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  1. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  2. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  3. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

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    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  4. Antiviral Perspectives for Chikungunya Virus

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    Deepti Parashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a threat to further expand in the near future. However, there is no vaccine against CHIKV infection licensed for human use, and therapy for CHIKV infection is still mainly limited to supportive care as antiviral agents are yet in different stages of testing or development. In this review we explore the different perspectives for chikungunya treatment and the effectiveness of these treatment regimens and discuss the scope for future directions.

  5. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

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    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  6. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

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    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  7. Characterization of reemerging chikungunya virus.

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    Marion Sourisseau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host.

  8. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

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    Sourisseau, Marion; Schilte, Clémentine; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Trouillet, Céline; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Rudnicka, Dominika; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Roux, Karin Le; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Fsihi, Hafida; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Blanchet, Fabien; Afonso, Philippe V; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ozden, Simona; Gessain, Antoine; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Verhasselt, Bruno; Zamborlini, Alessia; Saïb, Ali; Rey, Felix A; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Desprès, Philippe; Michault, Alain; Albert, Matthew L; Schwartz, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host. PMID:17604450

  9. Cytokines in acute chikungunya.

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    Anuradha Venugopalan

    Full Text Available Acute chikungunya (CHIKV is predominantly an acute onset of excruciatingly painful, self-limiting musculoskeletal (MSK arbovirus illness and this was further reported by us during the 2006 Indian epidemic [Chopra et al. Epidemiol Infect 2012]. Selected serum cytokines profile in subjects within one month of onset of illness is being presented.Out of 509 clinical CHIKV cases (43% population identified during a rural population survey, 225 subjects consented blood investigations. 132 examined within 30 days of febrile onset are the study cohort. Anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies tested by immunochromatography and indirect immunofluorescence respectively. Interferons (IFN-α, -β and -γ, Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein-10 (CXCL-10/IP-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-13 (IL-13, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, Interleukin-4 (IL-4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 performed by ELISA. Samples collected from neighboring community a year prior to the epidemic used as healthy controls.Seropositivity for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG was 65% and 52% respectively. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-1β showed intense response in early acute phase. Cytokines (particularly TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 was maximum in extended symptomatic phase and remained elevated in recovered subjects. Higher (p<0.05 IFN and IL-4 seen in patients seropositive for anti-CHIKV IgG. Elderly cases (≥65 years showed elevated cytokines (except IFN and anti-CHIKV antibodies near similar to younger subjects. Significant correlations (p<0.05 found between cytokines and clinical features (fatigue, low back ache, myalgia and anti-CHIKV antibodies.An intense cytokine milieu was evident in the early and immediate persistent symptomatic phase and in recovered subjects. Early persistent IgM and lower IgG to anti-CHKV and intense Th2 cytokine phenotype seem to be associated with delay in resolution of MSK symptoms

  10. Chikungunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through infected blood. There have been outbreaks of chikungunya virus in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Indian and Pacific ... A blood test can show whether you have chikungunya virus. There are no vaccines or medicines to treat ...

  11. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

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    Yee Suan Poo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA.

  12. Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses

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    Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses B Z Z Z Z . Aside from being ... or Aedes albopictus ) can spread dengue, chikungunya, or Zika viruses. People become infected with dengue, chikungunya, or Zika ...

  13. A REVIEW ON CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

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    Vimal Kumar Birendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV belonging to the Togaviridae family of genus Alphavirus. It is a virus with a single stranded, positive sense RNA, as its genome. It is maintained in a sylvatic and urban cycle involving humans and the mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It has a major health impact on humans as it causes fever, rashes, arthralgia and myalgia. Polyarthralgia is the most important feature of CHIKV infection which primarily affects the small joints of the wrists and fingers along with the large joints like shoulders and knees. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatment regimens available for CHIKV infection. The molecular mechanism underlying the chronic polyarthralgia observed in patients is not well understood. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. In this review we have summarized the CHIKV organization, replication, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and pathogenesis with emphasis on the arthralgia.

  14. Chikungunya virus, epidemiology, clinics and phylogenesis:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra Lo Presti; Alessia Lai; Eleonora Cella; Gianguglielmo Zehender; Massimo Ciccozzi

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash.Chikungunya virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes;Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin, disseminates to liver, muscle, joints, lymphoid tissue and brain, presumably through the blood.Phylogenetic studies showed that the IndianOcean and theIndian subcontinent epidemics were caused by two different introductions of distinct strains ofEast/Central/SouthAfrican genotype ofCHIKV.The paraphyletic grouping ofAfricanCHIK viruses supports the historical evidence that the virus was introduced into Asia fromAfrica.Phylogenetic analysis dividedChikungunya virus isolates into three distinct genotypes based on geographical origins: thefirst, theWestAfrica genotype, consisted of isolates fromSenegal andNigeria; the second contained strains fromEast/Central/SouthAfrican genotype, while the third contained solelyAsian.The most recent common ancestor for the recent epidemic, which ravagedIndianOcean islands andIndian subcontinent in2004–2007, was found to date in2002.Asian lineage dated about1952 and exhibits similarspread patterns of the recentIndian Ocean outbreak lineage, with successive epidemics detected along an eastward path.Asian group splitted into two clades: anIndian lineage and a south east lineage.Outbreaks ofChikungunya virus fever inAsia have not been associated necessarily with outbreaks inAfrica.Phylogenetic tools can reconstruct geographic spread ofChikungunya virus during the epidemics wave.The good management of patients with acuteChikungunya virus infection is essential for public health in susceptible areas with currentAedes spp activity.

  15. Prospective study of Chikungunya virus acute infection in the Island of La Reunion during the 2005-2006 outbreak.

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    Frederik Staikowsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a recently re-emerged arthropod borne virus responsible for a massive outbreak in the Indian Ocean and India, and extended to Southeast Asia as well as Italy. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, an anthropophilic mosquito species widely distributed in Asia, Europe, Africa and America. Our objective was to determine the clinical and biological features of patients at the acute phase of CHIKV infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective study enrolled 274 consecutive patients with febrile arthralgia recorded at the Emergency Department of the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion between March and May 2006. Three groups were defined: one group of 180 viremic patients (positive CHIKV RT-PCR, one group of 34 patients with acute post-viremic infection (negative CHIKV RT-PCR, positive anti-CHIKV IgM and negative IgG, and one group of 46 uninfected patients (negative CHIKV RT-PCR, anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG. Bivariate analyses of clinical and biological features between groups were performed. Patients with CHIKV viremia presented typically with asymmetrical bilateral polyarthralgia (96.5% affecting the lower (98% and small joints (74.8%, as well as asthenia (88.6%, headache (70%, digestive trouble (63.3%, myalgia (59%, exanthems (47.8%, conjunctival hyperhemia (23% and adenopathy (8.9%. Vertigo, cutaneous dysesthesia, pharyngitis and haemorrhages were seldom observed. So far unreported symptoms such as chondrocostal arthralgia (20%, entesopathies (1.6%, talalgia (14% were also noted. Prurit was less frequent during the viremic than post-viremic phase (13.9% vs. 41.2%; p<0.001, whereas lymphopenia was more frequent (87.6% vs. 39.4%; p<0.001. Others biological abnormalities included leukopenia (38.3%, thrombocytopenia (37.3%, increased ASAT and ALAT blood levels (31.6 and 7.3%, respectively and hypocalcemia (38.7%. Lymphopenia <1,000/mm(3 was very closely associated with viremic patients (Yule coefficient 0.82, positive

  16. Antiviral Strategies Against Chikungunya Virus.

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    Abdelnabi, Rana; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has evolved from a geographically isolated pathogen to a virus that is widespread in many parts of Africa, Asia and recently also in Central- and South-America. Although CHIKV infections are rarely fatal, the disease can evolve into a chronic stage, which is characterized by persisting polyarthralgia and joint stiffness. This chronic CHIKV infection can severely incapacitate patients for weeks up to several years after the initial infection. Despite the burden of CHIKV infections, no vaccine or antivirals are available yet. The current therapy is therefore only symptomatic and consists of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. Recently several molecules with various viral or host targets have been identified as CHIKV inhibitors. In this chapter, we summarize the current status of the development of antiviral strategies against CHIKV infections. PMID:27233277

  17. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

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    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase.

  18. Chikungunya virus iridocyclitis in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

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    Mahendradas Padmamalini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis with chikungunya virus infection in the left eye. A 20-year-old female was presented with a past history of fever suggestive of chikungunya with bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis and complicated cataract. She had a tripod dendritic pattern of keratic precipitates by confocal microscopy in the left eye with a stippled pattern of keratic precipitates in both eyes. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in the aqueous humor detected 98 copies/ml of chikungunya virus RNA. The patient underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation in the left eye with a good visual outcome. This is the first report where the presence of chikungunya virus RNA has been associated with a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis.

  19. Nowcast Predictions for Local Transmission of Chikungunya Virus

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  20. Nowcast Predictions for Chikungunya Virus-Infected Travelers

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  1. Evidence for homologous recombination in Chikungunya Virus.

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    Casal, Pablo E; Chouhy, Diego; Bolatti, Elisa M; Perez, Germán R; Stella, Emma J; Giri, Adriana A

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, causes acute fever and joint pain in humans. Recently, endemic CHIKV infection outbreaks have jeopardized public health in wider geographical regions. Here, we analyze the phylogenetic associations of CHIKV and explore the potential recombination events on 152 genomic isolates deposited in GenBank database. The CHIKV genotypes [West African, Asian, East/Central/South African (ECSA)], and a clear division of ECSA clade into three sub-groups (I-II-III), were defined by Bayesian analysis; similar results were obtained using E1 gene sequences. A nucleotide identity-based approach is provided to facilitate CHIKV classification within ECSA clade. Using seven methods to detect recombination, we found a statistically significant event (p-values range: 1.14×10(-7)-4.45×10(-24)) located within the nsP3 coding region. This finding was further confirmed by phylogenetic networks (PHI Test, p=0.004) and phylogenetic tree incongruence analysis. The recombinant strain, KJ679578/India/2011 (ECSA III), derives from viruses of ECSA III and ECSA I. Our study demonstrates that recombination is an additional mechanism of genetic diversity in CHIKV that might assist in the cross-species transmission process.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Chikungunya Virus Strains Isolated in Mexico: First Detection of Imported and Autochthonous Cases

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    Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; Fragoso-Fonseca, David Esaú; Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Vázquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Núñez-León, Alma; Torres-Rodríguez, María de la Luz; Torres-Longoria, Belem; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruíz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is responsible for acute polyarthralgia epidemics. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two chikungunya virus strains, InDRE04 and InDRE51, identified in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Chiapas in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the Asian genotype. PMID:25953170

  3. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complica

  4. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...

  5. A fatal case of chikungunya virus infection with liver involvement.

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    Chua, H H; Abdul Rashid, K; Law, W C; Hamizah, A; Chem, Y K; Khairul, A H; Chua, K B

    2010-03-01

    Recovery from chikungunya is previously considered universal and mortality due to the virus is rare and unusual. Findings from recent chikungunya outbreaks occurred in Reunion Island and India have since challenged the conventional view on the benign nature of the illness. Malaysia has experienced at least of 4 outbreaks of chikungunya since 1998. In the present on-going large outbreak due to chikungunya virus of Central/East African genotype, a previous healthy sixty six years gentleman without co-morbidity was noted to have severe systemic infection by the virus and involvement of his liver. He subsequently passed away due to cardiovascular collapse after 5 days of illness.

  6. Molecular Characterisation of Chikungunya Virus Infections in Trinidad and Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Features with Dengue and Other Acute Febrile Cases.

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    Sahadeo, Nikita; Mohammed, Hamish; Allicock, Orchid M; Auguste, Albert J; Widen, Steven G; Badal, Kimberly; Pulchan, Krishna; Foster, Jerome E; Weaver, Scott C; Carrington, Christine V F

    2015-11-01

    Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised and compared dengue virus (DENV) and CHIKV infections in 158 patients presenting with suspected dengue fever (DF) and CHIKF at a major hospital in T&T, and performed phylogenetic analyses on CHIKV genomic sequences recovered from 8 individuals. The characteristics of patients with and without PCR-confirmed CHIKV were compared using Pearson's χ2 and student's t-tests, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using logistic regression. We then compared signs and symptoms of people with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV and DENV infections using the Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Among the 158 persons there were 8 (6%) RT-qPCR-confirmed DENV and 30 (22%) RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV infections. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CHIKV strains belonged to the Asian genotype and were most closely related to a British Virgin Islands strain isolated at the beginning of the 2013/14 outbreak in the Americas. Compared to persons who were RT-qPCR-negative for CHIKV, RT-qPCR-positive individuals were significantly more likely to have joint pain (aOR: 4.52 [95% CI: 1.28-16.00]), less likely to be interviewed at a later stage of illness (days post onset of fever--aOR: 0.56 [0.40-0.78]) and had a lower white blood cell count (aOR: 0.83 [0.71-0.96]). Among the 38 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV or DENV, there were no significant differences in symptomatic presentation. However when individuals with serological evidence of recent DENV or CHIKV infection were included in the analyses, there were key differences in clinical presentation between CHIKF and other AUFIs including DF, which

  7. Chikungunya Virus Growth and Fluorescent Labeling: Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Immunofluorescence Assay.

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    Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a highly versatile and sensitive assay for detection and titration of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The IFA technique requires virus-infected cells (viral antigen) and antibodies specific to the viral antigens for detection. Suitable antibodies for detection include monoclonal antibodies specific to CHIKV structural and nonstructural proteins, polyclonal antibodies, and convalescent serum samples. Here, the details of virus antigen preparation, detection by IFA method, and applications are described. The described IFA method is potentially useful in a wide range of studies including virus growth kinetics and virus infection mechanism studies. Additionally, the described IFA method can be modified for applications in arbovirus diagnosis, including CHIKV.

  8. Characterization of chikungunya virus-like particles.

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    Nitchakarn Noranate

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is becoming a global concern due to the increasing number of outbreaks throughout the world and the absence of any CHIKV-specific vaccine or treatment. Virus-like particles (VLPs are multistructured proteins that mimic the organization and conformation of native viruses but lack the viral genome. They are noninfectious and potentially safer vaccine candidates. Recent studies demonstrated that the yield of CHIKV VLPs varies depending on the strains, despite the 95% amino acid similarity of the strains. This might be due to the codon usage, since protein expression is differently controlled by different organisms. We optimized the region encoding CHIKV structural proteins, C-E3-E2-6k-E1, inserted it into a mammalian expression vector, and used the resulting construct to transfect 293 cells. We detected 50-kDa proteins corresponding to E1 and/or E2 in the cell lysate and the supernatant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical particles with a 50- to 60-nm diameter in the supernatant that resembled the native CHIKV virions. The buoyant density of the VLPs was 1.23 g/mL, and the yield was 20 µg purified VLPs per 108 cells. The VLPs aggregated when mixed with convalescent sera from chikungunya patients, indicating that their antigenicity is similar to that of native CHIKV. Antibodies elicited with the VLPs were capable of detecting native CHIKV, demonstrating that the VLPs retain immunogenicity similar to that of the native virion. These results indicated that CHIKV VLPs are morphologically, antigenically, and immunologically similar to the native CHIKV, suggesting that they have potential for use in chikungunya vaccines.

  9. How great is the threat of chikungunya virus?

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    Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, chikungunya virus has emerged from an obscure arbovirus that caused limited outbreaks of disease in Africa and Asia to the cause of a pandemic affecting millions of people and spanning five continents. Two separate chikungunya virus genotypes have been responsible for outbreaks during this period, including strains adapted to transmission in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Further spread of this virus into new regions of the Western Hemisphere is predicted during the present rainy season in the tropics, and recurrent viral introductions and disease outbreaks, as occurred in Réunion in 2010, should be expected. Chikungunya virus no longer simply threatens; it has arrived as a significant, global pathogen.

  10. Chikungunya virus,epidemiology,clinics and phylogenesis:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra; Lo; Presti; Alessia; Lai; Eleonora; Cella; Gianguglielmo; Zehender; Massimo; Ciccozzi

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunva virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunva fever,a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash.Chikungunva virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes:Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin,disseminates to liver,muscle,joints.lymphoid tissue and brain,presumably through the blood.Phylogenetic studies showed that the Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent epidemics were caused by two different introductions of distinct strains of East/Central/South African genotype of CHIKV.The paraphyletic grouping of African CHIK viruses supports the historical evidence that the virus was introduced into Asia from Africa.Phylogenetic analysis divided Chikungunva virus isolates into three distinct genotypes based on geographical origins:the first,the West Africa genotype,consisted of isolates from Senegal and Nigeria;the second contained strains from East/Central/South African genotype,while the third contained solely Asian.The most recent common ancestor for the recent epidemic,which ravaged Indian Ocean islands and Indian subcontinent in 2004- 2007.was found to date in 2002.Asian lineage dated about 1952 and exhibits similar spread patterns of the recent Indian Ocean outbreak lineage,with successive epidemics detected along an eastward path.Asian group splitted into two clades:an Indian lineage and a south east lineage.Outbreaks of Chikungunya virus fever in Asia have not been associated necessarily with outbreaks in Africa.Phylogenetic tools can reconstruct geographic spread of Chikungunva virus during the epidemics wave.The good management of patients with acute Chikungunva virus infection is essential for public health in susceptible areas with current Aedes spp activity.

  11. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  12. Inflammatory cytokine expression is associated with chikungunya virus resolution and symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson A Kelvin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease.

  13. Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Alyson A.; Banner, David; Silvi, Giuliano; Moro, Maria Luisa; Spataro, Nadir; Gaibani, Paolo; Cavrini, Francesca; Pierro, Anna; Rossini, Giada; Cameron, Mark J.; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F.; Paquette, Stéphane G.; Xu, Luoling; Danesh, Ali; Farooqui, Amber; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kelvin, David J.; Sambri, Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease. PMID:21858242

  14. Monoclonal antibody targeting chikungunya virus envelope 1 protein inhibits virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrinoul, Promsin; Puiprom, Orapim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Miwa; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki

    2014-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute clinical illness characterized by sudden high fever, intense joint pain, and skin rash. Recent outbreaks of chikungunya disease in Africa and Asia are a major public health concern; however, there is currently no effective licensed vaccine or specific treatment. This study reported the development of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb), CK47, which recognizes domain III within the viral envelope 1 protein and inhibited the viral release process, thereby preventing the production of progeny virus. The MAb had no effect on virus entry and replication processes. Thus, CK47 may be a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying CHIKV release and may show potential as a therapeutic agent.

  15. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model)

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Broeckel; Nicole Haese; Ilhem Messaoudi; Streblow, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunit...

  16. Chikungunya virus: emerging targets and new opportunities for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Adel A; Mahalingam, Suresh; Keller, Paul A

    2014-02-27

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus that is widespread in tropical regions and is spreading quickly to temperate climates with recent epidemics in Africa and Asia and documented outbreaks in Europe and the Americas. It is having an increasingly major impact on humankind, with potentially life-threatening and debilitating arthritis. There is no treatment available, and only in the past 24 months have lead compounds for development as potential therapeutics been reported. This Perspective discusses the chikungunya virus as a significant, new emerging topic for medicinal chemistry, highlighting the key viral target proteins and their molecular functions that can be used in drug design, as well as the most important ongoing developments for anti-chikungunya virus research. It represents a complete picture of the current medicinal chemistry of chikungunya, supporting the development of chemotherapeutics through drug discovery and design targeting this virus.

  17. Temperature Tolerance and Inactivation of Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2015-11-01

    In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced to the New World and large outbreaks occurred in the Caribbean islands causing over a million suspected and over 20,000 laboratory-confirmed cases. Serological analysis is an essential component for the diagnosis of CHIKV infection together with virus isolation and detection of viral nucleic acid. Demonstrating virus neutralizing by serum antibodies in a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold standard of all serological diagnostic assays. Prior to the testing, heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 min is required for the inactivation of complement activity and adventitious viruses. The presence of adventitious contaminating viruses may interfere with the results by leading to a higher number of plaques on the monolayers and subsequent false-negative results. This procedure is widely accepted for the inactivation of flaviviruses and alphaviruses. In this study, the thermostability of CHIKV was evaluated. Heat inactivation at 56°C for 30 min was demonstrated to be insufficient for the complete removal of infectious CHIKV virions present in the samples. This thermotolerance of CHIKV could compromise the accuracy of serum tests, and therefore longer treatment for greater than 120 min is recommended.

  18. Cytokine levels in patients with chikungunya virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Yong Poovorawan; Somrat Lertmaharit; Norra Wuttirattanakowit

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate cytokine profile in patients with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Methods: Twenty eight pairs of serum samples collected from CHIKV infected patients during the outbreak of chikungunya fever in South Thailand in 2008 were obtained. A multiple cytokine assay for detection of 17 cytokines was performed. Results:In the acute stage of CHIKV infection, the patients had significantly higher levels of interleukin-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha than the control (P<0.001, P=0.023, P=0.015, P<0.001 and P=0.024, respectively). When the disease developed to the recovery stage, the patients had significantly lower levels of interleukin-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein beta than in the acute stage (P<0.001). Conclusions:This study provides additional information that these cytokines could play roles in pathogenesis of CHIKV infection and could be used as disease biomarkers or drug targets.

  19. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya Virus Protects AG129 Mice against Lethal Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van den Doel (Petra); A. Volz (Asisa); J.M. Roose (Jouke M.); V.D. Sewbalaksing (Varsha); G.P. Pijlman (Gorben); I. van Middelkoop (Ingeborg); V. Duiverman (Vincent); E. van de Wetering (Eva); G. Sutter (Gerd); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome ha

  20. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den P.; Volz, A.; Roose, J.M.; Sewbalaksing, V.D.; Pijlman, G.P.; Middelkoop, van I.; Duiverman, V.; Wetering, van de E.; Sutter, G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Martina, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been docum

  1. Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Chen, Rubing; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity and economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions and, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, and the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural and temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors and nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses. PMID:26986235

  2. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  3. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

  4. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  5. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Mardekian, Stacey K.; Roberts, Amity L.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important...

