Sample records for child care workers

  1. Understanding Burnout in Child and Youth Care Workers (United States)

    Barford, Sean W.; Whelton, William J.


    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations as it has been linked to turnover, absenteeism, a reduction in the quality of services, numerous physical and psychological disorders, and a disruption in interpersonal relations (Maslach et al. "2001"). Child and youth care workers are especially susceptible to burnout as the inherent…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariet Caroline, MPT,


    Full Text Available Child care workers are those who take care of children in the absence of their parents. Child care workers are exposed to various kinds of occupational injuries which include infections, sprains and strains, trauma like bites from children, trip falls and noise exposure. The risks of injury among these workers are due to their nature of the job. One of the common occupational risks found in these workers is musculoskeletal injury, it occurs as a result of working in awkward postures such as bending, twisting, lifting and carrying in incorrect positions, which may result in various injuries like strain, sprain and soft tissue ruptures. Workers with poor physical conditioning may tend to undergo these changes very rapidly. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders in child care workers who are taking care of the babies. The study was conducted around various day care centres, among 160 women from who were chosen for the study and were given musculoskeletal analysis questionnaires (Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire , The Questionnaires were evaluated using descriptive statistics, analysed using SPSS and the results were computed in percentage. Following the analysis, it was concluded that low back injury was predominant among 44% of workers followed by 18% with neck pain, 11% of shoulder pain, 9% of knee pain, 7% of elbow, 6% of wrist, 4% of others and surprisingly 1 % had no musculoskeletal complaints.

  3. Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction among Residential Child Care Workers: The Role of Personality Resources (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi


    This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential…

  4. A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy

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    Mammina Caterina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

  5. [The Relationship Between Burnout Symptoms and Work Satisfaction Among Child Welfare Workers in Residential Care]. (United States)

    Steinlin, Célia; Dölitzsch, Claudia; Fischer, Sophia; Schmeck, Klaus; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmid, Marc


    Working in residential care is associated with high demands and high stress. As a result, employees may develop symptoms of burnout. These symptoms lead to absence from work and have a negative effect on the continuity and quality of the residential care. Until now, little is known about burnout risks in child welfare workers, although children and adolescents are especially dependent on continuous relationships and healthy caregivers. A better understanding of the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction may help to identify starting points for prevention and intervention. The present study assessed symptoms of burnout in a sample of 319 social education workers in residential care in Switzerland using the burnout-screening-scales (BOSS). Work satisfaction was assessed with a newly developed questionnaire based on concepts of trauma-sensitive care. The questionnaire was tested for reliability and factorial validity in the present study. In order to estimate the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction, correlations and relative risks were calculated. Almost one fifth (18 %) of the sample showed a risk of burnout. The principal component analysis of the questionnaire on work satisfaction revealed four factors: support by superiors, participation and transparency; communication and support within the team; gratification in the work; and institutional structures and resources. All four factors as well as the total score showed significant correlations with burnout symptoms. Among employees with a comparably lower work satisfaction, the risk of burnout was 5.4 times higher than among employees with a comparably higher work satisfaction. It is discussed how work satisfaction could be promoted and how, as a result, the quality and continuity of care for the children and adolescents could be improved.

  6. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome of Greek Child Care Workers and Kindergarten Teachers (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina


    The present study, employing the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey, aims to compare and explore possible differences to the levels of burnout reported by the two main professional groups working in the early childhood education and care sector in Greece, that is kindergarten teachers and childcare workers. The correlation between the…

  7. Office of Child Care (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  8. Health workers' views on quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and post-natal care for HIV-infected women and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Yen, P.N.; Hardon, A.; Wright, P.


    Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have recei

  9. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  10. Child Care Services Handbook. (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  11. Consideration of Career Time in Child Care Work: Observations on Child Care Work Experiences (United States)

    Sutton, Beverly


    Comments on worker-selection process, cycle of involvement, and personal and professional concerns in child care work. Discusses intervention in the emotional fatigue cycle, young workers' development, administrative support, and promotion of commitment to child care work as a profession. (BF)

  12. Assessment of Knowledge of Day-Care Center Workers in Basic Aspects of Child Care: A Pilot Study. (United States)


    nineteenth century were patterned upon widespread and successful at- tempts to provide care for children of working mothers in France and England from...due in part to the need to care for and protect children of working mothers and in part to a welfare response which created jobs for unemployed

  13. Music in child care


    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos


    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  14. Why do care workers withdraw from elderly care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne


    . At the same time it illustrates the care workers' commitment to the elderly. A paradoxical "empathy at a distance" is characteristic of the scene. When analyzing my written observations in an interpretation group, my use of language was a point of discussion. What did it mean when I described the interactions...... between care workers and elderly residents in words commonly used to describe mother-child interactions? My use of language became a "hermeneutical key" which enabled a psychoanalytically inspired interpretation. This focuses on the care relationship as activating our earliest memories of our own care....... The article illustrates how working consciously with the researcher's subjectivity makes it possible to understand apparently irrational patterns. The insights thus gained may be used to prevent withdrawals in care work as an argument for care workers' need for emotional supervision....

  15. Child Care Aware (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage ... Care Aware of America Home Newsroom Contact Us Log In Register Back About ...

  16. Child Care Centres. (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  17. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti


    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  18. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…


    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.


  20. Navy Child Care, 1980. (United States)


    months to 2 1/2 years) full-time. ............. 23.8 Preschool (2 1/2 to 5 years) such as Montessori or other nursery school developmental program...had beyond High School. *Naval Air Station, Miramar One Associate degree, five BA/ES, three Montessori Certified, three enrolled in Montessori training...comes in many forms. The child-care center at Naval Station, Adak, burned in November 1979 (Nida, 1980). Fortunately, there was no loss of life or

  1. Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers

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    Pardeshi Geeta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. AIMS: To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. STUDY DESIGN : A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel- based commercial sex workers. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : X2 test, Fisher′s Exact test RESULTS: Some commercial sex workers continued pregnancy with the hope of security and support, while others were compelled to do so, as they report late for medical termination of pregnancy. A group of sex workers (Devdasis received support during pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and child-rearing. The role and responsibilities of raising the child, depended upon the kind of family support available to the mothers. Being a single parent, stigma of the profession, odd working hours and variable family support were major challenges, while the fact that the women were earning, availability of rehabilitation centers, the homogeneous groups within the brothels, supportive peers and local non governmental organizations were factors which helped them in the process of raising their children. CONCLUSIONS : Day care centers and night shelters should be opened up in the red light area where the children can be looked after, during the working hours. The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children.

  2. Child care subsidies with endogenous education and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie S.M.


    What are the effects of child care subsidies on education, fertility and the sectoral allocation of the labour force? In a general equilibrium setting the availability of affordable professional child care will have an impact on the relative supplies of educated and uneducated workers and the cross-

  3. Child Care: Almost Ours. An AFL-CIO Guide to Implementing Child Care Laws. (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    On October 27, 1990, Congress enacted comprehensive federal child care legislation targeted toward low-income workers and a broad expansion of assistance to parents through the earned income tax credit. This guide alerts union members to the benefits that are now available under the new law: the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. The guide…

  4. Foster Care and Child Health. (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M


    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  5. Early Child Care in Switzerland (United States)

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others


    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  6. Child care work. Organizational culture and health and safety. (United States)

    Calabro, K S; Bright, K A; Cole, F L; Mackey, T; Lindenberg, J; Grimm, A


    A nonrandom sample of child care workers was surveyed to assess whether child care work represented an "at risk" health and safety culture and to measure the organizational dimensions contributing to the health and safety culture. The child care workers in Houston, Texas, were surveyed by mail, using an instrument developed by the research team. The sample population represented 34 child care centers (n = 240 respondents). The analysis yielded five factors related to determinants of health and safety culture. The participants had a favorable perception of the five health and safety determinants. The participants also reported high levels of injury and illness in their environments, suggesting a less than favorable situation. A culture, work, and health model was useful in examining the relationship between health and safety and organizational culture.

  7. Why Do Care Workers Withdraw From Elderly Care? Researcher’s Language as a Hermeneutical Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Liveng


    Full Text Available Care workers frequently withdraw from elderly people in their care; this has resulted in a number of scandals in the media. Here I analyze an empirical scene observed at an old people’s home in Denmark, which contains behavioral patterns among the care workers which could be seen as withdrawal. At the same time it illustrates the care workers’ commitment to the elderly. A paradoxical “empathy at a distance” is characteristic of the scene. When analyzing my written observations in an interpretation group, my use of language was a point of discussion. What did it mean when I described the interactions between care workers and elderly residents in words commonly used to describe mother-child interactions? My use of language became a “hermeneutical key” which enabled a psychoanalytically inspired interpretation. This focuses on the care relationship as activating our earliest memories of our own care relations, independently of whether we are in the role of care providers or care receivers. Through collusion theory, the interpretation accepts both the anxiety which the helpless elderly people arouse in the care workers and their motivation for care work as two sides of a subjectively important theme. The article illustrates how working consciously with the researcher’s subjectivity makes it possible to understand apparently irrational patterns. The insights thus gained may be used to prevent withdrawals in care work as an argument for care workers’ need for emotional supervision.

  8. [Music therapy and child care]. (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan


    Music therapy was shown many years ago to have positive effects in various age groups of patients in the Western world. Music can produce physiological and psychological effects, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety, improvements in the immune system, decreases in cortisol levels, the reduction of stress and the promotion of well-being. Music therapy is an inexpensive and effective intervention for nurses to apply to patients. The application of such therapy to children, however, is different from that to adults due to their limited cognitive and language development. In Taiwan, nurses' knowledge of music therapy is limited, and it is rarely used in child care. This article introduces music therapy and its effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, handicapped children, and children receiving surgery. Music therapy is often used as an assisted intervention for patient care in clinical settings. Health care professionals can perform some of the music therapy activities for patients appropriately even if they have not been trained in music. This article aims to improve nurses' knowledge of music therapy and to provide a useful reference for those involved in child care.

  9. Selected Nanny Child Care Bibliography. (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn W., Comp.; Williams, Owen E., Comp.

    This bibliography on nanny child care contains approximately 180 references to material about nannies, mother's helpers, au pairs, and governesses. The bibliography is organized by the categories of newspaper articles, journal articles, newsletter articles, books, and audiovisual materials. The items are drawn primarily from U.S. sources, but some…

  10. Emotional Exhaustion in Day-Care Workers (United States)

    Løvgren, Mette


    Although childcare workers have the second-worst occupation for work-related health problems and the number of professional day-care centers is growing throughout Europe, few studies have examined these workers' emotional well-being. This study investigates the effect of position, competence, work role, role clarity, and work tasks on emotional…

  11. Decisions on child care: do sex and sexual orientation matter? (United States)

    Regan, P C; Ramirez, C


    This experiment on person perception used a role-playing methodology to examine whether a target individual's sex and sexual orientation influence perceived abilities as a child care worker. Men and women (N = 78) role played the part of a parent who has placed an advertisement for a full-time babysitter. They received information about a male or female, heterosexual or homosexual applicant (randomly assigned). Although participants preferred to hire (and felt more comfortable leaving their children with) a heterosexual woman than any other type of applicant, they believed that homosexual men and women were as knowledgeable about aspects of child care, e.g., nutrition, first aid, as their heterosexual peers. The least preferred child care worker was a heterosexual man, perhaps because such a target is inconsistent with traditional sex-role expectations.

  12. Shared Heritage: An Intergenerational Child Care Program. (United States)

    Hawkeye Area Community Action Program, Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This report describes ways in which older persons may become involved in the field of home child care. It is intended to provide (1) detailed information on an intergenerational child care (IGCC) program; (2) general information relating to intergenerational contacts and home child care; and (3) "how-to" information for agencies planning…

  13. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers


    Donna Cherry; Bruce Dalton; Angela Dugan


    Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012). Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of sel...

  14. Assembling Webs of Support: Child Domestic Workers in India (United States)

    Wasiuzzaman, Shaziah; Wells, Karen


    This paper uses ethnographic and qualitative interview data with Muslim child domestic workers, their families and employers to investigate the social ties between young workers and their employers. Our analysis shows that working-class families use children's domestic work with middle-class families as part of a web of resources to protect them…

  15. Frontline Workers in Long-Term Care. (United States)

    Feldman, Penny Hollander, Ed.; And Others


    In this theme issue, 18 articles discuss the motivation for and benefits of working with old and dying people, nursing homes, ethical issues, and the training of home health care workers. Employee recruitment and retention and the economics of health care for the frail elderly are also addressed. (JOW)

  16. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien


    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  17. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.


    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  18. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao


    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  19. Child Rearing Practices Amongst Brothel-based Commercial Sex Workers


    Pardeshi Geeta; Bhattacharya S


    BACKGROUND: The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. AIMS: To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. STUDY DESIGN : A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel- based commercial sex workers. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : X2 test, Fishe...

  20. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  1. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…

  2. Pen of Health Care Worker as Vector of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil


    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are the major concern in tertiary hospitals. Health care workers and their belonging are known to act as vector in transmission of infections. In present study, the writing pen of health care workers was worked out for carrying infection. The swab from writing pen of health care workers were cultured for any growth of microorganism and compared with swab from pen of the non health care workers. It was found that the rate of growth of microorganism were more in pen of health care workers. Similarly the organism attributed to the nosocomial infection was grown from the pens of health care workers. These organisms might be transmitted from the hands of health care workers. The writing pen which health care worker are using became the vectors of transmission of infection. So to prevent it, the most important way is to wash the hands and pen properly after examining the patients.

  3. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior. (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen


    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  4. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf


    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  5. Employer-Supported Child Care in Ontario. (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    Six case studies describing current employer-supported child care services in Ontario are presented. The studies describe the PLADEC Day Care Center of the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital, the day care center at the Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals in Hamilton, the Early Learning Centre at Durham College in Oshawa, the Hydrokids day care center at the…

  6. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  7. Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule makes regulatory changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) based on the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014. These changes strengthen requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care; help parents make informed consumer choices and access information to support child development; provide equal access to stable, high-quality child care for low-income children; and enhance the quality of child care and the early childhood workforce.

  8. Meeting Child Care Needs in Disasters. (United States)

    Winter, Roy E.; Surr, John V.; Leaf, Beverly Joy


    Describes Disaster Child Care (DCC), a nonsectarian ministry, which trains and mobilizes volunteers to care for children of families suffering from a natural or man-made disaster. Specifically addresses: (1) comfort through familiarity; (2) behaviors and approaches to lessen anxiety; and (3) care and caregiver training. Provides examples of care…

  9. Funding child care and public education. (United States)

    Zigler, E F; Finn-Stevenson, M


    Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every community--the public school. The linkage of child care with the public education system would eliminate the false distinction between child care and education, and would create a universally accessible system of child care services for children. The School of the 21st Century is an example of such a system. Initially conceptualized by Zigler, it has now been implemented in 400 schools across 13 states, with the leadership and direction of Finn-Stevenson. This article describes how school districts that have implemented the program employ a mixture of parent fees and local, state, federal, and private dollars to fund it, and then proposes an ideal financing model for the program. In the ideal model, the same mix of funding sources would be retained, but a per-pupil expenditure of about $9,000 per year is advocated to deliver child care and other social services to three- and four-year-olds. Funds for initial start-up could be derived from reallocation of existing dollars, especially state prekindergarten programs, but eventually new funds would be needed to support ongoing operations.

  10. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Fraga, Lynette; McCready, Michelle


    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  11. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle


    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  12. State Child Care Policies for Limited English Proficient Families (United States)

    Firgens, Emily; Matthews, Hannah


    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the largest source of federal funding for child care assistance available to states, provides low-income families with help paying for child care. Studies have shown that low-income LEP (limited English proficient), as well as immigrant families, are less likely to receive child care assistance.…

  13. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012 (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon


    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  14. Child care at CERN: Recommendations for Improvements of the Child Care Situation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alviggi, M G; Avramidou, R; Barillari, T; Bates, R; Benelli, G; Beolè, S; Berger, N; Boeriu, O; Bölla, G; Bornheim, A; Brigido, F; Calheiros, F; Garrido, M C; Llatas, M C; Chesneanu, D; Conde-Muíño, P; D'Auria, S; De Santo, A; David Tinoco Mendes, A; De La Cruz Burelo, E; Della Volpe, M; Delmastro, M; Demers, S M; Dimovasili, E; Dindar, K; Elder, S; Eno, S; Eschrich, K G; Fonseca Martin, T M; Gagnon, P; Gateau, M; Gemme, C; Gentile, S; Geurts, F; Goldfarb, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grothe, M; Hadjidakis, C; Hoffmann, D; Issever, C; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kandasamy, S; Koblitz, S; Koval'S'Kyi, D; Krivda, M; Lançon, E; Leahu, A E; Leahu, L; Lester, C G; Lipniacka-Wesolowska, A L; List, J; López-Noriega, M; Manca, G; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Merkel, P; Nachtman, J; Natale, S; Oldeman, R; Organtini, G; Patterson, R; Pesci, A; Primavera, M; Quadt, A; Rosati, M; Sbarra, C; Teuscher, R; Tique Aires Viegas, F; Trigger, I M; Tuominen, E; Van Lingen, F; Vandoni, G; Vanini, S; Veverkovai, K; Vickey, T; Wang, D; Wells, P; Wengler, T; Wittmer, B; Yumiceva Del Pozo, F X; CERN. Geneva. HR Department


    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  15. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira


    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  16. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.


    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  17. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet


    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  18. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  19. A Profile Approach to Child Care Quality, Quantity, and Type of Setting: Parent Selection of Infant Child Care Arrangements (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang


    Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…

  20. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  1. Team work of care workers in residential care institutions


    Mišković, Svjetlana


    In my diploma thesis special attention is given to care workers that work with a group of youth in extrafamilial residential institutions. They are defined as a team or work group, depending on the work structure. I am aware of the difficulty of educational team work and that is why I want to define and research their experiencing team or group work. At the beginning of the theoretical part I define educational work in educational institutions and youth homes, then continue with the definitio...

  2. California's Child Care Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy. (United States)

    Lee, Brian

    This report compiles recent research showing that quality child care and early education can greatly reduce crime and argues that California is in the middle of a child care crisis, with a shortage of quality, affordable care. Chapter 1 of the report presents research showing that at-risk children who participate in quality child care programs are…

  3. Prenatal care disparities and the migrant farm worker community. (United States)

    Bircher, Heidi


    The pregnant migrant farm worker faces many barriers to accessing healthcare in the United States due to poverty, language/literacy issues, transportation difficulties, and geographic isolation. The advanced practice nurse has the opportunity to contribute solutions to the problems of lack of adequate prenatal care among the migrant farm worker community, if he/she is aware of the need and can institute novel models of care. This article describes the problem of migrant farm worker health and suggests ways that advanced practice nurses can provide cost effective, competent professional care to reduce or eliminate the obstacles to care for this population.

  4. The Ups and Downs of Child Care: Variations in Child Care Quality and Exposure across the Early Years (United States)

    Hynes, Kathryn; Habasevich-Brooks, Tara


    There is considerable policy interest in understanding the role of child care in children's development. Yet little research has examined whether individual children experience changes in child care quality across their early years, and less has included children's varying levels of exposure to care in analyses of child care trajectories. Using…

  5. Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child Care Centers. (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others


    Examines 71 of the 605 licensed child care centers in Atlanta for playground hazards and school accidents. Finds 684 hazards in 66 centers, including climbing equipment over 6 feet high with inadequate impact-absorbing undersurfacing that had over twice the rate of fall injuries as climbing equipment under 6 feet high. (FMW)

  6. Clinton County Child Care Needs Assessment


    Elicker, James; Benner, Aprile; Hahn, Georgia; Hertzog, Jodie; Kensinger, Katherine


    The final report of a research study assessing current and future needs for child care in Clinton county. Counties with similar profiles may find the results relevant. The methods used also can serve as a model for other counties wishing to conduct their own assessments.

  7. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  8. The Measurement of Performance skills of Primary Maternal Child Health Workers - An Indian Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty N


    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. What are the cognitive and psychomotor levels of Anganwadi Workers (AWW regarding important aspects of maternal and child health? 2. Can these skills be improved by training with a self learning communication module? Objectives: (i Identify and evaluate the level of intellectual and practical skills acquired by the AWWs on some areas of primary. health care like : detection of low birth weight (LBW babies, weight of the baby, measurement of body temperature by thermometer, identification of diarrhoea and preparation of ORS, detection of high risk cases and referral. (ii Develop and test a self learning communication module capable of improving the psychomotor domains involved in provision of care. (iii Measure the improvement in the knowledge and specific skill components of the AWWs with the self learning communication module. Design : Intervention study. Setting : Integrated Child Development Scheme Blocks of Varanasi District. Participants : Anganwadi workers belonging to two ICDS Blocks, one was the intervention group and the control group. Study Variable : Self learning communication module. Outcome Variable : Improvement in the cognitive and psychomotor skills of those workers who were administered the module in comparison with the control group. Statistical Analysis : Students ‘t’ test and paired ‘t’ test. Results: There was a significant improvement (p less than 0.001 in the performance skills between the intervention and the control groups. Conclusion: The training modules was effective in improving the overall performance of the workers. However, repeated inservice training is essential to maintain the levels of improvement.

  9. Collective labor supply and child care expenditures: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Ghysels, J.


    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the individu

  10. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2013 Report (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Kendall, Rosemary


    Every week in the United States, nearly 11 million children younger than age 5 are in some type of child care arrangement. On average, these children spend 36 hours a week in child care. While parents are children's first and most important teachers, child care programs provide early learning for millions of young children daily, having a profound…

  11. Preventing mother to child transmission of HIV in Vietnam and Indonesia: diverging care dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Hardon; P. Oosterhoff; J.D. Imelda; N.T. Anh; I. Hidayana


    How do women and frontline health workers engage in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in urban areas of Vietnam and Indonesia, where HIV is highly stigmatized and is associated with injecting drug use and sex work? This qualitative study explores local dynamics of care, using a mix

  12. I Am Your Child. Quality Child Care: Making the Right Choice for You and Your Child. [Videotape]. (United States)

    I Am Your Child Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA.

    Finding the right child care is often challenging for parents, but it is one of the most important decisions a parent will ever make. This videotape is intended to help parents with the process of evaluating child care options. The 30-minute video is presented in seven parts. Part 1, "Choosing Child Care," discusses why quality child…

  13. Creating New Child Care Slots in Mini Child Care Centers: Big Bang for the Buck in New Jersey. (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur J.; And Others


    Small grants of $7,500 with technical assistance were offered to the child care community of New Jersey to either start or increase licensed capacity in mini-child care centers. Results of a subsequent analysis showed that 26 grantees created 481 new child care slots at an average cost of $561 per slot. (Author/SM)

  14. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen


    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  15. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior (United States)

    Becker, Janet E.


    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  16. Child Poverty and the Health Care System. (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D


    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty.

  17. [Health advocacy in child care: literature review]. (United States)

    Andrade, Raquel Dully; Mello, Débora Falleiros; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena


    This narrative literature review aimed to identify the publications about health law, in the ambit of child health care. The databases LILACS and MEDLINE were searched, between 2004 and 2009. Thirteen articles were analyzed, and three themes were identified: Emphasis on knowledge, abilities and attitudes for the development of competencies; Partnerships as an imperative; Health and Law: intersectorial relationship. The studies about the practice of health law are relevant to our reality, especially in primary health care, pointing out for the possibilities of its applicability in the role of the nurses acting in the family health strategy, with families and children.

  18. The social worker. A member of the primary care team? (United States)

    Falloon, D


    The primary health care team at present does not include social workers as routine members. If however, we, accept the World Health Organization definition of health, which includes social well being, then it follows that the social worker should be considered as a member of the health team to attend to this aspect of health in the service delivery mix. This paper presents the experience of a social worker assigned to the August Town/Hermitage Type III health centre during the period March 1995 to February 1996 and her contribution to patient welfare. The expected roles of the social worker and his or her contribution to the health team are outlined.

  19. Evaluation of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yalcinkaya


    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 409-420

  20. Evaluation of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yalcinkaya


    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 409-420

  1. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care (United States)

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.


    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  2. The Concept of the Care Worker : A Clue to the Issue of Care Work


    野中, ますみ


    In Europe and the United States, the term "care worker" covers a much wider field than the one it covers in Japan. The job of the care worker in the West, which is not limited to the care for the senior citizen, often includes non-skilled and menial labor. Care workers, including certified ones, not only suffer from chronic unpaid overwork, lumbago, psychosomatic disorder and burnout, but are often exposed to danger of violence and infectious diseases from care receivers. Their poor working c...

  3. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57 (United States)

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn


    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  4. Understanding Nursing Home Worker Conceptualizations about Good Care (United States)

    Chung, Gawon


    This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…

  5. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu


    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  6. Workplace Spanish for Health Care Workers. (United States)

    Garcia, Paula

    This syllabus and curriculum guide were developed for a 12-week course in workplace Spanish for clinical workers at the Claretian Medical Center on the south side of Chicago. The purpose of the class was to provide basic communicative abilities in Spanish to the medical staff---registered nurses, triage nurses, and laboratory technologists--such…

  7. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay


    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  8. Investing in Our Future: A Guide to Child Care Financing. (United States)

    Stoney, Louise; Groginsky, Scott; Poppe, Julie

    This book investigates the innovative ways being used to ensure and finance high quality care for children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," discusses the government's role in helping to structure, build, and finance the system, as well as financing strategies. Chapter 2, "Financing Child Care Supply," addresses center-based child care, supports for…

  9. Four C: Community Coordinated Child Care: Concept, Goals, Operation. (United States)

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document reports on a day care program for children of working mothers, the 4-C program. This program is a federally sponsored effort conducted through community cooperation. Its goals include: (1) more and better child care, (2) mobilization of community resources and coordination of existing and new child care programs, (3) ensuring the…

  10. Valley Interfaith Child Care Center CMS


    Kramolisch, Andrew; Mack, Nate


    Included files:,,, viccc_final_paper.doc. The project consisted of revamping Valley Interfaith Child Care Center's website to be more modern and feature media. The goal was to cater to two diverse audiences: the families that needed their services and the investors who helped them keep running. This system is the result of efforts to do that. To run this software locally requires: Ruby 1.9.2 or newer, the bundler gem and either SQLite or PostgreSQL. The ...

