exposure and adverse health outcomes suggest that the removal of a coal-burning source can have rapid and direct benefits on children's health

  16. A Life Course Perspective on Child Health, Academic Experiences and Occupational Skill Qualifications in Adulthood: Evidence from a British Cohort*

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Margot I.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research rarely examines the social consequences of poor childhood health from a longitudinal perspective. Using data from the British National Child Development Study, I follow a cohort from before birth through middle age to examine whether children's health limitations before and during the educational process predict occupational skill qualifications in mid-adulthood, and whether any negative consequences are strongest for children in persistently poor health. I also examine whet...

  17. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie; Goodman, Robert; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...

  18. 684对母婴过敏性疾病队列研究%Cohort study of 684 pairs of mother-and-child allergic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧; 张峰英; 杭晶卿; 朱捷; 汪睿; 陈培凤; 顾卫联

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解上海市普陀区长征镇2岁以内婴幼儿过敏性疾病的相关影响因素.方法 2008年1月至12月期间在普陀区长征镇社区卫生服务中心儿保门诊建卡孕妇为调查对象,进行问卷调查.并跟踪随访分娩后婴儿至2岁.纳入调查对象母婴746对,对完成全部问卷的684对母婴数据用SAS V9.1统计软件进行数据处理和统计分析.结果 本次调查显示普陀区长征镇地区婴幼儿湿疹、过敏性皮疹、喘息患病率分别是27.9%、18.9%、3.9%.多因素回归分析显示父母任何一方过敏、婴幼儿4个月内添加其他食品是婴儿湿疹的危险因素(P=0.0010、0.0341);父母任何一方过敏也是过敏性皮疹的危险因素(P<0.0001).出生6个月内纯母乳喂养是婴幼儿喘息的保护因素(P=0.0257).而其他因素如父母哮喘史,母亲孕期补充维生素、母亲特殊饮食习惯,婴儿补钙等均未见相关性意义.结论 其危险因素主要有父母任一方过敏性疾病的遗传因素、婴儿本身的饮食因素(过早添加其他食品).而母乳喂养(0~6个月)对婴儿喘息有保护作用.%Objective To understand allergic diseases related factors in Changzheng Town,Putuo District infants and young children.Method Pregnant women registered in Putuo District,Changzheng Town Community Health Service Center Child Health Clinic within the period from January to December,2008 were enrolled into this survey,a questionnaire survey.The infants were followed up from birth to 2 years of age.The mother and child survey was conducted for 746 pairs,and 684 pairs had complete data.SAS V9.1 statistical software was used for data processing and statistical analysis.Result The survey showed that prevalence of eczema,allergic rash,and wheezing was 27.9%,18.9%,and 3.9%,respectively.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that allergy in either parent and addition of foods other than milk in infants before 4 months of age were

  19. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 11/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L; Jørgensen, T

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....

  20. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  1. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  2. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  3. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  4. Prevalence of abuse reported by pregnant women - impact on postpartum depression and breastfeeding: A prospective population-based analysis in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abuse of women is a violation of human rights, and has adverse impact on physical, mental and reproductive health. Yet, there is limited population based knowledge about the effect on postpartum health and breastfeeding. There is also need for increased understanding about the impact of abuse from different perpetrators. Large scale, population based, prospective studies are requested to assess the public health impact of abuse. Aims: To investigate the prevalence o...

  5. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to...

  6. Urine flavonoids and plasma carotenoids in the validation of fruit, vegetable and tea intake during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Alexander, Jan; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2007-01-01

    estimate of fruit intake was significantly correlated with urine phloretin (r = 0.33), citrus fruit/juice with urine hesperetin (r = 0.44), cooked vegetables with plasma alpha-carotene (r = 0.37), and tea with urine kaempferol (r = 0.41) (P <0.01 for all). On average, 60% of the participants fell into the...... same or adjacent quintiles when classified by FFQ and biomarkers. Significant correlations between the FFQ and FD were found for fruit (r = 0.39), vegetables (r = 0.34), juices of triads (r = 0.50) and tea (r = 0.53). The FFQ validity coefficient was 0.65 for citrus fruit/juice and 0.59 for cooked...... vegetables as calculated by the triangular method. Conclusions: The validation study shows that the MoBa FFQ can be used to estimate fruit, juice, vegetable and tea intake in pregnant Norwegian women, and to rank individuals within the distribution....

  7. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  8. Parent-Offspring Body Mass Index Associations in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study: A Family-based Approach to Studying the Role of the Intrauterine Environment in Childhood Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Caroline; Nystad, Wenche; Stigum, Hein; Skjærven, Rolv; Debbie A. Lawlor; Davey Smith, George; Næss, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity by comparing the maternal-offspring body mass index (BMI) association with the paternal-offspring BMI association when the offspring were 3 years of age, using parental prepregnancy BMI (measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). The parent-offspring trios (n = 29,216) were recruited during pregnancy from 2001 to 2008 into the Norwegian Mother and Child Coh...

  9. CHILD DEVELOPMENT STUDY (NCDS): CHILDREN OF THE BRITISH NCDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is one of Britain's birth cohort studies, surveying all the children born in U.K. in a week of March 1958 (a complete enumeration, not a sample). They have been re-interviewed several times over the past forty years: first, at the time ...

  10. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalen...

  11. Placental concentrations of heavy metals in a mother-child cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E., E-mail: eamayag@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Gil, F. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Freire, C. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Olmedo, P. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Rodriguez, M. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, M.F.; Olea, N. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Heavy metals are environmental contaminants with properties known to be toxic for wildlife and humans. Despite strong concerns about their harmful effects, little information is available on intrauterine exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb and its association with maternal factors in a population-based mother-child cohort in Southern Spain. Between 2000 and 2002, 700 pregnant women were recruited and 137 placentas from the cohort were randomly selected and analyzed for the selected metals by atomic absorption. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaire after delivery. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression were performed. Cd and Mn concentrations were detected in all placentas, while Cr, Pb, and Hg were found in 98.5%, 35.0%, and 30.7% of samples, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for Pb (mean: 94.80 ng/g wet weight of placenta), followed by Mn (63.80 ng/g), Cr (63.70 ng/g), Cd (3.45 ng/g), and Hg (0.024 ng/g). Arsenic was not detected in any sample. Gestational age and smoking during pregnancy were associated with placental Cd concentrations, while no factor appeared to influence concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, or Pb. In comparison to results of European studies, these concentrations are in a low-intermediate position. Studies are required to investigate the factors contributing to early exposure to heavy metals and to determine how placental transfer of these toxic compounds may affect children's health.

  12. Socio-economic status and child behaviour: evidence from a contemporary UK cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Propper, Carol; Rigg, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether and how socio-economic status is associated with children’s behavioural development in today’s children. Using a large cohort of English children born in the early 1990s we find significant social inequalities in several dimensions of child behaviour at age 7. We examine whether these inequalities are associated with characteristics of the child’s early home environment and parental behaviours. These include the material quality of the child’s home, maternal mental...

  13. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self-reported h......INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self...

  14. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  15. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  16. Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Filho Naomar M; Prado Matildes S; Strina Agostino; Santos Carlos; Santos Letícia M; Bastos Ana; Assis Ana; Santos Darci N; Rodrigues Laura C; Barreto Mauricio L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. Methods This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child health and nutritional status, psyc...

  17. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  18. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 1997 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  19. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2003 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  20. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2000 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  1. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  2. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer Catherine; Park MinHae; Skow Áine; Black James; Sovio Ulla; Saxena Sonia; Kessel Anthony; Croker Helen; Morris Steve; Viner Russell; Kinra Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the N...

  3. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neelon, S E B; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, C S;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an......-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes.Results:A total of 17721 (63.7%) children...... overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047).Conclusions:Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.International Journal of Obesity...

  4. Risk set sampling in epidemiologic cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Langholz, Bryan; Goldstein, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Recent work has extended the methods for the analysis of nested case-control studies to accomodate a broad variety of risk set sampling designs. These results have implications for the design of sampled epidemiologic cohort studies. We describe a model which is a natural extension of the Cox proportional hazards model and may be used to estimate parameters from sampled risk set data. We illustrate how these techniques may be used to solve three diverse design and analysis problems from epidem...

  5. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    -interview survey. As part of the national health interview survey programme, three nation-wide surveys were conducted in 1986/1987, 1991 and 1994. The samples in the three cohorts consisted of 23,096 adult Danes ages 16 years and older, and 18,296 (79.2%) were personally interviewed on socio-economic status...... Service Register recorded 980,043 contacts with general practitioners and specialist physicians. For 1943-1996, the Danish cancer Registry contained information about one or more cancer diseases among 1,432 people. A total of 4,334 people in the 1994 cohort were re-interview in 2000. DANCOS allows...... for a wide range of analysis in a historical prospective design of determinants of morbidity and mortality, of health care utilization and of the social effects of ill health. DANCOS also allows studies of methodological issues, including analyzing the characteristics of non-respondents. Udgivelsesdato: 2003...

  6. Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population – a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort ...

  7. Cohort Profile : LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M.; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants

  8. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  9. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

  10. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  11. Food Insecurity and Children’s Mental Health: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Falissard, Bruno; Galéra, Cédric; Tremblay, Richard E.; Sylvana M Côté; Boivin, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals’ dietary needs) is concurrently associated with children’s psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children’s mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the...

  12. Adverse life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in a 7-year follow-up of a population-based child cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne;

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Methods: Data on...... emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Results: Parental divorce...... significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers...

  13. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...

  14. Disease Surveillance Methods Used in the 8-Site MAL-ED Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Stephanie A.; Barrett, Leah J; Richard L. Guerrant; Checkley, William; Miller, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Describing the early life associations between infectious disease episodes and growth, cognitive development, and vaccine response in the first 2 years of life is one of the primary goals of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study. To collect high-resolution data during a critical early period of development, field staff visit each study participant at their house twice weekl...

  15. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  16. Cohort Profile: Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study- A Prospective Long Term Study in Northern Iran ​

    OpenAIRE

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still a...

  17. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Its Relationship to Initiation of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis: Longitudinal Cohort Study of Initially Healthy Adolescents▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Daniel H.; Markowitz, Kenneth; Furgang, David; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri, Cebile; McKiernan, Marie; Gunsolley, John

    2007-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is frequently associated with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP); however, longitudinal cohort studies relating A. actinomycetemcomitans to initiation of LAP have not been reported. A periodontal assessment was performed on 1,075 primarily African-American and Hispanic schoolchildren, ages 11 to 17 years. Samples were taken from each child for A. actinomycetemcomitans. A cohort of 96 students was established that included a test group of 38 A. actin...

  18. Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ​.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

  19. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Shan Lu; Qiao-Zhu Chen; Jian-Rong He; Xue-Ling Wei; Jin-Hua Lu; Sheng-Hui Li; Xing-Xuan Wen; Fan-Fan Chan; Nian-Nian Chen; Lan Qiu; Wei-Bi Mai; Rui-Fang Zhang; Cui-Yue Hu; Hui-Min Xia; Xiu Qiu

    2016-01-01

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to...

  20. Integration of Antiretroviral Therapy Services into Antenatal Care Increases Treatment Initiation during Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Kathryn; Jennings, Karen; Myer, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC) and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using routinely collected clinic data. Three models for ART initiation i...

  1. Cohort profile: the Young Lives study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687

  2. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    OpenAIRE

    B S Suprabha; Arathi Rao; Shwetha Choudhary; Ramya Shenoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1) age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2) dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionna...

  3. Parent perceptions of child sleep : a study of 10 000 Swedish children

    OpenAIRE

    Palmstierna, Peder; Sepa, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To gather normative data on parent-reported child sleep and investigate what influences it. Methods: Subjective sleep report data on night wakings, sleep quality, bedtime and risetime were gathered from parents of around 10 000 children from birth to age 5 in a cohort questionnaire study. The data were analysed for trends, and sleep measures were compared with background factors such as child temperament, foreign origin, family situation, parents age and education and night feedings. Res...

  4. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  5. What Drives Teacher Engagement: A Study of Different Age Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…

  6. Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsen, P. S.; Kamper-Jorgensen, M.; Adamson, A.; Barros, H.; Bonde, J. P.; Brescianini, S.; Brophy, S.; Cacas, M.; Devereux, G.; Eggesbø, M.; Fantini, M. P.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Henriksen, T. B.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Heude, B.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Inskip, H.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Lawlor, D. A.; Ludvigsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kiess, W.; Koletzko, B.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kull, I.; Kyhl, H. B.; Magnus, P.; Momas, I.; Murray, D.; Pekkanen, J.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Poulsen, G.; Richiardi, L.; Roeleveld, N.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Šrám, Radim; Strandberg-Larsen, K.; Thijs, C.; Van Eijsden, M.; Wright, J.; Vrijheid, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), s. 393-414. ISSN 0269-5022 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : European pregnancy birth cohort * cohort characteristics * cross-cohort collaboration Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2013

  7. A prospective cohort study of depression in pregnancy, prevalence and risk factors in a multi-ethnic population

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel, Nilam; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Sletner, Line; Slinning, Kari; Martinsen, Egil W; Holme, Ingar; Anne K. Jenum

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and child. Few studies are done in ethnic minorities. We wanted to identify the prevalence of depression in pregnancy and associations with ethnicity and other risk factors. Method Population-based, prospective cohort of 749 pregnant women (59% ethnic minorities) attending primary antenatal care during early pregnancy in...

  8. Gender Repetition: School Access, Transitions and Equity in the "Birth-to-Twenty" Cohort Panel Study in Urban South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected by the Birth-to-Twenty child cohort study in urban South Africa, this paper describes the patterns of schooling of a population of children born in the Greater Johannesburg area in April to June 1990. This paper examines the patterns of initial enrolment in Grade 1, transitions through grades, and trends in primary school…

  9. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely

  10. Familial aggregation of hypospadias: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Myrup, Charlotte;

    2008-01-01

    hypospadias in a cohort of 1,201,790 boys born in 1973-2005. Using binomial log-linear regression, they estimated recurrence risk ratios of hypospadias for male twin pairs and first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of a hypospadias case, which were 50.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.2, 75.5), 11...

  11. Tendências e diferenciais na saúde materno-infantil: delineamento e metodologia das coortes de 1982 e 1993 de mães e crianças de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul Trends and defferentials in maternal and child health: design and metodology of the 1982 and 1993 birth cohort studies in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar G. Victora

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças ocorridas na última década em termos econômicos e assistenciais podem haver afetado a saúde materno-infantil. Dois estudos foram realizados em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. As coortes de mães e recém-nascidos nos anos de 1982 e 1993 foram estudadas desde o nascimento. As mães foram identificadas nos hospitais-maternidade e responderam a um questionário padronizado, sendo seus filhos examinados. Mais de 99% dos recém-nascidos foram incluídos nas coortes, totalizando 5.914 nascidos vivos em 1982 e 5.249 em 1993. A mortalidade das crianças foi monitorizada, e em 1993 as hospitalizações também o foram. Em 1982, tentou-se localizar cerca de 25% das crianças aos 12 meses de idade e todas com a idade média de vinte meses. Foi possível encontrar cerca de 82% das crianças aos 12 meses e, graças a uma mudança de estratégia, 87% aos vinte meses. Em 1993, tentou-se acompanhar 20% das crianças e mais todos os recém-nascidos de baixo peso aos 12 meses de idade, sendo 95% localizados. Este artigo descreve os principais aspectos metodológicos de ambos os estudos, cujos principais resultados estão incluídos nos próximos artigos desse suplemento.Important changes have taken place in both the economy and health care in Brazil since 1980 and may have affected maternal and child health. Two studies in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil provide a unique opportunity for assessing these issues. Cohorts of mothers and infants from 1982 and 1993 were studied from the time of delivery. In both years, all mothers identified in the city's maternity hospitals answered a standardized questionnaire, and their infants were examined. Over 99% of all children born in the city in each of the two years were included in the cohorts, totalling 5,914 live births in 1982 and 5,249 in 1993. Deaths among these children were monitored prospectively, as were all hospital admissions in the 1993 cohort. In 1982, attempts were made to locate a 25% sample

  12. Informal Child Care and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C. Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted...