  6. Molecular characterization of dengue and chikungunya virus strains circulating in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afreen, Nazia; Deeba, Farah; Khan, Wajihul H; Haider, Shakir H; Kazim, Syed Naqui; Ishrat, Romana; Naqvi, Irshad Hussain; Shareef, Mohammad Y; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2014-12-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are acute viral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. Both diseases are transmitted by common mosquito vectors resulting in their co-circulation in a region. Molecular and serological tests specific for both dengue and chikungunya infections were performed on 87 acute phase blood samples collected from patients with suspected dengue/chikungunya infections in Delhi from September to December, 2011. RT-PCR and IgM ELISA were performed to detect dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). NS1 and IgG ELISA were also performed to detect DENV specific antigen and secondary DENV infection. DENV infection was detected in 49%, CHIKV infection in 29% and co-infection with DENV and CHIKV in 10% of the samples by RT-PCR. DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected in this study. Nine DENV-1 strains, six DENV-2 strains and 20 CHIKV strains were characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of their respective envelope protein genes. DENV-1 strains grouped in the American African genotype, DENV-2 strains in the Cosmopolitan genotype and CHIKV strains in the East Central South African genotype by phylogenetic analysis. This is one of the few studies reporting the phylogeny of two dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 and DENV-2) and CHIKV. Surveillance and monitoring of DENV and CHIKV strains are important for design of strategies to control impending epidemics.

  7. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  8. Globalization of Chikungunya Virus: Threat to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of the febrile epidemic in a coastal island city. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in tropical Africa and Asia; the fever is rarely fatal but can incapacitate for weeks. Control was delayed,...

  9. Virus Chikungunya in Colombia, a simple matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an RNA alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. The alphaviruses consist of 29 species, including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses among others. CHIKV is transmitted by vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albipictus, which are abundant in the South American tropics.

  10. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection—From Virus CellBinding to Membrane Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike K. S. van Duijl-Richter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

  11. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Hoornweg, Tabitha E; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-07-07

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

  12. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses.

  13. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosasih, H.; Mast, Q. de; Widjaja, S.; Sudjana, P.; Antonjaya, U.; Ma'roef, C.; Riswari, S.F.; Porter, K.R.; Burgess, T.H.; Alisjahbana, B.; Ven, A. van der; Williams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a pros

  14. Virus Chikungunya in Colombia, a simple matter of time?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco González T.; Salim Mattar V.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an RNA alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. The alphaviruses consist of 29 species, including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses among others. CHIKV is transmitted by vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albipictus, which are abundant in the South American tropics.CHIKV was first isolated in 1953 in the serum of a patient in Tanzania during an epidemic of dengue. In a recent dendrogram, this isolate appeared with the name of Ross l...

  15. Immunogenicity of Escherichia coli expressed envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nagesh K; Priya, Raj; Shrivastava, Ambuj

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging infection, is an arthropod-borne viral disease prevalent in different parts of the world, particularly Africa and South East Asia. Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein is involved in binding to host receptors and it contains specific epitopes that elicit virus neutralizing antibodies. A highly immunogenic, recombinant Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein was produced by bioreactor in Escherichia coli for development of a suitable diagnostic and vaccine candidate. This protein was refolded and further purified to achieve biologically active protein. The biological function of refolded and purified recombinant envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus was confirmed by its ability to generate envelope 2 specific antibodies with high titers in animal models. These findings suggest that recombinant envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus in combination with compatible adjuvant is highly immunogenic. Thus, recombinant envelope 2 protein can be a potential diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate against Chikungunya virus infection.

  16. Assessment of flavaglines as potential chikungunya virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Thuaud, Frédéric; Basmadjian, Christine; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Ubol, Sukathida; Désaubry, Laurent; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that recently caused large epidemics in islands in, and countries around, the Indian Ocean. There is currently no specific drug for therapeutic treatment or for use as a prophylactic agent against infection and no commercially available vaccine. Prohibitin has been identified as a receptor protein used by chikungunya virus to enter mammalian cells. Recently, synthetic sulfonyl amidines and flavaglines (FLs), a class of naturally occurring plant compounds with potent anti-cancer and cytoprotective and neuroprotective activities, have been shown to interact directly with prohibitin. This study therefore sought to determine whether three prohibitin ligands (sulfonyl amidine 1 m and the flavaglines FL3 and FL23) were able to inhibit CHIKV infection of mammalian Hek293T/17 cells. All three compounds inhibited infection and reduced virus production when cells were treated before infection but not when added after infection. Pretreatment of cells for only 15 minutes prior to infection followed by washing out of the compound resulted in significant inhibition of entry and virus production. These results suggest that further investigation of prohibitin ligands as potential Chikungunya virus entry inhibitors is warranted.

  17. Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdouits, Marion; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Tricou, Vianney; Ngoagouni, Carine; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the bite of mosquito vectors. Over the past 10 years, the virus has gained mutations that enhance its transmissibility by the Aedes albopictus vector, resulting in massive outbreaks in the Indian Ocean, Asia and Central Africa. Recent introduction of competent A. albopictus vectors into the Central African Republic (CAR) pose a threat of a Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) epidemic in this region. We undertook this study to assess the genetic diversity and background of CHIKV strains isolated in the CAR between 1975 and 1984 and also to estimate the ability of local strains to adapt to A. albopictus. Our results suggest that, local CHIKV strains have a genetic background compatible with quick adaptation to A. albopictus, as previously observed in other Central African countries. Intense surveillance of the human and vector populations is necessary to prevent or anticipate the emergence of a massive CHIKF epidemic in the CAR.

  18. Surveillance of chikungunya virus inAndhraPradesh,Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CVMNareshKumar; P Sangamithra; M Rajasekhar; DVR Saigopal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The study involved survey and screening of areas suspected of chikungunya virus (CHIKV)infection, characterizing the causative agent and identifying the circulatingCHIKV genotype.Methods: Acute phase samples were screened by the use ofRTPCR using primer setDVRChk-F/DVRChk-R whereas convalescent samples were tested byCHIKV IgM strips. Results: Two hundred and seventy five acute phase samples were screened by RT-PCR, of which 149(54.18%) showed positivity forCHIKV. Later on192 convalescent phase samples were tested forCHIKV specific antibodies in which125(65.10%) samples were found to be positive. Four CHIKV strains were selected and subjected to cloning followed by nucleotide sequencing and were submitted to the GenbankDNAdatabase with the Accession numbers(GQ119362,GQ119363, GQ119364, andFJ225403). The Sequence analysis of“CHIK-Kadapa” strain(GQ119362)with other CHIKV isolates suggested that the present CHIKV strain has (99.23± 0.52) % and100 %identity with Central East South African isolates(CESA) at nucleotide and amino acid levels respectively. Two unique non synonymous mutations S168L andD183Vwere depicted in E1 gene of the selected strains of the present study.Conclusions:The14 months survey revealed the circulation of CHIKV in2008-2009in Andhra Pradesh and the causative agent is identified to be of Central East South African(CESA) origin. The importance of the non synonymous mutations (S168L and D183V) and their role in the mobility and strength of theE1-E1andE1-E2 interactions needs further investigations. The study also urges the need for intensifying the epidemiological and entomological surveillance to combat any suchCHIKV outbreak in the near future.

  19. Co-distribution and Co-infection of Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, L.; Liang, S.; Milinovich, G; Soares Magalhaes, RJ; Clements, AC; Hu, W; Brasil, P; Frentiu, FD; Dunning, R.; Yakob, L

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Methods Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in ...

  20. Co-distribution and Co-infection of Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Liang, Shaohong; Milinovich, Gabriel; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Archie C.A. Clements; Hu, Wenbiao; Brasil, Patricia; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Dunning, Rebecca; Yakob, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in the same patient. A...

  1. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Mardekian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important for surveillance, outbreak control, and research related to vaccine and drug development. Available diagnostic tests are aimed at detection of the virus, its antigenic components, or the host immune antibody response. In this review, we describe the recent progress and continued challenges related to the diagnosis of DENV and CHIKV infections.

  2. Chikungunya virus and chikungunya fever%基孔肯雅病毒与基孔肯雅热

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 陈薇

    2016-01-01

    基孔肯雅热(chikungunya fever)是由基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya virus)引起的一种蚊媒传染病,感染率高,可引起持续的关节症状。近几年来,基孔肯雅热暴发次数增加,流行范围不断扩大,全球范围内每年可导致100万人感染。同时,基孔肯雅病毒中某些基因突变使其可有效通过白纹伊蚊传播,不仅对热带和亚热带地区,还对白纹伊蚊广泛存在的温带地区的民众构成了潜在威胁。%Chikungunya fever is a mosquito‐borne infectious disease caused by chikungunya virus ,with high infection rate and persistent joint pain . In recent years , outbreak of chikungunya fever increased with expanding epidemic scope ,leading to one million infected cases each year worldwide .Meanwhile ,some chikungunya virus genotypes have gained some mutations which result in more effectively spread by Aedes albopictus .So it poses a potential threat to the residents not only in tropical and subtropical regions ,but also in temperate regions with Aedes albopictus .

  3. The green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate inhibits chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; von Rhein, Christine; Kümmerer, Beate M; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions, including Europe and the United States of America and might cause new, large outbreaks there. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has, among other beneficial properties, antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined if EGCG has antiviral activity against CHIKV. EGCG inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro, blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV attachment to target cells. Thus EGCG might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs.

  4. Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mola, Antonia; Peduto, Antonella; La Gatta, Annalisa; Delang, Leen; Pastorino, Boris; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; de Rosa, Mario; Filosa, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne arthrogenic Alphavirus, causes an acute febrile illness in humans, that is, accompanied by severe joint pains. In many cases, the infection leads to persistent arthralgia, which may last for weeks to several years. The re-emergence of this infection in the early 2000s was exemplified by numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere. Since then, the virus is rapidly spreading. Currently, no drugs have been approved or are in development for the treatment of CHIKV, which makes this viral infection particularly interesting for academic medicinal chemistry efforts. Several molecules have already been identified that inhibit CHIKV replication in phenotypic virus-cell-based assays. One of these is arbidol, a molecule that already has been licensed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For structural optimization, a dedicated libraries of 43 indole-based derivatives were evaluated leading to more potent analogues (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities higher than those of the other derivatives, including the lead compound, and with a selective index of inhibition 13.2 and 14.6, respectively, higher than that of ARB (4.6).

  5. Inactivation of Chikungunya virus by 1,5 iodonapthyl azide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anuj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod borne alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. CHIKV is a reemerging virus for which there is no safe prophylactic vaccine. A live attenuated strain of CHIKV, CHIK181/25, was previously demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in humans, however, it showed residual virulence causing transient arthralgia. Findings In this study, we demonstrate the complete inactivation of CHIKV181/25 by 1,5 iodonapthyl azide (INA. No cytopathic effect and virus replication was observed in cells infected with the INA-inactivated CHIKV. However, a reduction in the INA-inactivated CHIK virus-antibody binding capacity was observed by western blot analysis. Conclusion INA completely inactivated CHIKV and can further be explored for developing an inactivated-CHIKV vaccine.

  6. [Situational panorama of Mexico against the chikungunya virus pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation. PMID:25760749

  7. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  8. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Petitdemange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy.We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients.We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV.Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

  10. Dynamics of chikungunya virus cell entry unraveled by single virus tracking in living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornweg, Tabitha E; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda V; Albulescu, Irina C; van Hemert, Martijn J; Smit, Jolanda M

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied before using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which C

  11. A +RNA virus diptych : Chikungunya virus-host interactions and arteriviral programmed ribosomal frameshifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treffers, Emma Elisabeth (Emmely)

    2015-01-01

    In part 1 of the thesis quantitative proteomics was used to determine changes in abundance and phosphorylation status of host proteins during infection with the human pathogen chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Several proteins were identified that may be specifically downregulated during CHIKV infection to

  12. Chikungunya virus-like particles are more immunogenic in a lethal AG129 mouse model compared to glycoprotein El or E2 subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Martina, B.E.; Doel, van den P.; Geertsema, C.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes acute illness characterized by fever and long-lasting arthritic symptoms. The need for a safe and effective vaccine against CHM/infections is on the rise due to on-going vector spread and increasing severity of clinical complications. Here we report the results of a

  13. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Suresh, Abidha; Vanamail, Perumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kalianna Gounder; Mathew, Jacob; Jose, Varakilparambil Thomas; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2011-12-01

    India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002). Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019) and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016) years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala. PMID:22241110

  14. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002. Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019 and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016 years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala.

  15. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven;

    2016-01-01

    and chikungunya virus among participants presenting with malaria-like symptoms (fever, headache, rash, vomit, and joint pain) in three communities with distinct ecologies of north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: Cross sectional studies were conducted among 1100 participants (aged 2-70 years) presenting with malaria....... Further analyses revealed that headache and joint pain were significantly associated with chikungunya IgM seropositivity. CONCLUSION: In north-eastern Tanzania, mainly chikungunya virus appears to be actively circulating in the population. Continuous surveillance is needed to determine the contribution...

  16. Destructive arthritis in a patient with chikungunya virus infection with persistent specific IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Receveur Marie-Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology of the chronic stage is poorly understood. Case presentation We report the first case of CHIKV infection with chronic associated rheumatism in a patient who developed progressive erosive arthritis with expression of inflammatory mediators and persistence of specific IgM antibodies over 24 months following infection. Conclusions Understanding the specific features of chikungunya virus as well as how the virus interacts with its host are essential for the prevention, treatment or cure of chikungunya disease.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Clustering of Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Dominica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine O Nsoesie

    Full Text Available Using geo-referenced case data, we present spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses of the early spread of the 2013-2015 chikungunya virus (CHIKV in Dominica, an island in the Caribbean. Spatial coordinates of the locations of the first 417 reported cases observed between December 15th, 2013 and March 11th, 2014, were captured using the Global Positioning System (GPS. We observed a preponderance of female cases, which has been reported for CHIKV outbreaks in other regions. We also noted statistically significant spatial and spatio-temporal clusters in highly populated areas and observed major clusters prior to implementation of intensive vector control programs suggesting early vector control measures, and education had an impact on the spread of the CHIKV epidemic in Dominica. A dynamical identification of clusters can lead to local assessment of risk and provide opportunities for targeted control efforts for nations experiencing CHIKV outbreaks.

  18. Suramin inhibits chikungunya virus replication through multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Irina C; van Hoolwerff, Marcella; Wolters, Laura A; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Yang, Shih Chi; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Hwu, Jih Ru; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe and often persistent arthritis. In recent years, millions of people have been infected with this virus for which registered antivirals are still lacking. Using our recently established in vitro assay, we discovered that the approved anti-parasitic drug suramin inhibits CHIKV RNA synthesis (IC50 of ∼5μM). The compound inhibited replication of various CHIKV isolates in cell culture with an EC50 of ∼80μM (CC50>5mM) and was also active against Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus. In vitro studies hinted that suramin interferes with (re)initiation of RNA synthesis, whereas time-of-addition studies suggested it to also interfere with a post-attachment early step in infection, possibly entry. CHIKV (nsP4) mutants resistant against favipiravir or ribavirin, which target the viral RNA polymerase, did not exhibit cross-resistance to suramin, suggesting a different mode of action. The assessment of the activity of a variety of suramin-related compounds in cell culture and the in vitro assay for RNA synthesis provided more insight into the moieties required for antiviral activity. The antiviral effect of suramin-containing liposomes was also analyzed. Its approved status makes it worthwhile to explore the use of suramin to prevent and/or treat CHIKV infections.

  19. Identification of chikungunya virus interacting proteins in mammalian cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandar S Paingankar; Vidya A Arankalle

    2014-06-01

    Identification and characterization of virus host interactions is an essential step for the development of novel antiviral strategies. Very few studies have been targeted towards identification of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) interacting host proteins. In current study, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight analysis (MALDI TOF/TOF) were employed for the identification of CHIKV binding proteins in mammalian cells. HSP70 and actin were identified as virus binding proteins in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells, whereas STAT-2 was identified as an additional protein in Vero-E6 cells. Pre-incubation with anti-HSP70 antibody and miRNA silencing of HSP70 significantly reduced the CHIKV production in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells at early time points. These results suggest that CHIKV exploits the housekeeping molecules such as actin, HSP70 and STAT-2 to establish infection in the mammalian cells.

  20. Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W; Yin, X-X; Lee, B-J; Li, Y-G

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia and severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment and no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient and easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

  1. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckel, Rebecca; Haese, Nicole; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Streblow, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis. PMID:26389957

  2. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Broeckel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis.

  3. That Which Bends Up: A Case Report and Literature Review of Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Shana M; Monson, Benjamin J; Van Schooneveld, Trevor; Smith, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in a 39-year-old female who developed an acute febrile illness marked by polyarthralgia and rash after returning from Saint Lucia. This epidemic-prone pathogen is increasingly likely to be encountered by primary care and hospital physicians in the coming months. The virus was first locally transmitted in the Caribbean in December 2013 and has since spread to 44 countries and 47 US states, affecting a suspected 1.2 million people. A mosquito-borne virus, CHIKV causes a severe and symmetric polyarthralgia that can relapse for months to years, creating debilitating illness and profound socioeconomic consequences. Current treatment is limited to supportive measures, which are dependent on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Research into immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapies, and vaccines is ongoing. Prevention remains key in slowing the spread of disease. Patient education should focus on personal protective measures, such as insect repellant and remaining indoors, while public health departments should implement strategies to control vector breeding grounds. Given the possibility of relapsing and debilitating disease, general internists should consider CHIKV in the differential diagnosis of a returning traveler with acute onset of fever, polyarthralgia, and rash.

  4. Effective Chikungunya Virus-like Particle Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Gardner, J.; Geertsema, C.; Le, T.T.; Goh, L.; Vlak, J.M.; Suhrbier, A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLP

  5. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C.; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G.; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M.; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P.; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  6. Emergence of chikungunya virus infection in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Mohapatra, Namita; Beuria, Mihir K; Kerketta, Anna S; Sabat, Jyotsna; Kar, Shantanu K; Rao, Epari V; Hazra, Rupensu K; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Nitisheel

    2010-05-01

    From September through October 2006, an unknown disease characterized by acute onset of fever, joint pain with or without swelling, and maculopapular rash along with fatigue was reported from three villages of Cuttack and one village of Kendrapara district of Orissa, India, by the State Health Department. Upon learning this, a team from Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Bhubaneswar, Orissa, conducted an epidemiological investigation in the area. Household survey was carried out and clinical examination of the symptomatic individuals (n = 1289: Kendrapara, 752; Cuttack, 537) undertaken. Based on the recorded chikungunya (CHIK) fever symptoms, a vector-borne viral disease was considered for provisional diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 217 symptomatic individuals; to confirm the diagnosis, sera were tested for anti-CHIK antibody (immunoglobulin M), which revealed 63% (64/101) and 40% (47/116) seropositivity in the samples from Kendrapara and Cuttack district, respectively. The illness was managed with analgesics like paracetamol. No death was recorded due to the illness. Entomological survey in the areas revealed the presence of Aedes mosquitoes: aegypti, albopictus, and vittatus. The per-man-hour density of Aedes vectors ranged from 0.8 to 7.6. High larval indices, house index >17% and Breteau index >70%, also indicated Aedes breeding in the area. The investigation documented circulation of CHIK in Orissa, India, and helped to take preventive steps in the outbreak area, with the suggested vector control measures. PMID:19874187

  7. Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: a review

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    Chandrakant Lahariya , S.K. Pradhan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of chikungunya virus is currently ongoing in many countries in Indian Ocean sinceJanuary 2005. The current outbreak appears to be the most severe and one of the biggest outbreakscaused by this virus. India, where this virus was last reported in 1973, is also amongst affectedcountries. Chikungunya virus has affected millions of the people in Africa and Southeast Asia, sinceit was first reported in 1952 in Tanzania. Even then, natural history of this disease is not fully understood.The intra-outbreak studies, point towards recent changes in the viral genome facilitatingthe rapid spread and enhanced pathogenecity. The available published scientific literature on chikungunyavirus was searched to understand the natural history of this disease, reasons for the currentoutbreak and the causes behind re-emergence of the virus in India.The paucity of the scientific information on various epidemiological aspects of chikungunya virusthreatens off an epidemic as control of spread of virus might be difficult in the absence of appropriateknowledge. There is an immediate need of the research on chikungunya virus, for an effectivevaccine besides strengthening the existing diagnostic laboratory facilities. The current outbreak canalso be taken as a lesson for establishment of a system for continuous surveillance of diseases, considereddisappeared from the countries. The re-emergence and epidemics are unpredictable phenomenabut the impact of such events can be ameliorated by appropriate knowledge and by being in theright state of preparedness

  8. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

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    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  9. Molecular modeling and docking study to elucidate novel chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors

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    T Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the Asian and African countries. Absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against Chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify and develop novel leads for the same. Recently, nsP2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by Alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. Here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the nsP2 protease through homology modeling based on nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Further, the ligands were virtually screened based on various pharmacological, ADME/Tox filters and subjected to docking with the modeled Chikungunya nsP2 protease using AutoDock4.2. The interaction profiling of ligand with the protein was carried out using LigPlot+. The results demonstrated that the ligand with PubChem Id (CID_5808891 possessed highest binding affinity towards Chikungunya nsP2 protease with a good interaction profile with the active site residues. We hereby propose that these compounds could inhibit the nsP2 protease by binding to its active site. Moreover, they may provide structural scaffold for the design of novel leads with better efficacy and specificity for the nsP2 protease.

  10. A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y H; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Metz, Stefan W; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; McCarthy, Suzi; Smith, David W; Pijlman, Gorben P; Ng, Lisa F P; Hall, Roy A

    2015-09-15

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development and evaluation of a sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA (EB-ELISA) capable of specifically detecting anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) antibodies in clinical samples. The assay uses a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds an epitope on the E2 protein of CHIKV and does not exhibit cross-reactivity to other related alphaviruses. We also demonstrated the use of recombinant CHIK virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe alternative antigen to infectious virions in the assay. Based on testing of 60 serum samples from patients in the acute or convalescent phase of CHIKV infection, the EB-ELISA provided us with 100% sensitivity, and exhibited 98.5% specificity when Ross River virus (RRV)- or Barmah Forest virus (BFV)-immune serum samples were included. This assay meets the public health demands of a rapid, robust, sensitive and specific, yet simple assay for specifically diagnosing CHIK-infections in humans.

  11. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for detecting chikungunya virus and dengue virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piyathida Pongsiri; Kesmanee Praianantathavorn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Sunchai Payungporn; Yong Poovorawan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To develop diagnostic test for detection chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Dengue virus (DENV)infection.Methods:We have performed a rapid, accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify and differentiateCHIKV and DENV infection by single-step multiplex real-timeRT-PCR.Results: The assay’s sensitivity was97.65%, specificity was 92.59% and accuracy was95.82% when compared to conventional RT-PCR. Additionally, there was no cross-reaction betweenCHIKV, DENV, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C, hepatitis A or hepatitis E virus.Conclusions:This rapid and reliable assay provides a means for simultaneous early diagnosis ofCHIKV andDENV in a single-step reaction.

  12. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Man Kwan; Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  13. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  14. Induction of cytopathogenicity in human glioblastoma cells by chikungunya virus.