  11. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms? (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna


    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  12. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.


    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  13. Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity among health care workers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Shahnaz, M; Azizah, M R; Hasma, H; Mok, K L; Yip, E; Ganesapillai, T; Suraiya, H; Nasuruddin, B A


    Health care workers have been reported to constitute one of the few high-risk groups related to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity associated with the use of latex products. This paper describes the first ever study of prevalence carried out in Malaysia among these workers. One hundred and thirty health care personnel from Hospital Kuala Lumpur were skin tested. Extracts used were prepared from seven different brands of natural rubber latex gloves with varying levels of extractable protein (EPRRIM). Out of the 130 volunteers, 4 (3.1%) had positive skin test to latex with extracts with high levels of EPRRIM (> 0.7 mg/g). The prevalence among the Malaysian health care workers can be considered to be low in comparison to that of some consumer countries as the USA which reported a prevalence of as high as 16.9%.

  14. Training Child Welfare Workers from an Intersectional Cultural Humility Perspective: A Paradigm Shift (United States)

    Ortega, Robert M.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn


    The increasing diversity of the populations encountered and served by child welfare workers challenges cultural competence models. Current concerns focus on the unintentional over-emphasis on shared group characteristics, undervaluing unique differences of individuals served, and privileging worker expertise about the client's culture, thereby…

  15. Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers. (United States)

    Zokan delos Reyes, Louise

    Written for social service workers involved with Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered, this manual presents basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA--intended to establish…

  16. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn


    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  17. Knowledge of community care workers about key family practices in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn Stellenberg


    Full Text Available Background: Interventions by community care workers within the context of communitybased integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices.Setting: The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI.Methods: A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied.Results: Only 25 of the respondents (10% obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledgebased items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]. Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01, the level of in-service training (p < 0.01, attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01, and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01.Conclusion: The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence.

  18. Susceptibility to varicella zoster virus infection in health care workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, J


    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an occupational hazard for a percentage of health care staff. Nine hundred and seventy staff members attending the Occupational Health Department at Cork University Hospital took part in the survey. A latex agglutination assay was used to determine the health care workers immune status to VZV. Of the 970 workers tested, 928 (95.7%) were immune to VZV. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of an enquiry regarding a history of chicken-pox was determined on a sample of 206 health care workers. The positive predictive value was 95% (119\\/125) and the negative predictive value was 11% (4\\/35). The sensitivity of the enquiry was 79% (119\\/150), the specificity was 40% (4\\/10), reducing to 61% (119\\/195) and 36% (4\\/11) respectively when individuals with uncertain histories were included in the calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of selective staff screening are discussed. In the authors\\' opinion all health care workers involved in the clinical care of patients should be screened by serology for past VZV infection before taking up duty and those who are susceptible to VZV should be made aware of the risks and health effects associated with VZV if contracted.

  19. Shared caregiving: comparisons between home and child-care settings. (United States)

    Ahnert, L; Rickert, H; Lamb, M E


    The experiences of 84 German toddlers (12-24 months old) who were either enrolled or not enrolled in child care were described with observational checklists from the time they woke up until they went to bed. The total amount of care experienced over the course of a weekday by 35 pairs of toddlers (1 member of each pair in child care, 1 member not) did not differ according to whether the toddlers spent time in child care. Although the child-care toddlers received lower levels of care from care providers in the centers, their mothers engaged them in more social interactions during nonworking hours than did the mothers of home-only toddlers, which suggests that families using child care provided different patterns of care than families not using child care. Child-care toddlers experienced high levels of emotional support at home, although they experienced less prompt responses to their distress signals. Mothers' ages were unrelated to the amounts of time toddlers spent with them, but older mothers initiated more proximity.

  20. Military Child Care Programs: Progress Made, More Needed. (United States)


    program areas such as nutri- tion, health, child growth and development, educational guidance, and remedial techniques. None of the existing service...activities weakens their programs. The child care staff should know about such things as nutri- tion, health, child growth and development

  1. [Social representations on aging by primary care health workers]. (United States)

    Mendes, Cristina Katya Torres Teixeira; Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Paredes, Maria Adelaide Silva; Rodrigues, Tatyanni Peixoto


    The objective of this study was to get to know the social representations on aging developed by primary care health workers. This is an exploratory study involving 204 primary health care workers, in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview. The data obtained from 204 interviews was analyzed with the help of the Alceste software version 2010. The results indicated five classes or categories: vision of aging,psychosocial dimensions, a time of doubts, aging as a process, and aging versus disease, with positive content: joy, care, children, retirement, caregiver rights, maturity and wisdom, as well as negative factors: impairments, decadence, neglect, fragility, limitation, wrinkles, dependency and disease. It was observed that these meanings associated with aging express the need for total and humanized elderly care.

  2. State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care, 2001. (United States)

    Ewen, Danielle; Blank, Helen; Hart, Katherine; Schulman, Karen

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care, early education, and school-age care issues during 2001. It is intended to serve as a supplement to "State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care 2000" and various reports published on this issue between 1997 and 1999. Information in the…

  3. 45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option. (United States)


    ... condition that poses a threat to children's health. Family child care providers must ensure that pets are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family child care program option. 1306.35 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  4. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika


    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  5. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.


    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  6. Child Care Teachers' Strategies in Children's Socialization of Emotion (United States)

    Ahn, Hey Jun


    An observational study was conducted to examine teachers' emotional socialization strategies in three child care centers. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that teachers in child care centers respond to children's emotional expressions with various strategies. Teachers clearly expressed a preference for positive emotion through verbal…

  7. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace


    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  8. Child Care in the American South: Poverty, Costs, and Quality (United States)

    Collins, Vikki K.


    High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…

  9. Business Administration Scale for Family Child Care, BAS (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula Jorde


    The "BAS for Family Child Care" is the first valid and reliable tool for measuring and improving the overall quality of business and professional practices in family child care settings. It is applicable for multiple uses, including program self-improvement, technical assistance and monitoring, training, research and evaluation, and public…

  10. [Freelance nurses and social care workers working with the elderly]. (United States)

    Douguet, Florence; Vilbrod, Alain


    Freelance nurses are in contact with an array of professionals working to help elderly people to continue living at home. In particular they form close ties with social service assistants and home care support workers. Between diverging perspectives and actual collaboration, these relationships seem atthe very least extremely contrasting.

  11. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care (United States)

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.


    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  12. The Health and Working Conditions of Women Employed in Child Care. (United States)

    Linnan, Laura; Arandia, Gabriela; Bateman, Lori A; Vaughn, Amber; Smith, Natalie; Ward, Dianne


    Over one million women are employed in child care and are among the lowest wage workers in the US. The health and working conditions of 674 child care workers (118 administrators and 556 staff) from 74 centers is described using baseline data from a larger intervention trial. Participants were 39.9 (±13.0) years old; 55.4% African American, 37.1% Caucasian, and 5.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Seventy-six percent reported having an Associate's degree or less; 42% were classified as at or below poverty (income and job category. Lower income participants were significantly more likely to be current smokers (19.9% vs. 11.7%), drink more sweetened beverages (1.9 vs. 1.5), and report higher depressive symptoms (15.5 vs. 12.6). Administrators worked more hours weekly compared to staff (46.4 vs. 40.6), are less active (100 vs. 126 min/week), more sedentary (501 vs. 477 min/day), and reported higher job demands (13.3 vs. 12.5). Given the numerous health issues and challenging work conditions, we hope our results serve as a call to action for addressing low wages and the work environment as a means of influencing the health and well-being of child care workers.

  13. The Health and Working Conditions of Women Employed in Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Linnan


    Full Text Available Over one million women are employed in child care and are among the lowest wage workers in the US. The health and working conditions of 674 child care workers (118 administrators and 556 staff from 74 centers is described using baseline data from a larger intervention trial. Participants were 39.9 (±13.0 years old; 55.4% African American, 37.1% Caucasian, and 5.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Seventy-six percent reported having an Associate’s degree or less; 42% were classified as at or below poverty (<$20,000; and exhibited many health risks such as excess weight, insufficient activity, poor diet, and inadequate sleep. We investigated potential differences by income and job category. Lower income participants were significantly more likely to be current smokers (19.9% vs. 11.7%, drink more sweetened beverages (1.9 vs. 1.5, and report higher depressive symptoms (15.5 vs. 12.6. Administrators worked more hours weekly compared to staff (46.4 vs. 40.6, are less active (100 vs. 126 min/week, more sedentary (501 vs. 477 min/day, and reported higher job demands (13.3 vs. 12.5. Given the numerous health issues and challenging work conditions, we hope our results serve as a call to action for addressing low wages and the work environment as a means of influencing the health and well-being of child care workers.

  14. Self - care strategies among risky profession workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vasková


    Full Text Available Taking care of oneself is crucial for maintaining one´s psychical and physical health. In the context of risky profession this topic can play an even more important role, because it can be the source of necessary information for improvement of coping capacity when one is confronted with crisis situations. The aim of the present study is to identify the most common forms of self-care among selected risky professions. In the second part is the attention focused on the comparison of the specificities of risky to non-risky professions in self-care. Methods: For data collection Self-regulation Self-care Questionnaire by authors Hricová and Lovaš (in press is used. The sample consists of two groups. In the first one participated 156 respondents, who worked in risky professions - namely police officers (60 at the age between 22 to 55 years (average age is 36.88, SD=9.49, fire fighters (46 at the age between 22 to 62 years (average age is 35.13, SD=8.31 and paramedics (50 at the age between 25 to 55 years (average age is 40.3, SD=6.62. 76.2% of the sample are men, 19.0% are women and 4,8% didn´t state their gender. The second sample consists of 161 participants who work in administrative, industry production or IT sphere. They were at the age between 23 to 61 years (average age is 38.01, SD=10.45. 74% of the sample are men and 21.7% are women. Results and discussion: Results confirmed the dominance of psychological self-care above physical among risky professions. To the forefront gets the need to live meaningful life, to fully use one´s skills and to be satisfied with one´s life and decisions. All this needs can be assigned to the necessity of sense, which could be seen as a result of everyday contact with critical and life threaten situations. Equally important sphere of self-care is the necessity of high-quality relationships, which doesn´t mean only relationships with family or friends. It is important to highlight also relationships with

  15. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings (United States)

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  16. Model Child Care Standards Act--Guidance to States to Prevent Child Abuse in Day Care Facilities. (United States)

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    The document offers guidelines to states regarding review and revision of child care statutes, standards, and policies to address the prevention of child sexual abuse in day care facilities. General information is also provided on changes in state standards in recent years. Each of six sections examines findings of the 1981 Comparative Licensing…

  17. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  18. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.


    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  19. The Tanzania Connect Project: a cluster-randomized trial of the child survival impact of adding paid community health workers to an existing facility-focused health system


    Ramsey, Kate; Hingora,Ahmed; Kante, Malick; Jackson, Elizabeth; Exavery, Amon; Pemba, Senga; Manzi, Fatuma; Baynes, Colin; Helleringer, Stephane; Phillips, James F.


    Background Tanzania has been a pioneer in establishing community-level services, yet challenges remain in sustaining these systems and ensuring adequate human resource strategies. In particular, the added value of a cadre of professional community health workers is under debate. While Tanzania has the highest density of primary health care facilities in Africa, equitable access and quality of care remain a challenge. Utilization for many services proven to reduce child and maternal mortality ...

  20. Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity: The Case of Child-Protection Workers. (United States)

    Geoffrion, Steve; Morselli, Carlo; Guay, Stéphane


    Compassion fatigue is currently the dominant model in work-related stress studies that explain the consequences of caring for others on child-protection workers. Based on a deterministic approach, this model excludes the role of cognition a priori and a posteriori in the understanding of the impact of caregiving or providing social support. By integrating the notion of professional identity, this article adds a subjective perspective to the compassion fatigue model allowing for the consideration of positive outcomes and takes into account the influence of stress caused by accountability. Mainly, it is argued that meanings derived from identity and given to situations may protect or accelerate the development of compassion fatigue or compassion satisfaction. To arrive at this proposition, the notions of compassion fatigue and identity theory are first reviewed. These concepts are then articulated around four work-related stressors specific to child-protection work. In light of this exercise, it is argued that professional identity serves as a subjective interpretative framework that guides the understanding of work-related situations. Therefore, compassion fatigue is not only a simple reaction to external stimuli. It is influenced by meanings given to the situation. Furthermore, professional identity modulates the impact of compassion fatigue on psychological well-being. Practice, policy, and research implications in light of these findings are also discussed.

  1. A training intervention on child feeding among primary healthcare workers in Ibadan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folake O. Samuel


    Full Text Available Introduction: Health workers at the primary level are well positioned to provide health information and counselling on child feeding to mothers on antenatal visits. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of training on the knowledge, attitudes and provision of infant and young child feeding (IYCF information and counselling among primary healthcare (PHC workers. Methods: A two-stage cluster sample was used to select health workers for training on IYCF in Ibadan, Nigeria. Baseline, immediate and 4-week post-training surveys were conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers regarding IYCF. Paired t-tests were used to measure differences (p < 0.05 before and after the training. Results: A total of 124 health workers were trained on current global IYCF recommendations. Participants included community health extension workers (59.7%, nurses (27.4%, community health officers (11.3%, and pharmacy technicians (1.6%. Mean age was 41.8 ± 8.2 years and 95.2% were women. Knowledge of health workers regarding IYCF, particularly complementary feeding, was low at baseline but improved significantly following the training intervention. Attitudes and practices regarding provision of IYCF were suboptimal among health workers at the PHC facilities, but this improved with training. Conclusion: Health workers at the PHC level need regular retraining exercises to ensure effective counselling on IYCF.

  2. The Impact of Regulations on the Supply and Quality of Care in Child Care Markets (United States)

    Joseph Hotz, V.; Xiao, Mo


    We examine the impact of state child care regulations on the supply and quality of care in child care markets. We exploit panel data on both individual establishments and local markets to control for state, time, and, where possible, establishment-specific fixed effects to mitigate the potential bias due to policy endogeneity. We find that the imposition of regulations reduces the number of center-based child care establishments, especially in lower income markets. However, such regulations increase the quality of services provided, especially in higher income areas. Thus, there are winners and losers from the regulation of child care services. PMID:24991060

  3. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child (United States)

    ... to your child, you may refer to your religious, spiritual, and cultural beliefs about death. You might ... The foremost — and perhaps trickiest — task for worried parents is to treat a sick child as normally ...

  4. Better Kid Care Program Improves the Quality of Child Care: Results from an Interview Study (United States)

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.; Wehmeier, Jenny M.


    More high quality child care is needed in the United States. This article evaluates the Better Kid Care (BKC) program produced by Pennsylvania State University Extension. Child care staff in Wisconsin were interviewed about changes they had made in their early childhood programs following participation in the BKC program. Findings show that 2…

  5. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience? (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  6. Taking Care of the Kids: The Corporate Role in Providing Child Care. (United States)

    Friedman, Dana E.


    More and more people are beginning to look to their employers for a solution to the child care dilemma. Various types of employer supported child care are described, including day care centers, after school programs, summer day camps, financial assistance, flexible benefit plans, and information and referral services. (CB)

  7. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma." (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  8. Migrant care workers or migrants working in long-term care? A review of Australian experience. (United States)

    Howe, Anna L


    Discussion of the role of migrant care workers in long-term care (LTC) that has gained increasing attention in the United States and other developed countries in recent years is of particular relevance to Australia, where 24% of the total population is overseas-born, two-thirds of them coming from countries where English is not the primary language. Issues of interest arise regarding meeting LTC workforce demands in general and responding to the particular cultural and linguistic needs of postwar immigrants who are now reaching old age in increasing numbers. This review begins with an account of the overseas-born components of the aged care workforce and then examines this representation with reference to the four factors identified as shaping international flows of care workers in the comparative study carried out for the AARP Public Policy Institute in 2005: migration policies, LTC financing arrangements, worker recruitment and training, and credentialing. The ways in which these factors play out in Australia mean that while overseas-born workers are overrepresented in the LTC workforce, migrant care workers are not identifiable as a marginalized group experiencing disadvantage in employment conditions, nor do they offer a solution to workforce shortages. The Australian experience is different from those of other countries in many respects, but it does show that the experience of migrant care workers is not unique to LTC and points to the need to extend the search for solutions to workforce shortages and improving conditions of all care workers well beyond LTC systems to wider policy settings.

  9. Constructions of accountability in child protection workers decision-making processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Ida Marie


    construction of accountability as relational effects of these new forms of accounting practice. The paper draws on the preliminary results from a 2 ½ year mixed method study of how budgeting and accounting practice influences the processes of decision-making in child protection work. The data has been......In order to meet public and political demands on more transparent and efficient public spending the Danish local governments have, as in many other European countries, implemented strict budget constraints and decision control. Within child protection work the aim has been to strengthen managerial...... accountability in the hopes that child protection workers would be motivated to take into account budget constraints, and public economy in general, when deciding on social interventions. Inspired by the sociological practice-oriented accounting literature, this paper explores child protection workers...

  10. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne


    universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, longer hours in non-parental care lead to poorer child outcomes.......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  11. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa


    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  12. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind? (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha


    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  13. Health Care Coverage among Child Support-Eligible Children. (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    Using data from the National Survey of America's Families (a nationally representative survey of the economic, social, and health characteristics of children, adults, and their families), this paper discusses health care coverage among child support eligible children. It begins with a detailed profile of child support eligible children living with…

  14. Project Iris - Caring for a sexually abused foster child.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Dorijn; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura


    The traumatizing effects of child sexual abuse are generally acknowledged. Successfully fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse requires specific skills and knowledge. What expertise do foster families caring for these vulnerable children have? What do they need to succeed? What do foster c

  15. Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School (United States)

    ... Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | Register Home Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & ... several years of life as their bodies are building immunity to infections. In many child care facilities, ...

  16. The Role of Play in Danish Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra


    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  17. Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate (United States)

    ... Volunteer Efforts Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & ... version of this factsheet, click here How does cleft lip/palate affect the teeth? A cleft of the lip, ...

  18. Working conditions and related neuropsychiatric problems among shoemakers in Turkey: Do child workers differ from others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elci Omur


    Full Text Available Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated working conditions and related neuropsychiatric problems of shoemakers, including child workers, working in poor conditions with high health risks. Clinical diagnosis was not the objective of this study. Materials and Methods: We collected data from 318 workers ranging from 8-66 years of age. We evaluated working conditions, neuropathy symptoms and signs; urinary 2,5-hexanedione was used to estimate hexane exposure. We used the Zung depression scale for adult shoemakers to evaluate depression. Results: All workshops employed fewer than 10 workers with median daily work duration of 12h. Smoking and alcohol consumption were high among all workers including children. Peripheral neuropathy symptoms and signs were observed in 88 workers (27.8% and it was related to alcohol consumption. Sixty-eight workers (47.9% had depression and it was associated with daily work duration. Conclusion: Extremely poor, unhygienic, working conditions and a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders were the main problems observed among shoemakers. A high number of child workers increased the scale of these observed problems.

  19. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline


    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  20. Fragmentation of maternal, child and HIV services: A missed opportunity to provide comprehensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn J. Haskins


    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, coverage of services for mothers and babies in the first year of life is suboptimal despite high immunisation coverage over the same time period. Integration of services could improve accessibility of services, uptake of interventions and retention in care.Aim: This study describes provision of services for mothers and babies aged under 1 year.Setting: Primary healthcare clinics in one rural district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: All healthcare workers on duty and mothers exiting the clinic after attending well-child services were interviewed. Clinics were mapped to show the route through the clinic taken by mother–baby pairs receiving well-child services, where these services were provided and by whom.Results: Twelve clinics were visited; 116 health workers and 211 mothers were interviewed. Most clinics did not provide comprehensive services for mothers and children. Challenges of structural layout and deployment of equipment led to fragmented services provided by several different health workers in different rooms. Well-child services were frequently provided in public areas of the clinic or with other mothers present. In some clinics mothers and babies did not routinely see a professional nurse. In all clinics HIV-positive mothers followed a different route. Enrolled nurses led the provision of well-child services but did not have skills and training to provide comprehensive care.Conclusions: Fragmentation of clinic services created barriers in accessing a comprehensive package of care resulting in missed opportunities to provide services. Greater integration of services alongside immunisation services is needed.

  1. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth (United States)

    ... Previous section Use Fluoride 5 of 7 sections Take Action: Foods and Drinks Give your child healthy foods. Healthy foods include vegetables, ... to tooth decay. To help prevent tooth decay: Give your kids only tap water to drink between meals. Serve milk or juice with a meal instead of between ... 6 of 7 sections Take Action: Dental Checkups Take your child to the ...

  2. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets (United States)

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael


    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  3. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers (United States)

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika


    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  4. "Who Says What Is Quality?": Setting Quality Standards for Family Child Care (United States)

    Modigliani, Kathy


    This article tells the story of the 4-year consensus-building process to design quality standards for the field of family child care. Working with the National Association for Family Child Care, the Family Child Care Project at Wheelock College was funded to create an accreditation system for home-based child care programs using innovative methods…

  5. Child care is not a substantial risk factor for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Andersen, Lise Geisler; Simonsen, Jacob;


    The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection.......The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection....

  6. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie


    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  7. 20 CFR 219.53 - Evidence of having a child in care. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of having a child in care. 219.53... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.53 Evidence of having a child in care. (a) Preferred evidence of having a child in care. Preferred evidence of having a child in care is— (1) If...

  8. Options for Improving the Military Child Care System (United States)


    military parents use parental care, our analysis of survey responses revealed that most of these are families headed by an unmarried male military...children while the parent or parents were working or going to school. Parental care (care provided by the mother or father) was an option that the child’s mother , a finding that suggests that at least some single military parents do have other child care options available to them and are

  9. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca


    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  10. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries,


    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and ge

  11. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice


    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  12. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations (United States)

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion


    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  13. Child Care is Everybody's Baby: A Comprehensive Report of Child Care Services, Past, Present, and Future at M.I.T. Final Child Care Proposals as Accepted by M.I.T. (United States)

    Swartz, Marilyn S.

    The report on child care services at M.I.T. explores the following areas: (1) Planning Issues: Why Should M.I.T. Be Involved in Child Care?--educational concerns, services, benefits and costs, priorities, resource allocation; (2) Background for Planning; Current Institute Child Care Programs--a concise history, M.I.T. summer day camp, the…

  14. Caring for a child with cancer: impact on mother's health. (United States)

    Rafii, Forugh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Shoghi, Mahnaz


    The life of a mother undergoes a dramatic change after a child is diagnosed with cancer. The present study aimed to determine effects on the everyday life process and health status of mothers with children suffering from leukemia. This qualitative study was based on a grounded theory approach with sixteen mothers. The results indicate that after onset of disease in their children, they marginalized their own health and tied their identities to taking care of the child and keeping the child healthy by ignoring themselves, becoming imprisoned in a taking-care-of-the-child position, and trying very hard for seek balance and stability Enduring physical pressures on the one hand, and constantly attempting to achieve balance and stability in family processes on the other hand, gradually cause exhaustion. It seems that health care providers and nurses should pay much more attention to the health status of this group of mothers.

  15. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers. (United States)

    Shimoji, Shigehiro; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Shibutani, Tohru; Ogasawara, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Furusawa, Kiyofumi


    Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%), 6 splash exposures (18.8%), and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66) reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58) and 60.3% (35/58) in dentists and 88.6% (39/44) and 61.4% (27/44) in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58) for dentists and 34.1% (15/44) for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were 'splatters from the patient's mouth contain blood' (90%, 99/110) and 'dental operations at our clinic are performed based only on a questionnaire without serious examinations for HBV, HCV, and HIV' (71.8%, 79/110). The reason of low compliance of protective eyewear among dentists might relate to fine dental procedures. Appropriate information is important for the motive of wearing personal protective equipment, and an early educational program may have a potential to increase compliance with the use of that equipment.

  16. Predictions of Children's Experiences with Latina Family Child Care Providers (United States)

    Zuniga, Stephen A.; Howes, Carollee


    Research Findings: Relatively little is known about the pre-academic experiences of Latino/a children in family child care. In this work we tested the extent to which previously established relations among provider characteristics, scaffolding and responsive behaviors, total quality (Family Day Care Rating Scale), and children's engagement in…

  17. Ending neglect: providing effective childhood tuberculosis training for health care workers in Tanzania (United States)

    Olotu, R.; Talbot, E. A.; Cronin, B. J.; Christopher, R.; Mkomwa, Z.