  13. Exposure Assessment in Cohort Studies of Childhood Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K

    2010-01-01

    Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of ...

  14. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  15. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  16. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconer Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the National Child Measurement Programme and key service providers from 5 primary care trusts (administrative bodies responsible for providing primary and secondary care services. We will conduct baseline questionnaires, followed by provision of weight feedback and 3 follow up questionnaires over the course of a year. Questionnaires will measure change in parental risk perception of overweight, health behaviours and health service use. Qualitative interviews will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to change. This study will produce preliminary data on National Health Service costs associated with weight feedback and determine which feedback approach (letter and letter plus telephone is more effective. Discussion This study will provide the first large scale evaluation of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback. Findings from this evaluation will inform future planning of the National Child Measurement Programme.

  17. Does Low Participation in Cohort Studies Induce Bias?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    confidence intervals gave very similar results and a small simulation study showed that the coverage probabilities were close to the 95% nominal level Conclusion: For the three chosen associations the odds ratios were not biased by non-participation. The results are reassuring for studies based on the Danish...... cohort and similar cohorts of pregnant women. The methodology used to compute confidence intervals for the relative odds ratios performed well in the scenarios considered.......Background: Participation rates in large cohort studies have dropped during the last two decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. Methods: The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from...

  18. Cohort profile: Lifelines DEEP, a prospective, general population cohort study in the northern Netherlands: study design and baseline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tigchelaar, E.F.; Zhernakova, A; Dekens, J.A.M.; Hermes, G.D.A.; Baranska, A.; Mujagic, Z.; M.A. Swertz; Munoz, A.M.; Deelen, P.; Cenit, M. C.; Franke, L; Scholtens, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Wijmenga, C; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a critical need for population-based prospective cohort studies because they follow individuals before the onset of disease, allowing for studies that can identify biomarkers and disease-modifying effects, and thereby contributing to systems epidemiology. Participants: This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of an intensively examined subpopulation of the LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. In this unique subcohort, LifeLines DEEP, we included 1539 part...

  19. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major ...

  20. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    L??pez G??mez, Mar??a Andr??e; Duran Jord??, Xavier, 1974-; Zaballa, Elena; S??nchez Niub??, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and deat...

  1. Mortality in parents after death of a child in Denmark: A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    2003-01-01

    a child who had died (exposed cohort), and 293745 controls--ie, parents whose children were alive, and whose family structure matched that of the exposed cohort. Natural deaths were defined with ICD8 codes 0000-7969 and ICD10 codes A00-R99, and unnatural deaths with codes 8000-9999 and V01-Y98. We used......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of parental bereavement on physical health. We investigated whether the death of a child increased mortality in parents. METHODS: We undertook a follow-up study based on national registers. From 1980 to 1996, we enrolled 21062 parents in Denmark who had...... Cox's proportional-hazards regression models to assess the mortality rate of parents up to 18 years after bereavement. FINDINGS: We observed an increased overall mortality rate in mothers whose child had died (hazards ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64; p

  2. Child-Pugh-Turcott versus Meld score for predicting survival in a retrospective cohort of black African cirrhotic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KA Attia; KC Ackoundou-N'guessan; AT N'dri-yoman; AK Mahassadi; E Messou; YF Bathaix; YH Kissi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the performance of the Child-Pugh-Turcott (CPT) score to that of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in predicting survival of a retrospective cohort of 172 Black African patients with cirrhosis on a short and mid-term basis.METHODS: Univariate and multivariate (Cox model)analyses were used to identify factors related to mortality. Relationship between the two scores was appreciated by calculating the correlation coefficient.The Kaplan Meier method and the log rank test were used to elaborate and compare survival respectively.The Areas Under the Curves were used to compare the performance between scores at 3, 6 and 12 mo.RESULTS: The study population comprised 172 patients, of which 68.9% were male. The mean age of the patient was 47.5 ± 13 years. Hepatitis B virus infection was the cause of cirrhosis in 70% of the cases.The overall mortality was 31.4% over 11 years of follow up. Independent factors significantly associated with mortality were: CPT score (HR = 3.3, 95% CI [1.7-6.2])(P 1.5 mg/dL versus serum creatine 21 vs MELD < 21). The area under the curves (AUC)that predict survival was 0.72 and 0.75 at 3 mo (P = 0.68),0.64 and 0.62 at 6 mo (P = 0.67), 0.69 and 0.64 at 12 mo (P = 0.38) respectively for the CPT score and the MELD score.CONCLUSION: The CPT score displays the same prognostic significance as does the MELD score in black African patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, its handling appears less cumbersome in clinical practice as compared to the latter.

  3. Risk ratio estimation in case-cohort studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    In traditional (cumulative-incidence) case-control studies, the exposure odds ratio can be used as an estimator of the risk ratio only when the disease under study is rare. The case-cohort study is a recently developed useful modification of the case-control study. This design allows direct estimation of the risk ratio from a fixed cohort, but does not require any rare-disease assumption. This article reviews recent developments in risk ratio estimation procedures for the analysis of case-coh...

  4. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  5. Test–retest reliability and validity of a web-based food-frequency questionnaire for adolescents aged 13–14 to be used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of food intake is challenging and prone to errors; it is therefore important to consider the reliability and validity of the assessment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reproducibility and validity of a developed food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ for use among adolescents. Design: In total, 58 students (aged 13–14 from four different schools in the southern part of Norway participated in the reproducibility study of filling out the FFQ 4 weeks apart. In addition, 93 students participated in the relative validity study where the FFQ was compared to 2×24-hour dietary recalls, while 92 students participated in the absolute validity study where the intakes of fatty acids and vitamin D from the FFQ were compared to fatty acids and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in whole blood. Results: The median Spearman correlation coefficient for all nutrients in the test–retest reliability study was 0.57. The median Spearman correlation for all nutrients in the relative validity study was 0.26, while the correlations coefficients were low in the absolute validity study with n-3 fatty acid coefficients ranging from 0.05 to 0.25, and absent for vitamin D (r=0.000. Conclusion: The test–retest reproducibility was considered good, the relative validity was considered poor to good, and the absolute validity was considered poor. However, the results are comparable to other studies among adolescents.

  6. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  7. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  8. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  9. The Link between Mother and Adolescent Substance Use: Intergenerational Findings from the British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608

  10. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little systematic evidence is available on potential gender differences in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from a real-world cohort. We designed the DEFIB-WOMEN study to examine gender differences on (i) patient reported outcomes (PROs), (ii) procedure- and...... device-related complications, and (iii) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort. METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multi-center, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at...... several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish national registers. The DEFIB-WOMEN cohort is comprised of 1790 (19% women; 343/1790) patients implanted between June 2010 and April 2013...

  11. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...

  12. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabel Pernille

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n = 1,468. A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n = 783,817. Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Results Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31 and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49 compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20 and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35, but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96 and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4. Conclusions The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women

  13. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim;

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... identified among participants in the Danish cohort study "Diet, Cancer and Health" in which 57,053 50-64 years old persons were included 1993-7. Medical records were retrieved and reviewed by an experienced physician using a detailed standardized form, and information on the diagnostic work-up and presence...

  14. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Campbell; Igor Rudan

    2011-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies.

  15. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  16. Determinants of depression in chronic stroke : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Kwakkel, Gert; Bruin, Margje; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify factors that are significantly related to depression in chronic stroke patients. Methods. Prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation. A total of 165 first ever stroke patients over 18 years of age were assessed at one and thr

  17. Physiological Studies of the Hyperkinetic Child I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, James H.; And Others

    Reported were results of the first year of a 3-year physiological study of the hyperkinetic child. The male subjects were 6 to 9 years of age, attending school, without sensory defects, 80 or above in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Full Scale, off medication for 3 months prior to testing, and diagnosed as hyperactive.…

  18. Socio-economic inequality in childhood and beyond: an overview of challenges and findings from comparative analyses of cohort studies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of countries with large child cohort studies offers an unprecedented opportunity for comparative research. A topic of central interest in my research is, to what extent the sizable gaps in development that exist between children from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the US are also present in other countries, and to what extent the mechanisms explaining these gaps are similar or different across countries. This overview draws on the results of comparative analyses of birth cohort study data collected in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, to illustrate the challenges that arise in carrying out this kind of research and the way these challenges were met – in particular those having to do with data access and comparability, and those having to do with causal inference. I conclude that this type of research also offers great promise as shown by findings on SES gaps in child development in the four countries.

  19. Child Labour and Child Schooling in South Asia: A Cross Country Study of their Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray

    2001-01-01

    This study uses Nepalese data to estimate the impact of individual, household and cluster/community level variables on child labour and child schooling. The principal estimates are, then, compared with those from Bangladesh and Pakistan. The exercise is designed to identify effective policy instruments that could influence child labour and child schooling in South Asia. The results show that the impact of a variable on a child’s education/employment is, often, highly sensitive to the specific...

  20. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  1. Breast density and outcome of mammography screening: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50...

  2. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kaakinen, Marika; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods: We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestatio...

  3. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) ... Sunsetted/For Reference Only The NICHD started the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), ...

  4. Perinatal depression in a cohort study on Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi; Mohamad Reza Maracy

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in thei...

  5. Migraine and Cognitive Decline Among Women: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rist, Pamela Marie; Kang, Jae Hee Hee; Buring, Julie Elizabeth; Glymour, Maria Lee; Grodstein, Francine; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between migraine and cognitive decline among women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women’s Health Study, United States. Participants 6349 women aged 65 or older enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine status at baseline and participated in cognitive testing during follow-up. Participants were classified into four groups: no history of migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and past history of m...

  6. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Cancer Incidence: The Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboya, Toru; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Although experimental studies have shown that gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has a role in tumor progression, epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between GGT and cancer incidence is limited. The present study investigated the association between GGT and cancer incidence and assessed the role of alcohol consumption in this association. Methods We examined a cohort of 15 031 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years who attended a health checkup in 1995 and were free of cancer at th...

  7. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Willis F Buck; Gaspar Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty...

  8. Cohort Study of Intracameral Moxifloxacin in Postoperative Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Virgilio Galvis; Alejandro Tello; Mary Alejandra Sánchez; Paul Anthony Camacho

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the...

  9. Gender differences in postpartum depression. A longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: The course of depression from pregnancy to one year postpartum and their risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. This study has two aims: 1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from third trimester of pregnancy to one year after childbirth and 2) to determine gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carr...

  10. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Kreiner‐Møller, E.; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Stokholm, J.; Pedersen, L.; Bjarnadóttir, E.; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Nilsson, E; Mortensen, L. J.; Olsen, S. F.; Schjørring, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. Objective The aim of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep cl...

  11. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.; Hlady, W. G.; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposur...

  12. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.;

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. The aim...... of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep clinical phenotyping, exposure assessment, and biobanking. Exposure assessments focus on the human microbiome. Nutritional intervention...... during pregnancy in randomized controlled trials are included in the study to prevent disease and to be able to establish causal relationships. Pregnant women from eastern Denmark were invited during 2008–2010 to a novel unselected ‘COPSAC2010’ cohort. The women visited the clinic during pregnancy weeks...

  13. Counselling for burnout in Norwegian doctors: one year cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Design Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Setting Norwegian resource centre. Participants 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Interventions Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors’ situation and personal needs. Main ou...

  14. Cohort Profile: The Skin Cancer After Organ Transplant Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G.; Daling, Janet R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Carter, Joseph J.; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2012-01-01

    The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants...

  15. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  16. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...

  17. Cancer incidence in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after...... significantly increased relative risk of breast carcinoma, alcohol-related malignancies, virus/immune-related malignancies, or hormone-related malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: The current data suggest that the death of a child was associated with a slightly increased overall cancer risk in mothers and that the...

  18. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  19. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce , MB; Silverwood, RJ; Nitsch, D.; Adams, JE; Stephen, AM; Nip, W; Macfarlane, P; Wong, A.; Richards, M.; Hardy, R; Kuh, D.; on behalf of the NSHD Scientific and Data Collection Teams

    2012-01-01

    Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, fo...

  20. A Study of the Cycle of Abuse among Child Molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2001-01-01

    This study of 147 sex offenders on probation explores whether there is support for the cycle of abuse theory among child molesters. Results indicate that being abused as a child is related to being a child molester. It was also found that the MMPI-2 did not predict the status of the subjects in regard to being abused as a child and having a victim…

  1. Child Labor at District Level: A Case Study of Rawalpindi

    OpenAIRE

    Kulsoom, Rafia

    2007-01-01

    Child labor is one of the problems that occur as a result of responses to the economic problems faced by vulnerable children. Keeping in view the theoretical background of existence of child labor across the world, the study analyzes the incidence of child labor from Rawalpindi city of Pakistan. It also empirically investigates the household demographics and incidence of child labor. The earning and participation functions were estimated for a sample of 150 children. All the coefficients and ...

  2. Associations of Child Temperament with Child Overweight and Breakfast Habits: A Population Study in Five-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Steen Skogheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.

  3. The LIFE child study: a life course approach to disease and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quante Mirja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound knowledge about child growth, development, health, and disease in contemporary children and adolescents is still rare. Epidemiological studies together with new powerful research technologies present exciting opportunities to the elucidation of risk factor-outcome associations with potentially major consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aim To conduct a unique prospective longitudinal cohort study in order to assess how environmental, metabolic and genetic factors affect growth, development and health from fetal life to adulthood. Methods The ‘Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Child Study’ focuses on two main research objectives: (1 monitoring of normal growth, development and health; (2 non-communicable diseases such as childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, atopy and mental health problems. Detailed assessments will be conducted alongside long-term storage of biological samples in 2,000 pregnant women and more than 10,000 children and their families. Results Close coordination and engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the LIFE Child study successfully established procedures and systems for balancing many competing study and ethical needs. Full participant recruitment and complete data collection started in July 2011. Early data indicate a high acceptance rate of the study program, successful recruitment strategies and the establishment of a representative cohort for the population of Leipzig. A series of subprojects are ongoing, and analyses and publications are on their way. Discussion This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of the new prospective longitudinal cohort study LIFE Child. Given the recognized need for long-term data on adverse effects on health and protective factors, our study data collection should provide magnificent opportunities to examine complex interactions that govern the emergence of non-communicable diseases.

  4. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  5. Probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. RESULTS: Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. CONCLUSION: The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.

  6. A STUDY ON THE CHILD LABOUR IN TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Karunanithi, S.; M. Saravanakumar

    2016-01-01

    Child labour in ancient India, existed in the form of child slaves. Under the Mughals a labour had no free will of his own. There was no difference between him and the commodities he produced. Children have always been used in economic activities. The child lies in the fact that child is the universe. As per Census 2011, the number of working children in the age group of 5-14 years has further reduced to 43.53 lakh. A Study on the Child Labour in Tamilnadu is computed by time series of least ...

  7. A STUDY ON THE CHILD LABOUR IN TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Karunanithi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Child labour in ancient India, existed in the form of child slaves. Under the Mughals a labour had no free will of his own. There was no difference between him and the commodities he produced. Children have always been used in economic activities. The child lies in the fact that child is the universe. As per Census 2011, the number of working children in the age group of 5-14 years has further reduced to 43.53 lakh. A Study on the Child Labour in Tamilnadu is computed by time series of least square method. “Children of today are the potential citizens of tomorrow”.

  8. Characteristics of the First Child Predict the Parents' Probability of Having Another Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 7,695 families in the prospective, nationally representative British Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined whether characteristics of the 1st-born child predicted parents' timing and probability of having another child within 5 years after the 1st child's birth. Infant temperament was assessed with the Carey Infant…

  9. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an...

  10. The health and social situation of the mother during pregnancy and global quality of life of the child as an adult. Results from the prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort 1959-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective cohort study (Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 of 7,222 persons was used in order to explore the association between the social and health situation during pregnancy and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. Two sets of questionnaires were used with one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and one filled out by the adult children 31-33 years later. The questionnaires included mother's situation during pregnancy and global QOL of the child at follow-up: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life’s temporal and spatial domains, expression of life’s potentials and objective measures. The only indicators to have clear connections with a reduced quality of life were the cases of mother's with syphilis (8.5%, mother's congenital malformations (8.8%, low social group (6.9% and failing contraception (3.8%. The results obtained repudiate the common notion and hypothesis that the mother's situation during pregnancy is highly important for the quality of life that the child experience as an adult. This suggest that the aspects important for quality of life later on are not found solely in early conditions, but instead more dependent on later attitude towards life of that specific person.