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    Rachy Abraham

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an arthritogenic old-world alphavirus, has been implicated in the central nervous system (CNS infection in infants and elderly patients. Astrocytes are the major immune cells of the brain parenchyma that mediate inflammation. In the present study we found that a local isolate of CHIKV infect and activate U-87 MG cells, a glioblastoma cell line of human astrocyte origin. The infection kinetics were similar in infected U-87 MG cells and the human embryo kidney (HEK293 cells as indicated by immunofluorescence and plaque assays, 24h post-infection (p.i.. In infected U-87 MG cells, apoptosis was detectable from 48h p.i. evidenced by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation and visible cytopathic effects in a dose and time-dependent manner. XBP1 mRNA splicing and eIF2α phosphorylation studies indicated the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in infected cells. In U-87 MG cells stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged light chain-3 (GFP-LC3 protein, CHIKV infection showed increased autophagy response. The infection led to an enhanced expression of the mRNA transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL9 within 24h p.i. Significant up-regulation of the proteins of RIG-I like receptor (RLR pathway, such as RIG-I and TRAF-6, was observed indicating the activation of the cytoplasmic-cellular innate immune response. The overall results show that the U-87 MG cell line is a potential in vitro model for in depth study of these molecular pathways in response to CHIKV infection. The responses in these cells of CNS origin, which are inherently defective in Type I interferon response, could be analogous to that occurring in infants and very old patients who also have a compromised interferon-response. The results also point to the intriguing possibility of using this virus for studies to develop oncolytic virus therapy approaches

  15. Evaluation of Commercially Available Chikungunya Virus Immunoglobulin M Detection Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Holloway, Kimberly; de Salazar, P Martinez; Valadere, Anne M; Drebot, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, and the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ≥ 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC and CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% and 98% concordance with CDC and CARPHA results, respectively, and had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA had high performance at CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM and additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased and reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results and limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests and three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits. PMID:26976887

  16. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Tiffany F; Díaz-González, Esteban E; Erasmus, Jesse H; Malo-García, Iliana R; Langsjoen, Rose M; Patterson, Edward I; Auguste, Dawn I; Forrester, Naomi L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-11-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  17. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Metz (Stefan); C. Geertsema (Corinne); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); P. Andrade (Paulina); J.G.M. Heldens; M.M. van Oers (Monique); J.M. Vlak (Just); G.P. Pijlman (Gorben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the proce

  18. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  19. Chikungunya virus infection: report of the first case diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Isabella Gomes Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Initially diagnosed in Africa and Asia, the Chikungunya virus has been detected in the last three years in the Caribbean, Italy, France, and the United States of America. Herein, we report the first case for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010.

  20. Isolation and diagnosis of Chikungunya virus causing outbreaks in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    C.V.M. Naresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever has recently re-emerged in India with a high morbidity. However, the prevalence of chikungunya fever in India has been underreported due to non-availability of specialized kits to confirm the disease in most of the laboratories. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six serum samples were collected from subjects presenting with a short febrile illness from various places in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, between January to October 2009 and were screened for Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV infection. Virus isolation, reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunoglobulin M (IgM rapid strip method were employed for the identification of the causative agent. Results: Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV infection was confirmed in 520 (68.1% patients by RT-PCR. Seventy seven (40.1% patients showed the presence of anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies while 12 (6.3% patients showed the presence of both anti-CHIKV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies respectively. The isolation of CHIKV was successful from five patients. Conclusions: The re-emergence and persistence of CHIKV in Andhra Pradesh suggests the need for continuous monitoring and identification of the pathogen and thereby prevention of the spread of the virus to other parts of the country.

  1. Genomic Assays for Identification of Chikungunya Virus in Blood Donors, Puerto Rico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y; Bres, Vanessa; Yu, Guixia; Krysztof, David; Naccache, Samia N; Lee, Deanna; Pfeil, Jacob; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Stramer, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    A newly developed transcription-mediated amplification assay was used to detect chikungunya virus infection in 3 of 557 asymptomatic donors (0.54%) from Puerto Rico during the 2014-2015 Caribbean epidemic. Viral detection was confirmed by using PCR, microarray, and next-generation sequencing. Molecular clock analysis dated the emergence of the Puerto Rico strains to early 2013.

  2. Development of a Highly Protective Combination Monoclonal Antibody Therapy against Chikungunya Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Pankaj; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Brien, James D.; Edeling, Melissa A.; Gorlatov, Sergey; Johnson, Syd; Lee, Iris; Akahata, Wataru; Nabel, Gary J.; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Smit, Jolanda M.; Fremont, Daved H.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Heise, Mark T.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes global epidemics of a debilitating polyarthritis in humans. As there is a pressing need for the development of therapeutic agents, we screened 230 new mouse anti-CHIKV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for their ability to inhibit

  3. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Geertsema, C.; Martina, Byron E.; Andrade, Paulina; Heldens, J.; Oers, van M.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of en

  4. Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Blijleven, Jelle S.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the molecu

  5. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  6. Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Penny A; Raphael, Anthony P; Yamada, Miko; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Gardner, Joy; Le, Thuy T T; Prow, Natalie A; Dang, Nhung; Schroder, Wayne A; Prow, Tarl W; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-09-22

    Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines.

  7. Chikungunya Virus Sequences Across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  8. Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Harry E; Seaton, Brent L; Matud, Jose L; Batterman, Hollis J

    2015-03-01

    Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody and/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers and RNA detection and to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification and CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, and 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers and RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered and 238 deidentified and tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) and 16% with IgG titers of ≥1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, and (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset.

  9. Chronic pain associated with the Chikungunya Fever: long lasting burden of an acute illness

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    Dallel Radhouane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on chronic pain related to CHIKV infection have been made. In particular, the fact that many of these patients do not respond well to usual analgesics suggests that the nature of chronic pain may be not only nociceptive but also neuropathic. Neuropathic pain syndromes require specific treatment and the identification of neuropathic characteristics (NC in a pain syndrome is a major step towards pain control. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at the end of the major two-wave outbreak lasting 17 months in Réunion Island. We assessed pain in 106 patients seeking general practitioners with confirmed infection with the CHIK virus, and evaluated its impact on quality of life (QoL. Results The mean intensity of pain on the visual-analogical scale (VAS was 5.8 ± 2.1, and its mean duration was 89 ± 2 days. Fifty-six patients fulfilled the definition of chronic pain. Pain had NC in 18.9% according to the DN4 questionnaire. Conversely, about two thirds (65% of patients with NC had chronic pain. The average pain intensity was similar between patients with or without NC (6.0 ± 1.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.0. However, the total score of the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ(15.5 ± 5.2 vs 11.6 ± 5.2; p Conclusions There exists a specific chronic pain condition associated to CHIKV. Pain with NC seems to be associated with more aggressive clinical picture, more intense impact in QoL and more challenging pharmacological treatment.

  10. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  11. A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Joseph, Rajan; Kamaraj, T; Jambulingam, P

    2008-08-01

    Kerala State in India was gripped by a renewed and widespread outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection during 2007. Here, we report the A226V mutation in the glycoprotein envelope 1 (E1) gene of the virus among isolates collected from the three worst-affected districts of the state during this outbreak. This mutation had already been suggested to be directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity in Aedes albopictus. The badly affected districts in Kerala State during 2007 have abundant rubber plantations, which supported prolific breeding of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in the region and molecular evolution of CHIKV may be contributing factors for the renewed epidemic of chikungunya fever during 2007. PMID:18632966

  12. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively. PMID:24879904

  13. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively.

  14. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E; Selby, K; Cherpillod, P; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27006779

  15. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moulin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  16. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin E.; Selby K.; Cherpillod P.; Kaiser L; Boillat-Blanco N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  17. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, E.; Selby, K.; Cherpillod, P.; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  18. Development and evaluation of baculovirus-expressed Chikungunya virus E1 envelope proteins for serodiagnosis of Chikungunya infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Tan, Li-Kiang; Angela, Chow; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-09-01

    Population-based serosurveillance studies provide critical estimates on community-level immunity and the potential for future outbreaks. Currently, serological assays, such as IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (IIFT) based on the inactivated whole virus are used to determine past Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. However, these commercially available tests have variable sensitivities. To develop and evaluate recombinant based CHIKV-specific IgG antibody capture ELISAs (GAC-ELISAs), baculoviruses carrying wild-type (E1-A226, named WT) or mutant (E1-A226V, named MUT) E1 envelope protein genes of CHIKV were generated. The seroreactivity of recombinant CHIKV WT and MUT envelope proteins were determined using residual blood, collected from CHIKV-confirmed patients. The sensitivities of both recombinant CHIKV envelope proteins were 83.0% as measured by GAC-ELISAs. The specificities of both recombinant proteins were 87.8%. These GAC-ELISAs were also able to detect the persistence of anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies up to 6 months after the disease onset, together with rise in sensitivities with increasing time. These results suggest that the baculovirus purified recombinant CHIKV envelope proteins react with anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies and may be useful in population-based seroprevalence surveys. In addition, these GAC-ELISAs offer good diagnostic value to determine the recent/past CHIKV infection status in non-endemic populations.

  19. Impact of chikungunya virus infection on oral health status: An observational study

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    Roopa Katti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chikungunya fever outbreak started in December 2005 in India when the country experienced more than 13 lakhs of Chikungunya infected cases. We undertook this study to describe the impact of Chikungunya virus infection on oral health. Materials and Methods: The confirmed seropositive patients were included for the study (N = 97. Oral hygiene index simplified, gingival index, plaque index were recorded. Results: Of the 181 tested, 97 were confirmed seropositive for chikungunya infection. Pain and bleeding gums were seen in 55% of the subjects. Of them, 29.1% had poor oral hygiene, 42.27% had severe gingivitis, and 27.84% had severe plaque deposits. Severe gingivitis was observed in patients with chronic disease, this association was statistically significant (χ2 = 6.417, P = 0.040. Conclusion: Our findings showed that about more than half of the tested patients suffered severe pain and bleeding in the oral cavity thereby causing discomfort in chewing. About 1/3 patients had severe gingivitis and foul breath which caused discomfort in carrying out their day-to-day activities.

  20. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

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    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  1. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  2. Cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning to Spain from Haiti or Dominican Republic, April-June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, A; Garcia, C; Aldasoro, E; Vicente, J A; Martínez, M J; Pérez-Molina, J A; Calvo-Cano, A; Franco, L; Parrón, I; Molina, A; Ruiz, M; Álvarez, J; Sánchez-Seco, M P; Gascón, J

    2014-01-01

    Ten cases of chikungunya were diagnosed in Spanish travellers returning from Haiti (n=2), the Dominican Republic (n=7) or from both countries (n=1) between April and June 2014. These cases remind clinicians to consider chikungunya in European travellers presenting with febrile illness and arthralgia, who are returning from the Caribbean region and Central America, particularly from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The presence of Aedes albopictus together with viraemic patients could potentially lead to autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in southern Europe.

  3. Chikungunya virus infections among travellers returning to Spain, 2008 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Bangert, Mathieu; de Ory, Fernando; Potente, Arantxa; Hernandez, Lourdes; Lasala, Fatima; Herrero, Laura; Molero, Francisca; Negredo, Anabel; Vázquez, Ana; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; de la Fuente, Jesus; Puente, Sabino; Ramírez de Arellano, Eva; Lago, Mar; Martinez, Miguel; Gascón, Joaquim; Norman, Francesca; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Sulleiro, Elena; Pou, Diana; Serre, Nuria; Roblas, Ricardo Fernández; Tenorio, Antonio; Franco, Leticia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first documented autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in the Caribbean island of Saint Martin in 2013, the infection has been reported within the Caribbean region as well as North, Central and South America. The risk of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus becoming established in Spain may be elevated due to the large numbers of travellers returning to Spain from countries affected by the 2013 epidemic in the Caribbean and South America, as well as the existence of the Aedes albopictus vector in certain parts of Spain. We retrospectively analysed the laboratory diagnostic database of the National Centre for Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III (CNM-ISCIII) from 2008 to 2014. During the study period, 264 confirmed cases, of 1,371 suspected cases, were diagnosed at the CNM-ISCIII. In 2014 alone, there were 234 confirmed cases. The highest number of confirmed cases were reported from the Dominican Republic (n = 136), Venezuela (n = 30) and Haiti (n = 11). Six cases were viraemic in areas of Spain where the vector is present. This report highlights the need for integrated active case and vector surveillance in Spain and other parts of Europe where chikungunya virus may be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:27631156

  4. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge.

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    Petra van den Doel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been documented, although at low incidences. The CHIKV RNA genome encodes five structural proteins (C, E1, E2, E3 and 6K. The E1 spike protein drives the fusion process within the cytoplasm, while the E2 protein is believed to interact with cellular receptors and therefore most probably constitutes the target of neutralizing antibodies. We have constructed recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA expressing E3E2, 6KE1, or the entire CHIKV envelope polyprotein cassette E3E26KE1. MVA is an appropriate platform because of its demonstrated clinical safety and its suitability for expression of various heterologous proteins. After completing the immunization scheme, animals were challenged with CHIV-S27. Immunization of AG129 mice with MVAs expressing E2 or E3E26KE1 elicited neutralizing antibodies in all animals and provided 100% protection against lethal disease. In contrast, 75% of the animals immunized with 6KE1 were protected against lethal infection. In conclusion, MVA expressing the glycoprotein E2 of CHIKV represents as an immunogenic and effective candidate vaccine against CHIKV infections.

  5. Clinical and histopathological features of fatal cases with dengue and chikungunya virus co-infection in Colombia, 2014 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Marcela; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Campo, Alfonso; Navarro, Edgar; Viasus, Diego

    2016-06-01

    We report clinical features and histopathological findings in fatal cases with dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) co-infection identified at the Colombian National Institute of Health between September 2014 and October 2015. Seven such cases were documented. Dengue serotype 2 virus was identified in six cases. All patients were adults and comorbidities were present in four. Fever, arthralgia or myalgia was present in all cases. The frequency of rash, haemorrhage, oedema, and gastrointestinal symptoms was variable. Laboratory findings such as thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and leukocyte count were also inconsistent between cases. Post-mortem tissue examination documented focal hepatocellular coagulative necrosis in three cases, incipient acute pericarditis in one and tubulointerstitial nephritis in one. This study provides evidence of mortality in patients with DENV and CHIKV co-infection. Fatal cases were characterised by variable clinical and laboratory features. Evaluation of histopathology of autopsy tissues provided evidence of the pathological consequences of the disease.

  6. Clinical and histopathological features of fatal cases with dengue and chikungunya virus co-infection in Colombia, 2014 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Marcela; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Campo, Alfonso; Navarro, Edgar; Viasus, Diego

    2016-06-01

    We report clinical features and histopathological findings in fatal cases with dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) co-infection identified at the Colombian National Institute of Health between September 2014 and October 2015. Seven such cases were documented. Dengue serotype 2 virus was identified in six cases. All patients were adults and comorbidities were present in four. Fever, arthralgia or myalgia was present in all cases. The frequency of rash, haemorrhage, oedema, and gastrointestinal symptoms was variable. Laboratory findings such as thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and leukocyte count were also inconsistent between cases. Post-mortem tissue examination documented focal hepatocellular coagulative necrosis in three cases, incipient acute pericarditis in one and tubulointerstitial nephritis in one. This study provides evidence of mortality in patients with DENV and CHIKV co-infection. Fatal cases were characterised by variable clinical and laboratory features. Evaluation of histopathology of autopsy tissues provided evidence of the pathological consequences of the disease. PMID:27277216

  7. Current research and clinical trials for a vaccine against Chikungunya virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Singh,1 Mala Chhabra,1 Veena Mittal,1 Pankaj Sharma,1 Moshahid A Rizvi,2 Lakhvir Singh Chauhan,1 Arvind Rai1 1National Centre for Disease Control, Sham Nath Marg, 2Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India Abstract: Chikungunya infection is a self-limiting Aedes mosquito-borne arboviral disease with variable clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic illness to a very severe and crippling arthralgia. Until recently, Chikungunya was a little known disease that re-emerged in 2005–2006, leading to major outbreaks on the Indian Ocean Islands and in South East Asia, and eventually extending its range to temperate regions. It drew global attention due to its explosive onset, extensive geographic distribution, and high morbidity. Since re-emergence, an estimated one million symptomatic cases with 0.1% fatality per year have been reported globally. A lack of herd immunity, vector control, and globalization and trade are clearly a problem in the spread of this disease. The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has also acquired biologically important mutations during its evolution, increasing its geographic reach. This disease has resulted in a loss of productivity in affected communities. The absence of a vaccine or an effective antiviral therapy makes dealing with this disease challenging for those involved in public health. There is an emergent need for an effective vaccine against CHIKV infection. The candidates that have been tested include attenuated living, nonliving and genetically engineered vaccines. Several of these vaccine candidates are in preclinical and clinical trials. This review outlines the current knowledge about chikungunya infection and vaccine development. Keywords: Chikungunya, outbreaks, epidemics, genotypes, vaccines, therapy

  8. Chikungunya Virus & Chikungunya Fever%基孔肯雅病毒与基孔肯雅热

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵惠训

    2011-01-01

    基孔肯雅热是一种人兽共患病,是由基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya virus,CHIKV)引起,以发热、皮疹、关节疼痛和轻度出血为主要特征的急性传染病.这种病毒病主要分布在非洲、南亚、东南亚热带和亚热带地区.近年来在印度洋地区造成大规模流行,并波及我国南方,疫区在不断扩大.埃及伊蚊和白纹伊蚊是主要传播媒介.通过携带病毒的伊蚊叮咬而传播.在实验室内可通过气溶胶传播,目前尚无直接人传人的报道.多数病人能完全痊愈,但有些病人关节疼痛持续较长时间.

  9. Structure based design towards the identification of novel binding sites and inhibitors for the chikungunya virus envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Adel A; Keller, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus that is widespread in tropical regions and is spreading quickly to temperate climates with recent epidemics in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. It is having an increasingly major impact on humans with potentially life-threatening and debilitating arthritis. Thus far, neither vaccines nor medications are available to treat or control the virus and therefore, the development of medicinal chemistry is a vital and immediate issue that needs to be addressed. The viral envelope proteins play a major role during infection through mediation of binding and fusion with the infected cell surfaces. The possible binding target sites of the chikungunya virus envelope proteins have not previously been investigated; we describe here for the first time the identification of novel sites for potential binding on the chikungunya glycoprotein complexes and the identification of possible antagonists for these sites through virtual screening using two successive docking scores; FRED docking for fast precise screening, with the top hits then subjected to a ranking scoring using the AUTODOCK algorithm. Both the immature and the mature forms of the chikungunya envelope proteins were included in the study to increase the probability of finding positive and reliable hits. Some small molecules have been identified as good in silico chikungunya virus envelope proteins inhibitors and these could be good templates for drug design targeting this virus.

  10. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown. PMID:26416113

  11. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies. PMID:27427208

  12. CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THIS ARBOVIRUS INFECTION? (IN SPANISH

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    Ochoa-Díaz Margarita María

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: for Colombia the arrival of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV constitutes a potential problem of public health due to in the country as much in rural as urban areas, the presence of the A. Aegypti mosquito, vector of the infection, the same of the dengue virus, is endemic. Objective: To carry out a thematic review referent to the CHIKV and to the febrile syndrome that it causes. Methods: Descriptive bibliographic review, with search in the databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and Medline; including review articles, case reports and clinical trials. Results: 107 articles were found, from which 78 documents were used for convenience between review, research reports, case reports, bulletins and epidemiological reports. Conclusions: The CHIKV is an Alphavirus with an only serotype described. It is one of the 29 species belong to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family and has two cycles of transmission: Sylvatic or enzootic and urban or epizootic. The incubation period varies between one and twelve days. High fever, cutaneous rash and severe osteoarticular pain are the clinical characteristics that appear in six days, with low lethality and that are difficult to differenciate of other tropical diseases, including Malaria and Dengue. In the majority of the cases, a permanent immunity is acquired. The treatment of the disease is symptomatic and available vaccine does not exist. The sanity authorities must strengthen the programs of vector control to confront this tropical disease. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:317-328. KEYWORDS Chikungunya virus, Chikungunya virus infection, Alphavirus, Alphavirus infections

  13. Development of Neutralization Assay Using an eGFP Chikungunya Virus

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    Cheng-Lin Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a member of the Alphavirus genus, is an important human emerging/re-emerging pathogen. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against CHIKV infection. Herein, we construct an infectious clone of CHIKV and an eGFP reporter CHIKV (eGFP-CHIKV with an isolated strain (assigned to Asian lineage from CHIKV-infected patients. The eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus allows for direct visualization of viral replication through the levels of eGFP expression. Using a known CHIKV inhibitor, ribavirin, we confirmed that the eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus could be used to identify inhibitors against CHIKV. Importantly, we developed a novel and reliable eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus-based neutralization assay that could be used for rapid screening neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV.

  14. Development of Neutralization Assay Using an eGFP Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Si-Qing; Zhou, Dong-Gen; Xu, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Pan-Tao; Li, Peng-Hui; Ye, Han-Qing; Wei, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, is an important human emerging/re-emerging pathogen. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against CHIKV infection. Herein, we construct an infectious clone of CHIKV and an eGFP reporter CHIKV (eGFP-CHIKV) with an isolated strain (assigned to Asian lineage) from CHIKV-infected patients. The eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus allows for direct visualization of viral replication through the levels of eGFP expression. Using a known CHIKV inhibitor, ribavirin, we confirmed that the eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus could be used to identify inhibitors against CHIKV. Importantly, we developed a novel and reliable eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus-based neutralization assay that could be used for rapid screening neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. PMID:27367716

  15. A DNA vaccine against chikungunya virus is protective in mice and induces neutralizing antibodies in mice and nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Mallilankaraman

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen. While the Aedes aegypti mosquito is its primary vector, recent evidence suggests that other carriers can transmit CHIKV thus raising concerns about its spread outside of natural endemic areas to new countries including the U.S. and Europe. Considering the potential for pandemic spread, understanding the development of immunity is paramount to the development of effective counter measures against CHIKV. In this study, we isolated a new CHIKV virus from an acutely infected human patient and developed a defined viral challenge stock in mice that allowed us to study viral pathogenesis and develop a viral neutralization assay. We then constructed a synthetic DNA vaccine delivered by in vivo electroporation (EP that expresses a component of the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and used this model to evaluate its efficacy. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, which individually were capable of providing protection against CHIKV challenge in mice. Furthermore, vaccine studies in rhesus macaques demonstrated induction of nAb responses, which mimicked those induced in convalescent human patient sera. These data suggest a protective role for nAb against CHIKV disease and support further study of envelope-based CHIKV DNA vaccines.