    Setting: Health care facilities in Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Arusha, Tanzania. Objective: To assess health care worker (HCW) knowledge and practices 1 year after specialized training in childhood tuberculosis (TB). Design: Using a standardized survey, we interviewed a convenience sample of HCWs providing both general and specialized care to children. Results: We interviewed 117 HCWs in TB clinics, maternal and child health clinics, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics, out-patient departments, and pediatric in-patient wards at 12 facilities. A total of 81 HCWs (62% of nurses, 74% of clinicians) reported having attended the national childhood TB training course. Most HCWs responded correctly to questions on childhood TB diagnosis, treatment, and TB-HIV co-management, regardless of training history. Most HCWs reported that they routinely obtain chest radiographs, HIV testing, and a TB contact history when evaluating children for TB. Less than half of HCWs reported routinely obtaining sputum for mycobacterial culture or performing a tuberculin skin test. Three times as many trained as untrained HCWs reported having ever prescribed isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to a child (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In general, levels of childhood TB knowledge were high and practices were in accordance with national guidance. Specific gaps in diagnosis, treatment and use of IPT were identified for future focused training. PMID:26400701

  18. Risk factors for nosocomial tuberculosis transmission among health care workers. (United States)

    Ito, Yutaka; Nagao, Miki; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Takakura, Shunji; Igawa, Junko; Yamanaka, Hiroe; Hashimoto, Akiko; Hirai, Toyohiro; Niimi, Akio; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Mishima, Michiaki


    We conducted hospital-based contact investigations of 55 serial sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients and 771 health care workers (HCWs) from 2006-2013. HCWs who made contact with TB patients in the absence of appropriate airborne precautions were evaluated using interferon gamma release assays to identify TB infection. Twenty-nine HCWs (3.8%) were newly diagnosed with TB infection. The 10 TB patients responsible for transmission had a duration of contact of >7 days by multivariate analysis.

  19. Chickenpox ARDS in a health care worker following occupational exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knaggs, A


    A case is described of chickenpox acute respiratory distress syndrome in an ambulance driver after the inter-hospital transfer of a patient known to have chickenpox pneumonia. Following this exposure, he neither avoided patient contact nor received varicella zoster immune globulin. He subsequently required 13 days of ventilatory support before making a full recovery. The case described supports the contention that health care workers should be screened by serology for immunity to chickenpox before patient contact occurs, with subsequent vaccination of those who are non-immune, when the vaccine becomes available.

  20. Shedding Further Light on the Effects of Various Types and Quality of Early Child Care on Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship: The Haifa Study of Early Child Care. (United States)

    Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa


    The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…

  1. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.


    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  2. Employee motivation and employee performance in child care : the effects of the introduction of market forces on employees in the Dutch child-care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam


    Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on emplo

  3. Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care : The effects of the Introduction of Market Forces on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam


    This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is co

  4. Policy Development by the People: The Navajo Child Care Standards Project. (United States)

    Keane, Coleen


    Traces the development of the Navajo Child Care Standards Project and also the Model Law and Regulations for Navajo Foster Care Providers. Describes the successful involvement of Indian Parents in the development of tribal standards for foster child care. (AN)

  5. [Systematization of regional maternal and child health care]. (United States)

    Kitamura, K


    Systematization of regional maternal and child health care is discussed. At present regional maternal and child health care is mainly carried out by public health nurses, midwives, and maternal/child health promotor volunteers. Administrative measures taken so far in connection with maternal and child care are: early notification of pregnancy, issuance of mother/child health memo book, frequent check-ups during pregnancy, expectant mothers' education, baby check-ups, inoculation, and a special care of premature babies. 2 models for the systematization are proposed. According to the 1st model, a public health nurse starts to function whenever one or more of the following occurs. Birth registration and request for counseling from a nursing mother have been filed at the public health office. The notice of release of a nursing mother and request for home visiting from the medical institution arrive. Maternal and child health promotors advise guidance through home visiting. Midwives will play an important role among the patients with postpartum complications. Another model emphasizes the importance of the patient's continuing relationship with the medical institution where the birth took place. A midwife and a public health nurse interested in regional maternal and child care will be placed in the medical institution to engage in home visiting after the release of the patients. In addition to the usual 1 month baby check-up, one at 2 weeks is given for the benefit of nursing mothers. Regional public health nurses concentrate on the care of high risk patients, premarital pregnancy, and family planning. As systematization progresses, it becomes necessary to have a liason department of obstetrics and an information exchange system to achieve better communication between medical institutions and an administrative body.

  6. Does Well-Child Care Have a Future in Pediatrics?


    Coker, Tumaini R.; Thomas, Tainayah; Chung, Paul J.


    The most common adult chronic diseases affect 1 in 3 adults and account for more than three-quarters of US health care spending. The major childhood drivers of adult disease are distinctly nonmedical: poverty, poor educational outcomes, unhealthy social and physical environments, and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Ideally, well-child care (WCC) would address these drivers and help create healthier adults with more productive lives and lower health care costs. For children without serious acute ...

  7. Challenges in tuberculosis care in Western Uganda: Health care worker and patient perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Wynne


    Full Text Available Uganda is one of the high burden countries that contribute 80% of the world’s tuberculosis (TB burden. Health care worker and patient perspectives provide valuable insight into gaps between policy and practice within tuberculosis control program. This study was part of a larger mixed-methods study to explore knowledge and stigma around HIV, TB and TB/HIV co-infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative data. Findings related to challenges faced by health care workers and patients. Patient’s identified delays in diagnosis and financial burden associated with TB treatment. Health care workers called for more training on TB and TB/HIV co-infection, and identified poor referral practices between health units and lack of program funding resulting in the abandonment of DOTS programs. Training for health care workers is needed to better manage TB/HIV co-infected patients. Overall health system strengthening is needed, including referral systems tracking patients between health centers.

  8. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Shimoji


    Full Text Available Shigehiro Shimoji1, Kohji Ishihama1,2, Hidefumi Yamada1, Masaki Okayama1, Kouichi Yasuda1,3, Tohru Shibutani3,4, Tadashi Ogasawara2,5, Hiroo Miyazawa2,3, Kiyofumi Furusawa11Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan; 2Infection Control Team, 3Risk Management Working Team, Matsumoto Dental University Hospital, Shiojiri, Japan; 4Department of Dental Anesthesiology, 5Department of Special Care Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, JapanAbstract: Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%, 6 splash exposures (18.8%, and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66 reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58 and 60.3% (35/58 in dentists and 88.6% (39/44 and 61.4% (27/44 in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58 for dentists and 34.1% (15/44 for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood

  9. Improving motivation among primary health care workers in Tanzania: a health worker perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bygbjerg Ib Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide. The primary issues arising pertain to complexities of multitasking in an environment of staff shortages, a desire for more structured and supportive supervision from managers, and improved transparency in career development opportunities. Further, suggestions were made for inter-facility exchanges, particularly on commonly referred cases. The discussion highlights the context of some of the problems identified in the results and suggests that some of the preferences presented by the health workers be discussed at policy level with a view to adding value to most services with minimum additional resources.

  10. Family, Child Labour and Migration. Child Domestic Workers in Metro Manila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, A.Z.


    This study explores the complex interrelationship between the family, child work and migration, the role of the family in decision-making and migration process and the economic benefits of labour migration for the child's family. The study is based on interviews with 50 children below 18 years of ag

  11. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers. (United States)

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C


    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization.

  12. Child Health Booklet: experiences of professionals in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade


    Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.

  13. Associations of Caregiver Stress with Working Conditions, Caregiving Practices, and Child Behaviour in Home-Based Child Care (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith


    Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…

  14. Learning and knowledge-integration strategies of nurses and client care workers serving homeless persons. (United States)

    Guirguis-Younger, Manal; McNeil, Ryan; Runnels, Vivien


    Health-care workers serving homeless persons often face difficulties in addressing the needs of this population due to the complexity of the health challenges and gaps in clinical knowledge. How can health-care workers enhance their ability to care for this population? The authors explore the learning and knowledge-integration strategies of nurses and client care workers employed by organizations targeting homeless persons in a Canadian city. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 health-care workers.The data were examined using narrative analysis and constant comparative analysis. Three strategies were identified: integrating past experiences into clinical practice, interacting with clients to identify care needs and boundaries, and engaging in interprofessional knowledge exchange. A better understanding of these strategies may help nursing programs and health-services organizations to equip health-care workers with the skills they need to serve homeless persons.

  15. Child Health and Access to Medical Care (United States)

    Leininger, Lindsey; Levy, Helen


    It might seem strange to ask whether increasing access to medical care can improve children's health. Yet Lindsey Leininger and Helen Levy begin by pointing out that access to care plays a smaller role than we might think, and that many other factors, such as those discussed elsewhere in this issue, strongly influence children's health.…

  16. Familial Factors Associated with the Use of Multiple Child-Care Arrangements (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.


    This study examined the use of multiple, concurrent, nonparental child-care arrangements among children under 5 with employed mothers in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N= 759). Older children, those primarily cared for in informal child care, those living in cohabitating or single-parent households, and those whose…

  17. Demands and Job Resources in the Child Care Workforce: Swiss Lead Teacher and Assistant Teacher Assessments (United States)

    Bloechliger, Olivia R.; Bauer, Georg F.


    Center-based child care has been struggling with poor health and high turnover rates of child care staff and their adverse impact on care quality for decades. Yet little is known about personal and structural antecedents of job resources and job demands that are valid predictors of health and turnover in the child care workforce. Research…

  18. Visiting and office home care workers' occupational health: An analysis of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity measures associated with emotional and physical health


    Zeytinoglu, Isik U.; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Seaton, M. Bianca; Millen, Jennifer


    The home health care sector in Canada experienced major restructuring in the mid-1990s creating a variety of flexibilities for organizations and insecurities for workers. This paper examines the emotional and physical health consequences of employer flexibilities and worker insecurities on home health care workers. For emotional health the focus is on stress and for physical health the focus is on selfreported musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of home health care workers in...

  19. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less. (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E


    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pouryaghoub


    Full Text Available Latex allergy has become an occupational hazard among healthcare workers. Atopy, intensity and duration of exposure have been recognized as predisposing factors for latex sensitization. Frequency of sensitization varies among countries. So we decided to investigate the prevalence of latex sensitization and potential risk factors among healthcare workers in a general hospital. In a cross sectional study by distributing a questionnaire among 876 employees of a general hospital, we investigated the prevalence of latex allergy and the potential risk factors for latex sensitization. We collected information about occupational history, including specific tasks performed, time of first exposure to latex, number of pairs of gloves used, and duration of weekly exposure. We also investigated the interval between first exposure and onset of symptoms. We asked about pre-existing rhinoconjuctivitis, asthma, atopic and contact dermatitis, hay fever, autoimmune diseases, and food allergies. This survey documented a high prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials (52.5%. 37.7% of responder had adverse reaction to latex gloves. The highest prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials was found in the surgical operating room, followed by emergency unit and internal medicine wards. According to this study, frequency of adverse reaction to latex was high among health care workers. This may be due to relatively low response rate, low quality of latex products in Iran, and the method of measurement. Whenever, the need for implementing prevention program, using latex-free methods and training of employees to reduce adverse reaction to latex is apparent.

  1. Caretakers, child care practices, and growth failure in highland Ecuador. (United States)

    Stansbury, J P; Leonard, W R; DeWalt, K M


    Problems for child health have been attributed to child and sibling caretaking. Nevertheless, our data from highland Ecuador suggest an ambiguous relationship between growth failure and the practice of peer care. In a region where levels of chronic undernutrition as measured by stunting exceed 75 percent and fully one-quarter of children under five are underweight, analysis of structured observations of a sample of 28 children reveals no statistical association between growth indices and the practice of older children caring for younger children. Qualitative data, however, indicate that the practice can be a complication in specific cases where children already suffer compromised health. While the advantages or disadvantages associated with particular caretakers appear secondary to the risks attending inadequate diets or the broader environment of rural poverty, the potential for difficulties to emerge from peer care suggests that community day care provides a valuable alternative in this context.

  2. The daily child care from the perspective of Winnicott


    Débora Falleiros de Mello; Ana Carolina Gomes Antonietto; Maria Cândida de Carvalho Furtado; Monika Wernet; Juliana de Jesus Alves


    The purpose of the present study is to describe the way children under 2 years of age are daily taken care of as seen by their mothers in order to provide support to practices and knowledge in child health in the context of primary health care. A descriptive exploratory study was carried out with qualitative data analysis from the perspective of Winnicott‟s approach based on taped interviews with 17 mothers. The results are organized into the following different categories: maternal responsib...

  3. The dimensionality of coping among Chinese health care workers. (United States)

    Scherer, R F; Hwang, C E; Yan, W; Li, J


    The transactional model defines coping as a process that changes on the basis of the context of an environmental encounter. An instrument used to investigate coping in diverse person-environment interactions is the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC; S. Folkman & R. S. Lazarus, 1988). Although evidence exists to support the basic underlying structure of the WOC in Western societies, no research has been conducted on the instrument's dimensionality in non-Western societies. The authors identified 14 factors for the WOC administered to a sample of health care workers in Beijing, China. The 14 factors identified in the present study were similar to the 8 factors identified in the original validation study (S. Folkman, R. S. Lazarus, C. Dunkel-Schetter, A. DeLongis, & R. J. Gruen, 1986), but they were more content specific.

  4. [Evaluation of a training program for child welfare case workers on trauma sequelae in foster children]. (United States)

    Oswald, Sylvia H; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz


    Foster children are exposed to multiple psychosocial and biological risk factors and have an elevated risk for developmental delays and the development of mental disorders. Many children experienced compromising situations such as neglect, physical abuse, or sexual abuse before out-of-home placement. Consequently, they show a higher need for mental health services than other children. However, out-of-home placement is often considered as the sufficient measure to help these children. Hence this project had the aim to sensitize child welfare agencies and foster parent organisations for the special needs and history of foster children, to provide them with instruments for the assessment of emotional and behaviour problems and to promote the cooperation at the interface between child welfare system and mental health system. Twenty-four child welfare agencies and four foster parent organisations participated. The control group consisted of 16 non-participating child welfare agencies. After one year, participants recorded more often children's social history (p = .023), conducted more often standardized psychosocial assessments (p = .001), assessed more often the medical needs of foster children (p = .029), and informed foster parents more often about behaviour problems of their foster child (p = .034). In summary, child welfare agencies were very interested, could be sensitized for mental disorders following traumata and implemented the offered instruments in their work. Limits of resources could be observed due to the case workers' high case load.

  5. What Makes Migrant Live-in Home Care Workers in Elder Care Be Satisfied with Their Job? (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther


    Purpose: The study aims to examine job satisfaction of migrant live-in home care workers who provide care to frail older adults and to examine the extent to which quality of relationships between the care provider and care recipient and workplace characteristics is associated with job satisfaction. Design and Methods: A convenience sample that…

  6. Restoring dignity and respect to health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Olesja


    Full Text Available Introduction. This year, the World Health Organization focuses on restoring dignity and respect to health care workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workplace stressors in physicians. Material and Methods. The present study was performed in the period 2002-2004, among physicians treated in the Health Center Novi Sad. The examinees were asked to fill out a questionnaire - a workplace survey - to identify workplace stressors by using a self-evaluation method. The physicians were divided into three groups: those practicing surgery (S, internal medicine (IM and preventive-diagnostics (PD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS and STATISTICA software. The sample included 208 physicians with an average age of 40 years (SD=7,1; average work experience of 22 years (SD=8,1. Results. 65 physicians from group S and 108 physicians from group IM, identified the following workplace stressors: treating patients in life-threatening situations (47.7%, 30.6%, respectfully; on-call duty (13.8%, 12%; low salary (10.8%, 10.2%; limited diagnostic and therapeutic resources in the IM group. 35 physicians from the DP group identified the following stressors: low salary (25%, treating patients in life-threatening situations and a great number of patients (16%. The analysis of all examined physicians revealed the following workplace stressors: treating patients in life-threatening situations (34.6%, low salary (13%, on-call duty and overtime, and too many patients per physician (11.5%. Conclusion. Restoring the reputation of health workers can be done by providing new equipment to resolve life-threatening situations, by increasing salaries, reducing on-call time, as well as the number of patients. Generally speaking, this should help to improve the quality of work in the health care system, in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO. .

  7. The Learning Tree Montessori Child Care: An Approach to Diversity (United States)

    Wick, Laurie


    In this article the author describes how she and her partners started The Learning Tree Montessori Child Care, a Montessori program with a different approach in Seattle in 1979. The author also relates that the other area Montessori schools then offered half-day programs, and as a result the children who attended were, for the most part,…

  8. 78 FR 29441 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program (United States)


    ... systems for child care quality improvement. This proposed rule is driven by the same priorities and vision... into better alignment with the current knowledge in the field, result in a more comprehensive vision of... administration of the program. These proposed changes represent minimum, common-sense standards for the...

  9. Supporting Children's Participation in Finnish Child Care Centers (United States)

    Venninen, Tuulikki; Leinonen, Jonna; Lipponen, Lasse; Ojala, Mikko


    Children's participation in the early childhood education context is a multidimensional issue and educators have a significant role in enhancing participation. In this paper, we focus on the existing challenges to children's participation and the ways that child care educators can work as teams to meet those challenges. The data were collected…

  10. Child Care Work Environments: The Relationship with Learning Environments (United States)

    Lower, Joanna K.; Cassidy, Deborah J.


    The study explores the relationship between child care program administration, organizational climate, and global quality. The recently developed Program Administration Scale (PAS; Talan & Bloom, 2004) was utilized in the study. Both program administration and organizational climate were found to be positively correlated with preschool classroom…

  11. Health care workers' compliance with hand hygiene regulations: Positive effects of a poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Joyce; Berendsen, Femke; Pol, Bert; Dorman, Hilde


    Health care workers in nursing homes do not always comply with hand hygiene regulations, such as not wearing jewelry. Non-compliance with these regulations is a threat to patients' safety. We did two studies to investigate if compliance could be improved by a poster that reminds health care workers

  12. Office of Child Care Report to Congress FY2006 - FY2007 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Care Report to Congress is required by Section 658L of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act as amended by the Personal Responsibility...

  13. Office of Child Care Report to Congress FY2004 - FY2005 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Care Report to Congress is required by Section 658L of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act as amended by the Personal Responsibility...

  14. Ask Dr. Sue. Going Barefoot and Having Animals in Child Care. (United States)

    Aronson, Susan S.


    Provides health-related information in response to questions about whether children should go barefoot in child care settings and what precautions caregivers should follow when pets or other animals are present in child care facilities. (BB)

  15. The Bananas' Manual on Event Child Care. (United States)

    Bananas, Inc., Oakland, CA.

    Written for individuals and/or groups, this manual provides a step-by-step guide to the implementation of day care during special events such as fund raisers and workshops. The introduction includes information on staff, site, and insurance requirements. Next, instruction is provided on the preparation of business forms, meeting the unique needs…

  16. Aesthetics in Asian Child Care Settings. (United States)

    Honig, Alice S.

    This speech presents observations, made on a trip in June 1976, of the aesthetic environments of children in China, Japan, and Hong Kong. Home, school and day care environments are compared in terms of living and play space, room decor, the presence of art and toys, dramatic play and performance, music, nature and outdoor appreciation, food and…

  17. Napa County Entrepreneurial Child Care Training. (United States)

    Napa County Employment Training Office, CA.

    A multiagency project designed a program to train participants to become licensed family day care home operators. Participant recruitment was conducted by means of a flyer, advertisements in the help wanted section, community service announcements, press releases, and notices to the high schools. The program recruited 43 potential family day care…

  18. Knowledge Level and Attitude of Health Care Workers About HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ižnci


    Full Text Available Aim: In this study,it was aimed to investigate the level of knowledge and attitudes of healty care workers about HIV/AIDS. Material and Method: Data on knowledge and attitude of health care workers about HIV/AIDS was collected with a questionnaire. Results:This research was carried out on 230 health care workers (36 doctors, 194 nurses to investigate their knowledge and attidudes on HIV/AIDS. All of the participants knew that HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease,while 90.4 % of the participants stated that HIV/AIDS can be transmitted sexually.76.5 % of the participants stated they found their work risky for HIV/AIDS. Discussion:These findings have provided a data for educational programs designed for healty care workers. We belive that education programs for healty care workers will be effecive to control HIV/AIDS.

  19. Understanding Cortisol Reactivity across the Day at Child Care: The Potential Buffering Role of Secure Attachments to Caregivers (United States)

    Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos


    Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…

  20. Offering Hope, Not Despair: Eradicating Child Labour without Putting Child Workers on the Streets. Briefing. (United States)

    World Vision UK, Milton Keynes (England).

    Addressed to British companies doing business overseas, this briefing paper offers recommendations on practical steps to combat exploitative child labor while explaining why action without the provision of alternative incomes could drive children into higher risk areas of the informal economy. The paper explains that if sufficient resources are…

  1. Front-line worker engagement: greening health care, improving worker and patient health, and building better jobs. (United States)

    Chenven, Laura; Copeland, Danielle


    Frontline workers have a great deal to contribute to improving environmental sustainability of their employers and the health of workers and patients. This article discusses a national project of the Healthcare Career Advancement Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Labor to support green jobs development. Implementation was accomplished through a labor/management collaboration between union locals and 11 employers in four regions throughout the United States. The project developed and implemented a model of training and education for environmental service workers and other frontline health-care workers in hospital settings that supported systems change and built new roles for these workers. It empowered them to contribute to triple bottom line outcomes in support of People (patients, workers, the community), Planet (environmental sustainability and a lower carbon footprint), and Profit (cost savings for the institutions). In the process workers more clearly articulated their important role as a part of the healthcare team and learned how they could contribute to improved patient and worker health and safety.

  2. Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Mahfouz


    Full Text Available The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users. In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739. Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278. Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one’s medical career.

  3. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Workers of Endoscopy Units in Korea


    Nam, Seung-Joo; Chun, Hoon Jai; Moon, Jeong Seop; Park, Sung Chul; Hwang, Young-Jae; Yoo, In Kyung; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck


    Background/Aims: The management of job-related stress among health-care workers is critical for the improvement of healthcare services; however, there is no existing research on endoscopy unit workers as a team. Korea has a unique health-care system for endoscopy unit workers. In this study, we aimed to estimate job stress and job satisfaction among health-care providers in endoscopy units in Korea. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of health-care providers in the endoscopy units...

  4. Travelling Child Care for New Delhi's "Nomad' Workers (United States)

    Phadke, Sindu


    Highlighted is a new UNICEF all-purpose mobile facility called the "Mobile Creche" which provides a variety of social services including schooling, a health center, adult literacy and vocational training, and social and athletic activities for tens of thousands of unskilled laborers who live and work on the construction sites in New Delhi, India.…

  5. Money Matters for Early Education: The Relationships among Child Care Quality, Teacher Characteristics, and Subsidy Status (United States)

    St.Clair-Christman, JeanMarie; Buell, Martha; Gamel-McCormick, Michael


    Child care is the first out-of-home learning opportunity for many children. For low-income children, a high-quality child care placement can provide many of the experiences and skills that help build a foundation for later school success. Among the many measures of child care quality, some closely linked to later success in school are those…

  6. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child care... the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead...) Activities to improve the quality of child care services may include, but are not limited to: (i)...

  7. A Count for Quality: Child Care Center Directors on Rating and Improvement Systems (United States)

    Schulman, Karen; Matthews, Hannah; Blank, Helen; Ewen, Danielle


    Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS)--a strategy to improve families' access to high-quality child care--assess the quality of child care programs, offer incentives and assistance to programs to improve their ratings, and give information to parents about the quality of child care. These systems are operating in a growing number of…

  8. Process Dimensions of Child Care Quality and Academic Achievement: An Instrumental Variables Analysis (United States)

    Auger, Anamarie; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Burchinal, Peg; Vandell, Deborah Lowe


    Child care quality is usually measured along two dimensions--structural and process. In this paper the authors focus on process quality--the quality of child care center instructional practices and teacher interactions with students. They use an instrumental variables technique to estimate the effect of child care center process quality on…

  9. Vender/Voucher Systems: A Parent Selected Child Care Subsidy Program That Works. (United States)

    Freis, Ruth; Miller, Miriam

    The vendor/voucher, or purchase of service, system for child care delivery is discussed as a logical model for communities which are looking for a method of developing a new system or have outgrown their current program. Discussion initially focuses on the increasing need for child care, cost/benefit aspects of child care, the regulation of child…

  10. Parents' perspectives of the transition to home when a child has complex technological health care needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brenner, Maria


    There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.

  11. From Policy to Practice: Implementation of Water Policies in Child Care Centers in Connecticut (United States)

    Middleton, Ann E.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.


    Objective: Child care policies may contribute to healthy beverage consumption patterns. This study documented availability and accessibility of water and correspondence with state and federal policy and accreditation standards in child care centers. Design: One-day observations were conducted in a random sample of 40 Child and Adult Care Food…

  12. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle


    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  13. The Effectiveness of a Brief Asthma Education Intervention for Child Care Providers and Primary School Teachers (United States)

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.


    Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…

  14. Sharing Data between Child Welfare and Education to Improve Outcomes for Children and Youth in the Foster Care System. Policy Brief (United States)

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010


    When a child is placed in the state's foster care system because of a parent's abuse or neglect, the state--represented by teams of social workers, lawyers, judges, foster parents, and other caregivers or guardians--steps into many aspects of the parental role. Too often, though, the state's representatives are attempting to fulfill a parental…

  15. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan


    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  16. Realities of the prophylactic health care of workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Kopias


    Full Text Available Background: The Polish occupational health system (OHS, existing over the past 17 years, has recently been contested as never before. Critical voices pertain to both legislative and executive aspects of the system, in which key roles are played by employers and occupational medicine service. There are some reasons for making a hypothesis that relevant norms are not always respected by the main actors. Material and methods: The data on the observance of norms by entities responsible for providing workers with prophylactic health care were analyzed. They were obtained from the existing external resources and materials collected during the implementation of tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health. Results: Legal norms, which constitute OHS in Poland are generally neither respected by the employers, nor by the representatives of occupational medicine service. Nearly half (45–47% of employers infringe provisions relating to medical examinations of workers. Such a degree of non-observance of respective laws would have not been the case if it was not for the attitudes and “silent approval” of many (but not all occupational physicians. Laws defining the responsibilities of occupational medicine service units on one hand, and of employers on the other, are for many reasons infringed by both groups. Conclusions: The data analyses indicate that the Polish OHS is, to a large extent, not acceptable and should be replaced with another one founded on other assumptions and responsive to contemporary occupational health challenges. New provisions should be formulated on the basis of merit and guided by socially accepted norms. Med Pr 2015;66(6:815–825

  17. Are Care Takers of Link WorkerAND#8217;s Scheme of HIV/AIDS Knowledgeable Enouth? Assessment Study of Link Workers Scheme in Surat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Rohit


    Full Text Available Introduction: Gujarat State AIDS Control Society with support from UNICEF Gujarat has initiated as unique project for prevention of HIV /AIDS at rural set up since 2008, which is known as Link Workers’ scheme. Link Workers (LWs are working in each cluster of villages around a 5,000+ population village which will serve as the node for intervention. They are supported in their work by village level volunteers selected from the available groups in the community. Methodology: 140 Link workers and 70 volunteers from 70 villages of 14 blocks of district Surat were invited for the study. Due to few vacant posts, total 183 participants took part in the study; out of these 117 were link workers (LWs while 66 were volunteers. Their Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and STI were assessed on a predesigned pretested semi structured study tool. Result: 96.59% link workers and 93.44% volunteers had knowledge about condom use as a method of preventing HIV infection. The concern issue is that only 11.11% LWs and 13.64% volunteers revealed that HIV testing during ANC check up can also prevent HIV transmission from mother to child, inspite of receiving induction training. Only 74.36% LWs and 68.31% volunteers were able to tell about three or more HIV preventive methods. Recommendations: Refresher training and exposure visit to HIV care centres are needed for these workers to strengthen their knowledge. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 173-175

  18. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development. (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E


    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  19. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  20. "Othering" the health worker: self-stigmatization of HIV/AIDS care among health workers in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Daniel H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is an important factor affecting healthcare workforce capacity in high-prevalence countries, such as Swaziland. It contributes to loss of valuable healthcare providers directly through death and absenteeism and indirectly by affecting family members, increasing work volume and decreasing performance. This study explored perceived barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS care and prevention services among health workers in Swaziland. We asked health workers about their views on how HIV affects Swaziland's health workforce and what barriers and strategies health workers have for addressing HIV and using healthcare treatment facilities. Methods Thirty-four semi-structured, in-depth interviews, including a limited set of quantitative questions, were conducted among health workers at health facilities representing the mixture of facility type, level and location found in the Swaziland health system. Data were collected by a team of Swazi nurses who had received training in research methods. Study sites were selected using a purposive sampling method while health workers were sampled conveniently with attention to representing a mixture of different cadres. Data were analyzed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software and Excel. Results Health workers reported that HIV had a range of negative impacts on their colleagues and identified HIV testing and care as one of the most important services to offer health workers. They overwhelmingly wanted to know their own HIV status. However, they also indicated that in general, health workers were reluctant to access testing or care as they feared stigmatization by patients and colleagues and breaches of confidentiality. They described a self-stigmatization related to a professional need to maintain a HIV-free status, contrasting with the HIV-vulnerable general population. Breaching of this boundary included feelings of professional embarrassment and fear of colleagues' and patients' judgements

  1. Delivery of Services of Day Care Workers In Sta. Maria, Laguna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study focused on the determination of the delivery of services of day care workers in the municipality of Sta. Maria, Province of Laguna during the first semester of school year 2012-2013. Descriptive research was used in this study. Among the key findings were that Day Care Workers with respect to interactional relationship accomplished the functions with outstanding adequacy such as constantly giving feedback and praises on the performance of children, along with workers and parents coordination and cooperation, with verbal interpretation of Always Observe. In terms of instructional quality both group of respondents perceived that day care workers in-charge had adequate abilities and competencies concerning their education and trainings in connection with teaching small children with verbal interpretation of Always Observe. The parents had confidence to the day care workers in-charge of their children aside from regularly consulting the day care workers about their children’s progress with verbal interpretation of Always Observe. There were only 871 households who availed of the services of day care centers in which 27 workers were employed and each of them assigned to handle an average of 33 children. Notable along with other findings was the day care workers and parents had the same perception as to the extent of services provided by the Day Care Center with respect to interactional relationship, instructional quality and parental participation. Subsequently the study ensued with these five factual remarks: Children’s interactions with parents in the centers were the direct mechanisms through which children learn. The educational qualification and the capability of the day care workers to handle small children were the primary essentials in children’s learning. Parents’ participation in the day care centers premises brought harmonious relationship between the Day Care Workers and children as well. The capacity of day care worker

  2. Prostitution and exploitation child sexual in Uruguay. Opinion of sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guerra


    Full Text Available In this article we will present the information obtained in the project entitled "Investigation on conditions of work and opinion on trafficking in persons between population that he exercises the feminine prostitution in Uruguay " from 188 interviews to sexual workers. First we analyse the concept of child prostitution in the frame of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, to advance then in the result of the fieldwork. 29 % of the sample expresses to know cases of child prostitution in his areas of work, which confirms a worrying presence of this phenomenon, especially in the street prostitution.  As for the opinion, 77% of the interviewed ones have a negative opinion of the phenomenon.

  3. Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in the community: Task-sharing between male and female health workers in an Indian rural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Elazan


    Full Text Available Background: Male community health workers (CHWs have rarely been studied as an addition to the female community health workforce to improve access and care for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. Objective: To examine how male health activists (MHAs coordinated RMNCH responsibilities with existing female health workers in an Indian context. Materials and Methods: Interviews from male and female CHWs were coded around community-based engagement, outreach services, and links to facility-based care. Results: Community-based engagement: MHAs completed tasks both dependent and independent of their gender, such as informing couples on safe RMNCH care in the antenatal and postnatal periods. MHAs motivated males on appropriate family planning methods, demonstrating clear gendered responsibility. Outreach services: MHAs were most valuable traveling to remote areas to inform about and bring mothers and children to community health events, with this division of labor appreciated by female health workers. Link to facility-based services: MHAs were recognized as a welcome addition accompanying women to health facilities for delivery, particularly in nighttime. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of gendered CHW roles and male-female task-sharing to improve access to community health events, outreach services, and facility-based RMNCH care.

  4. The impact of the National HIV Health Care Worker Hotline on patient care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinkel Hans-Friedemann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has a huge burden of illness due to HIV infection. Many health care workers managing HIV infected patients, particularly those in rural areas and primary care health facilities, have minimal access to information resources and to advice and support from experienced clinicians. The Medicines Information Centre, based in the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Cape Town, has been running the National HIV Health Care Worker (HCW Hotline since 2008, providing free information for HIV treatment-related queries via telephone, fax and e-mail. Results A questionnaire-based study showed that 224 (44% of the 511 calls that were received by the hotline during the 2-month study period were patient-specific. Ninety-four completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Of these, 72 (77% were from doctors, 13 (14% from pharmacists and 9 (10% from nurses. 96% of the callers surveyed took an action based on the advice received from the National HIV HCW Hotline. The majority of actions concerned the start, dose adaption, change, or discontinuation of medicines. Less frequent actions taken were adherence and lifestyle counselling, further investigations, referring or admission of patients. Conclusions The information provided by the National HIV HCW Hotline on patient-specific requests has a direct impact on the management of patients.

  5. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers. (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza


    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector.

  6. A study to evaluate the knowledge of ASHA workers on antenatal and postnatal care in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank KJ


    Full Text Available Background: The discourse on the ASHA's role centres around three typologies - ASHA as an activist, ASHA as a link worker or facilitator, and ASHA as a community level health care provider. She will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infection (RTIs/STIs and care of the young child. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of antenatal and postnatal care of ASHA workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 132 ASHA workers selected from 5 random PHCs in Bijapur taluk. Data was collected in a prestructured proforma using interview technique from June to October, 2012. Results: Most of the ASHA (68.1% considered minimum of 3 postnatal visits after the normal vaginal delivery. Around 73.4% were aware that the new born child is to be wrapped up in the cloth soon after birth to prevent hypothermia. Majority (735.% were aware about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding to be practiced by the lactating mother. 69.7% of the respondents said the duration of breastfeeding should be between 18-24 months. Conclusions: Self-explanatory, specific financial guidelines should be made available within time to the programme managers. Under the cascade model of training to the ASHA, trainings should provide complete knowledge and skills to the trainees within the stipulated time. Quality of training should be enhanced and refresher trainings should be planned regularly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2299-2302

  7. Application of theory to family-centered care: a role for social workers. (United States)

    Miller, Gary


    Family-centered care is an emerging trend in health care settings today. An explanation, principles, and a definition of family-centered care are offered and discussed. A theoretical framework, Balance Theory of Coordination, which can be utilized by social workers to develop and enhance family-centered care practices, is explained and discussed. Various family-centered care practices are examined within the context of Balance Theory of Coordination as examples.

  8. Caring for migrant farm workers on medical-surgical units. (United States)

    Anthony, Maureen J


    Over 3 million migrant farm workers are employed in the United States. Many factors place them at risk for work-related disease and injury. Knowledge of workers' health issues can prepare medical-surgical nurses to anticipate and meet the needs of this underserved population.

  9. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe


    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  10. Parents' Expectations, Values and Choice of Child Care: Connections to Culture. (United States)

    Wise, Sarah


    Effects of differences between home and child care were studied, focusing on expectations and values of caregivers and of parents of toddlers in Australia from Vietnamese, Somali, and Anglo-Australian backgrounds. Preliminary data show that parents from minority ethnic groups selected child care paralleling child's home experiences. Parents using…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sanjeev Chaudhary


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand hygiene practices of health care workers has been shown to be an effective measure in preventing hospital acquired infections. This concept has been aptly used to improve understanding, training, monitoring, and reporting hand hygiene among healthcare workers. We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of doctors and health care workers regarding hand scrub. METHODS A study was conducted among doctors and health care workers in a tertiary care hospital. Knowledge was evaluated by using self-structured questionnaire based on the guidelines of hand hygiene prescribed by WHO. RESULTS The awareness and knowledge of preoperative surgical hand scrubbing was moderate in doctors, but unfortunately poor in HCWs. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the need for introducing measures in order to increase the knowledge of preoperative hand scrub in teaching hospital which may translate into good practices.

  12. An ethical analysis of double bind conflicts as experienced by care workers feeding severely demented patients. (United States)

    Akerlund, B M; Norberg, A


    When patients with incurable dementia diseases no longer take food or fluid voluntarily, the care workers experience distress and anxiety. Thirty-nine care workers were interviewed about their thoughts, feelings and attitudes towards feeding severely demented patients. A phenomenological approach was used and the interviews were developed, attention paid to Bateson's double bind theory, Kohlberg's theory of moral development and ethical theories. Ethical theories, principles and rules, containing messages at different logical levels and the lack of empirical knowledge of the demented patients' inner world, led to the care worker's difficult double bind situations. To solve the conflicts the care workers need insight in all aspects of the problem. In order to understand all the components in a double bind situation it is important to redefine it from outside.

  13. Providing care for migrant farm worker families in their unique sociocultural context and environment. (United States)

    Connor, Ann; Layne, Laura; Thomisee, Karen


    This article highlights the Farm Worker Family Health Program's (FWFHP) strategies for providing care to migrant farm workers residing within a unique social and cultural context. The care provided by health professions students from a variety of disciplines extends and augments the work of the local migrant farm worker clinic that is pushed beyond capacity during peak growing and harvest times. Nursing's social responsibility to care for underserved populations is a guiding principle of the FWFHP and shapes how the work is translated into action. The FWFHP is a community-academic partnership that began in the rural southeastern United States in 1993. Challenges facing migrant farm worker families include access to health care, language, health literacy, housing and sanitation, family and community integrity, and workplace safety. The nursing practice strategies used to address these health challenges may be adapted to strengthen health programs serving other populations who live in poverty or reside in low-resource settings.

  14. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.


    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia


    Rampal Krishna; Rafiza Shaharudin; Tahir Aris


    Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 ...

  16. Health services research in workers' compensation medical care: policy issues and research opportunities.


    Himmelstein, J; Buchanan, J L; Dembe, A E; Stevens, B


    OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the unique aspects of medical care offered under workers' compensation insurance systems and discuss the major policy considerations relevant to health services researchers undertaking investigations in this area. BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS: State-based workers' compensation (WC) insurance systems requiring employers to pay for medical care and wage replacement for workplace injuries and illnesses were first developed between 1910 and 1920 in the United States. Emp...

  17. Does well-child care have a future in pediatrics? (United States)

    Coker, Tumaini R; Thomas, Tainayah; Chung, Paul J


    The most common adult chronic diseases affect 1 in 3 adults and account for more than three-quarters of US health care spending. The major childhood drivers of adult disease are distinctly nonmedical: poverty, poor educational outcomes, unhealthy social and physical environments, and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Ideally, well-child care (WCC) would address these drivers and help create healthier adults with more productive lives and lower health care costs. For children without serious acute and chronic medical problems, however, traditional pediatric preventive services may be largely ineffective in addressing the outcomes that really matter; that is, improving lifelong health and reducing the burden of adult chronic disease. In this article, we examine what role WCC has in addressing the major childhood drivers of adult disease and consider various models for the future of WCC within pediatrics.

  18. Making child mental health 'everybody's business': a training course for family support workers. (United States)

    Harborne, Alex; Van Roosmalen, Marc


    This article provides an overview of the development and delivery of a mental health teaching and training programme offered to Family Support Workers (FSWs) working in a range of schools in an economically deprived part of Bedfordshire. The FSWs had received no prior teaching in the area of child mental health, or in ways of engaging and communicating with children and families. Both topics were considered crucial to their role. The training was delivered in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of 4 full days of teaching. Topics covered included (1) engaging children and families, (2) child development, (3) self-awareness, and (4) systemic thinking. Phase 2 was delivered through 'practice sets', which were held monthly for 4 months, and lasted 2 hours. These were used to develop the FSWs' theoretical understanding of the issues, and link this with their practice. The training was evaluated using a semistructured questionnaire. Results suggested that participants had changed the ways in which they engaged families and children. They were more able to adopt a collaborative, nonexpert, position which focused on empowering families to make decisions for themselves. This represented a significant shift in the way they worked. This process was enhanced by their more sophisticated level of understanding of child development and behaviour problems, which took into account the impact of wider systemic and relational factors and moved away from locating problems within individuals. Participants also demonstrated the ability to reflect on how their personal beliefs and experiences impacted on the work they undertook, and why this was important. Recommendations following the training included the need for regular, ongoing practice support, the need for the training to be more widely disseminated (e.g. to school staff), and the benefits of having clear descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of Family Support Workers.

  19. Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers



    We assessed the effect of medical staff role models and the number of health-care worker sinks on hand-hygiene compliance before and after construction of a new hospital designed for increased access to handwashing sinks. We observed health-care worker hand hygiene in four nursing units that provided similar patient care in both the old and new hospitals: medical and surgical intensive care, hematology/oncology, and solid organ transplant units. Of 721 hand-hygiene opportunities, 304 (42%) we...

  20. Assessing risk: professional perspectives on work involving mental health and child care services. (United States)

    Barbour, Rosaline S; Stanley, Nicky; Penhale, Bridget; Holden, Sue


    The assessment of risk is central to work with families where parental mental health needs and child care concerns coexist. This article reports on the findings of three interprofessional focus groups which examined professionals' experiences of working with such families. Specialisation and differing thresholds and codes were identified as factors which contributed to difficulties for practitioners and families and scepticism was expressed concerning the feasibility of a key worker system for this group. The issue of psychiatric diagnosis evoked ambivalent responses and was both valued as offering direction for planning interventions and seen as a means of labelling and excluding individuals from services. The focus group participants were aware that assessing risk placed families under considerable pressure, but practitioners themselves also appeared to experience an emphasis on risk as restrictive.

  1. Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children’s Obesity Status


    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.


    We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...

  2. Who cares for former child soldiers? Mental health systems of care in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; van den Brink, H.; de Jong, J.


    While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with parti

  3. Risk factors of tuberculosis among health care workers in Sabah, Malaysia. (United States)

    Jelip, Jenarun; Mathew, George G; Yusin, Tanrang; Dony, Jiloris F; Singh, Nirmal; Ashaari, Musa; Lajanin, Noitie; Shanmuga Ratnam, C; Yusof Ibrahim, Mohd; Gopinath, Deyer


    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main public health problems in Sabah; 30% of the total number of TB cases reported in Malaysia every year occur in Sabah. The average incidence of TB among health care workers over the past 5 years is 280.4 per 100,000 population (1, Annual Report of Sabah State TB Control Programme, 1998). At present, there are no specific measures for the prevention of TB transmission in health care facilities. A case-control study was conducted among health care workers in Sabah in 2000-2001. Cases were health care workers with TB diagnosed between January 1990 and June 2000. Controls were health care workers without TB and working in the same facility as cases during the disease episode. The study attempted to identify risk factors for TB among the study population. Data were collected through structured interviews and review of patients' records. The notification rate of TB among health care workers was significantly higher than that to the general population (Z=4.893, p<0.01). The average notification rate of TB among health care workers over the last 5 years was two times higher than in the general population (280.4/100,000 compared to 153.9/100,000). Regression results showed that ethnicity, designation, family contact and TB related knowledge did not significantly contribute to the risk of contracting TB in this study. However, after controlling for the above factors, age, gender, history of TB contact outside the workplace (other than family contact), duration of service and failure to use respiratory protection when performing high-risk procedures, were the main risk factors of TB among health care workers. This study succeeded in identifying some of the risk factors of TB among health care workers. We managed to include the large ratio of controls to case (3:1) and those cases spanned over a period of 10 years. However, the findings from the study have to be applied with caution due to the limitations of this study, which include recall

  4. The First Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in an Animal Care Worker in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Carhan


    Full Text Available As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previous study.Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was applied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seropositive worker had a complete medical examination.Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E. cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole.Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E. cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene.

  5. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amoran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  6. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents. (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J


    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  7. 20 CFR 216.67 - “Child in care.” (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âChild in care.â 216.67 Section 216.67... care.” (a) Railroad Retirement Act. Part 222 of this chapter sets forth what is required to establish that a child is in an individual's care for purposes of the Railroad Retirement Act. This definition...

  8. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello S


    Full Text Available Susan Costello School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. Keywords: female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, female circumcision, child protection, risk management 

  9. Report - Results of survey on child care needs - 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve; Weymaere, Emeline; Trilhe, Philippe; Palluel, Stephanie; Mangiorou, Maria-Anna; Mondlane, Bruna; CERN. Geneva. HR Department


    In June 2016, a working group reporting to the Director for Finance and Human Resources was established to study the sustainability of CERN nursery and school services. Among actions taken by the working group, a survey was carried out to achieve a better understanding of the needs of CERN families for child care and educational structures, to identify which services are in highest demand (e.g. crèche or early years, primary schooling) and to understand the expectations and preferences of CERN families regarding these services.

  10. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Schmidt Morgen, Camilla;


    be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27 821 children born to mothers......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may......-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 17 721 (63.7%) children...

  11. Mercury in dental amalgam: Are our health care workers at risk? (United States)

    Sahani, M; Sulaiman, N S; Tan, B S; Yahya, N A; Anual, Z F; Mahiyuddin, W R Wan; Khan, M F; Muttalib, K A


    Dental amalgam in fillings exposes workers to mercury. The exposure to mercury was investigated among 1871 dental health care workers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of mercury exposure among dental compared to nondental health care workers and to determine other risk factors for mercury exposure. Respondents answered questionnaires to obtain demographic, personal, professional, and workplace information and were examined for their own amalgam fillings. Chronic mercury exposure was assessed through urinary mercury levels. In total, 1409 dental and 462 nondental health care workers participated in the study. Median urine mercury levels for dental and nondental health care workers were 2.75 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 3.0175) and 2.66 μg/L (IQR = 3.04) respectively. For mercury exposure, there were no significant risk factor found among the workers involved within the dental care. The Mann-Whitney test showed that urine mercury levels were significantly different between respondents who eat seafood more than 5 times per week compared to those who eat it less frequently or not at all (p = 0.003). The urinary mercury levels indicated significant difference between dental workers in their practice using squeeze cloths (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed that only the usage of cosmetic products that might contain mercury was found to be significantly associated with the urinary mercury levels (odds ratio [OR] = 15.237; CI: 3.612-64.276). Therefore, mean urinary mercury levels of health care workers were low. Exposure to dental amalgam is not associated with high mercury exposure. However, usage of cosmetic products containing mercury and high seafood consumption may lead to the increase of exposure to mercury.

  12. Who cares for former child soldiers? Mental health systems of care in sierra leone. (United States)

    J Song, Suzan; van den Brink, Helene; de Jong, Joop


    While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with participants from diverse sectors. Priorities of mental distress, substance abuse, and gender-based violence were common among FCS clients. Barriers were governmental support and communication with other providers. Perceived facilitators of care were primary- and secondary-level interventions. A public mental health model would feasibly build upon local, culturally embraced interventions, targeting local priorities and reducing barriers to care.

  13. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  14. Children's Stress Behaviors and Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Family Child Care Homes


    Chang, Chih-Ying


    This study investigated and qualitatively compared differences in children's stress reactions across two levels of developmentally appropriate practice in family child care homes. Data were collected through observations. Six children, five boys and one girl from six different family child care homes, between the ages of 36 and 60 months, were observed for the type and frequency of stress behaviors. The six family child care homes were divided into two groups based on more or less use of a...

  15. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service... (United States)


    ..., 2010, at 75 FR 41793. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) [Per meal rates in whole or fractions... 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not significant and was reviewed... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  16. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service... (United States)


    ..., 2009, at 74 FR 34295. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Lunch and Centers Breakfast supper \\1... related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  17. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.E. Staal; J.M.A. Hermanns; A.J.P. Schrijvers; H.F. van Stel


    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional j

  18. The Use of the USDA Nutrient Analysis Protocol in the Evaluation of Child-Care Menus in North Mississippi (United States)

    Knight, Kathy B.; Hickey, Rose; Aloia, Christopher R.; Oakley, Charlotte B.; Bomba, Anne K.


    Child-care facilities that participate in the federally assisted Child and Adult Care Food Program are required to follow meal patterns that meet the nutrient needs for child growth and development. The purpose of this research is to use the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Analysis Protocols to evaluate child-care menus in order to…

  19. The Impact of Stress and Support on Direct Care Workers' Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Ejaz, Farida K.; Noelker, Linda S.; Menne, Heather L.; Bagaka's, Joshua G.


    Purpose: This research applies a stress and support conceptual model to investigate the effects of background characteristics, personal and job-related stressors, and workplace support on direct care workers' (DCW) job satisfaction. Design and Methods: Researchers collected survey data from 644 DCWs in 49 long-term care (LTC) organizations. The…

  20. Process Evaluation of a Workplace Integrated Care Intervention for Workers with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlisteren, M. van; Boot, C.R.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Steenbeek, R.; Schaardenburg, D. van; Anema, J.R.


    Purpose To perform a process evaluation of the implementation of a workplace integrated care intervention for workers with rheumatoid arthritis to maintain and improve work productivity. The intervention consisted of integrated care and a participatory workplace intervention with the aim to make ada

  1. [Russian Federation implementation of WHO global efforts plan on workers health care]. (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiyarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Shigan, E E


    The article deals with problems of implementing global WHO efforts plan on workers health care, Target program of World Labor Organization on work and occupational environment safety "For safe labor", some WLO conventions. The authors justify priority directions of governmental policy on health care for working population in Russia.

  2. Duty of care? Local staff and aid worker security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Haver


    Full Text Available Where security considerations compel the withdrawal of international aid workers, humanitarian agencies rely increasingly on national staff. Agencies tend to assume that locals are at less risk but this is not necessarily the case. They have largely failed to consider the ethics of transferring security risks from expatriate to national staff.

  3. [Influenza vaccination in health-care workers: an effective method to reduce the consequences of influenza in health care users]. (United States)

    de Jong, J C


    Only few usable studies into the effect of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on sick leave and influenza among their patients are available in the literature. However, together these studies provide consistent evidence that this vaccination is effective and cost effective, reducing the death rate from all causes of residents of nursing homes for the elderly by 27-44%. Therefore, measures to raise the vaccination rate among health-care workers, which is at present under 25%, are highly recommended. However, more studies in this field are needed.