  11. Familial risk of venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... expected number of venous thromboembolism cases among siblings, using population-specific, gender-specific and age-specific incidence rates. Results: We identified 30 179 siblings of 19 599 cases of venous thromboembolism. The incidence among siblings was 2.2 cases per 1000 person-years, representing a...... with pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism has a strong familial component....

  12. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J;

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  13. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.;

    2009-01-01

    antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self-reports of...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of...... antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  14. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.;

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an...

  15. Health effects of the 2012 Valencia (Spain) wildfires on children in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Esplugues, Ana; Iñíguez, Carmen; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-06-01

    In July 2012, two simultaneous wildfires burnt a big area in Valencia (Spain), where a birth cohort study (INMA) is being developed. The heavy smoke covered the whole INMA study area for several days. We aimed at evaluating the 2012 Valencia wildfire effects on the health of children enrolled in the INMA-Valencia cohort. Two weeks after the extinction of the wildfires, a phone survey was conducted and finally 460 individuals were enrolled. We considered a wildfire period (12-day interval when they were active) and a control period (12-day interval just before wildfires). Parents were asked about respiratory symptoms experienced during both periods, and during wildfires only about the preventive measures adopted and the perception of exposure, along with individual data collected through the different follow-up surveys of the cohort. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and we included interaction terms for asthma/rhinitis and level of perception of exposure; 82.4 % perceived smoke smell outdoors, 40 % indoors and more than 90 % of the families observed the presence of ash. An adjusted odds ratio of 3.11 [95 % confidence interval 1.62-5.97] for itchy/watery eyes and 3.02 [1.41-6.44] for sore throat was obtained. Significant interaction terms for rhinitis and asthma in itchy/watery eyes and sneezing, and only asthma for sore throat were obtained. Exposure to wildfire smoke was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in this child population, particularly affecting susceptible individuals with asthma or rhinitis. PMID:26215426

  16. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  17. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  18. Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood. PMID:17039403

  19. Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Filho Naomar M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. Methods This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child health and nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation and nursery school attendance. The effect of these on Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence scores at five years of age was investigated using a multivariable hierarchical analysis, guided by the proposed conceptual framework. Results Unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, poorly educated mother, absent father, poor sanitary conditions at home and in the neighbourhood and low birth weight were negatively associated with cognitive performance at five years of age, while strong positive associations were found with high levels of domestic stimulation and nursery school attendance. Conclusion Children's cognitive development in urban contexts in developing countries could be substantially increased by interventions promoting early psychosocial stimulation and preschool experience, together with efforts to prevent low birth weight and promote adequate nutritional status.

  20. Battered Child Syndrome; a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arastoo Pezeshki; Farzad Rahmani; Hanieh Ebrahimi Bakhtavar; Sanaz Fekri

    2015-01-01

    One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those broug...

  1. Behavioural outcomes at 3 years of age among late preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan (Doran), Jackie; Alderdice, Fiona A.; McGowan, Jennifer E.; Craig, Stanley; Perra, Oliver; Jenkins, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine the behavioural outcomes at age 3 years of late preterm infants (LPIs) who were admitted to neonatal intensive care (NIC) in comparison with LPIs who were not admitted.Method: This cohort study prospectively recruited 225 children born late preterm (34–36+6 weeks gestation) in 2006 in Northern Ireland, now aged 3 years. Two groups were compared: LPIs who received NIC (study; n=103) and LPIs who did not receive NIC (control; n=122). Parents/guardians completed the Child Beha...

  2. Prenatal testing among women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques in Denmark 1995-2000: a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are generally older than women with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and are consequently more likely to carry a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Furthermore, a significantly increased rate of chromosomal...... abnormalities after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the use and results of prenatal invasive diagnostic testing in a national Danish cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ICSI pregnancies. Additionally, we examined to what extent second...... trimester serum screening was used. METHODS: We used a register-based cohort study including all ongoing clinical pregnancies achieved by IVF/ICSI in 1995-2000 in Denmark. Data on fertility treatment, pregnancy and pregnancy outcome together with data on cytogenic testing and the use of triple test were...

  3. Battered Child Syndrome; a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Pezeshki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those brought to the emergency department with trauma. In this report, we described a patient complained of dysphagia following a falling from a height and multiple epidural hematomas and final diagnosis of battered child syndrome.

  4. Predictors of environmental lead exposure among pregnant women – a prospective cohort study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLL in women of child-bearing age have been decreasing in recent decades, but still remains a concern for long-term effects of child psychomotor development. The aim of the study was to characterize lead exposure among Polish pregnant women and assess the relationship between BLL and selected socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors. The study population consisted of 594 pregnant women who had been the subjects of the prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL. The women were interviewed three times during pregnancy (once in each trimester. Lead concentration in the blood collected during the second trimester of pregnancy was analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS, or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Active and passive smoking was analyzed by the cotinine level in saliva using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The lead level in the blood ranged from 0.3 – 5.7 μg/dL, with a geometric mean (GM of 1.1 μg/dL (GSD }0.2 μg/dL. Statistically significant associations were found between BLL and factors such as maternal age (β=0.01; p=0.02, education (β=0.08; p=0.04 and prepregnancy BMI (β=0.1; p=0.001. Additionally, BLL increased with increasing cotinine level in saliva (β=0.02; p=0.06 and decreased with the increasing distance from the copper smelter (β=-0.1; p=0.009. Public health interventions, especially in regions with a higher level of exposure to lead, among women with lower SES and among smokers, are still reasonable.

  5. Nested Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  6. Age At Marriage, Gauna (Effective Marriage And First Child Birth In Rural Women- Changing Pattern In Various Marriage Cohorts By Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Neeraj K

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called ‘gauna’. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.

  7. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa. PMID:26349744

  8. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Garg Arun; Hegmann Kurt T; Wertsch Jacqueline J; Kapellusch Jay; Thiese Matthew S; Bloswick Donald; Merryweather Andrew; Sesek Richard; Deckow-Schaefer Gwen; Foster James; Wood Eric; Kendall Richard; Sheng Xiaoming; Holubkov Richard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for ...

  9. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F G

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were hel...

  10. Tamoxifen compared to best supportive care in advanced hepatocelluar carcinoma: A retrospective matched-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide as well as in Egypt with hepatitis B and C, alcohol and aflatoxins being the commonest risk factors. Tamoxifen was initially reported to confer a marginal survival benefit in advanced HCC. However, later reports declined any benefit. Objective: To study the impact of tamoxifen on overall survival (OS) compared to best supportive care (BSC) in Egyptian patients with advanced HCC. Methods: This retrospective matched-cohort study was conducted at Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), Egypt where 116 advanced HCC cases treated with tamoxifen were compared to TNM stage and Child-Pugh class matched 116 HCC cases who received BSC. Results: The median OS in the tamoxifen group was 9.3 months (95% confidence interval [Cl], 6.7- 11.9 months) compared to 8.7 months (95%CI, 6.8-10.6) in the BSC group (p = 0.758). With univariate analyses, it was shown that absence of fatigue, Child-Pugh class A, single tumors, less advanced tumors (T2), and absence of metastases (M0), had significantly better OS than their counterparts. Multivariate analysis showed that absence of fatigue, Child-Pugh class A and T2 tumors were independent prognostic factors affecting OS. Tamoxifen produced partial response and clinical stabilization in one% and 16% of cases, respectively. The median PFS with tamoxifen was 7.2 months (95%CI, 5.2-9.5). Conclusions: Tamoxifen did not show any OS advantage in Egyptian patients with advanced HCC. Use of this drug is discouraged

  11. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally...

  12. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally...

  13. Chinese cohort study of chronic kidney disease: design and methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Bixia; Zhang Luxia; Wang Haiyan; Zhao Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences,especially cardiovascular risk and end-stage renal disease.A recent national survey demonstrated that CKD has become a leading health problem in China.There is an urgent need to implement an in-depth investigation of the CKD burden and also to explore underlying mechanisms of CKD progression and it association with adverse consequences.Methods The Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is the first national CKD cohort in China.It will enroll approximately 3 000 pre-dialysis CKD patients aged between 18 and 74 years and follow-up for at least 5 years.Questionnaires,anthropometric measures,laboratory tests,and biomaterials will be collected at baseline and annually.The principal clinical outcomes of the C-STRIDE consist of renal disease events,cardiovascular events,and death.Based on the longitudinal clinical data and biomaterials,the risk factors with CKD progression and other outcomes will be analyzed,and candidate markers and predicted models will be established.Conclusion The C-STRIDE would provide important evidence for underlying mechanisms of CKD progression,valuable information for clinical guidelines,and healthcare policies in China.

  14. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302

  15. Retrospective study of maternal HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections and child survival in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    OpenAIRE

    De Cock, K M; Zadi, F.; Adjorlolo, G; Diallo, M. O.; Sassan-Morokro, M.; Ekpini, E.; Sibailly, T.; Doorly, R.; Batter, V; Brattegaard, K.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the effects of maternal HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections on outcome of pregnancy, infant mortality, and child survival, and to measure serological concordance between mothers and children. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study with cross sectional study of concordance for HIV antibodies. SETTING--Hospital, tuberculosis clinic, and maternal and child health centre in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, west Africa. SUBJECTS--986 women who had had a total of 2758 pregnancies since 1980. The l...

  16. Mortality after parental death in childhood: a nationwide cohort study from three Nordic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n = 2,789,807 and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,380,301, and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,131,905. A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR. Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.43-1.58. The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-2.00 than parental natural death (MRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41. The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the

  17. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders - a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiologic studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea and celiac...... disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobactor pylori (HP) infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49,475 patients with rosacea, and 4,312,213 general...... population controls were identified using nationwide administrative registers. We established the prevalence of the aforementioned disorders, and used Cox regression to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of new-onset CeD, CD, UC, HP infection, SIBO, and IBS, respectively, in patients with rosacea...

  18. Spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities: a cohort study in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergev, Gyurgyinka; Máté, Adrienn; Zimmermann, Alíz; Rárosi, Ferenc; Sztriha, László

    2015-03-01

    The spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities was studied in a cohort of patients in Hungary. A search for etiologies and assessment of the degree of intellectual disability were carried out. The study included 241 (131 boys) patients. Disability occurred without any prenatal, perinatal, and/or neonatal adverse events in 167 patients. They were classified into the following subgroups: genetic syndromes with recognized etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability in association with dysmorphic features but unknown etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability without dysmorphic features and recognized etiology, brain malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, leukoencephalopathies, epileptic syndromes, developmental language impairment, and neuromuscular disorders. Adverse events occurred in 74 children classified into subgroups such as cerebral palsy after delivery preterm or at term, and disabilities without cerebral palsy. The etiology was identified in 66.4%, and genetic diagnosis was found in 19.5%. Classification of neurodevelopmental disorders contribute to etiological diagnosis, proper rehabilitation, and genetic counseling. PMID:24868008

  19. Neuroticism and Functional Connectomics of the Resting Adolescent Brain - Insights from a Danish Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruël Johansen, Louise

    The personality trait neuroticism is a well-known risk factor for anxiety and mood disorders that typically have their onset in childhood and adolescence. This period is characterized by ongoing structural and functional maturation of the brain, which can be traced with magnetic resonance imaging...... (MRI). Resting-state functional MRI is a widely used technique for studies of brain development due to the task-free condition. Furthermore, this imaging modality can be used to study the functional network of the brain that subserves communication between regions of the brain. Properties of this...... network can be quantified with graph theory. By using this analytical approach one can assess e.g. how efficiently information is exchanged throughout the brain. Functional network analyses of the adult brain at rest suggest that higher neuroticism scores are associated with a less efficient functional...

  20. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers...

  1. Late diagnosis among our ageing HIV population: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mensforth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, more people infected with HIV are living into older age; 22% of adults receiving care in the UK are aged over 50 years [1]. Age influences HIV infection; the likelihood of seroconversion illness, mean CD4 count and time from infection to development of AIDs defining illnesses decreases with increasing age. A UK study estimates that half of HIV infections in persons over 50 years are acquired at an age over 50 [2]. Studies exploring sexual practices in older persons have repeatedly shown that we cannot assume there is no risk of STI and HIV infection [3,4]. Physicians should be alert to risk of HIV even in the older cohort, where nearly half diagnoses are made late [2]. Local audit has demonstrated poor testing rates in the over 50's on the Acute Medical Unit. Late diagnosis (CD4<350 results in poorer outcomes and age confounds further; older late presenters are 2.4 times more likely to die within the first year of diagnosis than younger counterparts [2]. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case notes review was conducted of all patients aged 60 years and over attending HIV clinic in the last 2 years. Outcomes audited included features around diagnosis; age, presentation, missed testing opportunities and CD4 count at diagnosis. Results: Of the current cohort of 442 patients, 34 were over 60 years old (8%. Age at diagnosis in this group ranged from 36 to 80 years, mean 56.6 years. Presentation triggers included opportunistic infections or malignancies (n=10, constitutional symptoms (n=6, diagnosis of another STI (n=4, seroconversion illness (n=2, partner status (n=3. Eight patients were diagnosed through asymptomatic screening at Sexual Health. We identified missed opportunities in five patients who were not tested despite diagnoses or symptoms defined as clinical indicators for HIV. Half of older patients had a CD4 count of <200 at diagnosis. Conclusions: It is imperative

  2. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.

  3. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 5 Years in Children Exposed Prenatally to Maternal Dental Amalgam: The Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Gene E.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M. T.; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S.; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Strain, J.J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg0) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of pr...

  4. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koen, Nastassja; Brittain, Kirsty; Donald, Kirsten A; Barnett, Whitney; Koopowitz, Sheri; Maré, Karen; Zar, Heather J; Stein,Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition.Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study.Methods: Pregnant women were recrui...

  5. Health and function of participants in the Long Life Family Study: A comparison with other cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Anne B; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A;

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar...... data included the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the New England Centenarian Study. Diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and peripheral artery disease tended to be less common in LLFS probands and offspring compared to similar aged persons in the other cohorts. Pulse...

  6. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased risk of first-trimester miscarriage in the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Jørgensen, Jan S; Jensen, Tina K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Miscarriage is the most common negative outcome of pregnancy, and identification of modifiable risk factors is potentially of great importance for public health. Low vitamin D concentrations in pregnancy are widespread worldwide, and vitamin D deficiency is implicated in immune cell...... regulation at the feto-maternal interface and several diseases of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration was a modifiable risk factor for early miscarriage. DESIGN: In a prospective cohort study of 1683 pregnant women donating serum before gestational week 22......, we investigated the association between maternal serum concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the risk of subsequent miscarriage (n = 58). RESULTS: The adjusted hazard of first-trimester miscarriage was lower with higher 25(OH)D concentrations (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 0...

  7. Liver elasticity measurement before and after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice: a prospective cohort studya prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elas...

  8. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Swedish Sami – a controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Edin-Liljegren, A; S. Hassler; Sjölander, P.; Daerga, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women) was constructed from national population registers. A twice as large control cohort of non-Sami was...

  9. Cohort profile: the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-12-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  10. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casasnovas José A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain. Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%. Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index. Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7 years, 27.7 (3.6 kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9 cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048, and 40.8 (11.6 years, 24.4 (3.8 kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9 cm, among females (N = 351. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male, the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least

  11. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  12. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  13. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children’s health: cohort profile—updated 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kishi, Reiko; KOBAYASHI, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-01-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infe...

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Stability and Change in Maternal Depression: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Turney

    2012-01-01

    Children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes from infancy through adulthood, and are especially at risk when maternal depression persists over multiple years. But there are several important limitations to our current descriptive knowledge about maternal depression, especially depression among unmarried mothers. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent cohort of children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents (N = 4,...