  16. Production of Chikungunya Virus-Like Particles and Subunit Vaccines in Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Stefan W; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a reemerging human pathogen that causes debilitating arthritic disease in humans. Like dengue and Zika virus, CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in an epidemic urban cycle, and is now rapidly spreading through the Americas since its introduction in the Caribbean in late 2013. There are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs available, and only a few vaccine candidates have passed Phase I human clinical trials. Using recombinant baculovirus expression technology, we have generated CHIKV glycoprotein subunit and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that are amenable to large scale production in insect cells. These vaccines, in particular the VLPs, have shown high immunogenicity and protection against CHIKV infection in different animal models of CHIKV-induced disease. Here, we describe the production, purification, and characterization of these potent CHIKV vaccine candidates. PMID:27233282

  17. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  18. A comprehensive immunoinformatics and target site study revealed the corner-stone toward Chikungunya virus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Anayet; Khan, Md Arif; Datta, Amit; Mazumder, Md Habibul Hasan; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal

    2015-05-01

    Recent concerning facts of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); a Togaviridae family alphavirus has proved this as a worldwide emerging threat which causes Chikungunya fever and devitalizing arthritis. Despite severe outbreaks and lack of antiviral drug, a mere progress has been made regarding to an epitope-based vaccine designed for CHIKV. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites by using various immunoinformatics and docking simulation tools. Initially, whole proteome of CHIKV was retrieved from database and perused to identify the most immunogenic protein. Structural properties of the selected protein were analyzed. The capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity by T cell and B cell were checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 397 to 405 and the sequence YYYELYPTM were found as the most potential B cell and T cell epitopes respectively. This peptide could interact with as many as 19 HLAs and showed high population coverage ranging from 69.50% to 84.94%. By using in silico docking techniques the epitope was further assessed for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post therapeutic strategy, three dimensional structure was predicted along with validation and verification that resulted in molecular docking study to identify the potential drug binding sites and suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. Finally, pharmacophore study was also performed in quest of seeing potent drug activity. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing and target site prediction against CHIKV opens up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Chikungunya virus research; the results require validation by in vitro and in vivo

  19. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaea Richard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR.CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7-90%, 18-78% and 5-53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39-41%, 3-17% and 0-14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector.As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there is no Ae. aegypti.

  20. Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Infections Among United States Community Service Volunteers Returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Esposito, Douglas H; Biggs, Holly M; Decenteceo, Michelle; Klevos, Andrew; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kosoy, Olga I; McPherson, Heidi; Sullivan, Carmen; Voorhees, Dayton; Baron, David; Watkins, Jim; Gaul, Linda; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Fischer, Marc; Sharp, Tyler M; Jentes, Emily S

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infection and illnesses and evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, and mosquito exposures and avoidance behaviors and provided serum for CHIKV and DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection and two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, and 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, and 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (∼95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily and mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks and should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas. PMID:26976891

  1. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

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    Guillermina Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population. Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5 than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9. The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1 in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7 in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region.

  2. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Guillermina; Ramirez, Stephania; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  3. LC-MS²-Based dereplication of Euphorbia extracts with anti-Chikungunya virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Dumontet, Vincent; Neyts, Johan; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc; Paolini, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Recently, phorbol esters from Euphorbiaceae have been shown to elicit potent and selective antiviral activity on the replication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in cell culture. With the objective to found new compounds with anti-CHIKV activities, 45 extracts from various plant parts of 11 Mediterranean Euphorbia and one Mercurialis species were evaluated for selective inhibition of CHIKV replication. All EtOAc extracts, especially those prepared from latex, exhibited significant and selective antiviral activity in a Chikungunya virus-cell-based assay. An LC-MS(2) dereplication method was then developed to investigate whether known diterpenoids with anti-CHIKV activity, such as the potent anti-CHIKV 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and prostratin as well as 24 other commercially available diterpenoids of tigliane-, ingenane-, and daphnane-type for which the anti-CHIKV activity have been established in advance (Nothias-Scaglia et al. 2015), were present in the Euphorbia extracts. Only ingenol-3-mebutate, 13-O-isobutyryl-12-deoxyphorbol-20-acetate, and ingenol-3,20-dibenzoate, all exhibiting weak anti-CHIKV activities, were detected in the EtOAc extracts of Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia segetalis ssp. pinea, and Euphorbia pithyusa ssp. pithyusa. Given the potent anti-CHIKV activities of these Euphorbia extracts, the present study suggested that their antiviral activities are probably due to untargeted diterpenoids.

  4. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H; Ng, Lisa F P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  5. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak

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    Khan Mohasin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008.

  6. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha V L

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  7. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epi

  8. Chikungunya Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Inhibits type I/II Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.; Liu, W.J.; Prow, A.; Geertsema, C.; Ligtenberg, M.; Vanlandingham, D.L.; Schnettler, E.; Vlak, J.M.; Suhrbier, A.; Khromykh, A.A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging human pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. Like that of other alphaviruses, CHIKV replication causes general host shutoff, leading to severe cytopathicity in mammalian cells, and inhibits the ability of infected cells to respond to interferon (IFN). Recent res

  9. Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Domeradzka, N.E.; Baggen, J.; Geertsema, C.; Flipse, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein nsP3 has an essential but unknown role in alphavirus replication and interacts with Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP). Here we describe the first known function of nsP3, to inhibit stress granule assembly by recruiting G3BP into cytoplasmic foci. A con

  10. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected duri

  11. Kinetic analysis of mouse brain proteome alterations following chikungunya virus infection before and after appearance of clinical symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fraisier (Christophe); P. Koraka (Penelope); M. Belghazi (Maya); M. Bakli (Mahfoud); S. Granjeaud (Samuel); M. Pophillat (Matthieu); S.M. Lim (Stephanie); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); L. Camoin (Luc); L. Almeras (Lionel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been characterized by an increasing number of severe cases with atypical manifestations including neurological complications. In parallel, the risk map of CHIKV outbreaks has expanded because of improved vector competence. Thes

  12. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  13. Multidisciplinary prospective study of mother-to-child chikungunya virus infections on the island of La Reunion.

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    Patrick Gérardin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An outbreak of chikungunya virus affected over one-third of the population of La Réunion Island between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, we identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission at the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion level-3 maternity department. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological features and outcomes of all the cases of vertically transmitted chikungunya infections recorded at our institution during this outbreak. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Over 22 mo, 7,504 women delivered 7,629 viable neonates; 678 (9.0% of these parturient women were infected (positive RT-PCR or IgM serology during antepartum, and 61 (0.8% in pre- or intrapartum. With the exception of three early fetal deaths, vertical transmission was exclusively observed in near-term deliveries (median duration of gestation: 38 wk, range 35-40 wk in the context of intrapartum viremia (19 cases of vertical transmission out of 39 women with intrapartum viremia, prevalence rate 0.25%, vertical transmission rate 48.7%. Cesarean section had no protective effect on transmission. All infected neonates were asymptomatic at birth, and median onset of neonatal disease was 4 d (range 3-7 d. Pain, prostration, and fever were present in 100% of cases and thrombocytopenia in 89%. Severe illness was observed in ten cases (52.6% and mainly consisted of encephalopathy (n = 9; 90%. These nine children had pathologic MRI findings (brain swelling, n = 9; cerebral hemorrhages, n = 2, and four evolved towards persistent disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission is frequent in the context of intrapartum maternal viremia, and often leads to severe neonatal infection. Chikungunya represents a substantial risk for neonates born to viremic parturients that should be taken into account by clinicians and public health authorities in the event of a

  14. Detection of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes albopictus in Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2012-10-01

    We detected Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection among wild populations of Aedes albopictus female specimens during the CHIKV outbreaks of 2009 and 2006 collected in different localities in Kerala State, India. The envelope 1 gene (E1) sequences of the virus isolate 2009 from the mosquito species showed close genetic relatedness (Kimura 2 Parameter genetic distance=0.0013) to CHIKV-positive isolates from human serum samples from the same area. E1 gene sequences from Ae. albopictus, as well as from human isolates, had the crucial non-synonymous C/T mutation at position 10670, leading to the A226V amino acid change. This natural inclination indicated the role of this mosquito species in the transmission of CHIKV during its recent outbreaks in Kerala State. PMID:22925018

  15. Phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus among travelers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2015

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    Liliane Costa Conteville

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015. These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus.

  16. Effective chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine produced in insect cells.

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    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.

  17. Genetic analysis of chikungunya viruses imported to mainland China in 2008

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    Li Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has caused large outbreaks worldwide in recent years, especially on the islands of the Indian Ocean and India. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti, which are widespread in China, with an especially high population density in southern China. Analyses of full-length viral sequences revealed the acquisition of a single adaptive mutation providing a selective advantage for the transmission of CHIKV by this species. No outbreaks due to the local transmission of CHIKV have been reported in China, and no cases of importation were detected on mainland China before 2008. We followed the spread of imported CHIKV in southern China and analyzed the genetic character of the detected viruses to evaluate their potential for evolution. Results The importation of CHIKV to mainland China was first detected in 2008. The genomic sequences of four of the imported viruses were identified, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences were clustered in the Indian Ocean group; however, seven amino acid changes were detected in the nonstructural protein-coding region, and five amino acid changes were noted in the structural protein-coding regions. In particular, a novel substitution in E2 was detected (K252Q, which may impact the neurovirulence of CHIKV. The adaptive mutation A226V in E1 was observed in two imported cases of chikungunya disease. Conclusions Laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections among travelers visiting China in 2008 were presented, new mutations in the viral nucleic acids and proteins may represent adaptive mutations for human or mosquito hosts.

  18. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus during an outbreak in South India

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    Srikanth P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Re-emergence of Chikungunya is a major public health problem in the southern states of India. Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate an outbreak of Chikungunya, in June-August 2008 using PCR and determine the prevalent genotypes of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV associated with the outbreak. Materials and Methods: Samples of blood were collected (in heparinized vacutainer tubes from suspected patients of CHIKV infection from both Government Taluk Hospital in Kerala and a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A one-step RT-PCR was carried out on a block thermo-cycler targeting the E2 gene that codes for the viral envelope protein. The amplicons were verified for 305 bp size by standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were purified, sequenced, and compared with other CHIKV strains reported from different geographical regions. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 4. Results: Altogether 118 samples were collected from patients who presented with sudden onset of fever and/or joint pain, myalgia, and headache. CHIKV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 14 patients and all these cases were from Kerala. The positivity correlated with the early stage of the disease as all these patients had fever of less than seven days duration. The study isolates have been allotted the GenBank accession nos. GQ272368-GQ272381. Phylogenetic analysis of recent CHIKV isolates by partial sequencing of E2 region shows that isolates are closely related to strains from neighboring states and the African type. Conclusion: RT-PCR is a useful technique for the early detection of CHIKV infection during outbreaks. Molecular characterization of the strains indicates that majority of the strains have originated from the Central/East African strains of CHIKV.

  19. Structural analyses at pseudo atomic resolution of Chikungunya virus and antibodies show mechanisms of neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Akahata, Wataru; Holdaway, Heather; Pal, Pankaj; Zhang, Xinzheng; Diamond, Michael S; Nabel, Gary J; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-04-02

    A 5.3 Å resolution, cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) map of Chikungunya virus-like particles (VLPs) has been interpreted using the previously published crystal structure of the Chikungunya E1-E2 glycoprotein heterodimer. The heterodimer structure was divided into domains to obtain a good fit to the cryoEM density. Differences in the T = 4 quasi-equivalent heterodimer components show their adaptation to different environments. The spikes on the icosahedral 3-fold axes and those in general positions are significantly different, possibly representing different phases during initial generation of fusogenic E1 trimers. CryoEM maps of neutralizing Fab fragments complexed with VLPs have been interpreted using the crystal structures of the Fab fragments and the VLP structure. Based on these analyses the CHK-152 antibody was shown to stabilize the viral surface, hindering the exposure of the fusion-loop, likely neutralizing infection by blocking fusion. The CHK-9, m10 and m242 antibodies surround the receptor-attachment site, probably inhibiting infection by blocking cell attachment. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00435.001.

  20. Transmission potential of chikungunya virus and control measures: the case of Italy.

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    Piero Poletti

    Full Text Available During summer 2007 Italy has experienced an epidemic caused by Chikungunya virus - the first large outbreak documented in a temperate climate country - with approximately 161 laboratory confirmed cases concentrated in two bordering villages in North-Eastern Italy comprising 3,968 inhabitants. The seroprevalence was recently estimated to be 10.2%. In this work we provide estimates of the transmission potential of the virus and we assess the efficacy of the measures undertaken by public health authorities to control the epidemic spread. To such aim, we developed a model describing the temporal dynamics of the competent vector, known as Aedes albopictus, explicitly depending on climatic factors, coupled to an epidemic transmission model describing the spread of the epidemic in both humans and mosquitoes. The cumulative number of notified cases predicted by the model was 185 on average (95% CI 117-278, in good agreement with observed data. The probability of observing a major outbreak after the introduction of an infective human case was estimated to be in the range of 32%-76%. We found that the basic reproduction number was in the range of 1.8-6 but it could have been even larger, depending on the density of mosquitoes, which in turn depends on seasonal meteorological effects, besides other local abiotic factors. These results confirm the increasing risk of tropical vector-borne diseases in temperate climate countries, as a consequence of globalization. However, our results show that an epidemic can be controlled by performing a timely intervention, even if the transmission potential of Chikungunya virus is sensibly high.

  1. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

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    Jeremy P Ledermann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s. Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.

  2. Easy and inexpensive molecular detection of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Eliana P; Sánchez-Quete, Fernando; Durán, Sandra; Sandoval, Isabel; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-11-01

    Dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and zika (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) sharing a common vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. At initial stages, patients infected with these viruses have similar clinical manifestations, however, the outcomes and clinical management of these diseases are different, for this reason early and accurate identification of the causative virus is necessary. This paper reports the development of a rapid and specific nested-PCR for detection of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection in the same sample. A set of six outer primers targeting the C-preM, E1, and E gene respectively was used in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay, followed by the second round of amplification with specific inner primers for each virus. The specificity of the present assay was validated with positive and negative serum samples for viruses and supernatants of infected cells. The assay was tested using clinical samples from febrile patients. In these samples, we detected mono and dual infections and a case of triple co-infection DENV-CHIKV-ZIKV. This assay might be a useful and an inexpensive tool for detection of these infections in regions where these arboviruses co-circulate. PMID:27477452

  3. Easy and inexpensive molecular detection of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Eliana P; Sánchez-Quete, Fernando; Durán, Sandra; Sandoval, Isabel; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-11-01

    Dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and zika (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) sharing a common vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. At initial stages, patients infected with these viruses have similar clinical manifestations, however, the outcomes and clinical management of these diseases are different, for this reason early and accurate identification of the causative virus is necessary. This paper reports the development of a rapid and specific nested-PCR for detection of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection in the same sample. A set of six outer primers targeting the C-preM, E1, and E gene respectively was used in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay, followed by the second round of amplification with specific inner primers for each virus. The specificity of the present assay was validated with positive and negative serum samples for viruses and supernatants of infected cells. The assay was tested using clinical samples from febrile patients. In these samples, we detected mono and dual infections and a case of triple co-infection DENV-CHIKV-ZIKV. This assay might be a useful and an inexpensive tool for detection of these infections in regions where these arboviruses co-circulate.

  4. Connective tissue metabolism in chikungunya patients

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    Vemula Sarojamma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of Chikungunya virus (CHIK virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIK virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Previous reports have indicated that infection with CHIK virus produces an acute arthritis in human hosts by large area of necrosis and collagenosis or fibrosis. Results We carried out the present study to determine the effect of chikungunya on the collagen and connective tissue metabolism in 75 chikungunya-affected people. First, we screened for mucopolysaccharides in urine by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB test. Appearance of heavy precipitate indicates the presence of higher levels of mucopolysaccharides and later quantified by DMB dye method. The urinary mucopolysaccharide in CHIK patients was 342 ± 45 mg/l compared to healthy controls (45 ± 5.6 mg/l. The collagen building blocks, proline and hydroxyproline were also measured in CHIK patients and observed higher excretion compared to healthy controls. Urinary excretions hydroxyproline was greater than the proline levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CHIK virus infection affects and damage the cartilage and connective metabolism and releases the degraded products from the tissue and responsible for increasing the levels of proline, hydroxyproline and mucopolysaccharides in CHIK affected patients.

  5. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

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    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  6. Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Kaic, Bernard; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Kucinar, Jasmina; Klobucar, Ana; Medic, Alan; Pahor, Djana; Barac-Juretic, Katija; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2015-06-01

    During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from randomly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) and only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

  7. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area.

  8. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  9. First Imported Case of Chikungunya Virus Infection in a Travelling Canadian Returning from the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first Canadian case of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection reported in a traveller returning from the Caribbean. Following multiple mosquito bites in Martinique Island in January 2014, the patient presented with high fever, headaches, arthralgia on both hands and feet, and a rash on the trunk upon his return to Canada. Initial serological testing for dengue virus infection was negative. Support therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was administered. The symptoms gradually improved 4 weeks after onset with residual arthralgia and morning joint stiffness. This clinical feature prompted the clinician to request CHIKV virus serology which was found to be positive for the presence of IgM and neutralizing antibodies. In 2014, over four hundred confirmed CHIKV infection cases were diagnosed in Canadian travellers returning from the Caribbean and Central America. Clinical suspicion of CHIKV or dengue virus infections should be considered in febrile patients with arthralgia returning from the recently CHIKV endemic countries of the Americas.

  10. Antagonism of the Sodium-Potassium ATPase Impairs Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Ashbrook

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging alphavirus that has caused epidemics of fever, arthralgia, and rash worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease. We conducted a high-throughput, chemical compound screen that identified digoxin, a cardiac glycoside that blocks the sodium-potassium ATPase, as a potent inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Treatment of human cells with digoxin or a related cardiac glycoside, ouabain, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in infection by CHIKV. Inhibition by digoxin was cell type-specific, as digoxin treatment of either murine or mosquito cells did not diminish CHIKV infection. Digoxin displayed antiviral activity against other alphaviruses, including Ross River virus and Sindbis virus, as well as mammalian reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The digoxin-mediated block to CHIKV and reovirus infection occurred at one or more postentry steps, as digoxin inhibition was not bypassed by fusion of CHIKV at the plasma membrane or infection with cell surface-penetrating reovirus entry intermediates. Selection of digoxin-resistant CHIKV variants identified multiple mutations in the nonstructural proteins required for replication complex formation and synthesis of viral RNA. These data suggest a role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in promoting postentry steps of CHIKV replication and provide rationale for modulation of this pathway as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy.

  11. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Rumberia, Cecilia; Michuki, George; Kimotho, James; Ongus, Juliette R; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Island, showed distinct and reproducible large (L2) and small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain and plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines and their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants and S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) and 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity and dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain and its variants clustered closely together with each other and with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to understand the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence and viral transmission in mosquito and mammalian hosts.

  12. Chikungunya fever among patients with acute febrile illness attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai

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    Lata Baswanna Galate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.

  13. Genetic diversity of Chikungunya virus, India 2006-2010: evolutionary dynamics and serotype analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathy, K; Ella, Krishna M

    2012-03-01

    The genetic diversity of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causing recurring outbreaks in India since 2006 was studied. The 2006 epidemic was caused by a virus strain of the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype with 226A in the E1 glycoprotein. The variant strain with E1-A226V mutation caused outbreaks since 2007 in the state of Kerala where Aedes albopictus is the abundant mosquito vector. Molecular epidemiology data since 2007 is scarce from other regions of the country. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of CHIKV isolates from the 2009 to 2010 epidemics in the States of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh placed them in a separate clade within the ECSA lineage. The isolates of the study had 226A in the E1 glycoprotein. The isolates had a novel E1-K211E mutation that was under significant positive selection. E1-211E is highly conserved in the Asian genotype of the virus circulated by Aedes aegypti. Unique mutations in E2 glycoprotein were identified. The two sub-lineages of ECSA genotype circulating in India parallel the abundance of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Novel mutations in the envelope glycoproteins suggest adaptive evolution of the virus to local vector abundance. Cross neutralization of the virus isolates from recurring Indian epidemics indicated that no distinct serotypes had evolved. The study has provided insights into the origin, distribution and evolutionary adaptation of the virus to local vector abundance in the region that has reportedly, the highest incidence of CHIKV infection in the world. PMID:22246833

  14. The wMel Strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to preventing chikungunya virus (CHIKV are needed because current methods are limited to controlling mosquito populations, and they have not prevented the invasion of this virus into new locales, nor have they been sufficient to control the virus upon arrival. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against CHIKV. Although this approach holds much promise for limiting virus transmission, at present our understanding of the ability of CHIKV to infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by wMel-infected Ae. aegypti currently being used at Wolbachia release sites is limited.Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for CHIKV, even with extremely high viral titers in the bloodmeal. In addition, we examined the dynamics of CHIKV infection over the course of four to seven days post feeding. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes remained non-infective over the duration of seven days, i.e., no infectious virus was detected in the saliva when exposed to bloodmeals of moderate viremia, but CHIKV-exposed, wild type mosquitoes did have viral loads in the saliva consistent with what has been reported elsewhere. Finally, the presence of wMel infection had no impact on the lifespan of mosquitoes as compared to wild type mosquitoes following CHIKV infection.These results could have an impact on vector control strategies in areas where Ae. aegypti are transmitting both DENV and CHIKV; i.e., they argue for further exploration, both in the laboratory and the field, on the feasibility of expanding this technology beyond DENV.

  15. Genetic diversity of Chikungunya virus, India 2006-2010: evolutionary dynamics and serotype analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathy, K; Ella, Krishna M

    2012-03-01

    The genetic diversity of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causing recurring outbreaks in India since 2006 was studied. The 2006 epidemic was caused by a virus strain of the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype with 226A in the E1 glycoprotein. The variant strain with E1-A226V mutation caused outbreaks since 2007 in the state of Kerala where Aedes albopictus is the abundant mosquito vector. Molecular epidemiology data since 2007 is scarce from other regions of the country. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of CHIKV isolates from the 2009 to 2010 epidemics in the States of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh placed them in a separate clade within the ECSA lineage. The isolates of the study had 226A in the E1 glycoprotein. The isolates had a novel E1-K211E mutation that was under significant positive selection. E1-211E is highly conserved in the Asian genotype of the virus circulated by Aedes aegypti. Unique mutations in E2 glycoprotein were identified. The two sub-lineages of ECSA genotype circulating in India parallel the abundance of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Novel mutations in the envelope glycoproteins suggest adaptive evolution of the virus to local vector abundance. Cross neutralization of the virus isolates from recurring Indian epidemics indicated that no distinct serotypes had evolved. The study has provided insights into the origin, distribution and evolutionary adaptation of the virus to local vector abundance in the region that has reportedly, the highest incidence of CHIKV infection in the world.