  4. Comparison of high- versus low-intensity community health worker intervention to promote newborn and child health in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findley SE


    Full Text Available Sally E Findley,1 Omolara T Uwemedimo,2 Henry V Doctor,1,3 Cathy Green,4 Fatima Adamu,5 Godwin Y Afenyadu61Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2Pediatric Global Health Program, Cohen Children’s Medical Centre of New York, Division of General Pediatrics, New Hyde Park, NY, USA; 3Operations Research Unit, Programme for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria-Maternal Newborn and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH, Abia State House, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Health Partners International, Waterside Centre, Lewes, East Sussex, United Kingdom; 5Social Development and Community Engagement Unit, 6Operations Research Unit, PRRINN-MNCH Programme, Nassarawa GRA, Kano State, NigeriaBackground: In Northern Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three Northern Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of community-based service delivery (CBSD with a network of community volunteers and community health workers (CHWs, who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs.Methods: We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009 and follow-up (2011 to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in

  5. Tuberculosis en trabajadores de salud Tuberculosis among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio González


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue abordar la problemática de la infección por tuberculosis (TB en Trabajadores de la Salud (TS a través de la experiencia en un programa de prevención y tratamiento de la TB en un Hospital General de Agudos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Los objetivos del Programa fueron implementar acciones de educación para la salud, pesquisa periódica de TS, detección de casos de TB y efectuar acciones de control. Se definió infección TB como PPD 2 UT = 10 mm. Se realizaron dos estudios de prevalencia de infección. En 1998 fue de 31.7% (n = 533 y en 2008 de 35% (n = 670. Enfermería tuvo el mayor porcentaje de infectados. En 2008 se advirtió un aumento de la infección TB en los médicos (p = 0.02. Se estudiaron 45 TS en el grupo que repitió PPD a los tres meses del primer estudio de prevalencia. Se detectaron ochos virajes tuberculínicos (17%, todos en enfermeras. Se evaluaron 163 TS que estuvieron en contacto con 8 casos de TB diagnosticados en TS, 4 de los cuales eran enfermeras. El 39.9% presentó PPD positiva, no se detectaron casos nuevos de TB y se documentaron cinco conversiones tuberculínicas en enfermeras. Se evaluaron 127 TS de sectores con bajo riesgo, el 25.9% presentó PPD positiva (p = 0.01 comparando con el 39.9% en el grupo anterior. A pesar de las limitaciones en el recurso humano para realizar estudios de incidencia de TB, la protección personalizada, la educación en TB y la quimioprofilaxis podrían reducir los riesgos de TB en TS.The objective of this work was to address the problem of tuberculosis (TB infection among Health Care Workers (HCW, based on an experience in a TB Prevention and Treatment Programme at a General Acute Hospital in Buenos Aires City. The objectives of the programme were to provide health education and periodic screening of HCW, to detect TB cases and to implement control measures. TB infection was defined by a = 10 mm reaction to 2 UT PPD. Two prevalence studies of

  6. Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: findings from a mixed-methods research project


    Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill


    Abstract Abstract This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken in 2007-09 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including 96 migrant care workers. The interviews elicited some accounts relating experiences of racism and discrimination from some peo...

  7. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue



    Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW). Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the p...

  8. 20 CFR 229.82 - Failure to have child in care. (United States)


    ... her care, is under retirement age and is no longer caring for an eligible child. However, if the... SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Miscellaneous Deductions and Reductions § 229.82 Failure...

  9. For profit versus non-profit: does economic sector make a difference in child-care? (United States)

    Gelles, E


    The child-care industry in a large, southeastern community serves as this study's vehicle for comparing non-profit with for profit dependent care in areas not easily observable to clients. The cross-sectional analysis compares child-care centers on marketed and actual staff-to-child ratio; staff salary; consistency in the child's group environment; staff stability; and extent of parental involvement. Findings are based on self-reports of directors and support hypotheses derived from the theory that for profit day care centers will use their discretionary authority to vary the care environment to achieve profit goals despite the potential effect on the quality of the child's environment. Further, despite potential cost economies and enhanced quality of care achievable as a non-profit entity, few for profit center directors consider becoming non-profit centers.

  10. Training of Unskilled Child Care Providers: An In-House Program to Overcome Management's Financial Constraints. (United States)

    Adams, Brian

    An in-house staff development program was designed and implemented for unskilled child caregivers employed at Tiny Tots Educare Academies, Inc., a privately owned and operated child care center located in Ellenton, Florida. Employees had little knowledge of child development and other topics related to early childhood education and, therefore,…

  11. A Different Class of Care: the Benefits Crisis and Low-Wage Workers. (United States)

    Jones, Trina

    When compared to other developed nations, the United States fares poorly with regard to benefits for workers. While the situation is grim for most U.S. workers, it is worse for low-wage workers. Data show a significant benefits gap between low-wage and high-wage in terms of flexible work arrangements (FWAs), paid leave, pensions, and employer-sponsored health-care insurance, among other things. This gap exists notwithstanding the fact that FWAs and employment benefits produce positive returns for employees, employers, and society in general. Despite these returns, this Article contends that employers will be loath to extend FWAs and greater employment benefits to low-wage workers due to (1) concerns about costs, (2) a surplus of low-wage workers in the labor market, (3) negative perceptions of the skill of low-wage workers and the value of low-wage work, (4) other class-based stereotypes and biases, and (5) structural impediments in some low-wage jobs. Given the decline of unions and limited legislative action to date, the Article maintains that low-wage workers are in a "different class of care" with little hope for meaningful change on the horizon.

  12. Quality assessment of child care services in primary health care settings of Central Karnataka (Davangere District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.

  13. The widening health care gap between high- and low-wage workers. (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Mahato, Bisundev


    Rising health care costs affect everyone, but pose a particular problem for low-wage workers and their families. Few of these workers are eligible for public insurance programs or can afford to purchase private insurance, and they are less likely than high-wage workers to work for companies offering health coverage. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, this report finds that, between 1996 and 2003, low-wage workers were more likely than high-wage workers to be uninsured and to spend a proportionally higher share of family income on out-of-pocket health costs. They were less likely to have a usual source of care, less likely to have received preventive services, used fewer health care services overall, and were less likely to use the latest generation of medical technologies (e.g., prescription drugs approved within the prior 20 years). They were also more likely to report worse general and mental health than high-wage workers.

  14. Associated factors for recommending HBV vaccination to children among Georgian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butsashvili Maia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and subsequent liver diseases can be prevented with universal newborn HBV vaccination. The attitudes of health care workers about HBV vaccination and their willingness to recommend vaccine have been shown to impact HBV vaccination coverage and the prevention of vertical transmission of HBV. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the factors associated with health care worker recommendations regarding newborn HBV vaccination. Methods A cross-sectional study of prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis B vaccine was conducted among randomly selected physicians and nurses employed in seven hospitals in Georgia in 2006 and 2007. Self-administered questionnaires included a module on recommendations for HBV, HCV and HIV. Results Of the 1328 participants included in this analysis, 36% reported recommending against hepatitis B vaccination for children, including 33% of paediatricians. Among the 70.6% who provided a reason for not recommending HBV vaccine, the most common concern was an adverse vaccine event. Unvaccinated physicians and nurses were more likely to recommend against HBV vaccine (40.4% vs 11.4%, PR 3.54; 95% CI: 2.38, 5.29. Additionally, health care worker age was inversely correlated with recommendations for HBV vaccine with older workers less likely to recommend it. Conclusion Vaccinating health care workers against HBV may provide a dual benefit by boosting occupational safety as well as strengthening universal coverage programs for newborns.

  15. Pertussis as health care workers infectious disease – The clinical case with a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kuchar


    Full Text Available We discuss the changing epidemiological situation of pertussis observed in recent years, with a focus on the shift of cases from young children to older age groups, teenagers and adults. Whooping cough may affect healthcare workers who belong to a high-risk group and cause hospital infections. We present a case report of pertussis in a nurse and the recommended prophylactic measures in healthcare workers. The current definition and diagnosis of pertussis is also discussed. The clinical course of pertussis can be significantly alleviated and highly non-specific, with no typical coughing and vomiting in people vaccinated against whooping cough a few years earlier. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough lasting more than fourteen days. Improvement of the epidemiological situation requires, besides immunization of infants, regular and universal booster immunization for adolescents and adults. Vaccinations for health care workers of neonatal and pediatric wards are recommended in the National Program of Immunization for 2013. It seems that booster vaccination of health care workers with a triple vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (dTpa of the reduced quantity of antigens, particularly of health workers caring for infants, children and the elderly, may be the most effective way to reduce the risk of pertussis transmission in the health care environment. Med Pr 2013;64(5:731–739

  16. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John


    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  17. Child Care Quality in the Netherlands over the Years: A Closer Look (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.


    Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales were used…

  18. Place of Child Care and Medicated Respiratory Illness among Young American Children. (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.


    Study based on Child Health Supplement to 1981 National Health Interview Survey showed higher prevalence of medicated respiratory illness among children under age five when they were cared for outside the home. For children under age three, prevalence was highest in child care centers, lower in other homes, and lowest in own home. (Author/NB)

  19. Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants’ cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, E.M.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de


    This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rate

  20. Status Report on Publicly Traded Child Care Companies--An Interview with John McLaughlin. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Interview with editor of "Education Industry Report" reveals why child care companies choose to go public on stock exchanges and how publicly traded child care companies are faring. Discusses potential for growth in the industry, advantages of private placement, and recommended steps for going public. Describes nine publicly traded companies. (KB)

  1. Teaching Child Care Providers to Reduce the Risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) (United States)

    Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan


    Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted…

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa


    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  3. Child Care and Development Fund: Report of State and Territory Plans, FY 2010-2011 (United States)

    Child Care Bureau, 2011


    This report was prepared by the National Child Care Information and Technical Assistance Center (NCCIC) in partnership with staff from the Child Care Bureau. NCCIC compiled data reported in approved CCDF Plans and relevant attachments submitted by Lead Agencies for a selected number of questions. The information presented reflects some of the…

  4. Status Report on Publicly Traded Child Care Companies--An Interview with John McLaughlin. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Interview with editor of "Education Industry Report" reveals why child care companies choose to go public on stock exchanges and how publicly traded child care companies are faring. Discusses potential for growth in the industry, advantages of private placement, and recommended steps for going public. Describes nine publicly traded…

  5. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.


    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  6. Implementing the Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization: A Guide for States (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schulman, Karen; Vogtman, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Blank, Helen


    In November 2014, with broad bipartisan support, Congress reauthorized CCDBG [Child Care and Development Block Grant] (the major federal child care program) for the first time since 1996. The new law strengthens CCDBG's dual role as a major early childhood education program and a work support for low-income families. This implementation guide is…

  7. Effects of Universal Child Care Participation on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper uses a Danish panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment that generates variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities to investigate pre-teenage effects of child care participation at age three (either parental care, preschoo...

  8. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States (United States)

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  9. 45 CFR 261.56 - What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care? (United States)


    ....56 What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care? (a)(1) If the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the State may not reduce or terminate assistance based on... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if a parent cannot obtain...

  10. Toddlers and Child Care: A Time for Discussion, Dialogue, and Change (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; La Paro, Karen M.


    Research indicates that many toddlers experience low to mediocre quality child care settings with limited interactions and learning opportunities available. This article uses the context of brain and development research to describe toddlers' experiences in child care. Reporting on the established connections between toddlers' experiences and…

  11. Vermont STep Ahead Recognition System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…

  12. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety. (United States)

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.


    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  13. The Context of Child Care for Toddlers: The "Experience Expectable Environment" (United States)

    La Paro, Karen M.; Gloeckler, Lissy


    An experience expectable environment in child care classrooms is one in which teachers consistently provide positive and nurturing interactions within daily routines and activities to enhance children's learning. Growing numbers of children are being enrolled in child care at earlier ages and staying for longer periods of time each day which is…

  14. Child care quality in the Netherlands over the years: A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, K.O.W.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, M.J.J.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Fukkink, R.G.


    Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale–Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale–Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The Car

  15. Child care quality in The Netherlands over the years: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, K.O.W.; Riksen - Walraven, J.M.A.; Gever Deynoot-Schaub, M.J.J.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Fukkink, R.G.


    Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The Car

  16. Child-care environment and dietary intake of 2- and 3-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries,; Thijs, C.


    Background: Previous research has shown that children in child-care do not comply with dietary intake recommendations (i.e. either exceeding or not meeting recommendations), which may be attributable to specific features of the child-care environment. The present study explored the relationship betw

  17. Providing Education to Child Care Instructors: Matching Children's Learning Activities to Cognitive Development. (United States)

    Desjardins, Margaret M.

    Child care instructors and their aides at the Good Shepherd Day Care Center, Punta Gorda, Florida, were taught skills needed to develop classroom activities matching the cognitive development of 3- and 4-year-old children. Through a program of in-service activity in child growth and development, instruction was provided to enable teachers to more…

  18. Child Care Providers' Strategies for Supporting Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Approach (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan; Batal, Malek


    Recent research has revealed child care settings and providers to be important influences on children's developing behaviors. Yet most research on children's nutritional development has focused on home settings and parents. Thus, through semistructured interviews with child care providers, this study aimed to develop a better understanding of the…

  19. Child Care Provider Awareness and Prevention of Cytomegalovirus and Other Infectious Diseases (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M.


    Background: Child care facilities are prime locations for the transmission of infectious and communicable diseases. Children and child care providers are at high risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection which causes severe birth defects and developmental delays. Objective: The goals of study were: (1) to determine the level of cytomegalovirus…

  20. Fathers' Involvement in Child Care and Perceptions of Parenting Skill over the Transition to Parenthood (United States)

    Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen


    This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…

  1. A Policy Analysis of Child Care Subsidies: Increasing Quality, Access, and Affordability (United States)

    Moodie-Dyer, Amber


    Changing family dynamics over the past four decades, including rises in the numbers of working mothers and single-parent families, have created an increased need for affordable child care. Government response to this need has involved a number of stop-and-start policy approaches, which have led to a fractured child care system that makes it…

  2. Child Care, Work, and Depressive Symptoms among Low-Income Mothers (United States)

    Press, Julie; Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa


    Focusing on social factors associated with increased depressive symptoms among working mothers living in poor urban neighborhoods, this study investigates the effects of welfare participation, employment conditions, and child care on women's emotional well-being. The authors use new data from the Philadelphia Survey of Child Care and Work.…

  3. [Child health care and its development in Vrsac]. (United States)

    Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana


    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.

  4. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers (United States)

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark


    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  5. Training health care workers to promote HIV services for patients with tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behets Frieda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counseling and testing, HIV prevention and provision of HIV care and support are essential activities to reduce the burden of HIV among patients with TB, and should be integrated into routine TB care. Methods The development of training materials to promote HIV services for TB patients involved the definition of target health care workers (HCWs; identification of required tasks, skills and knowledge; review of international guidelines; and adaptation of existing training materials for voluntary counseling and testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and management of opportunistic infections (OIs. Training effectiveness was assessed by means of questionnaires administered pre- and post-training, by correlating post-training results of HCWs with the centre's HIV testing acceptance rates, and through participatory observations at the time of on-site supervisory visits and monthly meetings. Results Pre-training assessment identified gaps in basic knowledge of HIV epidemiology, the link between TB and HIV, interpretation of CD4 counts, prevention and management of OIs, and occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Opinions on patients' rights and confidentiality varied. Mean test results increased from 72% pre-training to 87% post-training (p Conclusion Many HCWs did not possess the knowledge or skills necessary to integrate HIV activities into routine care for patients with TB. A participatory approach resulted in training materials that fulfilled local needs.

  6. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children. (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate


    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  7. Care for the Other's Selfhood: A View on Child Care and Education through Heidegger's Analytic of Dasein (United States)

    Joensuu, Kosti


    Philosophical analysis concerning selfhood and care is of fundamental importance for child care and education. Martin Heidegger's analytic of Dasein introduces the concepts of self and care within the ontological domain while structuring the holistic understanding of human existence. Because of the ontological emphasis, Heidegger's concepts of…

  8. "For ever and ever": Child-raising, domestic workers and emotional labour in twentieth century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Delap


    Full Text Available The relationships of physical and emotional labour which exist between children, parents and domestic workers are historically fluid. Different styles of parenting, discourses of social class, and material contexts of care have given rise to very diverse degrees of delegation of childcare to servants. Servants themselves have often invested emotionally in their relationships with children, and the relationship has clearly not been simply commodified in being delegated. However, the relationships that result have sometimes been troubled and ambivalent. A simple narrative of exploitation does little to capture the experiences of servants who cared for children, and the recent historiography of emotions and emotional labour can help to trace a fuller picture. In this paper, I examine the roles of laughter as a form of emotional expression that can shed light on the affects of care – the shared jokes, failed jokes and forms of mockery that characterised the management of servants by mothers who employed them, or the experiences of servants and children in late nineteenth and twentieth century servant-keeping houses.

  9. Perceived benefits and proposed solutions for teen pregnancy: qualitative interviews with youth care workers. (United States)

    Boustani, Maya Mroué; Frazier, Stacy L; Hartley, Chelsey; Meinzer, Michael; Hedemann, Erin


    The purpose of this article is to examine youth care workers' perceptions of the specific and unique sexual health needs of youth at risk for foster care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with youth care workers (N = 10) at a shelter for youth in or at risk for foster care. Youth care workers perceive that youth have unique experiences and needs related to sexual health programming and pregnancy prevention. Reflecting a great deal of family dysfunction, 3 themes emerged that revealed perceived benefits of teen pregnancy: youths' effort to prove themselves as adults, opportunity to secure their relationship with a partner, and desire to create an emotional connection with a baby. Lack of knowledge and accumulation of risk factors were viewed as most problematic. Current pregnancy prevention programs assume teen pregnancies are unwanted and emphasize the costs of sexual risk taking. Current findings suggest that sexual health programming for youth in or at risk for foster care should account for 3 perceived benefits of teen pregnancy. New opportunities for improving the reach and effectiveness of intervention for youth in or at risk for foster care are discussed.

  10. Fitness for work in health care workers from the prospective of ethics, science and good practices. (United States)

    Alessio, L; Arici, Cecilia; Franco, G


    Fitness for work (FFW) is the final task of both risk assessment and health surveillance, aimed at protecting workers' health and working capacity. There are numerous specific concerns regarding health care workers. In particular: i) the frequent difficulty in determining at pre-employment/pre-placement examinations the specific task that the individual worker will perform; ii) the prevalence of female workers and the contemporary presence of numerous occupational risk factors that are a potential cause of harmful effects on women's reproductive health; iii) the progressive aging of the staff especially nurses; iv) the risk to third parties, with particular reference to the issues of biological risk and substance abuse, also in relation to shift work, fatigue and occupational stress; v) the increasing number of immigrant workers among support staff In such cases the occupational physician, respecting both ethical principles and regulations and with an appropriate balance between scientific evidence and the precautionary principle, should express a FFW judgment that allows both the adaptation of work to the worker and vice versa, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). Proper FFW judgment also permits the expected benefits to be achieved, not only for the workers but also for employers, companies and society.

  11. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings. (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho


    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  12. The role of the bilingual/bicultural worker in dementia education, support and care. (United States)

    Boughtwood, Desiree; Shanley, Christopher; Adams, Jon; Santalucia, Yvonne; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Rowland, Jeffrey; Pond, Dimity


    Members of minority populations often have difficulty knowing about and accessing dementia services. One of the strategies used to promote access is the employment of bilingual/bicultural workers (sometimes referred to as multicultural, link or outreach workers). This study involved interviews with 24 bilingual/bicultural workers in south western Sydney, Australia to gain a better understanding of their role within the dementia field. Seven themes emerged: importance of working with family; process of building trust when moving between two cultures; importance of understanding the culture; self-care and culture; flexibility of their role; linking community members; and linking communities to mainstream services. Bilingual/bicultural workers play a significant and complex role in supporting individuals and families within their community who are affected by dementia. The significance of their role needs to be more clearly acknowledged in the development of policy, further research and service provision within the dementia field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallab Ganesh


    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India whose long term implications will be felt in the decades to come. In the present study the seroprevalence of HCV infection among 85 healthcare workers was determined. Blood samples were collected from healthcare workers which include d doctors , nurses , lab technicians and lab attenders and the sera was tested for anti - HCV antibodies using third generation immunoassay kit. In our study the prevalence of HC V was 1.17%. It is imperative that health care workers be sensitized about universal precautions and safe disposal of needles and other contaminated materials to decrease the risk of infection through continuous medical education programmes. Our study supp orts that the screening of HCV among healthcare workers is mandatory.

  14. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use. (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S


    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  15. Construction of elderly identity within an education programme for care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    , the paper focuses on how elderly identity is constructed within an adult basic education programme in the social and health care sector in Denmark. The programme being involved is for adults who would like to work in the social and health care sector at a basic level; the programme consists of theoretical......Elderly living in nursing homes or receiving home help in their private homes are often very dependent on the help provided by care workers. The paper deals with how the character of the provided help is influenced by the way the care workers perceive the elderly and their situation. In particular...... an educational research project; however as the programme being studied is withinThe Basic Social and Health Education Programmes in Denmark, Elderly Identity is an important subtheme....

  16. Unregulated health care workers in the care of aging populations: Similarities and differences between Brazil and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Veras


    Full Text Available Introduction: The world’s population is rapidly aging. Unregulated health care workers (UHCWs are emerging as a potentially important workforce in the care of older adults. Objective: A review was conducted to identify the activities of UHCWs with respect to contributions and limitations. Methods: A systematic integrative literature review was conducted using online databases (LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and grey literature. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (i description of UHCW activities related to older adults; and (ii description of UHCW activities performed in Brazil or Canada. Results: Eleven papers were included in this review. In both countries, UHCW activities included health promotion, mental health care, and rehabilitation. In Brazil, UHCWs performed integrated care, while in Canada UHCWs performed personal care and housekeeping. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential and limits of UHCWs who provide care for the aging population. Such information is important to health and social policy making and household decision making.

  17. The health care system for female workers and its current status in Japan. (United States)

    Nohara, M; Kagawa, J


    In this paper we describe female workers' health care, the women's and maternal protection system within the Japanese legal system, the current status of female workers in Japan, and problems regarding methods of advancing health care and the women's or maternal protection system. Motherhood is respected in the workplace in Japan, and in order to provide an environment in which women can work and still bear and rear children with a sense of security, laws concerning maternal protection of female workers, and revisions in terms of the system have been made, and a new system has been in effect since the fiscal year of 1998. Nevertheless, gender discrimination against women and the disparagement of women, rooted in gender role stereotypes concerning the division of labor, remain firmly planted in the social environment and in long-established custom.

  18. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 4, July-August 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  19. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  20. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  1. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 5, September-October 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  2. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  3. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  4. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 2, March-April 2009 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  5. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2010 (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.


    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  6. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

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    Magnavita Nicola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  7. Diabetes Connect: Developing a Mobile Health Intervention to Link Diabetes Community Health Workers with Primary Care


    Cherrington, Andrea L.; Agne, April A; Lampkin, Yolanda; Birl, Annie; Shelton, Tanya C.; Guzman,Alfredo; Willig, James H.


    Community Health Worker (CHW) interventions can help improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. There is limited evidence on how to effectively integrate CHW programs with primary care efforts. Mobile health technology (mHealth) can connect CHWs to members of the healthcare team and enhance care. We tested a model for the integration of a CHW delivered mHealth intervention to improve diabetes self-management. Seventy-two African American patients with diabetes were followed using t...

  8. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings (United States)

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie


    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  9. Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?

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    Jiang Hanping


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54% who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop.

  10. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels and the management of HBV-infected health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eijk, A A; de Man, R A; Niesters, H G M; Schalm, S W; Zaaijer, H L


    Different guidelines exist for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected health care workers (HCWs). Various HBV DNA levels are used as a cutoff level to determine whether an HBV-infected HCW is allowed to perform exposure-prone procedures (EPPs) or not. In this paper we discuss the factors

  11. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers (United States)

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko


    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  12. Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection Among Health-Care Workers in Hamadan, West of Iran

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    Full Text Available Background The risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis (TB remains a concern, even now that the infection has been under control to a great extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of latent TB infection and pulmonary TB, and to assess the risk factors for TB, among health care workers in Hamadan. Patients and Methods Tuberculin skin test was performed on 245 health care workers, in two educational hospitals. The reaction was considered as "positive" if the induration diameter was ≥ 10 mm. Individuals with a positive test > than 15 mm were encouraged to seek further medical evaluation, including a chest-x-ray and a smear and sputum culture of the sputum for acid-fast bacilli, in those with radiographic changes indicating TB. Results Out of 245 health-care workers included in this study, 92 (38% had positive tuberculin test. There was a significant association between aging and tuberculin positivity. There was also a significant association between the length of employment and tuberculin positivity. Ward attendants had higher rates of positive test results, compared with other occupational groups. Conclusions It was concluded that latent TB infection is common among health-care workers in the studied region. Age, occupational group and employment length were found to be strongly associated with tuberculin positivity.

  13. The In-Between People: Community Health Workers in the Circle of Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Community Health Workers in Native American and Latino communities help bridge the gap between communities and the health care system.  Created: 1/1/2006 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  14. Acute hepatitis A in an elderly patient after care worker travel to high endemicity country. (United States)

    Aasheim, Erlend T; Seymour, Martin; Balogun, Koye; Ngui, Siew-Lin; Williams, Chris J; Shankar, Ananda Giri


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is considered one of the most important vaccine-preventable diseases in travelers. HAV spreads from person to person via the fecal-oral route and gives rise to an estimated 1.4 million cases worldwide each year. In developing countries with poor sanitary conditions people tend to be infected during childhood and have few symptoms, whereas in developed countries with good sanitary conditions fewer people develop immunity during childhood. This leads to susceptible populations of adults, who are also more prone to severe complications. Here we describe two confirmed cases of hepatitis A associated with a nursing home. The index case was a care worker who had recently traveled to a high-endemicity country, and the second case was a resident at the nursing home where the index case worked. Both cases had an identical genotype IIIA strain, consistent with a transmission event. Current policy does not include a requirement for hepatitis A vaccine in care workers who travel to high endemicity countries despite the fact that infected care workers can potentially spread the disease to elderly patients and other groups at risk of severe complications from HAV infection. We suggest that employers should consider hepatitis A vaccine upon employment; particularly in care workers who plan to visit areas where HAV is known to be endemic.