  15. Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Ercumen, Ayse; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Kumpel, Emily; Burt, Zachary; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Background Intermittent delivery of piped water can lead to waterborne illness through contamination in the pipelines or during household storage, use of unsafe water sources during intermittencies, and limited water availability for hygiene. We assessed the association between continuous versus intermittent water supply and waterborne diseases, child mortality, and weight for age in Hubli-Dharwad, India. Methods and Findings We conducted a matched cohort study with multivariate matching to i...

  16. The Effect of Maternal Death on the Health of the Husband and Children in a Rural Area of China: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Long; Ye, Fang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Huntington, Dale; Huang, Yanjie; Wang, Anqi; Liu, Shuiqing; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of maternal death on the health of the index child, the health and educational attainment of the older children, and the mental health and quality of life of the surviving husband. Methods A cohort study including 183 households that experienced a maternal death matched to 346 households that experienced childbirth but not a maternal death was conducted prospectively between June 2009 and October 2011 in rural China. Data on household sociodemographic characte...

  17. Cerebral palsy and placental infection: a case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khong T Yee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between cerebral palsy in very preterm infants and clinical, histopathologic and microbiological indicators of chorioamnionitis, including the identification of specific micro-organisms in the placenta, was evaluated in a case-cohort study. Methods Children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy at five years of age were identified from amongst participants in a long-term follow-up program of preterm infants. The comparison group was a subcohort of infants randomly selected from all infants enrolled in the program. The placentas were examined histopathologically for chorioamnionitis and funisitis, and the chorioamnionic interface was aseptically swabbed and comprehensively cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeast and genital mycoplasmas. Associations between obstetric and demographic variables, indicators of chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy status were examined by univariate analysis. Results Eighty-two infants with cerebral palsy were compared with the subcohort of 207 infants. Threatened preterm labor was nearly twice as common among the cases as in the subcohort (p E. coli was cultured from the placenta in 6/30 (20% of cases as compared with 4/85 (5% of subcohort (p = 0.01. Group B Streptococcus was more frequent among the cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The association between E. coli in the chorioamnion and cerebral palsy in preterm infants identified in this study requires confirmation in larger multicenter studies which include microbiological study of placentas.

  18. Dietary Antioxidants and Melanoma: Evidence from Cohort and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer affecting mostly people of Caucasian origin and is associated with high exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Antioxidants in the diet are thought to prevent UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress and laboratory-based studies have shown that high antioxidant intakes inhibit melanoma development. Corresponding epidemiological evidence is inconsistent, however. We therefore reviewed results from prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether consumption of antioxidant vitamin C, E (tocopherol), and A (retinol), carotenoids and selenium, as food, supplements, or both, or high fruit and vegetable intake, reduce the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. A total of 9 studies (2 cohort, 1 nested case-control, 6 RCTs) were included. Neither antioxidant nutrients, individually or combined, nor fruit and vegetable intake showed any strong and significant associations with melanoma, though the number of relevant studies was limited and several had methodological shortcomings. In particular, melanoma was not a primary disease outcome in any of the RCTs and therefore, none adequately accounted for potential confounding by sun exposure. In conclusion, available evidence is currently inadequate to assess possible beneficial effects of antioxidant intake on melanoma risk. PMID:26147450

  19. STATUS REPORT, BEGIN TO DEVELOP COMPLETE OPERATIONS MANUALS FOR THE COHORT: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...

  20. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post

  1. Segregated from the Start: Peer Context in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Kim, Jinseok

    2012-01-01

    A majority of U.S. children attend some type of child care before entering kindergarten. The quality of child care environment and of teacher-child interactions appear to influence children's development, but little attention has been paid to the influence of child-care peers. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort,…

  2. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI......BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with...

  3. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  4. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  5. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis F Buck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  7. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 ...

  8. Maternal Fatty Acid Status During Pregnancy and Child Autistic Traits: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-05-01

    ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for brain function and development. We examined whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy affects risk of autistic traits in childhood. Within the Generation R cohort, we measured maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3:ω-6 ratio in midpregnancy (Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 2001-2005). Child autistic traits at 6 years were assessed by using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form in 4,624 children. A lower maternal ω-3:ω-6 ratio during pregnancy was associated with more autistic traits in the offspring (β = -0.008, 95% confidence interval: -0.016, -0.001). In particular, a higher total ω-6 and linoleic acid status were associated with more autistic traits (all P's < 0.05). Associations were independent of child intelligence, suggesting that the fatty acid distribution specifically affects the development of autistic traits in addition to general neurodevelopment. Maternal plasma ω-3 status was not associated with child autistic traits and, consistently, neither was prenatal dietary fish intake. Our study shows that a lower prenatal ω-3:ω-6 ratio is associated with more child autistic traits, which is largely accounted for by higher ω-6 instead of lower ω-3 status. These results suggest a biological pathway between maternal fatty acid intake during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. PMID:27052119

  9. Biomarkers in differentiating clinical dengue cases: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.

  10. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

    2005-01-17

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35-80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (kappa = 0.74). Most questionnaire data had kappa > 0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (kappa = 0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

  11. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; Pburnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  12. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  13. A social work study on family patterns and child abuse

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    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between different family characteristics and child abuse in city of Jarghooye located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 50 people and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, family educational background and family size on child abuse. The results indicate that while there were some meaningful relationships between family income and family educational background, there was not any statistical evidence to believe on such relationship between family size and child abuse.

  14. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to de

  15. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  16. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... history information for respondents enrolled in the Agriculture Health Study. This represents a request to... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection...

  17. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b introduction of solid food, c intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d fluoride exposure, and e oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.

  18. Dioxins and endometriosis: cohort study of women in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.

  19. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  20. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  1. The use of new technologies in Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2010-03-01

    élites de posicionamento (GPS para a localização de residências, o uso de coletas de DNA para comparações futuras, as bases de dados institucionais e governamentais são fontes de informações que abreviam, minimizam gastos e dão maior confiabilidade aos estudos de muito longa duração.Tem-se visto antigos trabalhos realizados há décadas sendo submetidos a novas avaliações estatísticas com o desenvolvimento de novas teorias e descobertas. Neste número da revista brasileira em promoção da saúde, acompanhamos o nascimento de uma nova coorte(14, que acompanhará a evolução dos determinantes de saúde de população de uma grande comunidade do Nordeste do Brasil.REFERÊNCIAS1. Morabia A, Guthold R. Wilhelm Weinberg’s 1913Large Retrospective Cohort Study: a rediscovery. Am JEpidemiol. 2007;165(7:727-33.2. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:90.3. Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore Jr. FE. Epidemiologicalapproaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study.Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951;41(3:279-81.4. Fonseca MGU, Peres F, Firmo JOA, Uchoa E.,Percepção de risco: maneiras de pensar e agirno manejo de agrotóxicos. Ciênc saúde coletiva[periódico na Internet]. 2007 Mar [acesso em 2010Maio 26]; 12(1:39-50. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-81232007000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso. doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000100009.5. Victora CG, Barros FC. Cohort profile: the 1982Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. Int J Epidemiol.2006;35(2:237-42.6. Armenian HK (editor. Applications of the case-controlmethod. Epidemiol Rev. 1994;16:1-164.7. Samet JM, Muñoz A. Evolution of the cohort study.Epidemiol Rev. 1998;20(1:1-14.8. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:909. Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM. Tipos de

  2. Perinatal depression in a cohort study on Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in their third trimester and followed up from the beginning of the study to 6- 8 weeks postpartum. At all, 2156 pregnant women completed the self report questionnaires but 258 were excluded because they were incomplete and final analysis was done with 1898 samples. At the final stage the sample size was decreased to 1291. Results: The prevalence of depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of Post Partum Depression (PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during preg-nancy was 20.1%. Results showed that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy, being housewife and having 3 or more children had significant relation with ante partum depression. Conclusions: Two main risk factors for post partum depression are previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy. It is important to assess these variables during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identifi-cation of women at risk.

  3. ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Hjern, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees. The study population consisted of all Swedish residents born in 1985-2000 with Swedish-born parents, divided into 16,134 adoptees, and a comparison population of 1,326,090. ADHD medications were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. The rates of ADHD medication were higher in international adoptees than in the comparison population for both boys (5.3 vs. 1.5% for 10-15-year olds) and girls (2.1 vs. 0.3% for 10-15-year olds). International adoptees from all regions of birth more often consumed ADHD medication compared with the majority population, but the age and sex adjusted odds ratios were particularly high for adoptees from Eastern Europe, Middle East/Africa and Latin America. Adjusting for maternal education and single parenthood increased the odds ratios even further. The risk also increased with higher age at adoption. Adoptees from Eastern Europe have a very high risk for ADHD medication. A structured identification and support programme should be tailored for this group. Adoptees from other regions have a more moderately increased risk, which should be communicated to adoptive parents and to professionals who care for adoptees in their clinical practice. PMID:19543791

  4. Late-stage diagnosis of HIV infection in Brazilian children: evidence from two national cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from two consecutive retrospective cohort samples (1983 to 1998 and 1999 to 2002 of Brazilian children with AIDS (N = 1,758 through mother-to-child-transmission. Late-stage diagnosis (CDC category C was investigated in relation to the following variables: year of birth, year of HIV diagnosis, and time periods related to changes in government treatment guidelines. Late-stage diagnosis occurred in 731 (41.6% of cases and was more prevalent in infants under 12 months of age. The rate of late-stage diagnosis decreased from 48% to 36% between the two periods studied. We also observed a reduction in the proportion of late-stage diagnoses and the time lapse between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation. A significant association was found between timely diagnosis and having been born in recent years (OR = 0.62; p = 0.009 and year of HIV diagnosis (OR = 0.72; p = 0.002/OR = 0.62; p < 0.001. Infants under the age of 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than older children (OR = 1.70; p = 0.004. Despite advances, there is a need to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs focused on improving early diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahrendorf Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher

  6. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  7. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098

  8. The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study: Study Design, Implementation of Fieldwork, and Use of Computer-Aided Survey System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fangfang; Guo, Fangcen; Zhou, Yue; He, Zhonghu; Tian, Xiuyun; Guo, Chuanhai; Ning, Tao; Pan, Yaqi; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been observed repeatedly in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. However, the causal relationship between HPV infection and the onset of ESCC remains unknown. A large cohort study focusing on this topic is being carried out in rural Anyang, China. Methodology/Principal Findings The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study (AECCS) is a population-based prospective endoscopic cohort study designed to investigate the association of HPV infecti...

  9. Opportunistic illnesses in Brazilian children with AIDS: results from two national cohort studies, 1983-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAART has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity in children. However, limited evidence is available from developing countries regarding patterns of opportunistic illnesses. We describe these events and their associated factors in children with AIDS in Brazil. Methods This study is based on two representative retrospective multi-center cohorts including a total 1,859 children with AIDS, infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, between 1983-2002. Opportunistic illnesses were described and analyzed over time. The association of demographic, clinical and operational data with the occurrence of opportunistic diseases was assessed. Results In total, 1,218 (65.5% had at least one event of an opportunistic disease. Variables significantly associated with occurrence of these events included: region of residence (OR 2.68-11.33, as compared to the Northern region, age Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (21.9 vs. 13.2%; p Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in recent years, opportunistic illnesses are still common in Brazilian children with AIDS in the HAART era, especially bacterial diseases. The data reinforce the need for scaling up prevention of MTCT, early diagnosis of infection, and improvement of comprehensive pediatric care.

  10. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordans Mark JD; Komproe Ivan H; Tol Wietse A; Ndayisaba Aline; Nisabwe Theodora; Kohrt Brandon A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Pa...

  11. Risk factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Aluisio

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan.A cohort of 1-11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007-2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models.3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82% completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40-3.62. Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35-0.39, P<0.001. Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69-0.91, p = 0.001, from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.92, p<0.001 and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, p = 0.006. Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.016 and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.37, p = 0.006 respectively].Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap availability and utilization suggests barriers to access and

  12. Sociodemographic factors and vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...

  13. Small bowel angiodysplasia and novel disease associations: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holleran, Grainne

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.

  14. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jonathan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.

  15. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staedke Sarah G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  16. Comorbid Depression and Heart Failure: A Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhautesh Dinesh Jani

    Full Text Available To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF in a community cohort.HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled "depressed". We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology. Area under the curve (AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors.425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males were included in the study; 179 (42.1% had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34-3.04 and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13-1.80 for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002 and 27% (p = 0.007 were reclassified correctly, respectively.Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression.

  17. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  18. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Design Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Setting Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. Participants 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). Methods A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. Results 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). Conclusions The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:25416499

  19. Early signs of ADHD in Toddlers: A follow-up study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemcke, Sanne; Thorlund Parner, Erik; Bjerrum, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Studies of the early signs characteristic of ADHD later on are sparse. The aim is to study whether prospectively collected information from mothers regarding deviations in their child’s development and behaviour during the first two years of life can predict the risk of...... National Patient Register. Thus, it is possible to identify children with ADHD in the DNBC and analyses of the information in DNBC will provide information about signs of ADHD before the age of two years. Results: The analyses are preliminary. In august 2010 the study cohort consisted of 76,441 children......; of which 681 children were diagnosed with ADHD at follow-up. Deviations reported by mothers when the child was 6 months did not show any associations to later ADHD diagnosis. Some deviations at 18 months of age reported especially in the language and motor field showed statistically significant...

  20. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  1. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K.; Forman, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at...

  2. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K.; Forman, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants: 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cance...

  3. Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shojaeizadeh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.

  4. DISTRESS AND PTSD IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER: COHORT STUDY CASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjic, Nurka; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ramic, Enisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: embarrassed emotional experience may affect the ability to oncology patient effectively cope with cancer, symptoms and treatment. Distress extends a long period, from common, normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems of PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation and the perception of spiritual crisis. The aim of the research is to determine the level of distress and PTSD in cancer patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, cohort study cases from 2011- 2014 were included patients with cancer who are treated under the supervision of his chosen family medicine doctor. Including a factor for the participation of patients in the study is that from the moment of diagnosis of malignant disease passed 14 days-6 months n=39 patients. To achieve the set goals of the research was used instruments of 3 questionnaires: Questionnaire on the clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease, demographic and individual characteristics; questionnaire distress oncology patient–hospital scales of depression and anxiety, HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) and a rapid test for self-assessment of the symptoms of PTSD. Results: Age of patients was 54.63 ± 11:46 years, and the age of the respondents when they were diagnosed with cancer 54.34 ± 11.26 years. The prevalence of distress was a high 76% 82x higher than expected), and PTSD 55%. Predictors of burnout syndrome in cancer patients are all important determinants of malignant disease: the time elapsed since the diagnosis of the disease which determines the clinical status of malignant disease (β=0.280; P=0.001; 95% CI, 0742-2259), discovered metastases (β=0.304; P=0.001; 95% CI -2621 to 0978) and treatments (β=0.160; P=0.031, 95% CI 0050 to 1.060). Conclusion: The problem of distress in cancer patients is widespread and has a high prevalence of 76% in our environment, while still absent intervention and treatment. PMID:27047260

  5. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  6. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissing Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood.

  7. Respiratory cancer in Danish bakers: a 10 year cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L.

    1986-01-01

    A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the S...