  16. The wMel Strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Walker, Emma C.; Uribe Yepes, Alexander; Dario Velez, Ivan; Christensen, Bruce M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background New approaches to preventing chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are needed because current methods are limited to controlling mosquito populations, and they have not prevented the invasion of this virus into new locales, nor have they been sufficient to control the virus upon arrival. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against CHIKV. Although this approach holds much promise for limiting virus transmission, at present our understanding of the ability of CHIKV to infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by wMel-infected Ae. aegypti currently being used at Wolbachia release sites is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for CHIKV, even with extremely high viral titers in the bloodmeal. In addition, we examined the dynamics of CHIKV infection over the course of four to seven days post feeding. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes remained non-infective over the duration of seven days, i.e., no infectious virus was detected in the saliva when exposed to bloodmeals of moderate viremia, but CHIKV-exposed, wild type mosquitoes did have viral loads in the saliva consistent with what has been reported elsewhere. Finally, the presence of wMel infection had no impact on the lifespan of mosquitoes as compared to wild type mosquitoes following CHIKV infection. Conclusions/Significance These results could have an impact on vector control strategies in areas where Ae. aegypti are transmitting both DENV and CHIKV; i.e., they argue for further exploration, both in the laboratory and the field, on the feasibility of expanding this

  17. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Eric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Hamel, Rodolphe [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Neyret, Aymeric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Ekchariyawat, Peeraya [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Molès, Jean-Pierre [INSERM U1058, UM1, CHU Montpellier (France); Simmons, Graham [Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Chazal, Nathalie [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Desprès, Philippe [Unité Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); and others

    2015-02-15

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV.

  18. Chikungunya virus and Aedes mosquitoes: saliva is infectious as soon as two days after oral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dubrulle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV. The recent CHIKV outbreaks were caused by a new variant characterized by a mutation in the E1 glycoprotein gene (E1-226V which has favored a better transmissibility by Ae. albopictus. As Ae. albopictus tends to replace Ae. aegypti in many regions, one question remained: is Ae. albopictus as efficient as Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV? METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We infected orally both species with the variant E1-226V and estimated the infection, the viral dissemination, and the transmission rate by real time RT-PCR. Additionally, we used an in vitro assay to determine the amount of virus delivered by mosquitoes in their saliva. We found that Ae. aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus ensured a high replication of the virus which underwent an efficient dissemination as detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 post-infection (pi. Infectious CHIKV particles were delivered by salivary glands from day 2 with a maximum at day 6 pi for Ae. albopictus (10(3.3 PFU and day 7 pi for Ae. aegypti (10(2.5 PFU. CONCLUSIONS: Ae. albopictus is slightly more efficient than Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV. These results will help to design an efficient vector control to limit transmission as soon as the first human cases are diagnosed.

  19. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV

  20. Host Alternation of Chikungunya Virus Increases Fitness while Restricting Population Diversity and Adaptability to Novel Selective Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, L. L.; Vignuzzi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which RNA arboviruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV), evolve and maintain the ability to infect vertebrate and invertebrate hosts are poorly understood. To understand how host specificity shapes arbovirus populations, we studied CHIKV populations passaged alternately between invertebrate and vertebrate cells (invertebrate ↔ vertebrate) to simulate natural alternation and contrasted the results with those for populations that were artificially released from cycling by p...

  1. Chikungunya: acute fever, rash and debilitating arthralgias in a returning traveler from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathryn B; Pureza, Vincent; Walker, Patricia F

    2014-01-01

    The following case report details a case of chikungunya fever in a returning traveler from Haiti. The report highlights the clinical presentation and natural history of the disease, and emphasizes that chikungunya has become established in the western hemisphere, with a resultant need for heightened provider awareness.

  2. Molecular investigations of chikungunya virus during outbreaks in Orissa, Eastern India in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswadeep; Sahu, Abhipsa; Das, Mumani; Patra, Aparna; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2012-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of genus Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The resurgence of CHIKV in different parts of India is a point of major public health concern. In 2010, chikungunya outbreaks with high epidemic magnitude were recorded in coastal areas of Orissa, Eastern India, affecting more than 15,000 people coupled with severe arthralgia and prolonged morbidites. Detailed entomological, serological and molecular investigation of this unprecendented outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 1359 mosquito samples belonging to A. albopictus, A. aegypti, A. vittatus, A. edwardsii and Culex species and 220 patients serum from the affected areas. In this study, CHIKV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were done to detect recent infection of CHIKV in serum samples and adult mosquitoes collected from the affected areas. The high maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) (15.2) in A. albopictus mosquitoes indicated that it was the principal vector involved in transmission of CHIKV in Orissa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak belonged to the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype. Genetic characterization of envelope glycoprotein (E1 and E2) genes revealed that all the CHIKV isolates from Orissa had the E1-A226V mutation that enhances viral dissemination and transmissibility by A. albopictus mosquitoes along with E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations, which play an epistatic role with E1-A226V mutation in adaptation of CHIKV to A. albopictus by increasing its midgut infectivity, thereby favoring its vectorial capacity. Our results showed the involvement of A. albopictus vector in the recent outbreaks in Orissa and circulation of IOL strains of ECSA genotype of CHIKV with E1-A226V, E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations in vectors and patients serum. PMID:22484761

  3. Copy number variation of Chikungunya ECSA virus with disease symptoms among Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Pal, Tithi; Saha, Bibhuti; Mandal, Syamsundar; Tripathi, Anusri

    2014-08-01

    After a gap of three decades, from 2005 onwards, a series of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks occurred worldwide. This study was performed to detect CHIKV infection, its genotype among symptomatic Eastern Indian patients and to analyze any association between the presence of CHIKV genome in patient body with appearance of disease symptoms (n = 199). Plasma-extracted viral RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA and PCR-amplified followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Viral load among CHIKV-positive patients was determined by real time RT-PCR. CHIKV-IgM in sera was detected by ELISA. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of plasma-extracted PCR products was done. CHIKV genome and IgM were detected among 65.3% (n = 130) and 41.2% (n = 82) patients respectively. Joint swelling was significantly associated with CHIKV infection (P-value: 0.0003). CHIKV PCR positive patients were grouped in two categories: Group-I: viral load patients clustered in Group-II. Fever and joint swelling were significantly more prevalent among Group-II patients, whereas rash and diarrhoea among Group-I patients (P-value Patient-isolated CHIKV sequences clustered with CHIKV ECSA genotypes in the phylogenetic tree, with two types of CHIKV strains found to circulate among them-as indicated by their different nucleotide sequences. This is the first study detecting the presence of CHIKV ECSA genotype among Eastern Indian patients. Fever and joint swelling might have appeared first followed by rash, diarrhea during disease progression-as indicated by CHIK viral load in patients. Thus, viral load can be used as unique diagnostic and prognostic marker of Chikungunya disease pathogenesis. PMID:24132555

  4. Sequential adaptive mutations enhance efficient vector switching by Chikungunya virus and its epidemic emergence.

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    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. Although the initial step of CHIKV adaptation to A. albopictus was determined to involve an A226V amino acid substitution in the E1 envelope glycoprotein that first arose in 2005, little attention has been paid to subsequent CHIKV evolution after this adaptive mutation was convergently selected in several geographic locations. To determine whether selection of second-step adaptive mutations in CHIKV or other arthropod-borne viruses occurs in nature, we tested the effect of an additional envelope glycoprotein amino acid change identified in Kerala, India in 2009. This substitution, E2-L210Q, caused a significant increase in the ability of CHIKV to develop a disseminated infection in A. albopictus, but had no effect on CHIKV fitness in the alternative mosquito vector, A. aegypti, or in vertebrate cell lines. Using infectious viruses or virus-like replicon particles expressing the E2-210Q and E2-210L residues, we determined that E2-L210Q acts primarily at the level of infection of A. albopictus midgut epithelial cells. In addition, we observed that the initial adaptive substitution, E1-A226V, had a significantly stronger effect on CHIKV fitness in A. albopictus than E2-L210Q, thus explaining the observed time differences required for selective sweeps of these mutations in nature. These results indicate that the continuous CHIKV circulation in an A. albopictus-human cycle since 2005 has resulted in the selection of an additional, second-step mutation that may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics.

  5. Sequential adaptive mutations enhance efficient vector switching by Chikungunya virus and its epidemic emergence.

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    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Weaver, Scott C

    2011-12-01

    The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. Although the initial step of CHIKV adaptation to A. albopictus was determined to involve an A226V amino acid substitution in the E1 envelope glycoprotein that first arose in 2005, little attention has been paid to subsequent CHIKV evolution after this adaptive mutation was convergently selected in several geographic locations. To determine whether selection of second-step adaptive mutations in CHIKV or other arthropod-borne viruses occurs in nature, we tested the effect of an additional envelope glycoprotein amino acid change identified in Kerala, India in 2009. This substitution, E2-L210Q, caused a significant increase in the ability of CHIKV to develop a disseminated infection in A. albopictus, but had no effect on CHIKV fitness in the alternative mosquito vector, A. aegypti, or in vertebrate cell lines. Using infectious viruses or virus-like replicon particles expressing the E2-210Q and E2-210L residues, we determined that E2-L210Q acts primarily at the level of infection of A. albopictus midgut epithelial cells. In addition, we observed that the initial adaptive substitution, E1-A226V, had a significantly stronger effect on CHIKV fitness in A. albopictus than E2-L210Q, thus explaining the observed time differences required for selective sweeps of these mutations in nature. These results indicate that the continuous CHIKV circulation in an A. albopictus-human cycle since 2005 has resulted in the selection of an additional, second-step mutation that may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics. PMID:22174678

  6. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007.

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    Caroline Ochieng

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007 to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV.The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2% were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive, followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively. For DENV and RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01 with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01. These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

  7. Native Wolbachia from Aedes albopictus Blocks Chikungunya Virus Infection In Cellulo.

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    Vincent Raquin

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of terrestrial arthropods, can protect its host against viral and parasitic infections, a phenotype called "pathogen blocking". However, in some cases Wolbachia may have no effect or even enhance pathogen infection, depending on the host-Wolbachia-pathogen combination. The tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbA and wAlbB, and is a competent vector for different arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Interestingly, it was shown in some cases that Ae. albopictus native Wolbachia strains are able to inhibit DENV transmission by limiting viral replication in salivary glands, but no such impact was measured on CHIKV replication in vivo. To better understand the Wolbachia/CHIKV/Ae. albopictus interaction, we generated a cellular model using Ae. albopictus derived C6/36 cells that we infected with the wAlbB strain. Our results indicate that CHIKV infection is negatively impacted at both RNA replication and virus assembly/secretion steps in presence of wAlbB. Using FISH, we observed CHIKV and wAlbB in the same mosquito cells, indicating that the virus is still able to enter the cell in the presence of the bacterium. Further work is needed to decipher molecular pathways involved in Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction at the cellular level, but this cellular model can be a useful tool to study the mechanism behind virus blocking phenotype induced by Wolbachia. More broadly, this put into question the ecological role of Wolbachia symbiont in Ae. albopictus, but also the ability of the CHIKV to counteract Wolbachia's antiviral potential in vivo.

  8. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of Chikungunya virus: An updating review.

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    Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, causing a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash. In this review, we summarized a series of articles published from 2013 to 2016 concerning CHIKV epidemiology, phylogeny, vaccine and therapies, to give an update of our most recent article written in 2014 (Lo Presti et al.,2014). CHIKV infection was first reported in 1952 from Makonde plateaus and since this time caused many outbreaks worldwide, involving the Indian Ocean region, African countries, American continent and Italy. CHIKV infection is still underestimated and it is normally associated with clinical symptoms overlapping with dengue virus, recurring epidemics and mutations within the viral genome. These characteristics promote the geographical spread and the inability to control vector-mediated transmission of the virus. For these reasons, the majority of studies were aimed to describe outbreaks and to enhance knowledge on CHIKV biology, pathogenesis, infection treatment, and prevention. In this review, 16 studies on CHIKV phylogenetic and phylodinamics were considered, during the years 2013-2016. Phylogenetic and phylodinamic analysis are useful tools to investigate how the genealogy of a pathogen population is influenced by pathogen's demographic history, host immunological milieu and environmental/ecological factors. Phylogenetic tools were revealed important to reconstruct the geographic spread of CHIKV during the epidemics wave and to have information on the circulating strains of the virus, that are important for the prediction and control of the epidemics, as well as for vaccines and antiviral drugs development. In conclusion, this updating review can give a critical appraisal of the epidemiology, therapeutic and phylogenesis of CHIKV, reinforcing the need to monitor the geographic spread of virus and vectors. PMID:27085290

  9. Viremia in North American Mammals and Birds After Experimental Infection with Chikungunya Viruses.

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    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Nemeth, Nicole M; Kohler, Dennis J; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range and evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian and 12 mammalian species representing both domestic and wild animals common to North America. Hamsters and inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV and were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals and a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife and that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats and wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics.

  10. Temporal SILAC-based quantitative proteomics identifies host factors involved in chikungunya virus replication.

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    Treffers, Emmely E; Tas, Ali; Scholte, Florine E M; Van, Myrthe N; Heemskerk, Matthias T; de Ru, Arnoud H; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J; van Veelen, Peter A

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne reemerging human pathogen that generally causes a severe persisting arthritis. Since 2005, the virus has infected millions of people during outbreaks in Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, Asia, and South/Central America. Many steps of the replication and expression of CHIKV's 12-kb RNA genome are highly dependent on cellular factors, which thus constitute potential therapeutic targets. SILAC and LC-MS/MS were used to define the temporal dynamics of the cellular response to infection. Using samples harvested at 8, 10, and 12 h postinfection, over 4700 proteins were identified and per time point 2800-3500 proteins could be quantified in both biological replicates. At 8, 10, and 12 h postinfection, 13, 38, and 106 proteins, respectively, were differentially expressed. The majority of these proteins showed decreased abundance. Most subunits of the RNA polymerase II complex were progressively degraded, which likely contributes to the transcriptional host shut-off observed during CHIKV infection. Overexpression of four proteins that were significantly downregulated (Rho family GTPase 3 (Rnd3), DEAD box helicase 56 (DDX56), polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UbcH10) reduced susceptibility of cells to CHIKV infection, suggesting that infection-induced downregulation of these proteins is beneficial for CHIKV replication. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001330 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001330).

  11. Viremia in North American Mammals and Birds After Experimental Infection with Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Nemeth, Nicole M; Kohler, Dennis J; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range and evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian and 12 mammalian species representing both domestic and wild animals common to North America. Hamsters and inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV and were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals and a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife and that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats and wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics. PMID:26666699

  12. Evidence of experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti.

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    Ankita Agarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1∶35.5 and 20.2 (1∶49.5 respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

  13. Use of Household Cluster Investigations to Identify Factors Associated with Chikungunya Virus Infection and Frequency of Case Reporting in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Danielle; Roth, Nicole M.; Caraballo, Elba V.; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Rivera, Aidsa; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera Garcia, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June–August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting. Methodology/Principal Findings Residents of households within a 50-meter radius of the residence of laboratory-positive chikungunya cases that had been reported to Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) were offered participation in the investigation. Participants provided a serum specimen and answered a questionnaire that collected information on demographic factors, household characteristics, recent illnesses, healthcare seeking behaviors, and clinical diagnoses. Current CHIKV infection was identified by rRT-PCR, and recent CHIKV infection was defined by detection of either anti-CHIKV IgM or IgG antibody. Among 250 participants, 74 (30%) had evidence of CHIKV infection, including 12 (5%) with current and 62 (25%) with recent CHIKV infection. All specimens from patients with CHIKV infection that were collected within four days, two weeks, and three weeks of illness onset were positive by RT-PCR, IgM ELISA, and IgG ELISA, respectively. Reporting an acute illness in the prior three months was strongly associated with CHIKV infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 21.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.24–50.3). Use of air conditioning (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3–0.9) and citronella candles (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.1–0.9) were associated with protection from CHIKV infection. Multivariable analysis indicated that arthralgia (aOR = 51.8, 95% CI = 3.8–700.8) and skin rash (aOR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.4–84.7) were strongly associated with CHIKV infection. Hierarchical cluster

  14. Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis.

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    Paemanee, Atchara; Wikan, Nitwara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tandem mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins by database searching. The methodology can routinely detect several thousand proteins in one analysis. The protocol we describe here has been used with both cells in culture that have been infected with chikungunya virus and specimens from Chikungunya fever patients. This protocol details the process for generating peptides for subsequent mass spectroscopic and bioinformatic analysis. PMID:27233271

  15. Endocytosis of chikungunya virus into mammalian cells: role of clathrin and early endosomal compartments.

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    Eric Bernard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The replicative cycle of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an alphavirus that recently re-emerged in India and in Indian Ocean area, remains mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intracellular trafficking pathway(s hijacked by CHIKV to enter mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Entry pathways were investigated using a variety of pharmacological inhibitors or overexpression of dominant negative forms of proteins perturbating cellular endocytosis. We found that CHIKV infection of HEK293T mammalian cells is independent of clathrin heavy chain and- dependent of functional Eps15, and requires integrity of Rab5-, but not Rab7-positive endosomal compartment. Cytoskeleton integrity is crucial as cytochalasin D and nocodazole significantly reduced infection of the cells. Finally, both methyl beta-cyclodextrin and lysomotropic agents impaired CHIKV infection, supporting that a cholesterol-, pH-dependent step is required to achieve productive infection. Interestingly, differential sensitivity to lysomotropic agents was observed between the prototypal 37997 African strain of CHIKV and the LR-OPY1 virus isolated from the recent outbreak in Reunion Island. CONCLUSIONS: Together our data indicate that CHIKV entry in its target cells is essentially mediated by clathrin-independent, Eps15-dependent endocytosis. Despite that this property is shared by the prototypal 37997 African strain of CHIKV and the LR-OPY1 virus isolated from the recent outbreak in La Réunion Island, differential sensitivity to lysomotropic agents may support that the LR-OPY1 strain has acquired specific entry mechanisms.

  16. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

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    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies. PMID:27294950

  17. Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches.

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    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Blijleven, Jelle S; van Oijen, Antoine M; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV infection. A critical step in the life cycle of CHIKV is fusion of the viral membrane with a host cell membrane. Here, we elucidate this process using ensemble-averaging liposome-virus fusion studies, in which the fusion behaviour of a large virus population is measured, and a newly developed microscopy-based single-particle assay, in which the fusion kinetics of an individual particle can be visualised. The combination of these approaches allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the kinetics, lipid dependency and pH dependency of hemifusion. We found that CHIKV fusion is strictly dependent on low pH, with a threshold of pH 6.2 and optimal fusion efficiency below pH 5.6. At this pH, CHIKV fuses rapidly with target membranes, with typically half of the fusion occurring within 2 s after acidification. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the target membrane were found to strongly enhance the fusion process. By analysing our single-particle data using kinetic models, we were able to deduce that the number of rate-limiting steps occurring before hemifusion equals about three. To explain these data, we propose a mechanistic model in which multiple E1 fusion trimers are involved in initiating the fusion process.

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Chikungunya virus of different genotypes from Malaysia.

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    I-Ching Sam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has recently re-emerged globally. The epidemic East/Central/South African (ECSA strains have spread for the first time to Asia, which previously only had endemic Asian strains. In Malaysia, the ECSA strain caused an extensive nationwide outbreak in 2008, while the Asian strains only caused limited outbreaks prior to this. To gain insight into these observed epidemiological differences, we compared genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of CHIKV of Asian and ECSA genotypes isolated in Malaysia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CHIKV of Asian and ECSA genotypes were isolated from patients during outbreaks in Bagan Panchor in 2006, and Johor in 2008. Sequencing of the CHIKV strains revealed 96.8% amino acid similarity, including an unusual 7 residue deletion in the nsP3 protein of the Asian strain. CHIKV replication in cells and Aedes mosquitoes was measured by virus titration. There were no differences in mammalian cell lines. The ECSA strain reached significantly higher titres in Ae. albopictus cells (C6/36. Both CHIKV strains infected Ae. albopictus mosquitoes at a higher rate than Ae. aegypti, but when compared to each other, the ECSA strain had much higher midgut infection and replication, and salivary gland dissemination, while the Asian strain infected Ae. aegypti at higher rates. CONCLUSIONS: The greater ability of the ECSA strain to replicate in Ae. albopictus may explain why it spread far more quickly and extensively in humans in Malaysia than the Asian strain ever did, particularly in rural areas where Ae. albopictus predominates. Intergenotypic genetic differences were found at E1, E2, and nsP3 sites previously reported to be determinants of host adaptability in alphaviruses. Transmission of CHIKV in humans is influenced by virus strain and vector species, which has implications for regions with more than one circulating CHIKV genotype and Aedes species.

  19. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

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    Priya Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNAval Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies

  20. Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit Chikungunya virus replication.

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    Melanie McFarlane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi, has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways.

  1. Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito from India

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    Mangesh D Gokhale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (CHIKV susceptibility and growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Methods: Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics and allozyme variation studies. Results: The dissemination and growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, and Nei′s genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  2. Antiviral Activity of Diterpene Esters on Chikungunya Virus and HIV Replication.

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    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Pannecouque, Christophe; Renucci, Franck; Delang, Leen; Neyts, Johan; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc; Paolini, Julien

    2015-06-26

    Recently, new daphnane, tigliane, and jatrophane diterpenoids have been isolated from various Euphorbiaceae species, of which some have been shown to be potent inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. To further explore this type of compound, the antiviral activity of a series of 29 commercially available natural diterpenoids was evaluated. Phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (11) proved to be the most potent inhibitor, with an EC50 value of 6.0 ± 0.9 nM and a selectivity index (SI) of 686, which is in line with the previously reported anti-CHIKV potency for the structurally related 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (13). Most of the other compounds exhibited low to moderate activity, including an ingenane-type diterpene ester, compound 28, with an EC50 value of 1.2 ± 0.1 μM and SI = 6.4. Diterpene compounds are known also to inhibit HIV replication, so the antiviral activities of compounds 1-29 were evaluated also against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Tigliane- (4β-hydroxyphorbol analogues 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, and 18) and ingenane-type (27 and 28) diterpene esters were shown to inhibit HIV replication in vitro at the nanomolar level. A Pearson analysis performed with the anti-CHIKV and anti-HIV data sets demonstrated a linear relationship, which supported the hypothesis made that PKC may be an important target in CHIKV replication.

  3. Identification of novel compounds inhibiting chikungunya virus-induced cell death by high throughput screening of a kinase inhibitor library.