  15. Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers (United States)

    Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn


    Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

  16. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens. (United States)

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others


    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  17. Perceptions of team workers in youth care of what makes teamwork effective. (United States)

    Buljac-Samardzic, M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; van Wijk, K P; van Exel, N J A


    In youth care, little is known about what makes teamwork effective. What is known mostly reflects the view of managers in care organisations, as objective outcome measures are lacking. The objective of this article was to explore the views of youth care workers in different types of teams on the relative importance of characteristics of teamwork for its effectiveness. Q methodology was used. Fifty-one respondents rank-order 34 opinion statements regarding characteristics of teamwork. Individual Q sorts were analysed using by-person factor analysis. The resulting factors, which represented team workers' views of what is important for effective teamwork, were interpreted and described using composite rankings of the statements for each factor and corresponding team workers' explanations. We found three views of what makes teamwork effective. One view emphasised interaction between team members as most important for team effectiveness. A second view pointed to team characteristics that help sustain communication within teams as being most important. In the third view, the team characteristics that facilitate individuals to perform as a team member were put forward as most important for teamwork to be effective. In conclusion, different views exist on what makes a team effective in youth care. These views correspond with the different types of teams active in youth care as well as in other social care settings.

  18. Improving motivation among primary health care workers in Tanzania: a health worker perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manongi, Rachel N; Marchant, Tanya C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian


    in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide.The primary issues arising pertain to complexities of multitasking in an environment of staff...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana I. ZIGMAN


    Full Text Available Workplace violence in the social care sector is not a problem that appeared overnight. It was and still is a major concern, and its disastrous effects, on both organization and employees have been largely documented in various papers and studies around the world. This study analyses social care workers’ perceptions and experiences with workplace violence, phenomenon which, until a few years ago, has been largely ignored in the Romanian research field, and is still considered to this day a taboo subject in the organizational environment. Even if most employers recognize its general existence they tend to deny or refuse to accept that their institution or company is affected by it. The present paper will provide information concerning problematic issues in studying the phenomenon and will try to provide an image of the social care workers’ perception and attitude towards risk and workplace violence. The research will try to identify differences in experience, exposure and resistance to violence in the workplace based on various variables like sex or job characteristics.

  20. Burnout and Engagement: Relative Importance of Predictors and Outcomes in Two Health Care Worker Samples. (United States)

    Fragoso, Zachary L; Holcombe, Kyla J; McCluney, Courtney L; Fisher, Gwenith G; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Friebe, Susan J


    This study's purpose was twofold: first, to examine the relative importance of job demands and resources as predictors of burnout and engagement, and second, the relative importance of engagement and burnout related to health, depressive symptoms, work ability, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions in two samples of health care workers. Nurse leaders (n = 162) and licensed emergency medical technicians (EMTs; n = 102) completed surveys. In both samples, job demands predicted burnout more strongly than job resources, and job resources predicted engagement more strongly than job demands. Engagement held more weight than burnout for predicting commitment, and burnout held more weight for predicting health outcomes, depressive symptoms, and work ability. Results have implications for the design, evaluation, and effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce burnout and improve engagement among health care workers. Actionable recommendations for increasing engagement and decreasing burnout in health care organizations are provided.

  1. [Guidelines for the prevention and control of tuberculosis in health care workers]. (United States)

    Casas, Irma; Dominguez, Jose; Rodríguez, Soledad; Matllo, Joan; Altet, Neus


    Tuberculosis remains one of the communicable diseases that cause increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With an incidence rate of 13,04 per 100,000 population, Spain ranks third among the most affected European countries. These data show a tendency to decrease meaning that it may go unnoticed with the potential to miss the appropriate preventive measures in a suspected case. In centers where patients are treated with tuberculosis, health care worker presents risk of transmission. This risk is higher in some areas or work units. The Occupational health physicians' services, which monitorize the health of health care workers, use different strategies in order to prevent and detect tuberculosis infection. The national guidelines include the tuberculin skin test as a screening test for tuberculosis infection with mention of new diagnostic tests based on the in vitro detection of gamma interferon (IGRA) for certain cases. The purpose of this guide is to establish common criteria for IGRA tests, as a supplementary aid to the tuberculin skin test in health care workers, from the evidence available today. Recommendations for its use have been adapted to the different situations faced by the professionals involved in monitoring the health of health workers.

  2. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue

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    Ugur Bilge


    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW and health care workers (HCW. Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc. during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. Results. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P<0.001. Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P<0.05. In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07–2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.38 than the general population. Conclusion. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  3. Quality Child Care Supports the Achievement of Low-Income Children: Direct and Indirect Pathways Through Caregiving and the Home Environment


    McCartney, Kathleen Ann; Dearing, Eric; Beck A. Taylor; Bud, Kristen L.


    Existing studies of child care have not been able to determine whether higher quality child care protects children from the effects of poverty, whether poverty and lower quality child care operate as dual risk factors, or whether both are true. The objective of the current study was to test two pathways through which child care may serve as a naturally occurring intervention for low-income children: a direct pathway through child care quality to child outcomes, and an indirect pathway through...

  4. Strengthening the Effectiveness of State-Level Community Health Worker Initiatives Through Ambulatory Care Partnerships (United States)

    Allen, Caitlin; Nell Brownstein, J.; Jayapaul-Philip, Bina; Matos, Sergio; Mirambeau, Alberta


    The transformation of the US health care system and the recognition of the effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) have accelerated national, state, and local efforts to engage CHWs in the support of vulnerable populations. Much can be learned about how to successfully integrate CHWs into health care teams, how to maximize their impact on chronic disease self-management, and how to strengthen their role as emissaries between clinical services and community resources; we share examples of effective strategies. Ambulatory care staff members are key partners in statewide initiatives to build and sustain the CHW workforce and reduce health disparities. PMID:26049655

  5. The Impact of Solution-Focused Training on Professionals' Beliefs, Practices and Burnout of Child Protection Workers in Tenerife Island (United States)

    Medina, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark


    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.…

  6. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin


    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  7. Continuity of Care, Caregiver-Child Interactions, and Toddler Social Competence and Problem Behaviors (United States)

    Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young


    Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…

  8. Frontline health worker motivation in the provision of maternal and neonatal health care in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda


    The health of mothers and neonates is a concern for many countries, because they form the future of every society. In Ghana efforts have been made to address quality health care in order to accelerate progress in maternal and child health and reduce maternal and neonat

  9. The weather-stains of care: interpreting the meaning of bad weather for front-line health care workers in rural long-term care. (United States)

    Joseph, Gillian M; Skinner, Mark W; Yantzi, Nicole M


    This paper addresses the gap in health services and policy research about the implications of everyday weather for health care work. Building on previous research on the weather-related challenges of caregiving in homes and communities, it examines the experiences of 'seasonal bad weather' for health care workers in long-term care institutions. It features a hermeneutic phenomenology analysis of six transcripts from interviews with nurses and personal support workers from a qualitative study of institutional long-term care work in rural Canada. Focussing on van Manen's existential themes of lived experience (body, relations, space, time), the analysis reveals important contradictions between the lived experiences of health care workers coping with bad weather and long-term care policies and practices that mitigate weather-related risk and vulnerability. The findings contribute to the growing concern for rural health issues particularly the neglected experiences of rural health providers and, in doing so, offer insight into the recent call for greater attention to the geographies of health care work.

  10. Quebec's Child Care Services: What Are the Mechanisms Influencing Children's Behaviors across Quantity, Type, and Quality of Care Experienced? (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline


    The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…

  11. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations...

  12. Placement into foster care and the interplay of urbanicity, child behavior problems, and poverty. (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Wildfire, Judy; Green, Rebecca L


    Child welfare involvement is related to involvement with poverty, but the dimensions of that relationship have not been fully explored. Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being were used to test the relationship between poverty indicators and placement into foster care. Poverty, ages of children, urban or nonurban settings, and the presence of mental health disorders interact to contribute to placement decisions. In urban areas, poverty is strongly associated with involvement with child welfare services, but children's mental health problems are not. In nonurban areas, children's mental health problems are a far greater contributor to child welfare involvement than poverty. Implications for understanding the dual functions of child welfare placements are provided. Child welfare services continue to address the needs of families with children with substantial behavioral problems--yet, federal child welfare policy includes no recognition of this important role.

  13. Child welfare outcomes for youth in care as a result of parental death or parental incarceration. (United States)

    Shaw, Terry V; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Sharpe, Tanya L


    Every day, in the United States, children are removed from their homes and placed into state supervised out-of-home care because of concerns around their safety. These children enter care as a result of child abuse, child neglect, abandonment or some other reasons. Lost in most discussions of out-of-home care is the role that parental incarceration and parental death have on the trajectory of children through the child welfare system. In order to address this gap in the literature, the present study aims to compare youth in foster care as a result of parental death or youth in foster care as a result of parental incarceration with youth in care because of child maltreatment in terms of the length of time to achieve permanency. Holding all other variables constant, entering care as a result of parental death more than doubled the average time to exit (HR=2.32, SE=0.22), and these youth were significantly less likely to exit to permanency when compared to children entering care for other maltreatment reasons (OR=0.35, SE=0.24). Entering care as a result of parental incarceration led to a 24% longer time to exit (HR=1.24, SE=0.09) compared to children entering care for other maltreatment reasons. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to policy and practice may not be useful to identifying permanent placements for children entering care as a result of parental death or incarceration.

  14. Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic

  15. Make Time to Talk: Language Building Tips for Center-Based Child Care Providers (United States)

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010


    Everyone knows that it's important to talk every day with each child, using the kind of talk that builds language and thinking skills. The phrase MAKE TIME TO TALK is to help child care providers remember things they can do when talking to children to help them learn new vocabulary and how to use language to express their ideas and needs, and that…

  16. Social Practices of Juvenile Survival and Mortality: Child Care Arrangements in Mexico City. (United States)

    Gigengack, Roy


    Sketches the problems of urban "street" children in Mexico City, the emergence of collective child care arrangements, and the failure of the state to provide for child welfare. Describes community-based approaches arising in the absence of government action. (SK)

  17. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.


    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  18. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). (United States)


    ... Section 250.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care...

  19. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.


    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka


    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia

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    Rampal Krishna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests. Results The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%. Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points. Conclusion The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population

  2. Service quality assessment of workers compensation health care delivery programs in New York using SERVQUAL. (United States)

    Arunasalam, Mark; Paulson, Albert; Wallace, William


    Preferred provider organizations (PPOs) provide healthcare services to an expanding proportion of the U.S. population. This paper presents a programmatic assessment of service quality in the workers' compensation environment using two different models: the PPO program model and the fee-for-service (FFS) payor model. The methodology used here will augment currently available research in workers' compensation, which has been lacking in measuring service quality determinants and assessing programmatic success/failure of managed care type programs. Results indicated that the SERVQUAL tool provided a reliable and valid clinical quality assessment tool that ascertained that PPO marketers should focus on promoting physician outreach (to show empathy) and accessibility (to show reliability) for injured workers.

  3. Job Satisfaction: Insights from Home Support Care Workers in Three Canadian Jurisdictions. (United States)

    Panagiotoglou, Dimitra; Fancey, Pamela; Keefe, Janice; Martin-Matthews, Anne


    This mixed-methods study identified the personal and workplace characteristics that drive the job satisfaction of home support workers (HSWs) providing assistance to elderly clients. Data were based on a standardized measure of job satisfaction, along with in-depth qualitative interviews with 176 home support workers from three Canadian provincial jurisdictions (British Columbia, n = 108; Ontario, n = 28; Nova Scotia, n = 40). We anticipated that variability in demographic profiles between the three groups of workers and different job descriptions would be associated with differences in perceived job satisfaction. This was not the case. Results from the qualitative analysis highlight key areas that contributed to job satisfaction. These are job (scheduling, travel, and safety), economic (income security), and organizational (communication, support, and respect) factors. Given these findings, we recommend improvements to workplace communication, increased travel time allowance between clients, and wage parity with equivalent positions in long-term care facilities.

  4. Office of Child Care Report to Congress FY2002 - FY2003 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The OCC Report to Congress is required by Section 658L of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act as amended by the Personal Responsibility and Work...

  5. Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants' cognitive development. (United States)

    Albers, Esther M; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina


    This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rated for sensitivity and for stimulation of infant development during one-to-one caregiving interactions. Infant cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (Mental Development Index). Higher levels of developmental stimulation in the centers predicted higher levels of infant cognitive development at 9 months, beyond infant cognitive development at 3 months (just before entering child care), parental education, and maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that even small increases in developmental stimulation provided in child care centers in the first year of life may foster infants' cognitive development.

  6. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions. (United States)


    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  7. Seroepidemiological survey of health care workers in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Taishete


    Full Text Available Context: HCWs all over the world carry occupational risk of getting infected with major blood borne infections through needle stick injuries (NSIs. As health care industry has been expanding, risk of nosocomial infections is increasing proportionately. Measures to prevent it and put in place a mechanism to control these injuries are needed urgently, especially in India where there is not only increase in domestic demand but impetus in health tourism. Aim: To determine HBs Ag, HBc IgM level and to assess anti-HBs level prevalence in HCWs, in a tertiary care hospital and to study the influence of factors like age and sex in the vaccinated HCWs and formulate mechanism to increase awareness to create a safe working environment in the hospitals. Settings and Design: 437 HCWs, working in Laboratories, Surgical, Medical or Dental departments in 11 Civil Hospitals and Sub-district Hospitals covering 8 circles of the State. Methods and Material: Qualitative and Quantitative estimation of HBs Ag and Anti-HBs by sandwich ELISA technique and qualitative HBc IgM level by antibody-capture, non-competitive test. Liver profile (SGPT, SGOT and Alkaline Phosphatase by IFCC method done. Statistical Analysis Used: Tabulation and Pie Circle Result: 193 of the total 229 vaccinated HCWs tested positive for core antibody, meaning that they were infected prior to HBs Ag vaccination, leaving a total of 36 ′truly′ vaccinated HCWs. 11 HBs Ag positive HCWs were tested for Liver Profile and all had ALAT, ASAT and ALP within normal range. Out of total number of 141 HCWs having 10 and below IU/L anti HBs, 5 HCWs were positive for HBS Ag, showing a positivity of 3.5%. Conclusion: Need of vaccination and for post-vaccination serological testing of all HCWs considering the high rates of non-responders and low responders (anti-HBs-34.2%. Importance of educating the HCWs of safety precautions while handling body fluids, and the management of ′ sharps ′ injuries.

  8. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasxou D.


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relative absence of inquiring data internationally, with regard to the relation of woman, family and work as important sources of stress, in the professional team of district nurses, gave the spark for the planning of present study. AIM: We have conducted a study to identify levels of stress, job satisfaction, and effects of the job to the family life and reversely, among district nurses (nurses and nurse assistantsworking in primary health care settings in central Greece (Thessaly. METHODS: Data were obtained regarding altogether 92 nurses by means of self-administered questionnaires using identical methods and items, with response rate 100%. RESULTS: District nurses believe in the necessity of high educational sufficiency for the achievement of professional evolution, present high levels of satisfaction from the object and their place of work. They reported high levels of stress that exceed the corresponding levels in the Greek population. Nurses appear to be more satisfied from work than nurse assistants. The implications of the findings for further research are considered.

  10. Alma-Ata: Rebirth and Revision 6 Interventions to address maternal, newborn, and child survival: what difference can integrated primary health care strategies make? (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ali, Samana; Cousens, Simon; Ali, Talaha M; Haider, Batool Azra; Rizvi, Arjumand; Okong, Pius; Bhutta, Shereen Z; Black, Robert E


    Several recent reviews of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and mortality have emphasised that a large range of interventions are available with the potential to reduce deaths and disability. The emphasis within MNCH varies, with skilled care at facility levels recommended for saving maternal lives and scale-up of community and household care for improving newborn and child survival. Systematic review of new evidence on potentially useful interventions and delivery strategies identifies 37 key promotional, preventive, and treatment interventions and strategies for delivery in primary health care. Some are especially suitable for delivery through community support groups and health workers, whereas others can only be delivered by linking community-based strategies with functional first-level referral facilities. Case studies of MNCH indicators in Pakistan and Uganda show how primary health-care interventions can be used effectively. Inclusion of evidence-based interventions in MNCH programmes in primary health care at pragmatic coverage in these two countries could prevent 20-30% of all maternal deaths (up to 32% with capability for caesarean section at first-level facilities), 20-21% of newborn deaths, and 29-40% of all postneonatal deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Strengthening MNCH at the primary health-care level should be a priority for countries to reach their Millennium Development Goal targets for reducing maternal and child mortality.

  11. [The effect of self-determination on time perspective and child-care anxiety]. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Junko


    This study examines the effect of self-determination on time perspectives and child-care anxiety from a viewpoint of life course. A total of 1,726 mothers with small children participated in a questionnaire survey. They were classified into four groups based on their planned life courses: mothers who work; mothers who stopped working, but plan on returning to work; mothers who don't want to work and plan to stay at home; and mothers who stopped working, but plan on returning to work when their children grow up. Child-care anxiety was classified into four categories: (a) sense of stagnation and sacrifice, (b) fatigue, (c) diffidence, (d) feeling disaffection. The results show that fulfillment associated with child-care anxiety exists for all groups and factors of child-care anxiety, and that fulfillment was influenced by differences between self-determination and self-determination desires. The effect of self-determination on time perspectives and child-care anxiety differed between groups. It is suggested that society should provide different support to mothers with small children and child-care anxiety related to their different planned life courses.

  12. Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Foster Care (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.


    Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…

  13. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement (United States)

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia


    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  14. A qualitative exploration of factors that facilitate and impede adherence to child abuse prevention guidelines in Dutch preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke A.J.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M.E.; Need, Ariana


    Rationale, aims and objectives In the Netherlands, evidence-based child abuse prevention (CAP) guidelines have been developed to support child health care professionals (CHPs) in recognizing and responding to suspected child abuse. The aim of this study was to identify factors related to characteris

  15. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu


    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  16. Skin care education and individual counselling versus treatment as usual in healthcare workers with hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Thomsen, S.F.


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a secondary prevention programme with education on skin care and individual counselling versus treatment as usual in healthcare workers with hand eczema. Design: Randomised, observer blinded parallel group superiority clinical trial. Setting: Three hospitals...... in Denmark. Participants: 255 healthcare workers with self reported hand eczema within the past year randomised centrally and stratified by profession, severity of eczema, and hospital. 123 were allocated to the intervention group and 132 to the control group. Interventions: Education in skin care...... and individual counselling based on patch and prick testing and assessment of work and domestic related exposures. The control was treatment as usual. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was clinical severity of disease at five month follow-up measured by scores on the hand eczema severity index...

  17. Despite awareness of recommendations, why do health care workers not immunize pregnant women? (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Hayek, Samah; Aassaraf, Sharon; Lowenstein, Lior


    Studies indicate uncertainty surrounding vaccination safety and efficacy for pregnant women, causing a central problem for health authorities. In this study, approximately 26% of participants do not recommend the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines to their patients, although being aware of the health ministry recommendations. We found significant statistical discrepancies between the knowledge about the recommendations and their actual implementation, revealing the concerns of health care workers regarding vaccine safety.

  18. HIV : awareness of management of occupational exposure in health care workers.


    Wig N


    BACKGROUND: There is need for safe working environment in both government and private hospitals for the safety of health-care workers (HCWs). The present study was conducted to know the present knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV amongst doctors in non-governmental hospitals and clinics across Delhi. METHODS: Seventy doctors from different medical and surgical specialties in various non-government hospitals/nursing homes in Delhi were given a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Ma...

  19. Child Day Care Centers, Child Day Cares as provided by the Department of Children and Family in Miami-Dade - points, Published in 2012, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Miami-Dade County, Information Technology Department. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2012. It is described as 'Child...

  20. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  1. Serologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in health care workers, Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Janbakhsh


    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is a major infectious risk factor for health-care workers (HCWs and public- safety workers. Although seroconversion rate following hepatitis B vaccination is estimated to be more than 90%, serologic response to Heberbiovac HB vaccine currently given in our center in Kermanshah province has been varied in different experiences, So, this study was conducted to determine serologic response in HCWs. Methods: In a descriptive-cross sectional study, in 138 HbcAb from 10 health care centers, HbcAb negatives and vaccinated with Heberbiovac HB (Cuba made, available vaccine in Iran, HbsAb titer was assessed by ELISA. Serologic response as antibody titer equal or more than 10mIU/ml considered protective level (serologic responder. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using X² and Fisher exact test. Results: Within 138 HCWs(60.1% female and 39.9% male, 69.6% had serologic response. The age had significant role in serologic response rate, but sex, weight, smoking and interval from the last time of vaccine reception were not effective factors. Conclusion: Serologic response rate to HBV vaccine in Kermanshah was much lower than other experiences. We need more information about the efficacy of Heberbiovac HB in high-risk groups and general population, the reasons of low efficacy and increasing serologic response. Keywords: Hepatitis B, Vaccine, Serologic response, Heberbiovac HB, Health-care workers

  2. Caring labour, intersectionality and worker satisfaction: an analysis of the National Nursing Assistant Study (NNAS). (United States)

    Rakovski, Carter C; Price-Glynn, Kim


    Caring labour in long-term care settings is increasingly important as the US population ages. Ethnographic research on nursing assistants (NAs) portrays nursing home care as routine and fast paced in facilities that emphasise life maintenance more than care. Recent interview-based and small quantitative studies describe a mix of positive and negative aspects of NA work, including the rewards of caring, despite shortcomings in working conditions and pay. The current study continues this research but, for the first time, using national data. The 2004 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Nursing Assistant Study (NNAS) provides survey data from 3,017 NAs working in long-term care facilities across the US. The NNAS results confirm the importance and centrality of caring to NAs' work. NAs motivated by caring for others were significantly more satisfied with their jobs than those motivated by other reasons, such as convenience or salary. Overall, NAs report surprisingly high job satisfaction, particularly with learning new skills, doing challenging work, and organisational support for caring labour. Areas of dissatisfaction were salary, time for reproductive labour, and turnover. Intersectional analysis revealed race and citizenship played a stronger role than gender in worker satisfaction.

  3. [Biosecurity and clinical care nursing: contributions for the promotion of worker's health]. (United States)

    Gallas, Samanta Rauber; Fontana, Rosane Teresinha


    Qualitative study that aimed at investigating concepts and practices of nursing technicians on biosecurity and its interface with biological hazards, with 20 workers developed a clinical care unit of a hospital in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected through interviews and systematic observation. Thematic analysis was the methodology used for data processing. The negligence of its employees on the use of individual protection equipment and work overload are risk factors for accidents with biological material. Suggested that partnerships between the actors involved in caring for the construction of healthy environments and accountability for negligence on biosecurity.

  4. The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics, Work Conditions, and Level of "Mobbing" of Health Workers in Primary Health Care. (United States)

    Picakciefe, Metin; Acar, Gulcihan; Colak, Zehra; Kilic, Ibrahim


    Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91.5%; 83.2% of health workers are female, 42.9% are midwives, 27.7% are nurses, and 14.3% are doctors. In all, 31.1% of health workers have faced with "mobbing" in the last 1 year, and the frequency of experiencing "mobbing" of those 48.6% of them is 1 to 3 times per year. A total of 70.3% of those who apply "mobbing" are senior health workers, and 91.9% are female. The frequency of encountering with "mobbing" was found significantly in married health workers, in those 16 years and above according to examined total working time, in those who have psychosocial reactions, and in those who have counterproductive behaviors. It has been discovered that primary health care workers have high prevalence of "mobbing" exposure. To avoid "mobbing" at workplace, authorities and responsibilities of all employees have to be clearly determined.

  5. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.


    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  6. Contrasting experiences with child health care services by mothers and professional caregivers in transitional housing. (United States)

    Amen, Maisha M; Pacquiao, Dula F


    The study examined experiences of mothers and health care providers with preventive child health care services using qualitative methods at a primary care clinic located in transitional housing for homeless families in an urban community with predominantly Black American residents. Participants were 20 mothers and 4 health care professionals. Three major domains emerged: (a). the infrastructure of the clinic and health care delivery poses barriers to mothers' access and use of services for their children; (b). specialized, biomedical-driven care produces fragmented care delivery not responsive to the comprehensive nature of problems of mothers and their children; and (c). organizational strategies for improving access and use of health care services are directed by health care providers' value orientations. Findings support existence of infrastructural characteristics of the health care system that maintains differential value orientations and power structure, and care delivery processes that are non responsive to racially diverse and poor mothers.

  7. Making Meaningful Improvements to Direct Care Worker Training Through Informed Policy: Understanding How Care Setting Structure and Culture Matter. (United States)

    Kemeny, M Elizabeth; Mabry, J Beth


    Well-intentioned policy governing the training of direct care workers (DCWs) who serve older persons, in practice, may become merely a compliance issue for organizations rather than a meaningful way to improve quality of care. This study investigates the relationships between best practices in DCW training and the structure and culture of long term support service (LTSS) organizations. Using a mixed-methods approach to analyzing data from 328 licensed LTSS organizations in Pennsylvania, the findings suggest that public policy should address methods of training, not just content, and consider organizational variations in size, training evaluation practices, DCW integration, and DCW input into care planning. Effective training also incorporates support for organizations and supervisors as key aspects of DCWs' learning and working environment.