  8. 2004 update of dosimetry for the Utah Thyroid Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Hoffman, F Owen; Scholl, Alan E; Stone, Mary B; Thomas, Brian A; Lyon, Joseph L

    2006-02-01

    In the 1980s, individual thyroid doses and uncertainties were estimated for members of a cohort of children identified in 1965 in Utah and Nevada who had potentially been exposed to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. That reconstruction represented the first comprehensive assessment of doses received by the cohort and was the first large effort to assess the uncertainty of dose on an individual person basis. The data on dose and thyroid disease prevalence during different periods were subsequently used in an analysis to determine risks of radiogenic thyroid disease. This cohort has received periodic medical follow-up to observe changes in disease frequency and to reassess the previously reported radiation-related risks, most recently after a Congressional mandate in 1998. In a recent effort to restore the databases and computer codes used to estimate doses in the 1980s, various deficiencies were found in the estimated doses due to improperly operating computer codes, corruption of secondary data files, and lack of quality control procedures. From 2001 through 2004, the dosimetry system was restored and corrected and all doses were recalculated. In addition, two parameter values were updated. While the mean of all doses has not changed significantly, many individual doses have changed by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:16435919

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in rural Maharashtra, India (2008–09: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doke Prakash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was carried out to record adverse pregnancy outcomes and to obtain information about sex ratio at birth in rural especially tribal areas in the State of Maharashtra, India. Although the tribal population is considered vulnerable to innumerable adversities, regretfully information about pregnancy wastage among them is not available. About 10% population of the state is tribal. The study of sex ratio at birth was planned as the overall sex ratio and child sex ratio had declined in the state. Methods The cohort of antenatal cases registered in rural areas of Maharashtra in the calendar year 2008 was followed up to study the pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective study was carried out from October 2009 to August 2010. The outcomes of all the registered antenatal cases were recorded by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. The summary sheets were obtained by Block Medical Officers. The data was entered at the block level by trained data entry operators in specially designed web-based software. Adverse pregnancy outcome was categorized in two groups abortions and stillbirths. Results About 1.1 million registered pregnancies were followed up. In the state 5.34% registered pregnancies ended in abortions. In tribal PHCs the relative risk of spontaneous abortion and induced abortion was 0.91and 0.38 respectively. It was also revealed that about 1.55% pregnancies culminated in stillbirth. The relative risk of stillbirths in tribal PHCs was 1.33. The sex ratio at birth in the state was 850. The ratio was 883 in the tribal PHCs. Correlation was observed between sex ratio at birth and induced abortion rate. Conclusions The study indicates that women from tribal PHCs are exposed to higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in the form of stillbirths. In non-tribal areas high induced abortion rate and poor sex ratio at birth is observed. These two indicators are correlated. The correlation may be explained by the unscrupulous practice of sex

  10. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  11. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate

  12. HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Beijing: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongliang; Li, Shuming; Liu, Yingjie; Gao, Yanjie; Yu, Mingrun; Yang, Xueying; Li, Qingchun; Jiang, Shulin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Zhang, Zheng; Yan, Li; Jiang, Guiyan; Xiao, Dong; Pan, Stephen W.; Luo, Fengji

    2012-01-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Baseline and follow-up visits were conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Participants A cohort of 797 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from August to December 2009, with follow-up occurring after 6 and 12 m...

  13. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Anne M. J. Gilsing; Schouten, Leo J.; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Weijenberg, Matty P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), ...

  14. IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G David; Schoon, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood.Design Prospective cohort study in which IQ was assessed by tests of mental ability at age 10 years and vegetarianism by self-report at age 30 years.Setting Great Britain.Participants 8170 men and women aged 30 years participating in the 1970 British cohort study, a national birth cohort.Main outcome measures Self-reported vegetarianism and type of diet followed.Results 366 (4.5%) participants said they w...

  15. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; ,

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the...

  16. The Impact of the Thai Motorcycle Transition on Road Traffic Injury: Thai Cohort Study Results

    OpenAIRE

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; ,

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Design Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Setting Thailand. Participants The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with tw...

  17. The Nail as a Biomonitor of Trace Element Status in Golestan Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemian, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Khoshnia, Masoud; Brockman, John Douglas; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Abnet, Christian C.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the Golestan Cohort Study that was launched to investigate the causes of esophageal cancer, a complete biospecimen bank was established for storage of collected blood, urine, hair, and nail samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of nail samples as a biomarker of selected trace elements status. METHODS Thirty toenail samples were selected randomly from the participants of Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). The samples were cleaned and analyzed for selenium...

  18. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M. P. G.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Wannet, W. J. B.; Vinje, J.; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to december 1999. Cases and controls in the case-control study supplied a questionnaire and stool samples. The standardized gastroenteritis incidence was 283 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence rose w...

  19. Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin; ,

    2012-01-01

    Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnair...

  20. Contribution of problem drug users’ deaths to excess mortality in Scotland: secondary analysis of cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bloor, Michael; Gannon, Maria; Hay, Gordon; Jackson, Graham; Alastair H Leyland; McKeganey, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the “Scottish effect”—namely, the growing divergence between mortality in Scotland and England that is not explained by national differences in levels of deprivation—and, more specifically, to examine the extent to which the Scottish effect is explained by cross national differences in the prevalence of problem drug use. Design Secondary analysis of cohort study (the DORIS study). Participants 1033 Scottish drug users recruited to the cohort study in 33 drug treatment fa...

  1. Prevention and control of surgical site infections: review of the Basel Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Junker, Till; Mujagic, Edin; Hoffmann, Henry; Rosenthal, Rachel; Misteli, Heidi; Zwahlen, Marcel; Oertli, Daniel; Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Widmer, Andreas F; Marti, Walter R; Weber, Walter P

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients, with significant impact on patient morbidity and health care costs. The Basel SSI Cohort Study was performed to evaluate risk factors and validate current preventive measures for SSI. The objective of the present article was to review the main results of this study and its implications for clinical practice and future research. SUMMARY OF METHODS OF THE BASEL SSI COHORT STUDY...

  2. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  3. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

  4. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of congestive heart failure: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF).We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m).The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.62, P pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group.Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27336897

  5. The Groningen assisted reproductive technologies cohort study : developmental status and behavior at 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Middelburg, Karin J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether children's cognitive and psychomotor development and behavior at 2 years are affected by ovarian hyperstimulation and the IVF laboratory procedures or subfertility. Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting: University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherl

  6. Breast bud detection: a validation study in the Chilean Growth Obesity Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, María Luisa; González, Daniela; Kain, Juliana; Mericq, Verónica; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background Early puberty onset has been related to future chronic disease; however breast bud assessment in large scale population studies is difficult because it requires trained personnel. Thus our aim is to assess the validity of self and maternal breast bud detection, considering girl’s body mass index (BMI) and maternal education. Methods In 2010, 481 girls (mean age = 7.8) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated by a nutritionist trained in breast bud detection. ...

  7. Birth cohort differences in physical functioning levels among elderly Brazilians: findings from the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging (1997-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, C. M.; M.F. Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cohort differences in physical functioning levels among the older (cohort members born in 1916-1926 and in 1927-1937) participants of the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging. The data came from participants aged 71-81 who took part at baseline in 1997 (n = 491) and in the 11th wave in 2008 (n = 620). The physical functioning variables included the following self-reported measures: activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living and...

  8. Exercise before and during pregnancy and reproductive outcomes: a population based cohort study - the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Owe, Katrine Mari

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is an important component of a healthy pregnancy due to its potential beneficial effects on both maternal and fetal health such as reduced risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia, urinary incontinence and reduced postpartum depression. Consequently, current guidelines for exercise during pregnancy are now proactive and recommend both strength-conditioning exercises in addition to aerobic exercis...

  9. Contribution of cohort studies in the analysis of oral health in children and adolescents in Sobral, Ceará.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Luiz Roberto Augusto; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the oral health status of the child population in a northeastern Brazilian municipality as a strategy to carry out subsequent longitudinal studies to investigate the main determinants of oral diseases in the specific age groups of teenagers and young adults. Epidemiological investigations and interviews were conducted in households by research teams. In the first study, a DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score of 1.66 was found for 9-year-olds; although only 23% children aged between 5 and 6 years were caries-free, 32.7% had gingival bleeding and 9.5% were diagnosed with severe malocclusion problems. The second wave of the cohort indicated that the incidence of caries increased progressively according to age, from 1.60 in 12-year-old adolescents to 2.28 in those aged 15. Toothache in the past 6 months, maternal income and school meals, adjusted for the perception of need for treatment, maternal education, and dental visit at least once were the variables associated with high incidence of dental caries. Data collection for the third wave of the cohort is currently underway. Socioeconomic factors and access to health services were associated with the incidence of caries. PMID:26247194

  10. Contribution of cohort studies in the analysis of oral health in children and adolescents in Sobral, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Augusto Noro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the oral health status of the child population in a northeastern Brazilian municipality as a strategy to carry out subsequent longitudinal studies to investigate the main determinants of oral diseases in the specific age groups of teenagers and young adults. Epidemiological investigations and interviews were conducted in households by research teams. In the first study, a DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth score of 1.66 was found for 9-year-olds; although only 23% children aged between 5 and 6 years were caries-free, 32.7% had gingival bleeding and 9.5% were diagnosed with severe malocclusion problems. The second wave of the cohort indicated that the incidence of caries increased progressively according to age, from 1.60 in 12-year-old adolescents to 2.28 in those aged 15. Toothache in the past 6 months, maternal income and school meals, adjusted for the perception of need for treatment, maternal education, and dental visit at least once were the variables associated with high incidence of dental caries. Data collection for the third wave of the cohort is currently underway. Socioeconomic factors and access to health services were associated with the incidence of caries.

  11. Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamre, Harald J.; Anja Glockmann; Michael Fischer; Riley, David S.; Erik Baars; Helmut Kiene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections.Methods: A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged 1 month, treated ...

  12. Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Petry Andrea; de Souza Denise ER; Kupek Emil

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matchi...

  13. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M

    1990-01-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared wi...

  14. Comanagement of Geriatric Patients With Hip Fractures: A Retrospective, Controlled, Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rocca, Gregory J. Della; Moylan, Kyle C.; Crist, Brett D.; Volgas, David A.; Stannard, James P.; Mehr, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 3-year retrospective, controlled, cohort study is to characterize an interdisciplinary method of managing geriatric patients with hip fracture. All patients aged 65 years or older admitted to a single academic level I trauma center during a 3-year period with an isolated hip fracture were included as participants for this study. Thirty-one geriatric patients with hip fracture were treated with historical methods of care (cohort 1). The comparison group of 115 similar pat...

  15. Tuberculosis in pediatric patients treated with anti-TNFα drugs: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada-Hernández, Joan; Anton-López, Jordi; Bou-Torrent, Rosa; Iglesias-Jiménez, Estíbaliz; Ricart-Campos, Sílvia; Martín de Carpi, Javier; ,; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Sánchez-Manubens, Judith; Giménez-Roca, Clara; Rozas-Quesada, Librada; Juncosa-Morros, Maria Teresa; Fortuny, Clàudia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background Adult patients receiving anti-TNFα drugs are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB), but studies in pediatric populations are limited, and the best strategy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening in this population remains controversial. We describe the prevalence of LTBI prior to anti-TNFα therapy and the long-term follow-up after biological treatment initiation in a cohort of children and adolescents. Methods Cohort observational study in children and adolescents rece...

  16. Obstetric Outcomes in Chinese Women with Endometriosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lin; Jin-Hua Leng; Jun-Tao Liu; Jing-He Lang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of endometriosis on obstetric outcomes is still ambiguous. The aim of our study was to determine the association between endometriosis and adverse obstetric outcomes in a cohort of Chinese women. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to compare obstetric outcomes between 249 women with endometriosis and 249 women without endometriosis. All women were nulliparous and achieved singleton pregnancies naturally. Women with endometriosis were diagnosed duri...

  17. Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk : A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D. J.; Spiegelman, D; Anderson, K. E.; Buring, J. E.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Harnack, L.; Hankinson, S E; Larsson, S C; Leitzmann, M; McCullough, M.L.; Marshall, J.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 5...

  18. Association between dietary and beverage consumption patterns in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Villegas, A.; E. Toledo; Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Martin-Moreno, J.M. (J.M.); Tortosa, A.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Angel)

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary patterns of a Mediterranean cohort and relate them to the observed patterns of beverage consumption. Design: Prospective cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed with a semiquantitative FFQ validated in Spain. A principal components factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and to classify subjects according to their adherence to these patterns. The association between adherence to each dietar...

  19. Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallal, P. C.; Wells, J. C.; Reichert, F. F.; Anselmi, L; Victora, C G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING: Pelotas, southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 4453 adolescents aged 10-12 years participating in the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study (follow-up rate 87.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sedentary lifestyle (< 300 minutes of physical activity per week) and median physical activity score (minutes per week). RESULTS: The prevalence...

  20. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...

  1. A general semiparametric Z-estimation approach for case-cohort studies

    CERN Document Server

    Nan, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Case-cohort design, an outcome-dependent sampling design for censored survival data, is increasingly used in biomedical research. The development of asymptotic theory for a case-cohort design in the current literature primarily relies on counting process stochastic integrals. Such an approach, however, is rather limited and lacks theoretical justification for outcome-dependent weighted methods due to non-predictability. Instead of stochastic integrals, we derive asymptotic properties for case-cohort studies based on a general Z-estimation theory for semiparametric models with bundled parameters using modern empirical processes. Both the Cox model and the additive hazards model with time-dependent covariates are considered.

  2. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  3. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordans Mark JD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452 and never-recruited peers (N=191 who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06; immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07; and at present (T3; 2010. Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.

  4. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in...... the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  5. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  6. Cohort Profile: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, A; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Tilling, K; Boyd, A.; J. Golding; Davey Smith, G.; Henderson, J.; Macleod, J; Molloy, L.; Ness, A; Ring, S.; Nelson, S M; D.A. Lawlor

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13 761 women (contributing 13 867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years...

  7. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Alex Nogueira; Gaio, Eduardo José; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rios, Fernando Silva; Costa, Ricardo dos Santos Araujo; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Albandar, Jasim; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26083520

  8. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nogueira Haas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Parental factors associated with walking to school and participation in organised activities at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Sarah E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with better health. Two sources of activity for children are walking to school and taking part in organised sports and activities. This study uses a large national cohort to examine factors associated with participation in these activities. Methods The Millennium Cohort study contains 5 year follow-up of 17,561 singleton children recruited between 2000-2002 in the UK. All participants were interviewed in their own homes at 9 months, 3 years and 5 years follow-up and all measures were self reports. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used. Results Children are less likely to walk to school as income and parental education increase [Adjusted odds: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6-0.8 for higher income/education compared to low income/no qualifications]. However, if the parent plays with the child in high income families the child is more likely to walk to school [Adjusted odds: 1.67 (95%CI: 1.3-2.1]. Children taking part in organised activities are from higher income, higher education families, with a car, in a "good" area with non-working mothers. However, in low socio-economic families where the parent plays with the child the child is more likely to take part in organised activities [Adjusted odds: 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.7]. Conclusions Income is an important determinant of the type of activity available to children. Families that report good health behaviours (non-smoking, low TV viewing and play with their children show higher levels of physical activity. Thus, parenting practice appears to have a strong impact on their child's physical activity.

  10. The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A New Audiotaped Measure of Maternal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5?years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure--called the Maternal…

  11. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year observations).…

  12. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  13. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required, was executed after the birth of the child; (5) The child, as appropriate in light of his or her... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in... for Convention Accreditation and Approval Standards for Cases in Which A Child Is Emigrating from...

  14. Cesarean delivery on maternal request and childhood intelligence: a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-tian; YE Rong-wei; PEI Li-jun; REN Ai-guo; ZHENG Xiao-ying; LIU Jian-meng

    2011-01-01

    Background Cesarean section births have been steadily increasing over the past decade and have become an epidemic in China.Cesarean delivery on maternal request is a major contributor to this upward trend,and there has been of much concern about its impact on maternal and child health.Most of mothers believe that cesarean delivery on maternal request can improve the child's intelligence,but direct evidence is sparse.In this cohort study,we aimed to directly assess the impact of cesarean delivery on maternal request on childhood intelligence.Methods Intelligence quotient (IQ) of 4144 preschool children from 21 cities/counties of Zhejiang and Jiangsu province whose mothers were registered in a population-based perinatal surveillance program during 1993-1996 was assessed with Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence (C-WYCSI) in 2000.The outcomes were full-scale IQ,verbal IQ,and performance IQ of C-WYCSI.Mode of delivery and covariates were obtained from the surveillance program.We estimated unadjusted and adjusted effects of cesarean delivery on maternal request and assisted vaginal delivery on IQ scores compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery using regression analysis.Results The mean full-scale,verbal,and performance IQ for all children was 99.3±16.1,93.6±17.7,and 105.3±14.3.In crude analysis,cesarean delivery on maternal request versus spontaneous vaginal delivery was associated with an increase of 3.9 (95% confidence interval,0.6 to 7.2) points in full-scale IQ,4.8 (1.2 to 8.4) points in verbal IQ,and 2.4(-0.6 to 5.3) points in performance IQ.After adjusting for maternal education,occupation,and IQ,the advantage was reduced to 1.6 (-1.3 to 4.5),2.3 (-0.8 to 5.5),and 0.6 (-2.0 to 3.3) points for full-scale,verbal,and performance IQ,respectively.Assisted vaginal delivery versus spontaneous vaginal delivery was not associated with IQ scores in any analysis.Conclusion Neither cesarean delivery on maternal request nor assisted vaginal delivery

  15. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; MacKay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims: Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ a...