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    Deu John M Cruz

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting weeks to years. The re-emergence of CHIKV has resulted in numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere, and threatens to expand in the foreseeable future. Unfortunately, no effective treatment is currently available. The present study reports the use of resazurin in a cell-based high-throughput assay, and an image-based high-content assay to identify and characterize inhibitors of CHIKV-infection in vitro. CHIKV is a highly cytopathic virus that rapidly kills infected cells. Thus, cell viability of HuH-7 cells infected with CHIKV in the presence of compounds was determined by measuring metabolic reduction of resazurin to identify inhibitors of CHIKV-associated cell death. A kinase inhibitor library of 4,000 compounds was screened against CHIKV infection of HuH-7 cells using the resazurin reduction assay, and the cell toxicity was also measured in non-infected cells. Seventy-two compounds showing ≥50% inhibition property against CHIKV at 10 µM were selected as primary hits. Four compounds having a benzofuran core scaffold (CND0335, CND0364, CND0366 and CND0415, one pyrrolopyridine (CND0545 and one thiazol-carboxamide (CND3514 inhibited CHIKV-associated cell death in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values between 2.2 µM and 7.1 µM. Based on image analysis, these 6 hit compounds did not inhibit CHIKV replication in the host cell. However, CHIKV-infected cells manifested less prominent apoptotic blebs typical of CHIKV cytopathic effect compared with the control infection. Moreover, treatment with these compounds reduced viral titers in the medium of CHIKV-infected cells by up to 100-fold. In conclusion, this cell-based high-throughput screening assay using resazurin, combined with the image-based high content assay approach identified compounds against

  4. Chikungunya Virus Infections Among Patients with Dengue-Like Illness at a Tertiary Care Hospital in the Philippines, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, John Mark; Valderama, Maria Theresa; Lopez, Maria Nila; Chua, Domingo; Latog, Rene; Roque, Vito; Corpuz, June; Klungthong, Chonticha; Rodpradit, Prinyada; Hussem, Kittinun; Poolpanichupatam, Yongyuth; Macareo, Louis; Fernandez, Stefan; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) often co-circulates with dengue virus (DENV). A cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines, to describe the prevalence and characteristics of DENV and CHIKV infections among patients seeking care for dengue-like illness. Acute blood samples from patients ≥ 6 months of age clinically diagnosed with dengue from November 2012 to December 2013 underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect DENV and CHIKV RNA. A total of 118 patients with clinically diagnosed dengue (age range = 1-89 years, mean = 22 years; male-to-female ratio = 1.51) were tested by DENV RT-PCR; 40 (34%) were DENV PCR-positive (age range = 1-45 years, mean = 17 years). All DENV serotypes were detected: 11 (28%) DENV-1, 6 (15%) DENV-2, 6 (15%) DENV-3, and 17 (42%) DENV-4. Of 112 patients clinically diagnosed with dengue and tested by CHIKV RT-PCR, 11 (10%) were CHIKV PCR-positive (age range = 2-47 years, mean = 20.3 years). No coinfections were detected. Presenting signs/symptoms did not differ between DENV- and CHIKV-positive cases. Sequencing of envelope 1 gene from two CHIKV PCR-positive samples showed Asian genotype. This study highlights the potential for misdiagnosis of medically attended CHIKV infections as DENV infection and the difficulty in clinically differentiating dengue and chikungunya based on presenting signs/symptoms alone. This underscores the necessity for diagnostic laboratory tests to distinguish CHIKV infections in the background of actively co-circulating DENV.

  5. Loss of Glycosaminoglycan Receptor Binding after Mosquito Cell Passage Reduces Chikungunya Virus Infectivity.

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    Dhiraj Acharya

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that can cause fever and chronic arthritis in humans. CHIKV that is generated in mosquito or mammalian cells differs in glycosylation patterns of viral proteins, which may affect its replication and virulence. Herein, we compare replication, pathogenicity, and receptor binding of CHIKV generated in Vero cells (mammal or C6/36 cells (mosquito through a single passage. We demonstrate that mosquito cell-derived CHIKV (CHIKV mos has slower replication than mammalian cell-derived CHIKV (CHIKV vero, when tested in both human and murine cell lines. Consistent with this, CHIKV mos infection in both cell lines produce less cytopathic effects and reduced antiviral responses. In addition, infection in mice show that CHIKV mos produces a lower level of viremia and less severe footpad swelling when compared with CHIKV vero. Interestingly, CHIKV mos has impaired ability to bind to glycosaminoglycan (GAG receptors on mammalian cells. However, sequencing analysis shows that this impairment is not due to a mutation in the CHIKV E2 gene, which encodes for the viral receptor binding protein. Moreover, CHIKV mos progenies can regain GAG receptor binding capability and can replicate similarly to CHIKV vero after a single passage in mammalian cells. Furthermore, CHIKV vero and CHIKV mos no longer differ in replication when N-glycosylation of viral proteins was inhibited by growing these viruses in the presence of tunicamycin. Collectively, these results suggest that N-glycosylation of viral proteins within mosquito cells can result in loss of GAG receptor binding capability of CHIKV and reduction of its infectivity in mammalian cells.

  6. Rapid detection and characterization of Chikungunya virus by RT-PCR in febrile patients from Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anu Yamuna; Babu, Vidhu Sankar; Dev, Sona S; Gopalakrishnapai, Jayashree; Harish, M; Rajesh, M D; Anisha, S; Mohankumar, C

    2008-08-01

    There has been a resurgence and prevalence of fever with symptoms of Chikungunya (CHIK) and increased death toll in Kerala, the southern-most state of India. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid detection method to determine the presence of CHIK- virus in the serum samples collected from febrile patients in Kerala, India. Serum specimens were analyzed for CHIK viral RNA by RT-PCR using primers specific for nsP1 and E1 genes. Five out of twenty clinical samples were positive for CHIK virus. The partial sequences of the E1 and nsP1 genes of the strain, IndKL01 were highly similar to the Reunion strains and the recently isolated Indian strains. A novel substitution, A148V, was detected in the E1 gene of the isolate, IndKL02. The detection procedure used in this study was simple, sensitive and rapid (less than 4 hr). This result suggests that CHIK viruses similar to the Reunion strains, which had resulted in high morbidity and mortality rates, may have caused the recent Chikungunya outbreak in India. The effect of the variant, E1-A148V, in the virulence and the rate of transmission of the virus deserves further investigation. PMID:18814485

  7. Chikungunya: epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook. PMID:26918158

  8. High rate of subclinical chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines.

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    In-Kyu Yoon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ≥6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ≥8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer 50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ≥10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0 protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean.Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, understanding virus transmission, and supporting vaccine development.

  9. Genetic characterization of 2006-2008 isolates of Chikungunya virus from Kerala, South India, by whole genome sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, E; Issac, Aneesh; Nair, Sajith; Hariharan, Ramkumar; Janki, M B; Arathy, D S; Regu, R; Mathew, Thomas; Anoop, M; Niyas, K P; Pillai, M R

    2010-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-stranded alphavirus, causes epidemic febrile infections characterized by severe and prolonged arthralgia. In the present study, six CHIKV isolates (2006 RGCB03, RGCB05; 2007 RGCB80, RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355, RGCB356) from three consecutive Chikungunya outbreaks in Kerala, South India, were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the 11798 bp whole genome of the virus. A total of 37 novel mutations were identified and they were predominant in the 2007 and 2008 isolates among the six isolates studied. The previously identified E1 A226V critical mutation, which enhances mosquito adaptability, was present in the 2007 and 2008 samples. An important observation was the presence of two coding region substitutions, leading to nsP2 L539S and E2 K252Q change. These were identified in three isolates (2007 RGCB80 and RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355) by full-genome analysis, and also in 13 of the 31 additional samples (42%), obtained from various parts of the state, by sequencing the corresponding genomic regions. These mutations showed 100% co-occurrence in all these samples. In phylogenetic analysis, formation of a new genetic clade by these isolates within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotypes was observed. Homology modeling followed by mapping revealed that at least 20 of the identified mutations fall into functionally significant domains of the viral proteins and are predicted to affect protein structure. Eighteen of the identified mutations in structural proteins, including the E2 K252Q change, are predicted to disrupt T-cell epitope immunogenicity. Our study reveals that CHIK virus with novel genetic changes were present in the severe Chikungunya outbreaks in 2007 and 2008 in South India. PMID:19851853

  10. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

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    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  11. Development and evaluation of a one-step SYBR-Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus in human, monkey and mosquito samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummul Haninah, A; Vasan, S S; Ravindran, T; Chandru, A; Lee, H L; Shamala Devi, S

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the development of a one-step SYBR-Green I-based realtime RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in human, monkey and mosquito samples by targeting the E1 structural gene. A preliminary evaluation of this assay has been successfully completed using 71 samples, consisting of a panel of negative control sera, sera from healthy individuals, sera from patients with acute disease from which CHIKV had been isolated, as well as monkey sera and adult mosquito samples obtained during the chikungunya fever outbreak in Malaysia in 2008. The assay was found to be 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR with a detection limit of 4.12x10(0) RNA copies/μl. The specificity of the assay was tested against other related viruses such as Dengue (serotypes 1-4), Japanese encephalitis, Herpes Simplex, Parainfluenza, Sindbis, Ross River, Yellow fever and West Nile viruses. The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of this assay were 100%, 100% and 96.8% respectively. This study on early diagnostics is of importance to all endemic countries, especially Malaysia, which has been facing increasingly frequent and bigger outbreaks due to this virus since 1999. PMID:21399603

  12. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Liss, Nathan M; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liao, Maofu; Fox, Julie M; Shimak, Raeann M; Fong, Rachel H; Chafets, Daniel; Bakkour, Sonia; Keating, Sheila; Fomin, Marina E; Muench, Marcus O; Sherman, Michael B; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Simmons, Graham

    2015-12-22

    We evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry and release. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Fab fragments of two human NAbs and chikungunya virus-like particles showed a binding footprint that spanned independent domains on neighboring E2 subunits within one viral spike, suggesting a mechanism for inhibiting low-pH-dependent membrane fusion. Detailed epitope mapping identified amino acid E2-W64 as a critical interaction residue. An escape mutation (E2-W64G) at this residue rendered CHIKV attenuated in mice. Consistent with these data, CHIKV-E2-W64G failed to emerge in vivo under the selection pressure of one of the NAbs, IM-CKV063. As our study suggests that antibodies engaging the residue E2-W64 can potently inhibit CHIKV at multiple stages of infection, antibody-based therapies or immunogens that target this region might have protective value.

  13. Sphingosine kinase 2 is a chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, St Patrick; Tritsch, Sarah R; Kota, Krishna; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Dong, Lian; Kenny, Tara; Brueggemann, Ernest E; Ward, Michael D; Cazares, Lisa H; Bavari, Sina

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus which causes severe and prolonged arthralgic febrile illness. The recent global spread of the virus and lack of approved therapeutic options makes it imperative to gain greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CHIKV pathogenesis, in particular host factors recruited by the virus. In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection. SK2 was demonstrated to co-localize with viral RNA and nonstructural proteins. Targeted impairment of SK2 expression or function significantly inhibited CHIKV infection. Furthermore, affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies revealed that SK2 associates with a number of proteins involved in cellular gene expression specifically during viral infection, suggesting a role in replication. Collectively these results identify SK2 as a novel CHIKV host factor.

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis from the Chikungunya Virus Caribbean Outbreak Reveals Novel Evolutionary Genomic Elements.

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    Kenneth A Stapleford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an alphavirus and member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to understand how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak.We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants and diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe and Martinique, two islands in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak and identified a novel 3' untranslated region (UTR structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells.Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3'UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to understand the evolutionary potential of CHIKV.

  15. Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Olga D; Major, Chelsea; Acevedo, Veronica; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Waterman, Stephen; Barrera, Roberto; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-01-01

    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Puerto Rico reported its first laboratory-positive chikungunya case in May 2014 (4), and subsequently identified approximately 29,000 suspected cases throughout the island by the end of 2015.(†) Because conventional vector control approaches often fail to result in effective and sustainable prevention of infection with viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes (5), and to improve surveillance of mosquito population densities, CDC developed an Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) (6) to attract and capture the female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for transmission of infectious agents to humans (Figure). The AGO trap is a simple, low-cost device that requires no use of pesticides and no servicing for an extended period of time (6). PMID:27171600

  16. Chikungunya and dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoprasopwattana, K; Suntharasaj, T; Petmanee, P; Suddeaugrai, O; Geater, A

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection and maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thailand. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thailand, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG and dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% and the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes and congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK and DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV and DENV are endemic in southern Thailand; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%.

  17. Comparative full genome analysis revealed E1: A226V shift in 2007 Indian Chikungunya virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, P K; Parida, M M; Khan, M; Tiwari, M; Lakshmana Rao, P V

    2008-07-01

    The resurgence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic after a gap of 32 years in India is a point of major public health concern. In 2007 again there was outbreak in Kerala, India, affecting more than 25,000 cases with many reported mortalities. To understand the molecular basis of this high virulence and its implication in large-scale epidemic, a detailed systematic serological, virological and molecular investigation was undertaken with the epidemic samples of Kerala-2007. The comparative analysis of full genome sequence of Chikungunya virus isolate of 2007 with 2006 revealed three unique substitutions in structural and non-structural genes of 2007 isolate [two in E1 region (V14A and A226V) and one in Nsp1 (M184T)]. Our finding further substantiates the association of A226V shift in E1 gene with evolutionary success possibly due to adaptation in the mosquito vector with progression of epidemic, as observed in Reunion Island. This A226V shift which was absent in all 2006 Indian isolates, is found to be present in the four 2007 isolates, analysed in this study. These unique molecular features of the 2007 isolates with the progression of the epidemic from 2005 to 2007 demonstrate their high evolutionary and epidemic potential and thereby suggesting possible implication in higher magnitude and virulence of this outbreak. PMID:18384900

  18. Sero-prevalence and cross-reactivity of chikungunya virus specific anti-E2EP3 antibodies in arbovirus-infected patients.

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    Yiu-Wing Kam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and clinically-related arboviruses cause large epidemics with serious economic and social impact. As clinical symptoms of CHIKV infections are similar to several flavivirus infections, good detection methods to identify CHIKV infection are desired for improved treatment and clinical management. The strength of anti-E2EP3 antibody responses was explored in a longitudinal study on 38 CHIKV-infected patients. We compared their anti-E2EP3 responses with those of patients infected with non-CHIKV alphaviruses, or flaviviruses. E2EP3 cross-reactive samples from patients infected with non-CHIKV viruses were further analyzed with an in vitro CHIKV neutralization assay. CHIKV-specific anti-E2EP3 antibody responses were detected in 72% to 100% of patients. Serum samples from patients infected with other non-CHIKV alphaviruses were cross-reactive to E2EP3. Interestingly, some of these antibodies demonstrated clearly in vitro CHIKV neutralizing activity. Contrastingly, serum samples from flaviviruses-infected patients showed a low level of cross-reactivity against E2EP3. Using CHIKV E2EP3 as a serology marker not only allows early detection of CHIKV specific antibodies, but would also allow the differentiation between CHIKV infections and flavivirus infections with 93% accuracy, thereby allowing precise acute febrile diagnosis and improving clinical management in regions newly suffering from CHIKV outbreaks including the Americas.

  19. The C-terminal domain of chikungunya virus nsP2 independently governs viral RNA replication, cytopathicity, and inhibition of interferon signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Maten, van der E.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) has pivotal roles in viral RNA replication, host cell shutoff, and inhibition of antiviral responses. Mutations that individually rendered other alphaviruses noncytopathic were introduced into chikungunya virus nsP2. Results show that (i) nsP2 mutation P718S

  20. Real-time whole-body visualization of Chikungunya Virus infection and host interferon response in zebrafish.

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    Nuno Palha

    Full Text Available Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that may cause severe disease, constitutes an important public health problem. Herein we describe a novel CHIKV infection model in zebrafish, where viral spread was live-imaged in the whole body up to cellular resolution. Infected cells emerged in various organs in one principal wave with a median appearance time of ∼14 hours post infection. Timing of infected cell death was organ dependent, leading to a shift of CHIKV localization towards the brain. As in mammals, CHIKV infection triggered a strong type-I interferon (IFN response, critical for survival. IFN was mainly expressed by neutrophils and hepatocytes. Cell type specific ablation experiments further demonstrated that neutrophils play a crucial, unexpected role in CHIKV containment. Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus.

  1. Zika Virus Emergence and Expansion: Lessons Learned from Dengue and Chikungunya May Not Provide All the Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2016-07-01

    Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation. PMID:26903610

  2. 基孔肯雅病毒实验室检测方法研究进展%Research progress of the detecting methods for chikungunya virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小波; 丁国允; 黄吉城; 郑夔

    2012-01-01

    基孔肯雅热是由基孔肯雅病毒引起的一种急性虫媒传染病,基孔肯雅病毒属甲病毒属,披膜病毒科.近年来,该病毒曾引起全球多处疫情暴发,并造成全球性的公共卫生问题.本文对基孔肯雅病毒及其实验室检测方法作一综述,以指导国内开展对该病的检测.%Chikungunya virus is an emerging alpha-virus belonging to family Togaviridae. It has caused widespread epidemics during the past several years, which brought about a series of public health problems and became a global concern. This is an introduction to Chikungunya virus and provides all-around detecting methods for the virus.

  3. In silico study on anti-Chikungunya virus activity of hesperetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Adrian; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chin, Sek Peng; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Background The re-emerging, Aedes spp. transmitted Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently caused large outbreaks in a wide geographical distribution of the world including countries in Europe and America. Though fatalities associated with this self-remitting disease were rarely reported, quality of patients’ lives have been severely diminished by polyarthralgia recurrence. Neither effective antiviral treatment nor vaccines are available for CHIKV. Our previous in vitro screening showed that hesperetin, a bioflavonoid exhibits inhibitory effect on the virus intracellular replication. Here, we present a study using the computational approach to identify possible target proteins for future mechanistic studies of hesperetin. Methods 3D structures of CHIKV nsP2 (3TRK) and nsP3 (3GPG) were retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), whereas nsP1, nsP4 and cellular factor SPK2 were modeled using Iterative Threading Assembly Refinement (I-TASSER) server based on respective amino acids sequence. We performed molecular docking on hesperetin against all four CHIKV non-structural proteins and SPK2. Proteins preparation and subsequent molecular docking were performed using Discovery Studio 2.5 and AutoDock Vina 1.5.6. The Lipinski’s values of the ligand were computed and compared with the available data from PubChem. Two non-structural proteins with crystal structures 3GPG and 3TRK in complexed with hesperetin, demonstrated favorable free energy of binding from the docking study, were further explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results We observed that hesperetin interacts with different types of proteins involving hydrogen bonds, pi-pi effects, pi-cation bonding and pi-sigma interactions with varying binding energies. Among all five tested proteins, our compound has the highest binding affinity with 3GPG at −8.5 kcal/mol. The ligand used in this study also matches the Lipinski’s rule of five in addition to exhibiting closely similar properties with that of

  4. Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro

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    Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Mayaro virus (MAYV are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae. MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses.

  5. Diagnostic potential of monoclonal antibodies against the capsid protein of chikungunya virus for detection of recent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, R G; Jayaram, N; Kulkarni, S M; Nigade, K; Khutwad, K; Gosavi, S; Parashar, D

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is self-limiting. However, neurological and hemorrhagic complications have been seen in recent outbreaks. The clinical manifestations of this disease are similar to those of dengue virus infection, indicating the need for differential diagnosis in areas such as India, which are endemic for both viruses. The aim of the present study was to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and assess their use in MAb-based IgM capture ELISA (MAC ELISA). The ELISA detects CHIKV-specific IgM antibodies, a marker of recent infection, in a patient's serum. One IgG1 and two IgM isotype hybrids were obtained. All of the subclones derived from the IgG1 hybrid recognized the C protein of CHIKV. The anti-C MAb ClVE4/D9 was the most promising as a detector antibody in MAC ELISA (C-MAb ELISA) yielding higher positive-to-negative (P/N) ratios. When compared with the CHIKV MAC ELISA kit developed by the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune (NIV MAC ELISA), the sensitivity of the test was 87.01 % with 100 % specificity. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 100 % and 94.47 %, respectively. In precision testing, standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (% CV) values of the C-MAb ELISA were within acceptable limits. The C-MAb ELISA detected anti-CHIKV IgM in serum of patients up to five months after the onset of infection, indicating that anti-C MAbs have strong potential for use in MAC ELISA to detect recent CHIKV infection. PMID:27016930

  6. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  7. Chikungunya virus exploits miR-146a to regulate NF-κB pathway in human synovial fibroblasts.

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    Sakthi Priya Selvamani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Chikungunya virus causes chronic infection with manifestations of joint pain. Human synovial fibroblasts get infected with CHIKV and could lead to pro-inflammatory responses. MicroRNAs have potentials to regulate the gene expression of various anti-viral and pro-inflammatory genes. The study aims to investigate the role of miR-146a in modulation of inflammatory responses of human synovial fibroblasts by Chikungunya virus. METHODS: To study the role of miR-146a in CHIKV pathogenesis in human synovial cells and underlying inflammatory manifestations, we performed CHIKV infection in primary human synovial fibroblasts. Western blotting, real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, overexpression and knockdown of cellular miR-146a strategies have been employed to validate the role of miR-146a in regulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: CHIKV infection induced the expression of cellular miR-146a, which resulted into down-regulation of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and increased replication of CHIKV in human synovial fibroblasts. Exogenous expression of miR-146a in human synovial fibroblasts led to decreased expression of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and decreased replication of CHIKV. Inhibition of cellular miR-146a by anti-miR-146a restored the expression levels of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2. Downregulation of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2 led to downstream decreased NF-κB activation through negative feedback loop. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the mechanism of exploitation of cellular miR-146a by CHIKV in modulating the host antiviral immune response in primary human synovial fibroblasts.

  8. Deliberate attenuation of chikungunya virus by adaptation to heparan sulfate-dependent infectivity: a model for rational arboviral vaccine design.