  8. Interviewing Children: A Guide for Child Care and Forensic Practitioners. Wiley Series in Child Care and Protection. (United States)

    Aldridge, Michelle; Wood, Joanne

    Because a child witness' account is often the only source of information about an alleged incidence of sexual abuse, it becomes imperative to obtain an accurate account from the child so that justice may be achieved. This book provides information on children's linguistic ability in relation to videotaped interviews conducted since the…

  9. Structural Violence in Health Care: Lived Experience of Street-Based Female Commercial Sex Workers in Kathmandu. (United States)

    Basnyat, Iccha


    Thirty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with female, street-based, commercial sex workers in Kathmandu, Nepal. The framework of structural violence guided this study in identifying the structural context that impacts the female sex workers' lives and may cause harm to their health. Structural violence in health care was revealed through thematic analysis as (a) discrimination, (b) forced choice, and (c) limitations to health information sources. Lived experiences highlight how the sex workers engaged with structural limitations in health care access, services, and utilization. Structural violence conveys a message about who is entitled to health care and what a society emphasizes and expects regarding acceptable health behavior. Examining the structural violence highlighted how the sex workers negotiated, understood, and engaged with structural limitations in health care access, services, and utilization.

  10. Teasing Apart the Child Care Conundrum: A Factorial Survey Analysis of Perceptions of Child Care Quality, Fair Market Price and Willingness to Pay by Low-Income, African American Parents (United States)

    Shlay, Anne B.; Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha; Harmon, Michelle


    Child care quality plays a crucial role in children's social and cognitive development. While child care quality is a critical issue for all children, it matters more for low-income children. Policy makers have increased the emphasis on allowing parents, not government, to make decisions about the type of care they want for their children. Yet…

  11. Integration of the leprosy programme into primary health care: a case study of perceptions of primary health care workers. (United States)

    Raju, M S; Dongre, V V


    Integration of the vertical leprosy programme into the existing horizontal health programme poses various administrative and operational challenges to programmers. In order to understand the preparedness of the PHC workers for integration of leprosy into primary health care services, 71 PHC workers were interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The results showed that about 42% of the staff have heard of the concept of integration earlier and 90% of the PHC staff are willing to treat leprosy patients in the primary health care centre, but only 72% were in favour of integration. The reasons for favouring integration were (1) wider coverage with MDT, (2) frequent field visits by the worker, (3) better rapport with the community, (4) timely treatment and (5) cost-effectiveness. About 28% of the staff members did not favour integration for the reasons that the leprosy programme would suffer, targets cannot be met, supervision would be difficult, knowledge of the staff was inadequate and importance cannot be given to leprosy as family planning is always a priority in PHC centres. About 43% of the staff felt that the performance of the leprosy programme would be better after integration. With regard to workload, 60% of the sample felt that there would be increase in the workload in the field, record maintenance and supervision. The difficulties foreseen by the workers were grouped into 6 categories, viz., administrative, managerial, technical, personnel, social and miscellaneous. It is worth noting that 91% of the staff that included all categories said they were not afraid of leprosy, but needed training in leprosy work. About 50% of the staff expected increase in salaries and promotions if integration took place.

  12. Caring for children with intellectual disabilities part 2: Detailed analyses of factors involved in respite workers' reported assessment and care decisions. (United States)

    Genik, Lara M; McMurtry, C Meghan; Breau, Lynn M


    Respite workers (RW) commonly care for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), and pain is common for these children. Little is known about factors which inform RW pain assessment and management-related decisions.

  13. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.


    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  14. Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ismail


    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia.Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses.Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between

  15. Predictors of Global Quality in Family Child Care Homes: Structural and Belief Characteristics (United States)

    Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna


    Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…

  16. Parents' and Providers' Views of Important Aspects of Child Care Quality. Publication #2015-13 (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura; Halle, Tamara; Susman-Stillman, Amy; Cleveland, Jennifer; Li, Weilin


    The Maryland-Minnesota Child Care Research Partnership brought together two states committed to examining critical issues in early care and education and using research findings to inform policy with an interdisciplinary team of researchers experienced in conducting studies on (1) subsidy policy; (2) quality improvement strategies; and (3)…

  17. Mothers’ Experiences of Participating in the Medical Care of their Child with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korning Lund, Line; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    . Findings/results: Six themes were found: "Distraction, control and security", "Difficulty dealing with the child's psychological reaction", "Fluctuating surplus of mental resources calls for match of expectation", "Preparing systems for the medical care on their own", "Complying with the medical care...

  18. Child anxiety in mental health care: Closing the gaps between research and clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.


    In this dissertation about child anxiety in mental health care, three gaps between research and everyday clinical practice were addressed. Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in children, only a minority is referred to mental health care. It was found that more severe impairment in the

  19. The Economic Impact of the Child Care Industry in Southeast Wisconsin (United States)

    Kovach, Melissa; Lam, Eva; Dickman, Anneliese


    Discussions of early childhood care and education usually focus on its social and educational value, and how it helps children and families. More recently, the focus in many states, including Wisconsin, has been on potential investments in child care quality improvements as strategies for improving long-term educational outcomes for disadvantaged…

  20. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira


    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teache...... for nursery care teachers, but not for preschool teacher...

  1. Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition (FCCERS-R) (United States)

    Harms, Thelma; Cryer, Debby; Clifford, Richard M.


    Featuring a new spiral binding, the FCCERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, "The Family Day Care Rating Scale." Designed for use in family child care programs, it is suitable for programs serving children from infancy through school-age. Following extensive input from users of the…

  2. Experiences of parenting a child with medical complexity in need of acute hospital care. (United States)

    Hagvall, Monica; Ehnfors, Margareta; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta


    Parents of children with medical complexity have described being responsible for providing advanced care for the child. When the child is acutely ill, they must rely on the health-care services during short or long periods of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to describe parental experiences of caring for their child with medical complexity during hospitalization for acute deterioration, specifically focussing on parental needs and their experiences of the attitudes of staff. Data were gathered through individual interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The care period can be interpreted as a balancing act between acting as a caregiver and being in need of care. The parents needed skilled staff who could relieve them of medical responsibility, but they wanted to be involved in the care and in the decisions taken. They needed support, including relief, in order to meet their own needs and to be able to take care of their children. It was important that the child was treated with respect in order for the parent to trust the staff. An approach where staff view parents and children as a single unit, as recipients of care, would probably make the situation easier for these parents and children.

  3. Obesity prevention in child care: A review of U.S. state regulations

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    Slining Meghan


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. Methods We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1 Water is freely available; 2 Sugar-sweetened beverages are limited; 3 Foods of low nutritional value are limited; 4 Children are not forced to eat; 5 Food is not used as a reward; 6 Support is provided for breastfeeding and provision of breast milk; 7 Screen time is limited; and 8 Physical activity is required daily. Results Considerable variation exists among state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to obesity. Tennessee had six of the eight regulations for child care centers, and Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, and Nevada had five of the eight regulations. Conversely, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Nebraska and Washington had none of the eight regulations. For family child care homes, Georgia and Nevada had five of the eight regulations; Arizona, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia had four of the eight regulations. California, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska did not have any of the regulations related to obesity for family child care homes. Conclusion Many states lack specific nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care facilities. If widely implemented, enhancing state regulations could help address the obesity epidemic in young children in the United States.

  4. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  5. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Needle Stick Injuries Among Helath Care Workers in Tertiary Care Hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

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    Rakesh Shah, HK Mehta, Manish Fancy, Sunil Nayak, Bhavesh N. Donga


    Full Text Available Health care professionals are exposed to variety of dangers like infections, cuts and needle stick injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases, radiations, dermatitis causing substances, vaccines, serums etc. This study focuses on issues related to some of these risks and possible ways and means on how to overcome these risks. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers about needle stick injury. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in June 2008. Results: Mean age of Health care workers was 33.5 years, majority (50% in the age group of 20-30 years. 61% HCWs had less than 5 year of work experience. 67% HCWs had received hepatitis B vaccination of which only 17.9% had carried out Anti HBs antibody check up. Knowledge about disease transmitted by NSIs was satisfactory. Though 36% had suffered Needle stick injury (NSIs, only 8.3% reported the incident of NSIs. 81% HCWs know about universal precaution guidelines. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety and disaster management.

  6. Effects of a psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia. (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana; Marques, Alda; Sousa, Liliana; Nolan, Mike; Figueiredo, Daniela


    This study assessed the effects of a person-centered care-based psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with people with dementia living in aged-care facilities. An experimental study with a pretest-posttest control-group design was conducted in four aged-care facilities. Two experimental facilities received an 8-week psycho-educational intervention aiming to develop workers' knowledge about dementia, person-centered care competences, and tools for stress management. Control facilities received education only, with no support to deal with stress. In total, 332 morning care sessions, involving 56 direct care workers (female, mean age 44.72 ± 9.02 years), were video-recorded before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The frequency and duration of a list of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors were analyzed. Within the experimental group there was a positive change from pre- to posttest on the frequency of all workers' communicative behaviors. Significant treatment effects in favor of the experimental group were obtained for the frequency of inform (p educational intervention can positively affect direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia. Further research is required to determine the extent of the benefits of this approach.

  7. Community health workers in primary care practice: redesigning health care delivery systems to extend and improve diabetes care in underserved populations. (United States)

    Collinsworth, Ashley; Vulimiri, Madhulika; Snead, Christine; Walton, James


    New, comprehensive, approaches for chronic disease management are needed to ensure that patients, particularly those more likely to experience health disparities, have access to the clinical care, self-management resources, and support necessary for the prevention and control of diabetes. Community health workers (CHWs) have worked in community settings to reduce health care disparities and are currently being deployed in some clinical settings as a means of improving access to and quality of care. Guided by the chronic care model, Baylor Health Care System embedded CHWs within clinical teams in community clinics with the goal of reducing observed disparities in diabetes care and outcomes. This study examines findings from interviews with patients, CHWs, and primary care providers (PCPs) to understand how health care delivery systems can be redesigned to effectively incorporate CHWs and how embedding CHWs in primary care teams can produce informed, activated patients and prepared, proactive practice teams who can work together to achieve improved patient outcomes. Respondents indicated that the PCPs continued to provide clinical exams and manage patient care, but the roles of diabetes education, nutritional counseling, and patient activation were shifted to the CHWs. CHWs also provided patients with social support and connection to community resources. Integration of CHWs into clinical care teams improved patient knowledge and activation levels, the ability of PCPs to identify and proactively address specific patient needs, and patient outcomes.

  8. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment. (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L


    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  9. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh

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    Muthyala Pavana Sandhya


    Full Text Available Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu. Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student′s t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.

  10. Early childhood feeding: assessing knowledge, attitude, and practices of multi-ethnic child-care providers. (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Alvarez, Karina P


    Early childhood is a critical period for shaping and influencing feeding and lifestyle behaviors that have implications for future weight and health. With more women in the workforce, families have become reliant on child care. Thus, the child-feeding relationship has become a shared responsibility between the parent and child-care provider. Little is known about the impact of child-care providers on development of early childhood feeding behaviors and subsequent risk for obesity, especially in the Hispanic ethnic group. This research examined child-feeding attitudes, practices, and knowledge of multi-ethnic home-based and center-based child-care providers. Questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of 72 providers, 50 of whom completed a pre- and post-test on child-feeding knowledge after receiving a 90-minute class based on Satter's division of responsibility feeding model during the spring of 2008. Results indicate many providers had practices consistent with this model. However, substantial differences were reported by Hispanic providers, who were statistically more likely to encourage children to finish meals before dessert, prepare foods they perceived as well-liked by children, coach children to eat foods perceived as appropriate, and not eat with children during meals. A substantial increase in knowledge from 73% correct at pretest to 82% at post-test was noted, with a substantial increase in knowledge on five of 13 questions. However, knowledge was not always congruent with behavior. This study points to differences among providers based on ethnicity, and strongly recommends recruiting Hispanic child-care providers to participate in educational programs and community efforts to prevent obesity.

  11. Roles for Schools and School Social Workers in Improving Child Food Security (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.


    Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…

  12. The Ryan Report (2009. A Practitioner's Perspective on Implications for Residential Child Care

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    Noel Howard


    Full Text Available This article suggests that recent abuse reports and the Ryan Report in particular are now warning signs etched in the consciousness of social care workers. Quite rightly, this consciousness will determine how social care workers approach their work with children in the care system. In many care units the incessant, ostensibly plausible, demands of bureaucracy mean that children exist in an artificial, sanitised care bubble where they are bereft of structure, empathy, spontaneity and real relationships – the very things they crave. Written in a personal capacity and based on the author’s background practice experience, some of this article represents points of view rather than evidential conclusions. The article’s purpose is to contribute to debate, so necessary if lessons of the Ryan Report are really to be learned.

  13. Economic analysis of delivering primary health care services through community health workers in 3 North Indian states.

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    Shankar Prinja

    Full Text Available We assessed overall annual and unit cost of delivering package of services and specific services at sub-centre level by CHWs and cost effectiveness of Government of India's policy of introducing a second auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM at the sub-centre compared to scenario of single ANM sub-centre.We undertook an economic costing of health services delivered by CHWs, from a health system perspective. Bottom-up costing method was used to collect data on resources spent in 50 randomly selected sub-centres selected from 4 districts. Mean unit cost along with its 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap method. Multiple linear regression model was used to standardize cost and assess its determinants.Annually it costs INR 1.03 million (USD 19,381, or INR 187 (USD 3.5 per capita per year, to provide a package of preventive, curative and promotive services through community health workers. Unit costs for antenatal care, postnatal care, DOTS treatment and immunization were INR 525 (USD 10 per full ANC care, INR 767 (USD 14 per PNC case registered, INR 974 (USD 18 per DOTS treatment completed and INR 97 (USD 1.8 per child immunized in routine immunization respectively. A 10% increase in human resource costs results in 6% rise in per capita cost. Similarly, 10% increment in the ANC case registered per provider through-put results in a decline in unit cost ranging from 2% in the event of current capacity utilization to 3% reduction in case of full capacity utilization. Incremental cost of introducing 2nd ANM at sub-centre level per unit percent increase ANC coverage was INR 23,058 (USD 432.Our estimates would be useful in undertaking full economic evaluations or equity analysis of CHW programs. Government of India's policy of hiring 2nd ANM at sub-centre level is very cost effective from Indian health system perspective.

  14. “Culture Is So Interspersed”: Child-Minders' and Health Workers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity in South Africa (United States)

    Saltzman, Jaclyn; Jarick Metcalfe, Jessica; Wiley, Angela


    Introduction. Forty-one million children globally are overweight or obese, with most rapid rate increases among low- and middle-income nations. Child-minders and health workers play a crucial role in obesity prevention efforts, but their perceptions of childhood obesity in low- and middle-income countries are poorly understood. This study aims to (1) explore child-minders and health workers' perceptions of the causes, consequences, potential strategies, and barriers for childhood obesity prevention and intervention in Cape Town, South Africa and (2) to provisionally test the fit of a socioecological framework to explain these perceptions. Methods. Twenty-one interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through analytic induction. Results. Participants identified multilevel factors and contexts, as well as potential consequences and priorities of interest in addressing childhood obesity. An adapted childhood obesity perceptions model was generated, which introduces an overarching cultural dimension embedded across levels of the socioecological framework. Conclusions. Culture plays a pivotal role in explaining obesogenic outcomes, and the results of this study demonstrate the need for further research investigating how obesity perceptions are shaped by cultural frames (e.g., social, political, and historical). Understanding the causes, consequences, and potential interventions to address obesity through a cultural lens is critical for promoting health in low- and middle-income nations.

  15. 2009年山西省妇幼保健机构现状与发展对策分析%Analysis on status and development countermeasures of maternity and child care institutions in Shanxi in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任莉; 白继庚


    Objective: To understand the status of maternity and child care institutions at different levels in Shanxi, provide directive information for normalized management of maternity and child care institutions and scientific decision - making of health administrative departments at all levels. Methods: The data including human resources, facilities and external payments situation of 131 maternity and child care institutions in Shanxi in 2009 were described with the help of Supervising Information Network Reporting System in National Maternal and Child Health Center. Results: The organize personnel of maternity and child care institutions was insufficient, the standard - reaching rate of health workers was low; the quality of health workers was low, the structure was unreasonable; the facilities of maternity and child care institutions were behindhand, especially in primary maternity and child care institutions, the subsequent development fund was insufficient. Conclusion: The personnel allocation of maternity and child care institutions at different levels should be reasonable, and the talents should be introduced; the quality of health workers in maternity and child care institutions should be improved; the invested funds should be increased and the facilities should be improved.%目的:了解山西省各级妇幼保健机构现状,为机构自身规范化管理及各级卫生行政部门的科学决策提供指导信息.方法:借助国家妇幼保健中心机构监测信息网络直报系统,对山西省131所妇幼保健机构2009年的人力资源、设备情况、收支情况等信息资料进行描述.结果:妇幼保健机构人员编制不足,卫生技术人员达标率低;妇幼卫生技术人员素质偏低、结构欠合理;妇幼保健机构特别足基层妇幼保健机构设备落后,后续发展资会剩余不足.结论:①务级妇幼保健机构应合理进行人员配置,合理引进人才;②努力加强妇幼保健队伍人员素质建设;③增

  16. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

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    Hadad Salime


    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  17. Taxonomic systems in the field of health care, family care, and child and youth care : A systematic overview of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenboer, K. E.; Huyghen, A. M. N.; Tuinstra, J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Knorth, E. J.


    Taxonomies of child, youth, and family care are needed for the adequate comparison of the effectiveness and usefulness of care and treatment programs. Until now, no systematic overview has been made of the taxonomies available and their outcomes. The aim of this paper is to systematically summarize

  18. Double jeopardy: the impact of neoliberalism on care workers in the United States and South Africa. (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Zelnick, Jennifer


    Many researchers have explored how neoliberal restructuring of the workplace has reduced the standard of living and increased workplace stress among private sector employees. However, few have focused on how neoliberal restructuring of public policy has had similar effects on the public sector workforce. Using original case study research, the authors examine how two iconic pieces of neoliberal policy--the 1996 welfare reform bill in the United States and the GEAR macroeconomic policy in South Africa--affected public/nonprofit human service workers in New York City, United States, and public sector nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The authors argue that in both situations, despite national differences, these policies created a "double jeopardy," in which patients/clients and care workers are adversely affected by neoliberal public policy. This "double jeopardy" creates significant hardship, but also the opportunity for new social movements.

  19. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

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    Avita R Johnson


    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  20. Double Jeopardy: Poorer Social-Emotional Outcomes for Children in the NICHD SECCYD Experiencing Home and Child-Care Environments that Confer Risk (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah Enos; Phillips, Deborah A.; Morrissey, Taryn W.; McCartney, Kathleen; Bub, Kristen


    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD SECCYD), the authors examined whether interactions between home and child-care quality affect children's social-emotional adjustment at 24, 36, and 54 months (N = 771). Triadic splits on quality of home and child care were used to…

  1. [Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry]. (United States)

    Burchard, Falk; Diebenbusch, Teresa


    Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In the past years the pressure in society and psychological problems in Germany have risen up. This can especially be verified by the great influx of utilization of child and adolescent psychiatric clinics through the admission of crisis. In this connection social disadvantaged female adolescents with a low socio-economic status, students of the secondary school, children in care and the ones whose parents have to manage their upbringing alone are preferentially affected. These developments require a fast adaptation of the supply system to the transformed demands, in particular in terms of outpatient treatment, as well as a closely and structured cooperation between the youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in their function as systems of help. In the script statistical data and adaptive approaches of a supply department of child and adolescent psychiatry are presented.

  2. Job Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Related Factors among Health Care Workers in Golestan Province, Iran (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Heidari, Alireza; Etemad, Koorosh; Gashti, Ashrafi Babazadeh; Jafari, Nahid; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ariaee, Mohammad; Lotfi, Mansureh


    Introduction Burnout causes physical and emotional tireness, job dissatisfaction, resulting in reduced efficiency and a feeling of alienation from colleagues. Also, job satisfaction has a major impact on job-related behaviors, such as turnover intention, absenteeism, and job performance. The aim of this study was to determine job burnout, job satisfaction rate, and related factors among health care workers in Golestan Province in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,141 health workers in Golestan Province in northern Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was comprised of four sections. It consisted of socio-economic characteristics, physical environment and facilities of health house (rural health clinic), Maslach burnout inventory, and a satisfaction questionnaire. Multi-nomial Logistic Regression was conducted to analyze the data using SPSS software, version 22. Results There were significant relationships between the intensity of job burnout and age (p education level (p = 0.027), number of children (p = 0.002), dissatisfaction with income (p education level (p = 0.016), number of children (p = 0.003), dissatisfaction with income (p < 0.001), and the physical environment of health houses (p = 0.008). There were significant relationships between job satisfaction and the satisfaction from income (p = 0.001), the physical environment of health houses (p = 0.001), and the facilities of health houses (p = 0.001). Conclusion Burnout was average among health workers, and health workers job satisfaction rate was lower than the average level in health workers. Effective interventions are recommended with regards to the unfavorable condition of job satisfaction and its relationship with job burnout.

  3. Assessment of knowledge attitude and practice towards hepatitis B among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital

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    Farhana Siraj


    Results: This cross sectional prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Govt. Medical College Srinagar from January to June 2015. 150 health care professionals were taken for the study. Knowledge regarding disease and transmission was fairly good. Regarding vaccination status 42.02% of medical and 29.60% of paramedical staff was fully vaccinated, the most common reason for non compliance being ignorance of importance of vaccination. Awareness of patients' vaccination status was also low. Conclusions: Due to low vaccine-compliance, Health care workers (HCW continue to be at the risk of occupational HBV infection. Regular Health education highlighting occupational risk of HBV, accessibility of vaccine, and mandatory vaccination of HCW is recommended to prevent Hepatitis B infection. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 58-61

  4. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service... (United States)


    ... June 30, 2013, on July 24, 2012, in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43229. Adjusted Payments The... related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) This notice has been determined to be not... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day...

  5. Goodness-of-Fit in Center Day Care: Relations of Temperament, Stability, and Quality of Care with the Child's Adjustment (United States)

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Zeijl, Jantien


    In this study, the concept of "goodness-of-fit" between the child's temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6-30 months, participated in this…

  6. "Child as a project" verus "Daj dite materi" gender division of child care

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    Ivković Željka


    Full Text Available The paper tries to connect two theoretical concepts: „child as a project” and gender division of household work involving childcare. Although these concepts are tightly interrelated and intertwined and it might seem that it is not possible to talk about the one without the other, the impression is that in research where they are trying to be connected, the modern concept of „child as a project” appears in theoretical-interpretative function of research, but the operationalization is stopped in determining those activities which belong in more traditional construction of childhood, now already classically expressed by dichotomy of childcare in opposition to play and fun with child. This paper tends to broaden such dichotomous model by practices that would represent parental investment in child and verify if and how much these practices are gendered. For this purpose, we conducted survey in 2013. with parents (N=261 whose children attend kindergartens in the area of city of Rijeka. Since our research involved parents of children of early and preschool age, the third dimension of our theoretical model was directed into educational activities of parents typical of that child age as a backbone of „project” approach to childhood. An instrument of Likert type was constructed containing 15 items by which we covered all three dimensions. Factor analysis under the component model extracted four factors. Analysis showed that the activities of childcare are still dominantly maternal activities, while play and fun with child, as well as activities directed into setting the good educational foundation, are the domain of both parents. It seems, at least according to our sample, that the parental investment in child is more of a common practice of both parents, but that some traditional divisions still maintain.

  7. Family Models for Earning and Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

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    Ravanera, Zenaida


    Full Text Available AbstractCanadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity infamilies. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant andtoddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parentalpreferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.RésuméLa famille canadiennes a changé, dû en partie à une économie qui offre plus de possibilités d’emploi pour les femmes, et à une tendance culturelle qui valorise l’égalité des chances et la diversité dans les familles. En dépit de ces changements, les preuves quantitatives et qualitatives suggèrent une préférence continue pour les mères de passer plus de temps avec les enfants, particulièrement quand il s’agit de nouveau-nés ou d’enfants en bas âge. Donc, pour un couple moyen, la présence de jeunes enfants au foyer pousse les femmes à réduire leurs emplois rémunérés et les maris à augmenter les leurs. Notre étude des préférences parentales suggère un intérêt pour un accroissement des services pour jeunes enfants sous la forme d’éducation préscolaire et de garde d’enfants, et aussi un intérêt pour des politiques qui permettraient aux parents de passer plus de temps avec leurs enfants tels que cong

  8. Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study. (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos


    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country.

  9. Examining change in cortisol patterns during the 10-week transition to a new child-care setting. (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Peloso, Elizabeth; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Zhiyong; Dozier, Mary


    The transition to out-of-home child care brings a number of challenges for children, including complex peer interactions and extended separations from parents. Children often show a midmorning to afternoon rise in cortisol on child-care days, compared to the typical diurnal decline seen at home. Changes in cortisol were examined in a wide age range of children (N = 168; 1.2 months to 8 years, M = 3.27 years) during the 10-week transition to a new child-care setting. Structural equation modeling using latent change scores showed that children experienced an increase in the cortisol rise at child care across the 10-week transition. Furthermore, child age moderated the difference between home- and child-care cortisol patterns. Findings are placed in a developmental context, and potential implications and future directions are discussed.

  10. Child Day Care Centers, Statewide Day Cares in the LDSS database., Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2006. It is described as 'Statewide Day Cares in the LDSS database.'. The extent...