  16. Academic achievement of twins and singletons in early adulthood: Taiwanese cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsou, Meng-Ting; Tsou, Meng-Wen; Wu, Ming-Ping; Liu, Jin-Tan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long term effects of low birth weight on academic achievements in twins and singletons and to determine whether the academic achievement of twins in early adulthood is inferior to that of singletons. Design Cohort study. Setting Taiwanese nationwide register of academic outcome. Participants A cohort of 218 972 singletons and 1687 twins born in Taiwan, 1983-5. Main outcome measure College attendance and test scores in the college joint entrance examinations. Results ...

  17. Predicting reading and spelling disorders: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the ch...

  18. The impact of universal newborn hearing screening on longterm literacy outcomes: A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pimperton, H; Blythe, H.; Kreppner, J.; Mahon, H. M.; Stevenson, J.; Terletski, E.; Worsfold, S.; Yuen, H M; Kennedy, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the benefits of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) seen at age 8 years persist through the second decade. Design: Prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) followed up for 17 years since birth in periods with (or without) UNHS. Setting: Birth cohort of 100 000 in southern England. Participants: 114 teenagers aged 13–19 years, 76 with PCHI and 38 with normal hearing. All had previously ...

  19. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  20. Prepregnancy diabetes and offspring risk of congenital heart disease - A nationwide cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars J.; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Boyd, Heather A.; Priest, James; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Quertermous, Thomas; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Background—Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods and Results—In a national cohort study, we identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes melli...

  1. Vitamin D status and TB treatment outcomes in adult patients in Tanzania: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Saurabh; Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Aboud, Said; Urassa, Willy; Villamor, Eduardo; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin D is an immunomodulator and can alter response to tuberculosis (TB) treatment, though randomised trials have been inconclusive to date. We present one of the first comprehensive analysis of the associations between vitamin D status and TB treatment, T-cell counts and nutritional outcomes by HIV status. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Outpatient clinics in Tanzania. Participants: 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were assessed in a cohort of 677 patients with TB (344 HIV infected) ...

  2. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  3. Communication Impairments in Early Term and Late Preterm Children: A Prospective Cohort Study following Children to Age 36 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk of communication impairments at age 18 and 36 months in children born early term (gestational weeks 37-38) and late preterm (gestational weeks 34-36). STUDY DESIGN A total of 39 423 children and their mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample included 7109 children (18%) born early term and 1673 (4.2%) born late preterm. Information on gestational age and prenatal and postnatal risk factors was obtained from the Medica...

  4. Integration of antiretroviral therapy services into antenatal care increases treatment initiation during pregnancy: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stinson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT. The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using routinely collected clinic data. Three models for ART initiation in pregnancy were evaluated ART 'integrated' into ANC, ART located 'proximal' to ANC, and ART located some distance away from ANC ('distal'. Kaplan-Meier methods and Poisson regression were used to examine the association between service delivery model and antenatal ART initiation. RESULTS: Among 14 617 women seeking antenatal care in the three services, 30% were HIV-infected and 17% were eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count <200 cells/µL. A higher proportion of women started ART antenatally in the integrated model compared to the proximal or distal models (55% vs 38% vs 45%, respectively, global p = 0.003. After adjusting for age and gestation at first ANC visit, women who at the integrated service were significantly more likely to initiate ART antenatally (rate ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.64 compared to women attending the distal model; there was no difference between the proximal and distal models in antenatal ART initiation however (p = 0.704. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of ART initiation into ANC is associated with higher levels of ART initiation in pregnancy. This and other forms of service integration may represent a valuable intervention to enhance PMTCT and maternal health.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%, “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%, “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%, “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%, “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%, and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%. The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08. These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  6. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; He, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xue-Ling; Lu, Jin-Hua; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wen, Xing-Xuan; Chan, Fan-Fan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Qiu, Lan; Mai, Wei-Bi; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" (n 1026, 14.8%), "Dairy" (n 1020, 14.7%), "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" (n 799, 11.5%), "Meats" (n 1066, 15.3%), "Vegetables" (n 1383, 19.9%), and "Varied" (n 1224, 17.6%). The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" and "Varied" groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group. Compared with women in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group, those in the "Varied" group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby. PMID:27136584

  7. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  8. Exposure to partner violence and child behavior problems: a prospective study controlling for child physical abuse and neglect, child cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tuppett M; Dodds, Michele F; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2003-01-01

    Previous research suggests an association between partner violence and child behavior problems. However, methodological shortcomings have precluded the formation of directional conclusions. These limitations include failure to control for the effects of child physical abuse and general life stress, employment of nonrepresentative samples from battered women's shelters, and reliance on a single contemporaneous reporter, usually the mother, for information on both independent and dependent measures. This study used prospective, longitudinal data (N = 155) and multiple informants to examine the relation between maternal reports of partner violence in the homeand teacher- and youth-report ratings of concurrent and prospective child behavior problems. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to control for the effects of child physical abuse, child physical neglect, socioeconomic status, child cognitive ability, and life stress. The contribution of partner violence to child behavior problems was confirmed for boys' (n = 81) externalizing problems and girls' (n = 74) internalizing problems. Child developmental status at the time of exposure further influenced these relations. For boys, behavior problems in middle childhood were most strongly related to contemporaneous partner violence, whereas behavior problems among both boys and girls at age 16 were most strongly related to partner violence exposure during the preschool years. PMID:12848442

  9. Child Labor Variation by Type of Respondent: Evidence from a Large-Scale Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dammert, Ana C.; Galdo, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a nationally representative survey to analyze a key survey design decision in child labor measurement: self-reporting versus proxy interviewing. The child/proxy disagreement affects 20 percent of the sample, which translates into a 17.1 percentage point difference in the national rate of child labor by type of respondent. As a result, marginal effects from standard child labor supply functions show important child/proxy differences, particularly when the household experienced ...

  10. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  11. Fetal alcohol exposure and IQ at age 8: evidence from a population-based birth-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Lewis

    Full Text Available Observational studies have generated conflicting evidence on the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring cognition mainly reflecting problems of confounding. Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother's intake but also by genetic variants carried by both the mother and the fetus. Associations between children's cognitive function and both maternal and child genotype at these loci can shed light on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on offspring cognitive development.We used a large population based study of women recruited during pregnancy to determine whether genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in this cohort of women and their children were related to the child's cognitive score (measured by the Weschler Intelligence Scale at age 8.We found that four genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in 4167 children were strongly related to lower IQ at age 8, as was a risk allele score based on these 4 variants. This effect was only seen amongst the offspring of mothers who were moderate drinkers (1-6 units alcohol per week during pregnancy (per allele effect estimates were -1.80 (95% CI= -2.63 to -0.97 p=0.00002, with no effect among children whose mothers abstained during pregnancy (0.16 (95%CI= -1.05 to 1.36 p=0.80, p-value for interaction  =0.009. A further genetic variant associated with alcohol metabolism in mothers was associated with their child's IQ, but again only among mothers who drank during pregnancy.

  12. Applying Ragin's Crisp and Fuzzy Set QCA to Large Datasets: Social Class and Educational Achievement in the National Child Development Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Cooper

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the use of Charles Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in both its crisp and fuzzy set versions in the study of the relations between social class origin, sex, 'ability' and subsequent educational achievement. The work reported is part of a larger ongoing project which is employing QCA to compare these relations within two birth cohorts. Here data are used from the British National Child Development Study, i.e. from children born in 1958. The paper has a methodol...

  13. Determinants of (sustained overweight and complaints in children and adolescents in primary care: the DOERAK cohort study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis Winifred D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of the adult Dutch population is currently overweight and the prevalence of overweight children is rising at alarming rates as well. Obese children consult their general practitioner (GP more often than normal weight children. The Dutch government has assigned a key role to the GP in the prevention of overweight. The DOERAK cohort study aims to clarify differences between overweight and non-overweight children that consult the GP; are there differences in number of consultations and type and course of complaints? Is overweight associated with lower quality of life or might this be influenced by the type of complaint? What is the activity level of overweight children compared to non-overweight children? And is (sustained overweight of children associated with parameters related to the energy balance equation? Methods/Design A total of 2000 overweight (n = 500 and non-overweight children (n = 1500 aged 2 to 18 years who consult their GP, for any type of complaint in the South-West of the Netherlands are included. At baseline, height, weight and waist circumference are measured during consultation. The number of GP consultations over the last twelve months and accompanying diagnoses are acquired from the medical file. Complaints, quality of life and parameters related to the energy balance equation are assessed with an online questionnaire children or parents fill out at home. Additionally, children or parents keep a physical activity diary during the baseline week, which is validated in a subsample (n = 100 with an activity monitor. Parents fill out a questionnaire about demographics, their own activity behaviour and perceptions on dietary habits and activity behaviour, health and weight status of their child. The physical and lifestyle behaviour questions are repeated at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The present study is a prospective observational cohort in a primary care setting. Discussion The

  14. Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand

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    Chokkanapitak Jaruwan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774. The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out, 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team.

  15. Study protocol: the JEU cohort study – transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; . .; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolut...

  16. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  17. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  18. Increased Risk of Acute Kidney Injury following Pneumococcal Pneumonia: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pneumococcal disease leads to renal complications ranging from persistent proteinuria to end-stage renal disease. Studies on the association between pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are scant. This study assessed the relationship between PP and risk of AKI. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study examined data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2011. We identified inpatients with newly diagnosed PP according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. In addition, we selected a comparison cohort from inpatient claims without the diagnosis of PP that was randomly frequency-matched with the PP cohort according to age, sex, index year and comorbidities. We analyzed the risks of AKI by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results A total of 10,069 patients with PP and 10,069 controls were enrolled in this study. After adjustments for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with PP had a 1.11-fold risk of developing AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Conclusion This study indicates that AKI risks are higher in patients with PP compared with the comparison cohort. Careful follow-up observation and aggressive treatment are necessary for patients with PP to reduce the risk of AKI. PMID:27362355

  19. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI development. Methods Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026 and 7 (N = 1819. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation, and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Results Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these

  20. Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

  1. For-Profit/Nonprofit Differences in Center-Based Child Care Quality: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…

  2. Locoregional first recurrence after mastectomy: prospective cohort studies with and without immediate chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the impact of combination chemotherapy in the combined modality treatment of isolated first locoregional recurrence (LRR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1989, 120 chemotherapy-naive women with isolated LRR as first failure after mastectomy were prospectively identified, uniformly staged, and systematically followed. Treatment consisted of excision if feasible, radical locoregional radiotherapy, and a hormonal maneuver (unless estrogen receptor negative). The initial chemotherapy cohort also received 8 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. This was compared to a subsequent control cohort. Results: For all patients, the 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival ± 95% confidence interval was 42.1 ± 9.2%, and overall survival was 56.8 ± 9.1%. No difference was seen in locoregional control between cohorts. At 5 years, distant recurrence-free survival for chemotherapy and control cohort respectively was 75.4 ± 10.8% and 60.7 ±12.5% (p = 0.33) and overall survival was 81.9% ± 9.6 and 74.3% ± 11.2 (p = 0.24). Univariate analysis showed no prognostic importance for any imbalance between cohorts. Cox modeling confirmed that complete resection was strongly associated with fewer LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.32, p = 0.001) and also with better overall survival (HR 1.82, p = 0.019). Chemotherapy produced a substantial reduction in risk of death (HR 0.72 CI 0.421-1.235, p = 0.23). Conclusions: In this prospective but nonrandomized study of treatment for first LRR, the risk of death in the later control cohort was 1.39 times the risk in the chemotherapy cohort but failed to reach statistical significance. The results justify further study

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Lung Cancer in Korean Men: The Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Lee, Moo-Song; Shin, Myung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Li, Zhong-Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate lung cancer risk of cigarette smoking in Korean men by a 10-yr follow-up prospective cohort study using the primary databases. The number of subjects was 14,272 men, who had full information of smoking habits among participants in the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study (SMCC). Total 125,053 person-years were calculated by determining the number of days from the start of follow-up, January 1, 1993, un...

  4. Maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum and emotional/behavioural difficulties in children: results from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Mensah, Fiona; Giallo, Rebecca; Brown, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on women's mental health in the perinatal period and the subsequent impacts on children. Comparatively, we know much less about maternal depression at later time points and the potential implications for child mental health. The objective of this paper was to explore the association between maternal depression and child emotional/behavioural difficulties at 4 years postpartum, taking into account earlier episodes of perinatal depression. The Maternal Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,507 nulliparous women. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in early pregnancy and at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum and again at 4 years postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum were associated with significantly increased odds of child emotional/behavioural difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 3.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.21-5.43). This remained significant after adjusting for earlier episodes of perinatal depression and socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 2.07, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.63). We also observed a robust association between child difficulties at age 4 and measures of socio-economic disadvantage. Our findings suggest a pressing need to rethink current paradigms of maternal health surveillance and extend mental health surveillance and support to at least 4 years postpartum. PMID:26271281

  5. Salt intake, cured meat consumption, refrigerator use and stomach cancer incidence: A prospective cohort study (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Many case-control studies have reported that salt and cured meat intake are positively, and refrigerator use is inversely, associated with stomach cancer risk. In the current prospective study these associations were evaluated. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study consisted of 120,852 me

  6. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  7. COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing results in cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for potential child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Clingenpeel, Rachel; Sellars, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xinyu; Kaylor, Julie A; Bosanko, Katherine; Linam, Leann E; Byers, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Child abuse is a major public health concern that can explain a proportion of fractures in children. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common inherited syndrome that predisposes to skeletal fractures. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from clinical, laboratory, and radiographic information from children evaluated for child abuse in which molecular testing for COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes was conducted. A total of 43 patients underwent molecular testing for OI. Pathogenic variants predicted to result in a mild form of OI were found in two patients (5%), both clinically suspected to have this diagnosis. None of the cases in whom OI molecular testing was ordered when maltreatment concerns were thought to be more likely (0/35) were identified to have pathogenic variants. After reviewing each individual case, the final diagnosis was child abuse for 34 cases (77%), and additional radiographic and laboratory studies did not identify any with inherited metabolic predisposition to fracture or rickets. We conclude that routine testing for OI in the setting of child abuse when no other suggestive clinical findings are present has a low yield. A careful review of the medical history and a detailed clinical evaluation help identify those at risk for genetic alterations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090748

  8. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. CONCLUSIONS: Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  9. Tracing the long-term legacy of childhood lead exposure: a review of three decades of the port Pirie cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia K; Baghurst, Peter A; van Hooff, Miranda; Sawyer, Michael G; Sim, Malcolm R; Galletly, Cherrie; Clark, Levina S; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2014-07-01

    Several prospective cohort studies have demonstrated that childhood lead levels show small but statistically significant adjusted associations with subsequent development in later childhood and adolescence. The Port Pirie Cohort study is one of the few prospective cohort studies to follow participants into adulthood. This paper reviews all childhood and adulthood findings of the Port Pirie Cohort study to date. Cohort members (initially, 723 infants born in/around the lead-smelting town of Port Pirie) showed a wide range of childhood blood lead levels, which peaked around 2 years old (M=21.3μg/dL, SD=1.2). At all childhood assessments, postnatal lead levels - particularly those reflecting cumulative exposure - showed small significant associations with outcomes including cognitive development, IQ, and mental health problems. While associations were substantially attenuated after adjusting for several childhood covariates, many remained statistically significant. Furthermore, average childhood blood lead showed small significant associations with some adult mental health problems for females, including anxiety problems and phobia, though associations only approached significance following covariate adjustment. Overall, there did not appear to be any age of greatest vulnerability or threshold of effect, and at all ages, females appeared more susceptible to lead-associated deficits. Together, these findings suggest that the associations between early childhood lead exposure and subsequent developmental outcomes may persist. However, as the magnitude of these effects was small, they are not discernible at the individual level, posing more of a population health concern. It appears that the combination of multiple early childhood factors best predicts later development. As such, minimising lead exposure in combination with improving other important early childhood factors such as parent-child interactions may be the best way to improve developmental outcomes. PMID

  10. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  11. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  12. Nurse competence between three generational nurse cohorts: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meretoja, Riitta; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates significant differences between nurse cohorts in many work-related factors. This study compared nurse competence between three generational cohorts comprising the current nursing workforce. The Nurse Competence Scale was used to collect data for this cross-sectional study from 2052 nurses in a university hospital in Finland. Data were analysed statistically. Significant differences were found between nurse cohorts in their competence. The length of work experience had a significant impact on the development of competence. The oldest cohort, with the longest work experience, had the highest competence scores (70.1 on a visual analogue scale), and the youngest had the lowest (59.0). All cohorts were most competent in patient-related nursing tasks, in maintenance of professional competence and in ethical care. Nurses were weakest in the development of nursing practice and the use of evidence-based knowledge. Targeted interventions in teaching-coaching for different nurse generations are needed to ensure the maintenance of nurse competence and high-quality patient care. PMID:24689751

  13. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Joshi; Dylan Kneale

    2008-01-01

    This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of pos...