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    Gardner, Christina L; Hritz, Jozef; Sun, Chengqun; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Song, Timothy Y; Ghedin, Elodie; Higgs, Stephen; Klimstra, William B; Ryman, Kate D

    2014-02-01

    Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus from the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, which causes fever, rash and severe persistent polyarthralgia in humans. Since there are currently no FDA licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies for CHIKV, the development of vaccine candidates is of critical importance. Historically, live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) for protection against arthropod-borne viruses have been created by blind cell culture passage leading to attenuation of disease, while maintaining immunogenicity. Attenuation may occur via multiple mechanisms. However, all examined arbovirus LAVs have in common the acquisition of positively charged amino acid substitutions in cell-surface attachment proteins that render virus infection partially dependent upon heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed sulfated polysaccharide, and appear to attenuate by retarding dissemination of virus particles in vivo. We previously reported that, like other wild-type Old World alphaviruses, CHIKV strain, La Réunion, (CHIKV-LR), does not depend upon HS for infectivity. To deliberately identify CHIKV attachment protein mutations that could be combined with other attenuating processes in a LAV candidate, we passaged CHIKV-LR on evolutionarily divergent cell-types. A panel of single amino acid substitutions was identified in the E2 glycoprotein of passaged virus populations that were predicted to increase electrostatic potential. Each of these substitutions was made in the CHIKV-LR cDNA clone and comparisons of the mutant viruses revealed surface exposure of the mutated residue on the spike and sensitivity to competition with the HS analog, heparin, to be primary correlates of attenuation in vivo. Furthermore, we have identified a mutation at E2 position 79 as a promising candidate for inclusion in a CHIKV LAV.

  9. Effect of Holding Conditions on the Detection of Chikungunya and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Mosquito Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Turell, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging and re-emerging arboviruses continue to be a threat to global public health, and viral surveillance of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control operations. Due to the tropical climate of many of the affected areas, it may be difficult to maintain a cold chain as the samples travel from collection sites to laboratories for testing. We determined how suboptimal holding temperatures affected the ability to detect viruses in pools of mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus individuals were inoculated with chikungunya virus or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus suspensions, respectively, and placed at 26°C for 8 days. One infected mosquito was then added to a vial of 24 negative mosquitoes and held at -80°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22°C, or 35°C for up to 14 days. Mosquito pools were analyzed for both infectious virus by plaque assay and for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). At higher temperatures, the amount of infectious virus decreased rapidly, but viruses in samples held at 4°C or lower remained relatively stable. In contrast, viral RNA was detectable from pools held at all temperatures and holding times by RT-qPCR. Cycle threshold (Ct) values increased as temperatures and holding times increased. These findings suggest that if viral RNA detection is the goal of surveillance efforts, then mosquito pools do not require storage at ≤4°C. This enhances the feasibility of field-based arbovirus surveillance programs in which maintaining a cold chain may not be a possibility. PMID:27105216

  10. Estimating drivers of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in its invasion of the americas.

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    Perkins, T Alex; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Grenfell, Bryan T; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that has caused explosive outbreaks in Africa and Asia for decades and invaded the Americas just over a year ago. During this ongoing invasion, it has spread to 45 countries where it has been transmitted autochthonously, infecting nearly 1.3 million people in total. Methods Here, we made use of weekly, country-level case reports to infer relationships between transmission and two putative climatic drivers: temperature and precipitation averaged across each country on a monthly basis. To do so, we used a TSIR model that enabled us to infer a parametric relationship between climatic drivers and transmission potential, and we applied a new method for incorporating a probabilistic description of the serial interval distribution into the TSIR framework. Results We found significant relationships between transmission and linear and quadratic terms for temperature and precipitation and a linear term for log incidence during the previous pathogen generation. The lattermost suggests that case numbers three to four weeks ago are largely predictive of current case numbers. This effect is quite nonlinear at the country level, however, due to an estimated mixing parameter of 0.74. Relationships between transmission and the climatic variables that we estimated were biologically plausible and in line with expectations. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Americas can be correlated successfully with putative climatic drivers, even at the coarse scale of countries and using long-term average climate data. Overall, this provides a preliminary suggestion that successfully forecasting the future trajectory of a Chikungunya outbreak and the receptivity of virgin areas may be possible. Our results also provide tentative estimates of timeframes and areas of greatest risk, and our extension of the TSIR model provides a novel tool for modeling vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:25737803

  11. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  12. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future. PMID:26943997

  13. Inhibitors of alphavirus entry and replication identified with a stable Chikungunya replicon cell line and virus-based assays.

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    Leena Pohjala

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an alphavirus, has recently caused epidemic outbreaks and is therefore considered a re-emerging pathogen for which no effective treatment is available. In this study, a CHIKV replicon containing the virus replicase proteins together with puromycin acetyltransferase, EGFP and Renilla luciferase marker genes was constructed. The replicon was transfected into BHK cells to yield a stable cell line. A non-cytopathic phenotype was achieved by a Pro718 to Gly substitution and a five amino acid insertion within non-structural protein 2 (nsP2, obtained through selection for stable growth. Characterization of the replicon cell line by Northern blotting analysis revealed reduced levels of viral RNA synthesis. The CHIKV replicon cell line was validated for antiviral screening in 96-well format and used for a focused screen of 356 compounds (natural compounds and clinically approved drugs. The 5,7-dihydroxyflavones apigenin, chrysin, naringenin and silybin were found to suppress activities of EGFP and Rluc marker genes expressed by the CHIKV replicon. In a concomitant screen against Semliki Forest virus (SFV, their anti-alphaviral activity was confirmed and several additional inhibitors of SFV with IC₅₀ values between 0.4 and 24 µM were identified. Chlorpromazine and five other compounds with a 10H-phenothiazinyl structure were shown to inhibit SFV entry using a novel entry assay based on a temperature-sensitive SFV mutant. These compounds also reduced SFV and Sindbis virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibited SFV virion production in virus yield experiments. Finally, antiviral effects of selected compounds were confirmed using infectious CHIKV. In summary, the presented approach for discovering alphaviral inhibitors enabled us to identify potential lead structures for the development of alphavirus entry and replication phase inhibitors as well as demonstrated the usefulness of CHIKV replicon and SFV as biosafe surrogate

  14. Impact of Wolbachia on infection with chikungunya and yellow fever viruses in the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti.

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    Andrew F van den Hurk

    Full Text Available Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV, chikungunya (CHIKV and yellow fever (YFV viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 10(4 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression.

  15. A polarized cell model for Chikungunya virus infection: entry and egress of virus occurs at the apical domain of polarized cells.

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    Pei Jin Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has resulted in several outbreaks in the past six decades. The clinical symptoms of Chikungunya infection include fever, skin rash, arthralgia, and an increasing incidence of encephalitis. The re-emergence of CHIKV with more severe pathogenesis highlights its potential threat on our human health. In this study, polarized HBMEC, polarized Vero C1008 and non-polarized Vero cells grown on cell culture inserts were infected with CHIKV apically or basolaterally. Plaque assays, viral binding assays and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated apical entry and release of CHIKV in polarized HBMEC and Vero C1008. Drug treatment studies were performed to elucidate both host cell and viral factors involved in the sorting and release of CHIKV at the apical domain of polarized cells. Disruption of host cell myosin II, microtubule and microfilament networks did not disrupt the polarized release of CHIKV. However, treatment with tunicamycin resulted in a bi-directional release of CHIKV, suggesting that N-glycans of CHIKV envelope glycoproteins could serve as apical sorting signals.

  16. A Wolbachia wMel transinfection in Aedes albopictus is not detrimental to host fitness and inhibits Chikungunya virus.

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    Marcus S C Blagrove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia inherited intracellular bacteria can manipulate the reproduction of their insect hosts through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI, and certain strains have also been shown to inhibit the replication or dissemination of viruses. Wolbachia strains also vary in their relative fitness effects on their hosts and this is a particularly important consideration with respect to the potential of newly created transinfections for use in disease control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transinfected with the wMel strain from Drosophila melanogaster, which we previously reported to be unable to transmit dengue in lab challenges, no significant detrimental effects were observed on egg hatch rate, fecundity, adult longevity or male mating competitiveness. All these parameters influence the population dynamics of Wolbachia, and the data presented are favourable with respect to the aim of taking wMel to high population frequency. Challenge with the chikungunya (CHIKV virus, for which Ae. albopictus is an important vector, was conducted and the presence of wMel abolished CHIKV dissemination to the saliva. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data suggest that introducing wMel into natural Ae. albopictus populations using bidirectional CI could be an efficient strategy for preventing or reducing the transmission of arboviruses by this species.

  17. The viral capping enzyme nsP1: a novel target for the inhibition of chikungunya virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delang, L.; Li, C.; Tas, A.; Quérat, G.; Albulescu, I. C.; De Burghgraeve, T.; Guerrero, N. A. Segura; Gigante, A.; Piorkowski, G.; Decroly, E.; Jochmans, D.; Canard, B.; Snijder, E. J.; Pérez-Pérez, M. J.; van Hemert, M. J.; Coutard, B.; Leyssen, P.; Neyts, J.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has become a substantial global health threat due to its massive re-emergence, the considerable disease burden and the lack of vaccines or therapeutics. We discovered a novel class of small molecules ([1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones) with potent in vitro activity against CHIKV isolates from different geographical regions. Drug-resistant variants were selected and these carried a P34S substitution in non-structural protein 1 (nsP1), the main enzyme involved in alphavirus RNA capping. Biochemical assays using nsP1 of the related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus revealed that the compounds specifically inhibit the guanylylation of nsP1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that the alphavirus capping machinery is an excellent antiviral drug target. Considering the lack of options to treat CHIKV infections, this series of compounds with their unique (alphavirus-specific) target offers promise for the development of therapy for CHIKV infections. PMID:27545976

  18. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  19. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  20. Evidence for natural vertical transmission of chikungunya viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti in Delhi and Haryana states in India-a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Jaspreet; Kushwah, Raja Babu S; Singh, Shashi S; Sharma, Anil; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P; Bhatnagar, Raj Kamal; Subbarao, Sarala K; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-10-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are principal vectors for the transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). India is a hub for both dengue and chikungunya infections and there are several reports of co-infection of dengue and chikungunya virus in the clinical scenario. The present pilot entomological survey was conducted to evaluate vertical transmission of CHIKV in Aedes field populations. Aedes immature (larvae and pupae) collection was done in 2012, over a period of six months from selected sites in Delhi and Haryana, India. The immatures collected were reared for adult emergence and species identification was done. A. aegypti male and female mosquitoes were separated and pooled collection spot-wise, RNA extracted and RT PCR performed to test for the presence of CHIKV in the pools. Container index (CI) and minimum infection rate (MIR) were estimated. From study areas that tested positive for CHIKV, adult collections were made and females upon feeding on uninfected blood in laboratory were allowed to lay eggs. The progeny that emerged from these field-collected mothers were tested for CHIKV presence. Our pilot survey showed the existence of A. aegypti population even during peak summer season in a few foci which eventually helped the mosquitoes to tide over adverse environmental conditions and with the start of rainfall, the population exploded within a short period of time. Immatures collected from field and progeny of adults collected from the field were CHIKV positive demonstrating the presence of vertical transmission of chikungunya virus in field population of A. aegypti. The present study further demonstrates the importance of identifying permanent breeding sites for proper Aedes species control. PMID:27282096

  1. Chikungunya virus neutralization antigens and direct cell-to-cell transmission are revealed by human antibody-escape mutants.

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    Chia Yin Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics throughout Africa and Asia, causing infectious arthritis and reportedly linked with fatal infections in newborns and elderly. Previous studies in animal models indicate that humoral immunity can protect against CHIKV infection, but despite the potential efficacy of B-cell-driven intervention strategies, there are no virus-specific vaccines or therapies currently available. In addition, CHIKV has been reported to elicit long-lasting virus-specific IgM in humans, and to establish long-term persistence in non-human primates, suggesting that the virus might evade immune defenses to establish chronic infections in man. However, the mechanisms of immune evasion potentially employed by CHIKV remain uncharacterized. We previously described two human monoclonal antibodies that potently neutralize CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape antibody-dependent neutralization to identify the CHIKV E2 domain B and fusion loop "groove" as the primary determinants of CHIKV interaction with these antibodies. Furthermore, for the first time, we have also demonstrated direct CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission, as a mechanism that involves the E2 domain A and that is associated with viral resistance to antibody-dependent neutralization. Identification of CHIKV sub-domains that are associated with human protective immunity, will pave the way for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. Moreover, the clear demonstration of CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission and its possible role in the establishment of CHIKV persistence, will also inform the development of future anti-viral interventions. These data shed new light on CHIKV-host interactions that will help to combat human CHIKV infection and inform future studies of CHIKV pathogenesis.

  2. Chikungunya virus induces IPS-1-dependent innate immune activation and protein kinase R-independent translational shutoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura K; Sali, Tina; Alvarado, David; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe; Streblow, Daniel; Defilippis, Victor R

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that is undergoing reemergence in areas around the Indian Ocean. Despite the current and potential danger posed by this virus, we know surprisingly little about the induction and evasion of CHIKV-associated antiviral immune responses. With this in mind we investigated innate immune reactions to CHIKV in human fibroblasts, a demonstrable in vivo target of virus replication and spread. We show that CHIKV infection leads to activation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and subsequent transcription of IRF3-dependent antiviral genes, including beta interferon (IFN-β). IRF3 activation occurs by way of a virus-induced innate immune signaling pathway that includes the adaptor molecule interferon promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1). Despite strong transcriptional upregulation of these genes, however, translation of the corresponding proteins is not observed. We further demonstrate that translation of cellular (but not viral) genes is blocked during infection and that although CHIKV is found to trigger inactivation of the translational molecule eukaryotic initiation factor subunit 2α by way of the double-stranded RNA sensor protein kinase R, this response is not required for the block to protein synthesis. Furthermore, overall diminution of cellular RNA synthesis is also observed in the presence of CHIKV and transcription of IRF3-dependent antiviral genes appears specifically blocked late in infection. We hypothesize that the observed absence of IFN-β and antiviral proteins during infection results from an evasion mechanism exhibited by CHIKV that is dependent on widespread shutoff of cellular protein synthesis and a targeted block to late synthesis of antiviral mRNA transcripts.

  3. Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Control Pocket Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical guide consolidates information and procedures for surveillance and control of mosquitoes that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. The guide focuses on mosquitoes that transmit dengue but also makes reference to chikungunya and yellow fever because the pathogens that cause these ...

  4. Chikungunya fever presenting with protracted severe pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Leonichev, Victoria B; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics often present with rash/fever. Those with rash/fever and myalgias/arthralgias are most likely due to chikungunya fever, dengue fever, or Zika virus. In these arthropod viral transmitted infections, the rash may be pruritic. The case presented here is that of chikungunya fever remarkable for the intensity and duration of her pruritis. PMID:27679755

  5. 基孔肯雅病毒疫苗的研究进展%Advances in research of chikungunya virus vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学敏(综述); 雷迎峰(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a kind of fulminating infectious disease caused by Chikungunya virus, which belongs to Al-phavirus of family Togaviridae.Recently, the virus has been the most significant worldwide public health issues after its re-emergence causing massive outbreaks in a great number of regions around the world.In the absence of a commercially avail-able vaccine or an efficacious anti-CHIKV therapy, we introduce some CHIKV vaccines at the laboratory research stage in this review.%基孔肯雅热是由基孔肯雅病毒( Chikungunya virus,CHIKV)引起的一种急性传染病。基孔肯雅病毒属披膜病毒科甲病毒属。近年来,该病毒死灰复燃,在全球多处引发大规模疫情暴发,是重要的全球性公共卫生问题之一。目前尚无针对CHIKV的疫苗和有效抗病毒药物。疫苗一直是CHIKV研究的热点领域,目前已经取得了很大的进展,就基孔肯雅病毒疫苗的研究进展进行了综述。

  6. Correlation of phylogenetic clade diversification and in vitro infectivity differences among Cosmopolitan genotype strains of Chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Rachy; Manakkadan, Anoop; Mudaliar, Prashant; Joseph, Iype; Sivakumar, Krishnankutty Chandrika; Nair, Radhakrishnan Reghunathan; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2016-01-01

    Cosmopolitan genotypes of Chikungunya virus caused the large-scale febrile disease outbreaks in the last decade in Asian and African continents. Molecular analyses of these strains had revealed significant genetic diversification and occurrence of novel mosquito-adaptive mutations. In the present study we looked into whether the genetic diversification has implications in the infectivity phenotype. A detailed sequence and phylogenetic analyses of these virus strains of Indian Ocean lineage from Kerala, South India from the years 2008 to 2013 identified three distinct genetic clades (I, II and III), which had presence of clade-specific amino acid changes. The E2 envelope protein of the strains from the years 2012 to 2013 had a K252Q or a novel K252H change. This site is reported to affect mosquito cell infectivity. Most of these strains also had the E2 G82R mutation, a mutation previously identified to increase mammalian cell infectivity, and a novel mutation E2 N72S. Positive selection was identified in four sites in the envelope proteins (E1 K211E, A226V and V291I; E2 K252Q/H). In infectivity analysis, we found that strains from clade III had enhanced cytopathogenicity in HEK293 and Vero cells than by strains representing other two clades. These two strains formed smaller sized plaques and had distinctly higher viral protein expression, infectious virus production and apoptosis induction in HEK293 cells. They had novel mutations R171Q in the nsP1; I539S in nsP2; N409T in nsP3; and N72S in E2. Our study identifies a correlation between phylogenetic clade diversification and differences in mammalian cell infectivity phenotype among Cosmopolitan genotype CHIKV strains. PMID:26611825

  7. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  8. Correlation of phylogenetic clade diversification and in vitro infectivity differences among Cosmopolitan genotype strains of Chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Rachy; Manakkadan, Anoop; Mudaliar, Prashant; Joseph, Iype; Sivakumar, Krishnankutty Chandrika; Nair, Radhakrishnan Reghunathan; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2016-01-01

    Cosmopolitan genotypes of Chikungunya virus caused the large-scale febrile disease outbreaks in the last decade in Asian and African continents. Molecular analyses of these strains had revealed significant genetic diversification and occurrence of novel mosquito-adaptive mutations. In the present study we looked into whether the genetic diversification has implications in the infectivity phenotype. A detailed sequence and phylogenetic analyses of these virus strains of Indian Ocean lineage from Kerala, South India from the years 2008 to 2013 identified three distinct genetic clades (I, II and III), which had presence of clade-specific amino acid changes. The E2 envelope protein of the strains from the years 2012 to 2013 had a K252Q or a novel K252H change. This site is reported to affect mosquito cell infectivity. Most of these strains also had the E2 G82R mutation, a mutation previously identified to increase mammalian cell infectivity, and a novel mutation E2 N72S. Positive selection was identified in four sites in the envelope proteins (E1 K211E, A226V and V291I; E2 K252Q/H). In infectivity analysis, we found that strains from clade III had enhanced cytopathogenicity in HEK293 and Vero cells than by strains representing other two clades. These two strains formed smaller sized plaques and had distinctly higher viral protein expression, infectious virus production and apoptosis induction in HEK293 cells. They had novel mutations R171Q in the nsP1; I539S in nsP2; N409T in nsP3; and N72S in E2. Our study identifies a correlation between phylogenetic clade diversification and differences in mammalian cell infectivity phenotype among Cosmopolitan genotype CHIKV strains.

  9. Novel Lesions of Bones and Joints Associated with Chikungunya Virus Infection in Two Mouse Models of Disease: New Insights into Disease Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A Goupil

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread predominantly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, and causes debilitating arthralgia and arthritis. While these are common manifestations during acute infection and it has been suggested they can recur in patients chronically, gaps in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis still exist. Two established mouse models were utilized (adult IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice to evaluate disease manifestations in bones and joints at various timepoints. Novel lesions in C57BL/6J mice consisted of periostitis (91% and foci of cartilage of necrosis (50% of mice at 21 DPI. Additionally, at 21 DPI, 50% and 75% of mice exhibited periosteal bone proliferation affecting the metatarsal bones, apparent via histology and μCT, respectively. μCT analysis did not reveal any alterations in trabecular bone volume measurements in C57BL/6J mice. Novel lesions demonstrated in IRF 3/7 -/- -/- mice at 5 DPI included focal regions of cartilage necrosis (20%, periosteal necrosis (66%, and multifocal ischemic bone marrow necrosis (100%. Contralateral feet in 100% of mice of both strains had similar, though milder lesions. Additionally, comparison of control IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice demonstrated differences in cortical bone. These experiments demonstrate novel manifestations of disease similar to those occurring in humans, adding insight into disease pathogenesis, and representing new potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Additionally, results demonstrate the utility of μCT in studies of bone and joint pathology and illustrate differences in bone dynamics between mouse strains.

  10. Knowledge and use of prevention measures for chikungunya virus among visitors — Virgin Islands National Park, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Cara C.; Beer, Karlyn D.; Fulton, Corey; Wong, David; Buttke, Danielle; Staples, J. Erin; Ellis, Esther M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background In June 2014, the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), a location where tourists comprise the majority of the population during peak season (January–April). Limited information is available concerning visitors’ CHIKV awareness and prevention measures. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of Virgin Islands National Park visitors aged ≥18 years. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing CHIKV knowledge, attitudes, and practices; health information-seeking practices; and demographics. Results Of 783 persons contacted, 443 (57%) completed the survey. Fewer than half (208/441 [47%]) were aware of CHIKV. During trip preparation, 28% of respondents (126/443) investigated USVI-specific health concerns. Compared with persons unaware of CHIKV, CHIKV-aware persons were more likely to apply insect repellent (134/207 [65%] versus 111/231 [48%]; p < 0.001), wear long-sleeves and long pants (84/203 [41%] versus 57/227 [25%]; p < 0.001), and wear insect repellent-treated clothing (36/204 [18%] versus 22/227 [10%]; p = 0.02). Conclusions The majority of visitors surveyed did not research destination-related health concerns and were unaware of CHIKV. However, CHIKV awareness was associated with using multiple prevention measures to reduce disease risk. These findings underscore the importance of providing tourists with disease education upon destination arrival. PMID:27597388

  11. Epistatic roles of E2 glycoprotein mutations in adaption of chikungunya virus to Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 Chikungunya virus (CHIKV caused its largest outbreak/epidemic in documented history. An unusual feature of this epidemic is the involvement of Ae. albopictus as a principal vector. Previously we have demonstrated that a single mutation E1-A226V significantly changed the ability of the virus to infect and be transmitted by this vector when expressed in the background of well characterized CHIKV strains LR2006 OPY1 and 37997. However, in the current study we demonstrate that introduction of the E1-A226V mutation into the background of an infectious clone derived from the Ag41855 strain (isolated in Uganda in 1982 does not significantly increase infectivity for Ae. albopictus. In order to elucidate the genetic determinants that affect CHIKV sensitivity to the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus, the genomes of the LR2006 OPY1 and Ag41855 strains were used for construction of chimeric viruses and viruses with a specific combination of point mutations at selected positions. Based upon the midgut infection rates of the derived viruses in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, a critical role of the mutations at positions E2-60 and E2-211 on vector infection was revealed. The E2-G60D mutation was an important determinant of CHIKV infectivity for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, but only moderately modulated the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. However, the effect of the E2-I211T mutation with respect to mosquito infections was much more specific, strongly modifying the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. In contrast, CHIKV infectivity for Ae. aegypti was not influenced by the E2-1211T mutation. The occurrence of the E2-60G and E2-211I residues among CHIKV isolates was analyzed, revealing a high prevalence of E2-211I among strains belonging to the Eastern/Central/South African (ECSA clade. This suggests that the E2-211I might be important for adaptation of CHIKV to some particular conditions

  12. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France.