  11. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India. (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek


    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  12. Folding and unfolding manual wheelchairs: an ergonomic evaluation of health-care workers. (United States)

    White, Heather A; Lee Kirby, R


    The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses (i) that health-care workers vary greatly in the methods used to fold and unfold selected manual wheelchairs, and (ii) that many of the methods used include bent and twisted back postures that are known to be associated with a high risk of injury. We studied 20 health-care workers in a rehabilitation center. Subjects folded and unfolded two wheelchairs of cross-brace design, one with and one without a sling seat. As outcome measures, we used a questionnaire, time taken, visual analog scales of perceived exertion and back strain, folded width, videotape and Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) back scores (1-4). Subjects used up to 14 different combinations of approach, hand placement and back posture to accomplish the tasks. The mean OWAS scores were in the 2.4-3.1 range and 49 (42%) of the 118 scores recorded were class 4 (back simultaneously "bent and twisted", considered to be associated with the highest risk of injury). We also observed methods that appeared to be safe and effective. Age, gender, profession, experience and seat condition did not generally influence the outcome measures. We conclude that health-care workers use a variety of methods to fold and unfold wheelchairs, many of which include bent and twisted back postures that may carry a risk of injury. Further study is needed to confirm this risk, to identify more ergonomically sound wheelchair designs and to develop better methods of carrying out the common and important task of folding and unfolding wheelchairs.

  13. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India. (United States)

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen


    Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment initiation.

  14. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS). (United States)

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria


    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

  15. Partners in Quality: Tools for Administrators in Child Care Settings. Standards for Quality Child Care Programs, Standards of Practice for Administrators/Directors = Partenaires pour la qualite: Outils pour les gestionnaires des divers milieux de garde d'enfants. Normes pour les services de garde de qualite, Normes professionnelles pour les gestionnaires. (United States)

    Doherty, Gillian

    Partners in Quality is a research and development project sponsored by the Canadian Child Care Federation and its affiliates to explore how child care providers, parents, and other partners can work together to support and improve quality in child care. This booklet, in both English and French, supplements a series to support child care providers…

  16. The Rise in Cortisol in Family Day Care: Associations with Aspects of Care Quality, Child Behavior, and Child Sex (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.


    This study examined the increase in salivary cortisol from midmorning to midafternoon in 151 children (3.0-4.5 years) in full-time home-based day care. Compared to cortisol levels at home, increases were noted in the majority of children (63%) at day care, with 40% classified as a stress response. Observations at day care revealed that intrusive,…

  17. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease. (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J


    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  18. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya


    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  19. Experiences of parents with caring for their child after a cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Flury, Maria; Caflisch, Ueli; Ullmann-Bremi, Andrea; Spichiger, Elisabeth


    Children and adolescents with cancer are increasingly treated and cared for at home; hospital stays are reduced to a minimum. Taking care of a sick child at home has an impact on the entire family: the sick child, the siblings, and the parents. This qualitative study examines the experiences of parents taking their child home for the first time after the diagnosis. Parents of 10 children newly diagnosed with cancer were interviewed twice around the time of the first discharge; data were analyzed using content analysis methodology. Findings illustrated parents' preparation of and experiences around their child's first discharge, the huge amount of new and changed tasks parents have to fulfill at home when caring for their child with cancer, and consequences for the parents. By providing individualized information and instruction, by having parents anticipate potential problems and solutions, and by describing available community support and integrating district nurses as well as other parents with the same experiences more frequently, health care professionals in the hospital can optimize discharge planning for these parents.

  20. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children. (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean


    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  1. Responding to Child Abuse: A Handbook = Guide sur l'intervention en cas de mauvais traitements infliges aux enfants. (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This handbook, in English and French, provides guidelines for reporting and investigating child abuse and neglect by child care providers, law enforcement officials, social workers, health care providers, educators, and others as required by Alberta's Child Welfare Act. The handbook addresses: (1) how to recognize abuse and neglect; (2) how to…

  2. Increasing Knowledge, Skills, and Empathy among Direct Care Workers in Elder Care: A Preliminary Study of an Active-Learning Model (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Cheang, Michael; Shigeta, Dennis


    Purpose: We describe the development of a 24-hr curriculum for nonclinical direct care workers in elder care that features active-learning strategies and consumer-directed approaches. Design and Methods: Our curricular design was based on adult education theory and a survey of 70% of the community's service providers. Training was completed by 88…

  3. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius


    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU (n=33 and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP (n=14 using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person. Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  4. Acculturation differences in communicating information about child mental health between Latino parents and primary care providers. (United States)

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Brown, Jonathan D; Loder, Stephen; Wissow, Larry


    Significant Latino-white disparities in youth mental health care access and quality exist yet little is known about Latino parents' communication with providers about youth mental health and the role of acculturation in influencing this communication. We estimated regression models to assess the association between time in the US and the number of psychosocial issues discussed with the medical assistant (MA) and doctor, adjusting for child and parent mental health and sociodemographics. Other proxies of acculturation were also investigated including measures of Spanish and English language proficiency and nativity. Parent's length of time in the US was positively associated with their communication of: their child's psychosocial problems with their child's MA, stress in their own life with their child's MA, and their child's school problems with their child's doctor. These differences were especially apparent for parents living in the US for >10 years. Parent-child language discordance, parent and child nativity were also significantly associated with communication of psychosocial problems. Greater provider and MA awareness of variation in resistance to communicating psychosocial issues could improve communication, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of youth mental illness.

  5. Adult attachment and the perceived cost of housework and child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Sommer, Dion; Mathias, Lasgaard


    Objective: This study examined the link between new mothers’ attachment orientation and the perceived cost of sole responsibility in housework and child care. Background: The transition to motherhood can be very stressful, and according to the Vulnerability Stress Adaptation Model (VSA model...... and housework would predict lower relationship satisfaction, particularly among mothers who were high on attachment insecurity. Methods: Data from self-report measures of adult attachment, child care, housework and relationship satisfaction were collected from 255 first-time mothers at six months postpartum...

  6. School-Age Child Care Trend Report: Part 2 (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    According to the author, school-age care is the fastest growing segment of the early childhood arena and possibly the least visible. While programs have been serving school-age children in out-of-school hours since the turn of the century, it is only in recent years that professionals have started to view school-age care as a distinct discipline…

  7. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt (United States)

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  8. Linkage in the chain of care: a grounded theory of professional cooperation between antenatal care, postpartum care and child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Barimani


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present a Swedish study exploring health care professionals’ cooperation in the chain of care for expectant and new parents between antenatal care (AC, postpartum care (PC and child health care (CHC. Furthermore, the rationale was to conceptualise barriers and facilitators of cooperation in order to generate a comprehensive theoretical model which may explain variations in the care providers’ experiences. Methods: Thirty-two midwives and CHC nurses were interviewed in five focus group – and two individual interviews in a suburb of a large Swedish city. Grounded Theory was applied as the research methodology. Results: One core category was discerned: linkage in the chain of care, including six categories with subcategories. Despite the fact that midwives as well as CHC nurses have common visions about linkage, cooperation is not achieved because of interacting barriers that have different influences on the three links in the chain. Conclusions: Barriers to linkage are lack of professional gain, link perspective and first or middle position in the chain, while facilitators are chain perspective, professional gain and last position in the chain. As the last link, CHC nurses promote a linkage most strongly and have the greatest gain from such linking.

  9. Child Care Subsidy Policies and Practices: Implications for Child Care Providers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies. (United States)

    Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Tout, Kathryn

    This brief summarizes the report "Essential but Often Ignored: Child Care Providers in the Subsidy System," examining child care subsidy policies and practices shaping experiences of providers serving subsidized children, particularly those affecting providers' payments and their overall experience with the subsidy system. Research on the voucher…

  10. Effect of end of life education on medical students' and health care workers' death attitude. (United States)

    Hegedus, K; Zana, A; Szabó, G


    One of the goals of education in end of life care is to make communication more open by exploring critical issues related to fear of dying and death in order to reduce anxiety and improve an individual's attitude to dying patients. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of courses for health care workers and medical students in care at the end of life. One hundred and twenty-seven health care professionals and 41 undergraduate medical students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) on the first and last day of the course. The most significant factors of fear of death are: Fear for Significant Others, Fear of the Dying Process and Fear of the Unknown. Overall fear of death scores were reduced as an effect of the courses. Changes in the components and level of fear of death are influenced by the participants' gender, age and profession. Improvement was evident in the attitudes to dying patients in both groups, which was related to an increase in knowledge of high-quality care of dying patients.

  11. Child-care chaos and teachers' responsiveness: The indirect associations through teachers' emotion regulation and coping. (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K


    Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies. The sample consisted of 1129 preschool-aged classroom teachers in day care and public pre-K programs across the US. We first found that child-care chaos was directly associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic child-care settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn, was associated with lower levels of positive responsiveness to children. Teachers reporting a higher degree of chaos used more suppression strategies, which in turn, was associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions and fewer expressive encouragement reactions to children's emotions. Results of this exploratory study suggest that it is important to prepare teachers to handle chaotic environments with clear guidelines and rules. In order to encourage teachers' supportive responses to children, intervention programs are needed to address teachers' coping and emotion regulation strategies in early childhood education.

  12. Child health insurance and early preventive care in three South American countries. (United States)

    Wehby, George L


    Not much is known about how health insurance affects preventive care for children who have access to general routine paediatric care, especially in less developed settings. This study evaluates the effects of child health insurance on preventive care (measured by whether the child had received all the age-appropriate immunizations) for children with access to routine paediatric care. It uses a unique sample of 1958 children aged 3-24 months attending paediatric practices for routine well-child care in Argentina, Brazil and Ecuador. It compares insured and uninsured children attending the same paediatric clinics for routine care at the time of enrolment into the study and only uses within-clinic variation in insurance status when evaluating its effect on immunization status. Regression models for adequate immunization status adjust for several demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics and are estimated both separately for each country and combining the three countries. The majority of children in the study sample have received all age-appropriate immunizations. However, publicly insured children in Argentina and Ecuador are more likely to have received all age-appropriate immunizations compared with uninsured children by 3.5 and 2.3 percentage points, respectively. In the model that combines the three country samples, insured children (regardless of insurance type) are significantly more likely to have adequate immunization status by 2.5 percentage points compared with uninsured children. The study provides evidence that health insurance may enhance preventive care for young children.

  13. Different in Vivo Reactivity Profile in Health Care Workers and Patients with Spina Bifida to Internal and External Latex Glove Surface-Derived Allergen Extracts



    BACKGROUND: Allergy to natural rubber latex is a well-recognized health problem, especially among health care workers and patients with spina bifida. Despite latex sensitization being acquired in health institutions in both health care workers and patients with spina bifida, differences in allergen sensitization profiles have been described between these two risk groups. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo reactivity of health care workers and patients with spina bifida to extracts of in...

  14. Options in Education, Transcript for December 8, 1975: Private School Desegration, Community College of Vermont, Child Abuse and Paralegal Worker Education. (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript of the show contains discussions of the Supreme Court decision on private-school desegregation, the Community College of Vermont, child abuse, and learning how to be a paralegal worker. Participants in the program include John Merrow…

  15. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua. (United States)

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F


    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  16. Cut and puncture accidents involving health care workers exposed to biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Grande Gimenez Marino


    Full Text Available The first report of occupational acquisition of HIV appeared in 1984, and, by June, 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC had reported 52 documented cases of sero-conversion following occupational exposure to HIV-1 by health care workers of those cases. 47 (90.3% were exposed to blood. The most frequent type of accident reported was percutaneous needlestick injury. Prospective studies have estimated that the risk of HIV transmission following percutaneous exposure to infected blood is 0.3% (Confidence Interval 95% = 0.2% to 0.5%. Following a mucous membrane exposure, the risk is 0.09% (CI 95% = 0.006% to 0.5%. The risk of hepatitis B acquisition ranges from 6% to 30%, and hepatitis C acquisition, 3% to 10%. Since 1992, the São Paulo Hospital's Hospital Infection Prevention and Control Service (SPCIH has notified and treated all workers exposed to accidents involving biological materials. In the last six years, we have handled approximately 1,300 cases of reported accidents, of which 90% were percutaneous, most involving needlesticks. Such cases were frequently caused by the inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. In these accidents, 20% of the source patients were HIV positive, 10% were hepatitis C positive, and 7.6% were hepatitis B positive. This review summarizes the guidelines for a standardized response when dealing with accidents involving health care workers. Transmission of hepatitis B and HIV can be reduced if adequate preventive measures are taken in advance. If proper prophylaxis is not being done, it should be initiated immediately.

  17. Assessment of work stress and alcohol use in mental health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasiadis T.


    Full Text Available Aim: The documentation and assessment of general work stressors and alcohol use on mental health care workers as well as the relationship between them. Material and method: The sample consisted of 300 mental health care workers who worked in Private and Public Psychiatric Clinics and Psychiatric Hospitals of the country (Hellas. The collection of empirical material was done by using a questionnaire that included a scale of 34 questions for detecting occupational stress factors, the self-esteem scale of the Spielberger and questions about alcohol use. The statistical analysis of data was done with the statistical program SPSS version 15.0 using Student t - test, the ANOVA analysis of variance test and x2 test. Results: Higher frequency occupational stress factors appeared in Nurses rather than Doctors as well as in employees in Private Psychiatric Clinics rather than employees in the Public sector. The fact that Nurses have higher frequency in stressors rather than Doctors is reflected in measurements of anxiety, as a state as well as a personality trait. Also the employees of Private Psychiatric Clinics exhibit greater indicator of anxiety as a personality trait than the employees of the Public sector. Regarding alcohol use (concept of efficiency and normal consumption quantity it was found to be positively associated with the age of the employees. Also the concept of the effectiveness of alcohol in tackling work stress is associated with some occupational stress factors (dangerous conditions of work, rolling working hours. Conclusions: Factors such as specialty and the type of workplace (Public, Private sector affect the stress experienced by the mental health professional. The view of alcohol as a means of relieving working stress is associated with certain stressors of work and the worker's age.

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane de Melo Costa


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03, habit of nail biting (p = 0.04 and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04 were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking.

  19. Developing capacities of community health workers in sexual and reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health: a mapping and review of training resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Toan Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given country demands for support in the training of community health workers (CHWs to accelerate progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals in sexual and reproductive health and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (SR/MNCAH, the United Nations Health Agencies conducted a synthesis of existing training resource packages for CHWs in different components of SR/MNCAH to identify gaps and opportunities and inform efforts to harmonize approaches to developing the capacity of CHWs. METHODS: A mapping of training resource packages for CHWs was undertaken with documents retrieved online and from key informants. Materials were classified by health themes and analysed using agreed parameters. Ways forward were informed by a subsequent expert consultation. RESULTS: We identified 31 relevant packages. They covered different components of the SR/MNCAH continuum in varying breadth (integrated packages and depth (focused packages, including family planning, antenatal and childbirth care (mainly postpartum haemorrhage, newborn care, and childhood care, and HIV. There is no or limited coverage of interventions related to safe abortion, adolescent health, and gender-based violence. There is no training package addressing the range of evidence-based interventions that can be delivered by CHWs as per World Health Organization guidance. Gaps include weakness in the assessment of competencies of trainees, in supportive supervision, and in impact assessment of packages. Many packages represent individual programme efforts rather than national programme materials, which could reflect weak integration into national health systems. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wealth of training packages on SR/MNCAH for CHWs which reflects interest in strengthening the capacity of CHWs. This offers an opportunity for governments and partners to mount a synergistic response to address the gaps and ensure an evidence-based comprehensive package of

  20. Child Height and Maternal Health Care Knowledge in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Stunting prevalence rates in Mozambique are very high (41 percent), especially in rural areas (46 percent). Recent research shows that consumption growth alone will not be sufficient to solve the problem of malnutrition. To investigate the role of additional determinants I use a two-stage quantile...... regression approach with specific attention to the role of maternal preventive health care knowledge and schooling. Three different scores for health care knowledge are used and show similar results. For rural Mozambique, I find that maternal schooling has positive effects especially in the top quintile...... of the height-for-age distribution while health care knowledge has a positive effect on height-for-age of under two year old children especially at the lower end of the distribution where the severely stunted children are located. Improving health care knowledge of mothers could substitute for the low levels...

  1. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools. (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C


    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments.

  2. Assessment of the learning process through the Maternal and Child Nursing Specialists health care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mur Villar


    Full Text Available The curriculum of the Maternal and Child Nursing Specialty is aimed to prepare professionals with theoretical and practical training that enables them to assume the responsibility of the health care of mothers and children as well as to contribute to the training of nurses at different levels. This study has been conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in order to determine the regularities that have been taking place in the learning process through the health care practice and to enable, if it is necessary, a change in the professional performance. As final considerations we have the inadequacies in the learning process as to the integration of health care problems in the formation of graduates of this specialty, according to the new missions of the Medical University and the health services in the area of maternal and child care.

  3. Child rearing in a group setting: beliefs of Dutch, Caribbean Dutch, and Mediterranean Dutch caregivers in center-based child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Huijbregts; L. Tavecchio; P. Leseman; P. Hoffenaar


    Child care centers in Western countries are becoming increasingly culturally diverse, regarding both professional caregivers, children, and their parents. Child-rearing beliefs, which differ between cultures, are found to affect process quality and children’s developmental outcomes. The first aim of

  4. An Assessment of the Validity of the ECERS-R with Implications for Measures of Child Care Quality and Relations to Child Development (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin


    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development, but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch partial credit model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from…

  5. Threshold Analysis of Association between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes for Low-Income Children in Pre-Kindergarten Programs (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pianta, Robert; Mashburn, Andrew


    Over the past five decades, the federal government and most states have invested heavily in providing publicly-funded child care and early education opportunities for 3- and 4-year-old children from low-income families. Policy makers and parents want to identify "the level" or "threshold" in quality of teacher-child interaction…

  6. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.


    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  7. Summary of Consultations on Child Care Reform = Sommaire des consultations sur la reforme des services de garde d'enfants. (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    This document contains the English and French language versions of a report summarizing the results of a public consultation process on the subject of child care reform in Ontario, Canada. The process began with province-wide distribution of a public document called "Setting the Stage" which outlined a child care reform agenda as a focus for…

  8. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey (United States)

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.


    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  9. A Study of Child Care Professionals' Salaries, Benefits, and Working Conditions: Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. (United States)

    Community Child Care Council of Sonoma County, Santa Rosa, CA.

    Surveys were made of the salaries, benefits, and working conditions of child care professionals in Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The centers sampled operated under a variety of auspices. Centers included nonprofit (without subsidized child care spaces), proprietary, public, and subsidized organizations. The survey instrument…

  10. Exploring the Interrelationship of Structure and Process in Family Child Care: The FCCERS-R and "Combined" CLASS (United States)

    Enns, Lionel


    This study examined the correlations between two prominent family child care environmental rating scales, the Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale - Revised (FCCERS-R) and the "Combined" Classroom Assessment Scoring System ("Combined" CLASS), both of which were used during the pilot study of Washington State's Quality…

  11. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "A Rolls-Royce of Day Care." Day Care Programs Reprint Series. (United States)

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    The Amalgamated Day Care Center is an independent trust established through a collective bargaining agreement between the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, AFL-CIO, and the employers of the garment industry. The free center, open from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., is located near the Chicago garment industries to minimize transportation problems…

  12. Forecasting Repeat Child Abuse from Initial Social Worker Reports: A Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan Comparison. (United States)

    Padgitt, Steven; Gibbs, Leonard

    Since the phenomenon of reabuse is postulated as being more probable after initial child abuse than is the probability of an initial abuse and since only modest inquiry has been directed at this phenomenon, research was conducted to answer two questions: Is there patterning to reabuse? And if so, is this different in metro and nonmetro…

  13. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico]. (United States)

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S


    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Everyone's business: developing an integrated model of care to respond to child abuse in a pediatric hospital setting. (United States)

    Connolly, Sarah


    In pediatric hospitals, social work plays a central role in the prevention, identification, and management of child abuse. Children who are suspected of having been abused or neglected require an evaluation of their psychosocial situation. As an integral member of the health care team, the social worker is well placed to undertake comprehensive psychosocial assessments including information on the child's development, parental capacity, family, and community supports. Current practice approaches have seen a shift away from a narrow, "expert" approach to child protection. This article describes the development of an integrated model of social work service delivery to better respond to vulnerable and at-risk children in a pediatric hospital setting. Developing a new model of service required strategic planning, consultation, and endorsement from senior hospital management. The new model aimed to ensure a high quality, responsive social work service to children at risk of physical abuse, neglect, or cumulative harm. The change necessitated understanding of current research evidence, development of best practice guidelines, and effective communication with staff and external stakeholders. Policy development, implementation of practice guidelines, staff training, data collection, and service evaluation are described. The role of social work management and leadership were central in creating change. Visionary leadership is widely regarded as key to successful organizational change. The management approach included consultation with staff, building commitment to the need for change, addressing staff concerns, and providing a vision of enhanced client outcomes as a result of the change process. This article provides a candid overview of challenges and barriers to change. Change strategies described are easily transferable to other social work settings.

  15. Defensive dehumanization in the medical practice: a cross-sectional study from a health care worker's perspective. (United States)

    Vaes, Jeroen; Muratore, Martina


    Health care workers are often required to consider the emotions of their patients making their work susceptible for burnout. Extending recent developments in work on dehumanization, the present study tested whether or not considering a patient's suffering in terms of uniquely human compared to more basic emotions, would be linked with burnout especially for those health care workers that frequently encounter emotional demands through their contact with suffering patients. Professional health care workers were presented with the fictitious case of a terminal patient and asked to infer her emotional state in terms of uniquely human or basic, primary emotions. As expected, humanizing a patient's suffering positively predicted symptoms of burnout especially for those participants that had higher levels of direct contact with patients.

  16. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care (United States)

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako


    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…

  17. Facilitating the Collection and Dissemination of Information to Parents of Children in a Child Care Program. (United States)

    de Armas, Maria P.

    To improve conditions at a nonprofit day care center serving low-income, mainly non-English-speaking families, this practicum addressed the need of recently immigrated parents to increase their knowledge of child development and available community resources. A total of 52 Hispanic parents were given materials at an information distribution area…

  18. Parent-professional alliance and outcomes of child and family care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, M. de; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Hattum, M.J.C. van; McLeod, B.D.; Scholte, R.H.J.


    This presentation is based on a systematic review on the association between the parent-professional alliance and outcomes of youth and family care. In child and family social services, parents play an important role (Accurso, Hawley, & Garland, 2013; Chaffin & Bard, 2011). They are either the main

  19. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting (United States)

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.


    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  20. Tribes and States Working Together: A Guide to Tribal-State Child Care Coordination (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005


    The purpose of this guide is to increase the understanding of the rationale and benefits of States and Tribes working together to provide quality child care choices and services for the children and families they serve. The guide provides a description of Tribal sovereignty and the government-to-government relationship; an overview of the…

  1. Evaluation of an Intervention to Reduce Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child-Care Centers. (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others


    Revisits 58 child care centers in Atlanta (Georgia) that had received interventions alerting directors to playground safety hazards. Comparison with 71 control centers randomly selected found averages of 9.4 hazards at intervention center playgrounds and 8.0 hazards at control centers. These results indicate the ineffectiveness of the…

  2. Differential effects of early child care quality on children's socio-emotional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine


    Drawing on Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory, the aim of this dissertation was to investigate whether effects of early child care quality on children’s socio-emotional development depended on children’s individual and contextual characteristics. Chapter 2 and 3 examined whether associations betw

  3. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers. (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  4. Child and adolescent mental health care in Dutch general practice: time trend analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.


    Background: Because most children and adolescents visit their general practitioner (GP) regularly, general practice is a useful setting in which child and adolescent mental health problems can be identified, treated or referred to specialised care. Measures to strengthen Dutch primary mental health

  5. An Inventory of Skills and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Human Services/Child Care. (United States)

    Broadbent, William

    This document is an inventory of skills identified as necessary by professionals in the human services field specializing in child care. It is intended as a mechanism whereby educators can compare that which they teach against what the human services industry feels is relevant. Introductory material discusses the process of the occupational…

  6. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.


    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  7. The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria


    Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…

  8. Physical and Mental Health of Mothers Caring for a Child with Rett Syndrome (United States)

    Laurvick, Crystal L.; Msall, Michael E.; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen


    Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. Methods: We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings (United States)

    Briggs, Freda


    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  10. Determinants of parental satisfaction with ultrasound hip screening in child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Sakkers, R.J.B.; IJzerman, M.J.


    Prior research has shown ultrasound (US) screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preventive child health care to be more effective than the current screening method. In the present study, 3-month-old infants were screened for DDH with US. The objective of this study was to examine

  11. Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future (United States)

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene


    Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

  12. The impact of child care providers' feeding on chidren's food consumption (United States)

    In young children, the eating environment is an important social context within which eating behaviors develop. Among many low-income young children, the responsibility for feeding may have shifted from family members to child care providers because these children spend the majority of their day in...

  13. Whither Non Profit Child Care? Is the Non Profit Structure an Anachronism? (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Argues that the current structure of non-profit child care centers is outmoded, hinders creative leadership, and presents management problems for directors. Presents six illustrations of management problems: (1) shifting constituency; (2) time constraints on board members; (3) short-circuited entrepreneurism; (4) director accountability; (5)…

  14. Exploring the specific needs of an understudied group : Children with intellectual disability in residential child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainero, Ana; del Valle, Jorge F.; Lopez, Monica; Bravo, Amaia


    Children and adolescents who live in out of home care in the child protection system are considered to be vulnerable to manifesting mental health disorders as well as other types of difficulties. This risk is greater in the case of children who display any type of disability. The aim of this study i

  15. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital? (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  16. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  17. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  18. North Carolina Star Rated License System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  19. Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Kentucky's STARS for KIDS NOW prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  20. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…