  14. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchôa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937) among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492) and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620). The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively) and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, ...

  15. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Gislason, G H; Charlot, M;

    2011-01-01

    Southern Denmark, Copenhagen; Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02310.x. Objective. The...... magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged =18 years followed from...

  16. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36 years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n = 837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR ≥ 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR

  17. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and...... Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours...

  18. Ethnic minority populations and child psychiatry services: An Irish study

    OpenAIRE

    SKOKAUSKAS, NORBERTAS

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background Ethnically, Ireland has diversified greatly over the last twelve years changing from a country of emigration to one of immigration. Blanchardstown, a western suburb of Dublin, is one of the most ethnically diverse areas, with the youngest population in Ireland. Aims and methods This study aimed to examine any differences in referrals, clinical diagnoses and administrative outcomes of immigrants and Irish children referred to Blanchardstown Child and Adolescent...

  19. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-08-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:24165457

  20. The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality rates (IMR remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150 in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143. Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88. Infections (35% and preterm births complications (23% were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.

  1. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the long-term mortality and the causes of death in patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis. The authors performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study including all Danish patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis from 1977 through ...

  2. No certain predictors for mutation status in a Danish cohort with familial hypercholesterolemia: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Brusgaard, Klaus; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to enable clinicians to refer the right persons suspected of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) for mutation screening, a retrospective study was conducted in a Danish FH cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study comprised 643 probands and 395 relatives, of which 421 individuals h...

  3. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an instrume

  4. K-ras oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Pachen, M.M.M.; Smits, K.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2003-01-01

    Activation of K-ras oncogene has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis, being mutated in 30-60% of the adenocarcinomas. In this study, 737 incident colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, originating from 120 852 men and women (55-69 years at baseline) participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study

  5. A Birth Cohort Study: Conceptual and Design Considerations and Rationale. Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Richter, Kerry; Halle, Tamara; Le Menestrel, Suzanne; Zaslow, Martha; Greene, Angela Dungee; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela; Bridges, Lisa

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 2000 (ECLS-B) is a study that will assess children's health status and their growth and development in domains that are critical for later school readiness and academic achievement. This paper is one of several that have been prepared in support of ECLS-B design efforts. It is anticipated that…

  6. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp

  7. Role of students’ context in predicting academic performance at a medical school: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) regi...

  8. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY OF POPULATION LIVING AROUND THE SEMIPALATINSK NUCLEAR TEST SITE

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUNUSSOVA T.; Grosche, B; Apsalikov, K.; BELIKHINA T.; Pivina, L.; Muldagaliev, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the possibilities of prospective cohort study of health status in the radiation exposed population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. It was substantiated the necessity of international cooperation of scientists from Kazakhstan, Europe, Japan and the United States for long-term study of radiation effects for the people and the environment.

  9. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin

  10. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  11. Susceptibility to deterioration of mobility long-term after stroke: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, I.G. van de; Kwakkel, G.; Wijk, I. van; Lindeman, E.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to identify clinical determinants able to predict which individuals are susceptible to deterioration of mobility from 1 to 3 years after stroke. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of stroke patients consecutively admitted for inpatient rehabili

  12. Predictive factors of postpartum fatigue: a prospective cohort study among working women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using sel

  13. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  14. Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

  15. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  16. Vibrotactile stimulation: case study with a profoundly deaf child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, A E

    1986-01-01

    This case study reports results obtained from a young, profoundly deaf child, M, who was fitted with a single-channel vibrotactile device, the Tactaid I, at 29 months of age. Her progress in speech and language development was evaluated over a 14-month period. During this period, M learned to understand 101 words through lipreading and the Tactaid I, and to produce consistent approximations of 90 words. Her scores on language tests with hearing-impaired norms progressed from below average to above average for her age. M's scores on language tests with hearing norms also reflected significant progress, although she did not achieve normal language development. These results indicate that a single-channel vibrotactile aid may facilitate the acquisition of spoken language in a profoundly deaf child who is unable to benefit from a conventional hearing aid. PMID:3958992

  17. Childhood facing technological development: a study on child social representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Bona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research that led to this study aimed to understand the meaning attributed to childhood in a world fulfilled by information technologies, especially the digital ones. The article proposes the analysis of social representations shared by children 200 teachers from public schools in Recife-PE, in order to understand the social meaning of the word child, propagated and used as reference system to guide people in their relationships with this group of people. The data collection instruments used was tests of free association. W ith the support of Trideux software and the Content Analysis, the analyzes of associations were done. The results show some aspects that seem to perpetuate themselves in relation to definition of a child, such as playing, going to school and have good feelings. In relation to technology is evidenced playful dimension of these resources and training.

  18. Longitudinal associations between physical load and chronic low back pain in the general population: the Doetichem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, S.H.; Verschuren, M.; Vet, de H.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Picavet, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. We explored long-term associations between physical load exposure and chronic low back pain (LBP) using data from an ongoing population-based cohort study. Summary of Background Data. Physical load in work or daily life is often studied in relation

  19. Phonological acquisition of a Korean child: An acoustic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Ah

    2005-09-01

    Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.

  20. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio...

  1. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241...

  2. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  3. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  4. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  5. The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsing, Anne MJ; Weijenberg, Matty P.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Schouten, Leo J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirme...

  6. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  7. Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2007-01-01

    We performed a survival analysis to assess the effect of meat consumption and meat type on the risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Between 1995 and 1998 a cohort of 35 372 women was recruited, aged between 35 and 69 years with a wide range of dietary intakes, assessed by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. High consumption of total meat compared with none was associated with premenop...

  8. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; R. A. Goldbohm

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer ...

  9. Risk of developing diabetes is inversely related to lung function: a population-based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Gunnar; Janzon, Lars

    2002-01-01

    AimTo investigate whether reduced lung function is a risk factor for developing diabetes. MethodsNon-diabetic men (n = 382) from the population-based cohort 'Men Born in 1914' were examined with spirometry at age 55 years. The cohort was re-examined at 68 years. Diabetes and fasting plasma glucose at follow-up were studied in relation to vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) at baseline. ResultsFifteen men developed diabetes during the follow-up. The ...

  10. Incidence of asthma and mortality in a cohort of young adults: a 7-year prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Bugianio Massimilian; Cazzoletti Lucia; Locatelli Francesca; Marco Roberto; Carosso Aurelia; Marinoni Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Few longitudinal data exist on the incidence of asthma in young adults and on the overall mortality risk due to asthma. A 7-year follow-up prospective study was performed to assess the incidence of asthma and mortality from all causes in a cohort of young adults. Methods The life status of a cohort of 6031 subjects, aged 20–44 years, who replied to a respiratory screening questionnaire between 1991 and 1992, was ascertained in 1999. A new questionnaire investigating the hi...

  11. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brants, H.A.M.; van Klaveren, J.D.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (1688 men and 1812 ...

  12. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bliddal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R. RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03. After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07, which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04. CONCLUSION: Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  13. Mortality Prediction after the First Year of Kidney Transplantation: An Observational Study on Two European Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Marine; Giral, Magali; Pascual, Manuel; Koller, Michael T.; Steiger, Jürg; Trébern-Launay, Katy; Legendre, Christophe; Kreis, Henri; Mourad, Georges; Garrigue, Valérie; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Kessler, Michèle; Ladrière, Marc; Morelon, Emmanuel; Buron, Fanny; Golshayan, Dela; Foucher, Yohann

    2016-01-01

    After the first year post transplantation, prognostic mortality scores in kidney transplant recipients can be useful for personalizing medical management. We developed a new prognostic score based on 5 parameters and computable at 1-year post transplantation. The outcome was the time between the first anniversary of the transplantation and the patient’s death with a functioning graft. Afterwards, we appraised the prognostic capacities of this score by estimating time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves from two prospective and multicentric European cohorts: the DIVAT (Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2000 and 2012 in 6 French centers; and the STCS (Swiss Transplant Cohort Study) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2008 and 2012 in 6 Swiss centers. We also compared the results with those of two existing scoring systems: one from Spain (Hernandez et al.) and one from the United States (the Recipient Risk Score, RRS, Baskin-Bey et al.). From the DIVAT validation cohort and for a prognostic time at 10 years, the new prognostic score (AUC = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.69, 0.85]) seemed to present significantly higher prognostic capacities than the scoring system proposed by Hernandez et al. (p = 0.04) and tended to perform better than the initial RRS (p = 0.10). By using the Swiss cohort, the RRS and the the new prognostic score had comparable prognostic capacities at 4 years (AUC = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively, p = 0.31). In addition to the current available scores related to the risk to return in dialysis, we recommend to further study the use of the score we propose or the RRS for a more efficient personalized follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. PMID:27152510

  14. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  15. Consequences of maternal complications in women's lives in the first postpartum year: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Kirti; Yadav, Ranjana; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2012-06-01

    Maternal complications are common during and following childbirth. However, little information is available on the psychological, social and economic consequences of maternal complications on women's lives, especially in a rural setting. A prospective cohort study was conducted in southern Rajasthan, India, among rural women who had a severe or less-severe, or no complication at the time of delivery or in the immediate postpartum period. In total, 1,542 women, representing 93% of all women who delivered in the field area over a 15-month period and were examined in the first week postpartum by nurse-midwives, were followed up to 12 months to record maternal and child survival. Of them, a subset of 430 women was followed up at 6-8 weeks and 12 months to capture data on the physical, psychological, social, or economic consequences. Women with severe maternal complications around the time of delivery and in the immediate postpartum period experienced an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in the first postpartum year: 2.8% of the women with severe complications died within one year compared to none with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications also had higher rates of perinatal mortality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.98, confidence interval (CI) 1.96-8.1, p=0.000] and mortality of babies aged eight days to 12 months (AOR=3.14, CI 1.4-7.06, p=0.004). Compared to women in the uncomplicated group, women with severe complications were at a higher risk of depression at eight weeks and 12 months with perceived physical symptoms, had a greater difficulty in completing daily household work, and had important financial repercussions. The results suggest that women with severe complications at the time of delivery need to be provided regular follow-up services for their physical and psychological problems till about 12 months after childbirth. They also might benefit from financial support during several months in the postpartum period to prevent severe

  16. Risk factors for progression from severe maternal morbidity to death: a national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Kayem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women continue to die unnecessarily during or after pregnancy in the developed world. The aim of this analysis was to compare women with severe maternal morbidities who survived with those who died, to quantify the risk associated with identified factors to inform policy and practice to improve survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a national cohort analysis using data from two sources obtained between 2003 and 2009: the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries maternal deaths database and the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System database. Included women had eclampsia, antenatal pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, acute fatty liver of pregnancy or antenatal stroke. These conditions were chosen as major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity about which data were available through both sources, and include 42% of direct maternal deaths over the study period. Rates, risk ratios, crude and adjusted odd ratios were used to investigate risks factors for maternal death. Multiple imputation and sensitivity analysis were used to handle missing data. We identified 476 women who survived and 100 women who died. Maternal death was associated with older age (35+ years aOR 2.36, 95%CI 1.22-4.56, black ethnicity (aOR 2.38, 95%CI 1.15-4.92, and unemployed, routine or manual occupation (aOR 2.19, 95%CI 1.03-4.68. An association was also observed with obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m(2 aOR 2.73, 95%CI 1.15-6.46. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing high quality national surveillance programmes have an important place in addressing challenges in maternal health and care. There is a place for action to reverse the rising trends in maternal age at childbirth, and to reduce the burden of obesity in pregnancy, as well as ongoing recognition of the impact of older maternal age on the risks of pregnancy. Development and evaluation of services to mitigate the risk of dying associated with black ethnicity and lower socioeconomic status is also essential.

  17. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffin, Karl; Hjern, Anders; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912), which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:26991657

  18. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gauffin

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912, which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.

  19. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased

  20. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an

  1. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne M L; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its anti-oestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in...

  2. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat

  3. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  4. Dietary Supplement Use and Colorectal Adenoma Risk in Individuals with Lynch Syndrome: The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Broring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Jung, A.Y.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Vasen, H.F.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHOD

  5. Dietary Supplement Use and Colorectal Adenoma Risk in Individuals with Lynch Syndrome: The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Jung, A.Y.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. Materials and Method

  6. Dietary Supplement Use and Colorectal Adenoma Risk in Individuals with Lynch Syndrome : The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Broring, Renate C.; Winkels, Renate M.; Botma, Akke; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Jung, Audrey Y.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. Materials and Method

  7. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  8. Trauma, comorbidity, and mortality following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal outcomes following stress or trauma diagnoses are receiving attention, yet population-based studies are few. The aims of the present cohort study were to examine the cumulative incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders categorized using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and to examine associations of these diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide. Data came from a longitudinal cohort of all Danes who received a diagnosis of reaction to severe stress or adjustment disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code F43.x) between 1995 and 2011, and they were compared with data from a general-population cohort. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to examine traumatic experiences and psychiatric diagnoses during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the associations of the disorders with mortality and suicide. Participants with stress diagnoses had a higher incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses than did the comparison group. Each disorder was associated with a higher rate of all-cause mortality than that seen in the comparison cohort, and strong associations with suicide were found after adjustment. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of stress disorders with a variety of outcomes, and we found that stress diagnoses may have long-lasting and potentially severe consequences. PMID:26243737

  9. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c

  10. Soccer injuries and recovery in dutch male amateur soccer players: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Steffen, K.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To describe characteristics of outdoor soccer injury and recovery among Dutch soccer players. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: The 2009-2010 competitive season (33 weeks). PARTICIPANTS:: Four hundred fifty-six Dutch male soccer players of 23 amateur teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUR

  11. Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour : prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, R.; Mol, B.W.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.; van Geijn, H.P.; Gyselaers, W.J.; Hanssens, M.; Harmark, L.; van Holsbeke, C.D.; Duvekot, J.J.; Schobben, F.F.A.M.; Wolf, Hans; Visser, G.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920 consecutive women

  12. Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour: prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Heus; B.W. Mol; J.J.H.M. Erwich; H.P. van Geijn; W.J. Gyselaers; M. Hanssens; L. Härmark; C.D. van Holsbeke; J.J. Duvekot; F.F.A.M. Schobben; H. Wolf; G.H.A. Visser

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920 consecutive women

  13. Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour: prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Mol, B.W.; Erwich, J.J.; Geijn, van H.; Gyselaers, W.J.; Hanssens, M.; Harmark, L.; Holsbeke, van C.D.; Duvekot, J.J.; Schobben, F.F.; Wolf, de H.; Visser, G.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: 1920 consecutive w

  14. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline nonoccupation

  15. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal c

  16. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: A cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were avai

  17. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include

  18. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include

  19. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Weisfelt; D. van de Beek; L. Spanjaard; J. de Gans

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired ba

  20. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerill, Richard G.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder.

  1. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Charlot, Mette Gitz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged...

  2. Term perinatal mortality audit in the Netherlands 2010-2012 : a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J. M.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Brouwers, Hens A. A.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Achterberg, Peter W.; Merkus, Hans (J) M. W. M.; Bruinse, Hein W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/ paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in the

  3. Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Smits, K.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-adjusted magnesium intake was nonsignificantly inversely related to risk of colorectal cancer (n=2328) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer that started in 1986 (n=58 279 men and 62 573 women). Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects

  4. Asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli and mood in a cohort of older people: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Purandare, N.; Hardicre, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) predicts subsequent depression in older people. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 2.5 years of follow-up including 96 nondepressed older subjects in primary care. Presence of SCE was measured at baseline by transcrania

  5. Prognostic factors in breast-conserving therapy : a prospective population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, Jan Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A large cohort study on breast cancer was started that included patients treated with breastconserving therapy, from the early start of this treatment in the Twente – Achterhoek region, till today, with more than 3.800 breast-conserving treatments. Recruitment is still continuing. In chapter 2, on f

  6. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. SUMMARY ANSWER: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial i

  7. Functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dros, J.; Maarsingh, O.R.; Beem, L.; Horst, H.E. van der; Riet, G. ter; Schellevis, F.G.; Weert, H.C.P.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the 6-month functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care, to identify important predictors of dizziness-related impairment, and to construct a score to assist risk prediction. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Setting: Twenty-fou

  8. Gastrointestinal Events with Clopidogrel: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    -based cohort study based on linkage of three administrative registries in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals who redeemed at least one prescription of clopidogrel from 1996 to 2008 were included as exposed subjects (n = 77,503). For each exposed subject, three matched controls were randomly selected from...

  9. Cultural competency in a physician assistant curriculum in the United States: a longitudinal study with two cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Barbra Beck; Matthew H. Scheel; Kathleen De Oliveira; Jane Hopp

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many physician assistant (PA) programs have recently integrated cultural competency into their curricula. However, there is little evidence of the longitudinal effectiveness of such curricula on culture competency. This study tested whether the amount of exposure to a cultural competency curriculum affected self-assessments of cultural awareness in two cohorts of students. Methods: Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program an...

  10. Reproducibility in echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function in a population based study (the STANISLAS Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Frikha

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence regarding intra-observer and inter-observer variations in echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function. This study aimed to assess this reproducibly within a population-based cohort study.Sixty subjects in sinus rhythm were randomly selected among 4th visit participants of the STANISLAS Cohort (Lorraine region, France. This 4th examination systematically included M-mode, 2-dimensional, DTI and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiograms. Reproducibility of variables was studied by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Bland Altman plots.Our population was on average middle-aged (50 ± 14 y, overweight (BMI = 26 ± 6 kg/m2 and non-smoking (87% with a quarter of the participants having self-declared hypertension or treated with anti-hypertensive medication(s. Intra-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which was 0.89 (0.81-0.93. The mean relative intra-observer differences were small and limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow for all considered parameters ( 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for LVEF (ICC = 0.87 and both mitral and pulmonary A wave duration (0.83 and 0.73 respectively. The mean relative inter-observer differences were <5% for all parameters except for pulmonary A wave duration (mean difference = 6.5%. Limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow (<15%, except for mitral A wave duration and velocity (both <20% as well as left ventricular mass and pulmonary A wave duration (both <30%. Intra-observer agreements with regard to the presence and severity of diastolic dysfunction were excellent (Kappa = 0.93 (0.83-1.00 and 0.88 (0.75-0.99, respectively.In this validation study within the STANISLAS cohort, diastolic function echocardiographic parameters were found to be highly reproducible. Diastolic dysfunction consequently appears as a highly effective clinical and research tool.

  11. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  12. Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses child labour participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru and Pakistan. The results include tests of the `Luxury' and `Substitution' hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labour and child schooling. The results reject both hypotheses in the context of child labour in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children's work input. Rising wages of adult female labour in Pakistan...

  13. Child poverty in upper-income countries: Lessons from the Luxembourg Income Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gornick, Janet C.; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We draw on LIS' various resources to sketch a portrait of child poverty in upper-income countries. We first summarize past LIS-based scholarship on child poverty, highlighting studies that seek to explain cross-national variation in child poverty levels. Our empirical sections focus on child poverty in 13 upper-income countries. We begin with a descriptive overview of poverty among all households and among those with children, presenting multiple poverty measures (relative and absolute, pre- ...

  14. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Leenke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required.

  15. Imprinting diseases and IVF: Danish National IVF cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Ojvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of imprinting diseases in children born after IVF with the incidence in naturally conceived children.......The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of imprinting diseases in children born after IVF with the incidence in naturally conceived children....

  16. A cohort study of leisure time physical activity and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne Schumann; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the role of leisure time physical activity on the risk of developing depression in a large longitudinal setting.......The objective of the study was to examine the role of leisure time physical activity on the risk of developing depression in a large longitudinal setting....

  17. The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect: a partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Health Canada's Family Violence Prevention Unit commissioned a study to assess the possibility of collecting child maltreatment data from child welfare agencies across Canada. A Health Canada group responsible for maternal and child health surveillance built on the results of this study. This group consulted widely with provincial and territorial partners to build a surveillance system, resulting in a truly collaborative effort that led to the implementation of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). This was a remarkable accomplishment considering the challenge of working with multiple partners, different legislative frameworks and the stigma that often accompanies the experience of child maltreatment. PMID:26605558

  18. Risk of Nephrotic Syndrome following Enteroviral Infection in Children: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Methods A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged enterovirus-infected children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. Methods This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted. PMID:27508414

  19. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of w...

  20. Issues in Design and Implementation in an Urban Birth Cohort Study: The Syracuse AUDIT Project

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Judith A.; Hargrave, Teresa M; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D; Hall, Geralyn E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H.; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D.; Abraham, Jerrold L.

    2006-01-01

    The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements ...

  1. Milk Drinking and Mortality: Findings From the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Findings regarding the association between milk consumption and all-cause mortality reported by studies carried out in Western populations have been inconsistent. However, no studies have been conducted in Japan on this issue. The present study aimed to investigate the association of milk drinking with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in Japan. Methods The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. A total of 94 980 Japanese adults aged 40–7...

  2. Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoroso Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment.

  3. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-08-01

      Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.

  4. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel McKinnon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA and Eastern Mediterranean (EM Regions.

  5. Race/Ethnic and Nativity Disparities in Child Overweight in the United States and England

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Child overweight is a growing problem in wealthy countries. There is also evidence that child overweight varies by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In this article, the authors use data from two recent birth cohort studies in the United States and England to address four questions: (1) Are race/ethnic and immigrant status associated with child overweight? (2) Is the association between socioeconomic status and child overweight similar across race/ethnic and nativity subgroups? (3) Doe...

  6. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta Lise A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Methods Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319 completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34–36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p  Results Approximately 30% of women reported one or more experience of interpersonal violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. Conclusion The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale

  7. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  8. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  9. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.

  10. Work schedules and fatigue: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, N; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T; van den Brandt, P.A.; Kant, I.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To describe the prevalence of fatigue among employees in different work schedules (day work, three-shift, five-shift, and irregular shift work); (2) to investigate whether different work schedules are related to increasing fatigue over time, while taking into account job title and job characteristics; and (3) to study fatigue among shift workers changing to day work.

  11. Blood lipid levels and prostate cancer risk; a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Roermund, van J.G.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Heijer, den M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that blood lipid levels might be associated with prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and prost

  12. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  13. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...

  14. Shielding of the child's head during x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three devices for X-ray shielding of child's head are suggested; the first one is a protective attachment for shielding a child being in horizontal position on an X-ray table; the second one is a protective stand for shielding head and body at roentgenofraphy of upper extremities of a child sitting near the X-ray table; the third one is a prot ctive suspension for shielding the head of a child being in vertical position

  15. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  16. Epidemiology of child psychopathology: major milestones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChild psychiatric epidemiology has developed rapidly from descriptive, cross-sectional studies in the 1960s to the current large-scale prospective cohorts that unravel aetiological mechanisms. The objective of the study was to give an overview of epidemiological studies that have influen

  17. The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS: Assembly, Demographics and Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

  18. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Jonathan Y.; Armand Martine; Forhan Anne; De Agostini Maria; Charles Marie-Aline; Heude Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor...

  19. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of gestational diabetes: A retrospective cohort study from Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreelakshmi, P. R.; Nair, Sanjeev; Soman, Biju; Alex, Rani; K. Vijayakumar; Kutty, V. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes is on the rise. Understanding the various outcomes of it is necessary to face this challenge. Objectives: To study the frequency of occurrence of various maternal and fetal outcomes among gestational diabetes patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in rural Kerala, a southern state of India. The study participants were followed up for a period of 4 years, from 2007 to 2011. The participants included 60 women with ges...

  20. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, V; Vanacore, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Vermeulen, R.; Brayne, C.; Pearce, N.; Wark, PA; Ward, HA; P. Ferrari; Jenab, M; Andersen, PM; P. Wennberg; Wareham, N.; Katzke, V; Kaaks, R

    2016-01-01

    Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected tho...

  1. General practitioner characteristics and delay in cancer diagnosis. a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vedsted Peter; Hansen Rikke P; Sokolowski Ineta; Søndergaard Jens; Olesen Frede

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may have serious prognostic consequences, and some patients experience delays lasting several months. However, we have no knowledge whether such delays are associated with general practitioner (GP) characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether GP and practice characteristics are associated with the length of delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods The study was designed as a population-based cohort study. The setting was the Coun...

  2. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachel M.; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study ‘Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?’ follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high...

  3. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    St. John, Philip D.; Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. ...

  4. Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...

  5. Method of attempted suicide as predictor of subsequent successful suicide: national long term cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Runeson, Bo; Tidemalm, Dag; Dahlin, Marie; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the association between method of attempted suicide and risk of subsequent successful suicide. Design Cohort study with follow-up for 21-31 years. Setting Swedish national register linkage study. Participants 48 649 individuals admitted to hospital in 1973-82 after attempted suicide. Main outcome measure Completed suicide, 1973-2003. Multiple Cox regression modelling was conducted for each method at the index (first) attempt, with poisoning as the reference category. Relati...

  6. Widow Inheritance and HIV Prevalence in Bondo District, Kenya: Baseline Results from a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Agot, Kawango E; Vander Stoep, Ann; Tracy, Melissa; Obare, Billy A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Moses, Stephen; Weiss, Noel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Widow Inheritance is a widespread cultural practice in sub-Saharan Africa that has been postulated as contributing to risk of HIV transmission. We present baseline results from a study designed to investigate the association between widow inheritance and HIV acquisition. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study to investigate if widow inheritance is a risk practice for HIV infection. Study participants were 1,987 ...

  7. Body mass index and obstetric outcomes in Saudi Arabia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n...

  8. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel Pernille; Jensen Morten; Andersen Helle; Baelum Jesper; Thulstrup Ane; Bonde Jens; Toft Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant...

  9. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi; Mohammad Reza Maracy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively ne...

  10. Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Kenneth M. Langa; Phillips, John WR; David R Weir

    2014-01-01

    The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition...

  11. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Pereira, Inês; Vaz, Paula; Faria Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective c...

  12. Cohort profile: the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS)

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, P.; Acerini, C. L.; Eleftheriou, A.; Hughes, I A; Ong, K K; Dunger, D B

    2015-01-01

    The Cambridge Baby Growth Study has been supported by the European Union Framework V, the World Cancer Research Foundation International, the Medical Research Council, the NIHR Cambridge Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, the Newlife Foundation for disabled children, the Mothercare Group Foundation, Mead Johnson Nutrition, the Evelyn Trust, the Wellbeing of Women, Diabetes UK and a collaborative research grant from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.

  13. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    OpenAIRE

    Casasnovas José A; Alcaide Victor; Civeira Fernando; Guallar Eliseo; Ibañez Borja; Borreguero Jesús; Laclaustra Martin; León Montserrat; Peñalvo José; Ordovás José M; Pocovi Miguel; Sanz Ginés; Fuster Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to des...

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  15. Reproductive Factors and Kidney Cancer Risk in 2 US Cohort Studies, 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E.; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995–2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993–2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

  16. A cross sectional study of two independent cohorts identifies serum biomarkers for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petek, Lisa M; Rickard, Amanda M; Budech, Christopher; Poliachik, Sandra L; Shaw, Dennis; Ferguson, Mark R; Tawil, Rabi; Friedman, Seth D; Miller, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    Measuring the severity and progression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is particularly challenging because muscle weakness progresses over long periods of time and can be sporadic. Biomarkers are essential for measuring disease burden and testing treatment strategies. We utilized the sensitive, specific, high-throughput SomaLogic proteomics platform of 1129 proteins to identify proteins with levels that correlate with FSHD severity in a cross-sectional study of two independent cohorts. We discovered biomarkers that correlate with clinical severity and disease burden measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-eight proteins in the Rochester cohort (n = 48) and 51 proteins in the Seattle cohort (n = 30) had significantly different levels in FSHD-affected individuals when compared with controls (p-value ≤ .005). A subset of these varied by at least 1.5 fold and four biomarkers were significantly elevated in both cohorts. Levels of creatine kinase MM and MB isoforms, carbonic anhydrase III, and troponin I type 2 reliably predicted the disease state and correlated with disease severity. Other novel biomarkers were also discovered that may reveal mechanisms of disease pathology. Assessing the levels of these biomarkers during clinical trials may add significance to other measures of quantifying disease progression or regression. PMID:27185459

  17. Unique features of HLA-mediated HIV evolution in a Mexican cohort: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brumme Zabrina L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence indicates that HLA-mediated HIV evolution follows highly stereotypic pathways that result in HLA-associated footprints in HIV at the population level. However, it is not known whether characteristic HLA frequency distributions in different populations have resulted in additional unique footprints. Methods The phylogenetic dependency network model was applied to assess HLA-mediated evolution in datasets of HIV pol sequences from free plasma viruses and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC-integrated proviruses in an immunogenetically unique cohort of Mexican individuals. Our data were compared with data from the IHAC cohort, a large multi-center cohort of individuals from Canada, Australia and the USA. Results Forty three different HLA-HIV codon associations representing 30 HLA-HIV codon pairs were observed in the Mexican cohort (q Conclusion Our data support universal HLA-mediated HIV evolution at the population level, resulting in detectable HLA-associated footprints in the circulating virus. However, it also strongly suggests that unique genetic backgrounds in different HIV-infected populations may influence HIV evolution in a particular direction as particular HLA-HIV codon associations are determined by specific HLA frequency distributions. Our analysis also suggests a dynamic HLA-associated evolution in HIV with fewer HLA-HIV codon associations observed in the proviral compartment, which is likely enriched in early archived HIV sequences, compared to the plasma virus compartment. These results highlight the importance of comparative HIV evolutionary studies in immunologically different populations worldwide.

  18. Risk of skin cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: A nationwide retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older adults

  19. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother's education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother's education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01-1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37-3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99-1.71); pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03-1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother's education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems.

  20. Does Timing of Eruption in First Primary Tooth Correlate with that of First Permanent Tooth? A 9-years Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Hamidreza; Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Jamali, Zahra; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Hazem, Kameliya; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Predicting the teeth eruption time is a valuable tool in pediatric dentistry since it can affects scheduling dental and orthodontic treatments. This study investigated the relationship between the eruption time of first primary and permanent teeth and the variation in the eruption time considering socioeconomic status (SES) in a 9-year population- based cohort study. Materials and methods. 307 subjects were examined at bimonthly intervals during the first and second years of life and then at six-month intervals until the eruption of first permanent tooth. Eruption times of primary and permanent tooth were recorded for each child. A modified form of Kuppuswamy’s scale was used to assess the SES. Results. Among 267 subjects completed all follow-ups, the eruption time for first primary and permanent teeth indicated a direct strong correlation; in that one month delayed or early eruption of firstprimary tooth resulted in 4.21 months delayed or early eruption of first appearing permanent tooth (r = 0.91, n = 267, P <0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the eruption time of first primary and first permanent teeth and SES (P = 0.67, P = 0.75, respectively). Conclusion. The eruption timing for the first primary tooth had a correlation with the first permanent tooth eruption tim-ing, while SES did not have any influence on eruption times. PMID:26236432