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    Anubis Vega-Rua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. This mosquito, present in Europe since 1979, has gained importance since its involvement in the first CHIK outbreak in Italy in 2007. The species is capable of transmitting experimentally 26 arboviruses. However, the vectorial status of its temperate populations has remained little investigated. In 2010, autochthonous cases of CHIK and dengue (DEN were reported in southeastern France. We evaluated the potential of a French population of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used two strains of each virus, CHIK AND DEN: one strain was isolated from an imported case, and one from an autochthonous case. We used as controls Aedes aegypti from India and Martinique, the source of the imported cases of CHIK and DEN, respectively. We showed that Ae. albopictus from Cagnes-sur-Mer (AL-CSM was as efficient as the typical tropical vector Ae. aegypti from India to experimentally transmit both CHIK strains isolated from patients in Fréjus, with around 35-67% of mosquitoes delivering up to 14 viral particles at day 3 post-infection (pi. The unexpected finding came from the high efficiency of AL-CSM to transmit both strains of DENV-1 isolated from patients in Nice. Almost 67% of Ae. albopictus AL-CSM which have ensured viral dissemination were able to transmit at day 9 pi when less than 21% of the typical DEN vector Ae. aegypti from Martinique could achieve transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Temperate Ae. albopictus behaves differently compared to its counterpart from tropical regions, where recurrent epidemic outbreaks occur. Its potential responsibility for outbreaks in Europe should not be minimized.

  13. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyas, Kudukkil P; Abraham, Rachy; Unnikrishnan, Ramakrishnan Nair; Mathew, Thomas; Nair, Sajith; Manakkadan, Anoop; Issac, Aneesh; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR) and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp), envelope E1 (505 bp) and E2 (428 bp) identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220) that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT) of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes. PMID:20704755

  14. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyas Kudukkil P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae. aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp, envelope E1 (505 bp and E2 (428 bp identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220 that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes.

  15. Development of field-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darci R; Lee, John S; Jahrling, Jordan; Kulesh, David A; Turell, Michael J; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L

    2009-10-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) and O'nyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.

  16. False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceará state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture,an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

  17. Chikungunya: Information for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or heart disease • Deaths are rare The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types ... water from outdoor containers o Support local vector control programs • People at increased risk for severe disease ...

  18. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  19. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African Lineages of Chikungunya Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time rev...

  20. Versatile Trans-Replication Systems for Chikungunya Virus Allow Functional Analysis and Tagging of Every Replicase Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Age Utt

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, and the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-strand RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression and RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein and template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase and encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates and synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein and nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs and a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional and maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA and wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability and represents an efficient, sensitive and reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process.

  1. High rates of co-infection of Dengue and Chikungunya virus in Odisha and Maharashtra, India during 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saswat, Tanuja; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Muduli, Sagarika; Debata, Nagen Kumar; Pal, Niladri Shekhar; Pratheek, B M; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-10-01

    Dengue viral (DENV) infection is endemic in different parts of India and because of similar primary signs and symptoms, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is mostly undiagnosed. Hence, we investigated 204 suspected Dengue cases in a hospital based cross-sectional study in Odisha, India in 2013. It was observed that 50 samples were positive for DENV only, 28 were positive for CHIKV only and interestingly, 28 patients were co-infected with both DENV and CHIKV. Additionally, a total of 18 confirmed Dengue samples from Maharashtra, India were screened for CHIKV and out of those, 15 were co-infected. All CHIKV strains were of East Central South African (ECSA) type and serotype 2 (genotype IV) was predominant in the DENV samples. Additionally, Dengue serotype 1 and 3 were also detected during this time. Further, sequence analysis of E1 gene of CHIKV strains revealed that two substitution mutations (M269V and D284E) were observed in almost 50% strains and they were from co-infected patients. Similarly, sequence analysis of C-prM gene showed the presence of five substitution mutations, (G70S, L72F, N90S, S93N and I150L) in all serotype 1 and two consistent mutations (A101V and V112A) in serotype 2 Dengue samples. Together, it appears that a significantly high number of dengue patients (43, 44.8%) were co-infected with DENV and CHIKV during this study. This emphasizes the need of a routine diagnosis of CHIKV along with DENV for febrile patients. This will be useful in early and proper recognition of infecting pathogen to study the correlation of clinical symptoms with single or co-infection which will ultimately help to implement proper patient care in future.

  2. Simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus by duplex real-time quantitative PCR%双重荧光定量PCR检测西尼罗病毒和基孔肯雅病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蓓蓓; 卢亦愚; 谢鑫友; 徐昌平; 张钧

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立同时检测西尼罗病毒(WNV)、基孔肯雅病毒(CHIKV)的双重荧光定量PCR法,为临床疑似病例的诊断提供依据.方法 分别针对WNV CAP基因、CHIKV E1基因保守区设计特异性引物和TaqMan探针,建立并优化双重荧光定量PCR反应体系,评价方法的特异性和灵敏度.结果 建立的双重荧光定量PCR可同时检测WNV、CHIKV核酸,标准曲线相关系数(r)分别达0.999、0.998,灵敏度达10 copies/μL,具有良好的特异性.结论 建立了同时检测WNV、CHIKV的双重荧光定量PCR法,但尚需临床进一步验证.%Objective To develop a duplex real-time quantitative PCR assay for simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.Methods Two sets of primers and TaqMan probes were designed based on highly conserved CAP gene region of West Nile virus and E1 gene region of Chikungunya virus,and the reactive condition of duplex real-time PCR was optimized.The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated.Results The duplex real-time quantitative PCR assay showed excellent specificity in simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.The sensitivities of the assay were 10 copies/μL for both the virus,and the correlation coefficient of the quantitative curve were 0.999 and 0.998 respectively.Conclusion The duplex fluorescent quantitative PCR assay developed in this study is sensitive and specific for simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.The efficiency of the assay for detecting of clinical samples should be further evaluated.

  3. Development and Validation of a Quantitative, One-Step, Multiplex, Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Monika; Myers, Todd; Guevara, Carolina; Jungkind, Donald; Williams, Maya; Houng, Huo-Shu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens with common transmission vectors and similar clinical presentations. Patient care may be impacted by the misdiagnosis of DENV and CHIKV in areas where both viruses cocirculate. In this study, we have developed and validated a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate between four DENV serotypes (pan-DENV) and chikungunya virus. The assay uses TaqMan technology, employing two forward primers, three reverse primers, and four fluorophore-labeled probes in a single-reaction format. Coextracted and coamplified RNA was used as an internal control (IC), and in vitro-transcribed DENV and CHIKV RNAs were used to generate standard curves for absolute quantification. The diagnostic 95% limits of detection (LOD) within the linear range were 50 and 60 RNA copies/reaction for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay was able to detect 53 different strains of DENV, representing four serotypes, and six strains of CHIKV. No cross-reactivity was observed with related flaviviruses and alphaviruses, To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, 89 clinical samples positive or negative for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV by the standard virus isolation method were tested in our assay. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity for DENV and 100% sensitivity and specificity for CHIKV. With an assay turnaround time of less than 2 h, including extraction of RNA, the multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay provides rapid diagnosis for the differential detection of two clinically indistinguishable diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping. PMID:27098955

  4. [The chikungunya epidemic in the Caribbean: implications for travellers and physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the first autochthonous cases of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were reported on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. The chikungunya virus has since become endemic in the Caribbean due to autochthonous transmission. In the presence of fever and joint symptoms in any traveller returning from the Caribbean, CHIKV should be considered. Although symptoms resemble those of dengue fever, the course of chikungunya is milder. Chikungunya much more commonly causes chronic joint pain. Laboratory tests for the chikungunya virus may give false positive results due to cross reactions with closely related viruses, so taking a full disease and travel history from the patient is necessary in order to interpret these test results correctly. There is no specific treatment for the chikungunya virus. A correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary additional tests and unjustified treatment. The chikungunya virus can be prevented by the use of insect-repelling substances, nets and air-conditioning. PMID:25269640

  5. Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Laurent Guillaumot; Lawrence Yug; Steven C Saweyog; Mary Tided; Paul Machieng; Moses Pretrick; Maria Marfel; Anne Griggs; Martin Bel; Duffy, Mark R.; W Thane Hancock; Tai Ho-Chen; Ann M Powers

    2014-01-01

    An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at...

  6. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Chipwaza; Joseph P Mugasa; Majige Selemani; Mbaraka Amuri; Fausta Mosha; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests...

  7. [[Virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-dong; Zhang, Quan-fu; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Qin-zhi; Liang, Mi-fang; Li, De-xin

    2014-11-01

    To establish a MacELISA method for the detection of IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we prepared virus like particle (VLP) antigens of CHIKV using the whole structural protein C-E3-E2-6K-E1 encoding gene with a baculovirus expression system in Sf9 insect cells. The VLPs were purified and used to immunize Kunming mice. Then, polyclonal antibodies were purified from the samples of ascites with a protein G HiTrap SP column and labeled with horseradish peroxidase. A MacELISA method for the detection of IgM antibodies against CHIKV was assembled with goat anti-human IgM antibody, VLP antigens and an enzyme-labeled polyclonal antibody. The results were evaluated with a serum panel containing serum samples from laboratory-confirmed CHIK, HFRS patients, healthy donors, and commercially available CHIKV IgM as a quality control. It was shown that the MacELISA had a specificity of 99% (99/100), the coefficients of variation (CoV) within a plate were ELISA plates in terms of the plate variation coefficient was <15%. A comparative analysis was performed to compare the current method against a commercial CHIKV IgM antibody detection kit for IIFA-IgM. The detection limit of MacELISA was significantly lower than that of the IIFA-IgM commercial kit (P< 0.0001). Here, we demonstrate that the VLP-based MacELISA is a promising tool for the early diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of CHIKV infection, with a high level of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgM antibodies against CHIKV.

  8. 基孔肯雅病毒荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%Real-time PCR method for rapid detection of Chikungunya virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇; 白琳; 胡健萍; 姚李四; 魏莲; 杨志红; 王静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for detecting Chikungunya virus(CHIKV) using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Methods With specifically designed primers and a TaqMan probe on the highly conserved sequence of CHIKV through alignment, the sensitivity of the Real - time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was optimized by evaluating different concentrations of primers and probes. Results A specific Real - time PCR method was developed with the sensitivity of 21 copies/μl for CHIKV, a synthetic CHIKV genome DNA as a positive control; Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus, Dengue virus were using to examine the specificity. Conclusion Promising prospects of this assay could be expected for Chikungunya fever prevention and control.%目的 建立一种快速、敏感、特异的实时荧光定量PCR方法,检测基孔肯雅病毒.方法 通过序列比对挑选出基孔肯雅病毒基因组中高度保守的序列,在此序列上设计引物及TaqMan探针,建立实时荧光定量PCR反应体系.结果 经优化的荧光定量PCR方法有较好的灵敏度和特异性,对阳性对照质粒标准品的灵敏度可达21拷贝/μl,通过检测与传播媒介相似的流行性乙型脑炎病毒、黄热病毒、登革热病毒无交叉反应.结论 该方法的建立在基孔肯雅热的疾病防控方面有较好的应用前景.

  9. A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, L.Y.H.; Kam, Y.W.; Metz, S.W.H.; Hobson-Peters, J.; Prow, N.A.; McCarthy, S.; Smith, D.W.; Pijlman, G.P.; Ng, L.F.P.; Hall, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development and evaluation of

  10. Inhibition of chikungunya virus by picolinate that targets viral capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Fatma, Benazir; Saha, Amrita; Bajpai, Sailesh; Sistla, Srinivas; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Kumar, Pravindra; Tomar, Shailly

    2016-11-01

    The protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of the transmembrane glycoprotein E2 with the hydrophobic pocket on the surface of capsid protein (CP) plays a critical role in alphavirus life cycle. Dioxane based derivatives targeting PPIs have been reported to possess antiviral activity against Sindbis Virus (SINV), the prototype alphavirus. In this study, the binding of picolinic acid (PCA) to the conserved hydrophobic pocket of capsid protein was analyzed by molecular docking, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding constant KD obtained for PCA was 2.1×10(-7)M. Additionally, PCA significantly inhibited CHIKV replication in infected Vero cells, decreasing viral mRNA and viral load as assessed by qRT-PCR and plaque reduction assay, respectively. This study is suggestive of the potential of pyridine ring compounds as antivirals against alphaviruses and may serve as the basis for the development of PCA based drugs against alphaviral diseases.

  11. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  12. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

  13. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation. PMID:26942903

  14. Progress on Detecting Methods of Chikungunya Virus%基孔肯雅病毒检测方法及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠华; 秦秀英; 罗鹏

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus(CHIKV) was the pathogen of Chikungunya fever transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. Clinical symptoms of the patients were characterized by fever, skin rash and arthralgia. CHIKV mainly distributes in Africa and Southeast Asia, and recently caused a pandemic in Indian Ocean region. In China, emerged as im⁃ported cases, CHIKV had not triggered a break-out yet. This article summarized the progress of detecting methods of CHIKV.%基孔肯雅病毒是引起基孔肯雅热的病原体,主要经伊蚊传播,感染者的症状主要以发热、皮疹和关节疼痛为主。该病毒主要分布在非洲、东南亚等地区,近年来在印度洋地区造成大规模流行。我国主要以输入性病例为主,未发生大规模流行。对基孔肯雅病毒的实验室检测方法及最新研究进展进行了综述。

  15. Acute paralysis viruses of the honey bee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; Hou; Nor; Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    <正>The alarming decline of honey bee(Apis mellifera)colonies in the last decade drove the attention and research to several pathogens of the honey bee including viruses.Viruses challenge the development of healthy and robust colonies since they manage to prevail in an asymptomatic mode and reemerge in acute infections following external stresses,as well as they are able to infect new healthy colonies(de Miranda J R,et al.,2010a;de Miranda J R,et al.,2010b;Di Prisco G,et al.,2013;Nazzi F,et al.,2012;Yang X L,et al.,2005).

  16. Poly (I:C, an agonist of toll-like receptor-3, inhibits replication of the Chikungunya virus in BEAS-2B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong-Gang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and its mimic, polyinosinic acid: polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C], are recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and induce interferon (IFN-β in many cell types. Poly (I:C is the most potent IFN inducer. In in vivo mouse studies, intraperitoneal injection of Poly (I:C elicited IFN-α/β production and natural killer (NK cells activation. The TLR3 pathway is suggested to contribute to innate immune responses against many viruses, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus 2, and murine cytomegalovirus. In Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection, the viruses are cleared within 7–10 days postinfection before adaptive immune responses emerge. The innate immune response is important for CHIKV clearance. Results The effects of Poly (I:C on the replication of CHIKV in human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, were studied. Poly (I:C suppressed cytopathic effects (CPE induced by CHIKV infection in BEAS-2B cells in the presence of Poly (I:C and inhibited the replication of CHIKV in the cells. The virus titers of Poly (I:C-treated cells were much lower compared with those of untreated cells. CHIKV infection and Poly (I:C treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced the production of IFN-β and increased the expression of anti-viral genes, including IFN-α, IFN-β, MxA, and OAS. Both Poly (I:C and CHIKV infection upregulate the expression of TLR3 in BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions CHIKV is sensitive to innate immune response induced by Poly (I:C. The inhibition of CHIKV replication by Poly (I:C may be through the induction of TLR3, which triggers the production of IFNs and other anti-viral genes. The innate immune response is important to clear CHIKV in infected cells.

  17. Chikungunya, climate change, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan

    2014-06-14

    Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease.

  18. 基孔肯亚病毒和辛德毕斯病毒检测基因芯片的建立%Establishment and application of gene chip for Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡敏; 田明尧; 赵权; 郭欢欢; 任静强; 刘昊; 刘振江; 岳云强; 袁森; 崔鹤馨; 鲁会军; 田宇飞; 金宁一

    2012-01-01

    The microarray was established to detect Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus with strong specific and high sensitivity.According to the conservative gene sequences of Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus in GenBank,the E gene sequences of these two viruses and their primers were synthesized,and the oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the two virus,specific detection microarray was prepared.And its sensitivity,specificity and reproducibility were examined.The results showed that the sensitivity of this microarray was 100 times higher than ordinary PCR method.This microarray was specific for Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus,which did not cross-react with other viruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus.This study established a microarray for detection of Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus with high sensitivity and specificity,and it is suitable to epidemiological studies and species-specific detection.%根据GenBank中收录的基孔肯亚病毒和辛德毕斯病毒基因的保守序列,合成2种病毒E基因序列及引物,设计针对2种病毒的寡核苷酸探针,制备基孔肯亚病毒与辛德毕斯病毒特异性检测基因芯片,并对该芯片的灵敏性、特异性和重复性进行了验证。结果显示,所建立基因芯片检测方法的灵敏度是普通PCR方法的100倍。利用所制备的基因芯片,能检测到基孔肯亚病毒和辛德毕斯病毒特异性杂交信号,阴性对照病毒(基因Ⅰ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒,基因Ⅲ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒,猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒及流感病毒)均无杂交信号。本试验初步建立了基孔肯亚病毒与辛德毕斯病毒特异性基因芯片检测方法,该方法灵敏度高、特异性强,适用于基孔肯亚病毒与辛德毕斯病毒的流行病学调查和种特异性鉴定。

  19. Acute viral hemorrhage disease:A summary on new viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  20. MRI findings in acute Hendra virus meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakka, P.; Amos, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Saad, N., E-mail: nivena100@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Jeavons, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To describe serial changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute human infection from two outbreaks of Hendra virus (HeV), relate these changes to disease prognosis, and compare HeV encephalitis to reported cases of Nipah virus encephalitis. Materials and methods: The MRI images of three human cases (two of which were fatal) of acute HeV meningoencephalitis were reviewed. Results: Cortical selectivity early in the disease is evident in all three patients, while deep white matter involvement appears to be a late and possibly premorbid finding. This apparent early grey matter selectivity may be related to viral biology or ribavirin pharmacokinetics. Neuronal loss is evident at MRI, and the rate of progression of MRI abnormalities can predict the outcome of the infection. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in the MRI picture mirrored the clinical course. Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive report of serial MRI findings in acute human cerebral HeV infection from two outbreaks. The cortical selectivity appears to be an early finding while deep white matter involvement a late, and possibly premorbid, finding. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in MRI mirrored the clinical course.

  1. A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses.E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+ was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+ induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice.The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

  2. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Yunus; Güven, Mehmet; Otlu, Bariş; Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Aladağ, Ibrahim; Eyibilen, Ahmet; Doğru, Salim

    2007-03-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical outcome, and etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children based on virologic and bacteriologic tests. The study group consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 144 months with AOM. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested for viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and for bacteria by gram-staining and culture. Clinical response was assessed on day 2 to 4, 11 to 13, 26 to 28. Respiratory viruses were isolated in 39 patients (32.5%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (46.5%) was the most common virus identified in MEF samples, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (25.6%), human coronavirus (HCV) (11.6%), influenza (IV) type A (9.3%), adenovirus type sub type A (AV) (4%), and parainfluenza (PIV) type -3 (2%) by RT-PCR. In total 69 bacterial species were isolated from 65 (54.8%) of 120 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Viral RNA was detected in 31 (56.3%) of 55 bacteria-negative specimens and in 8 (12.3%) of 65 bacteria-positive MEF samples. No significant differences were found between children representing viral infection alone, combined viral and bacterial infection, bacterial infection alone, and neither viral nor bacterial infection, regarding clinical cure, relapse and reinfection rates. A significantly higher rate of secretory otitis media (SOM) was observed in alone or combined RSV infection with S. pneumonia or Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) than in other viruses infection. Conclusion. This study provides information about etiologic agents and diagnosis of AOM in Turkish children. The findings highlight the importance of common respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens, particularly RSV, HRV, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, in predisposing to and causing AOM in children.

  3. Expression of plasmid-based shRNA against the E1 and nsP1 genes effectively silenced Chikungunya virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and persistent arthralgia in humans. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral against CHIKV infection. Therefore, this study evaluates whether RNA interference which targets at viral genomic level may be a novel antiviral strategy to inhibit the medically important CHIKV infection. METHODS: Plasmid-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA was investigated for its efficacy in inhibiting CHIKV replication. Three shRNAs designed against CHIKV Capsid, E1 and nsP1 genes were transfected to establish stable shRNA-expressing cell clones. Following infection of stable shRNA cells clones with CHIKV at M.O.I. 1, viral plaque assay, Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The in vivo efficacy of shRNA against CHIKV replication was also evaluated in a suckling murine model of CHIKV infection. RESULTS: Cell clones expressing shRNAs against CHIKV E1 and nsP1 genes displayed significant inhibition of infectious CHIKV production, while shRNA Capsid demonstrated a modest inhibitory effect as compared to scrambled shRNA cell clones and non-transfected cell controls. Western blot analysis of CHIKV E2 protein expression and transmission electron microscopy of shRNA E1 and nsP1 cell clones collectively demonstrated similar inhibitory trends against CHIKV replication. shRNA E1 showed non cell-type specific anti-CHIKV effects and broad-spectrum silencing against different geographical strains of CHIKV. Furthermore, shRNA E1 clones did not exert any inhibition against Dengue virus and Sindbis virus replication, thus indicating the high specificity of shRNA against CHIKV replication. Moreover, no shRNA-resistant CHIKV mutant was generated after 50 passages of CHIKV in the stable cell clones. More importantly, strong and sustained anti-CHIKV protection was conferred in suckling mice pre-treated with shRNA E1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these

  4. Induction of GADD34 is necessary for dsRNA-dependent interferon-β production and participates in the control of Chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Clavarino

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid sensing by cells is a key feature of antiviral responses, which generally result in type-I Interferon production and tissue protection. However, detection of double-stranded RNAs in virus-infected cells promotes two concomitant and apparently conflicting events. The dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR phosphorylates translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α and inhibits protein synthesis, whereas cytosolic DExD/H box RNA helicases induce expression of type I-IFN and other cytokines. We demonstrate that the phosphatase-1 cofactor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34/Ppp1r15a, an important component of the unfolded protein response (UPR, is absolutely required for type I-IFN and IL-6 production by mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in response to dsRNA. GADD34 expression in MEFs is dependent on PKR activation, linking cytosolic microbial sensing with the ATF4 branch of the UPR. The importance of this link for anti-viral immunity is underlined by the extreme susceptibility of GADD34-deficient fibroblasts and neonate mice to Chikungunya virus infection.

  5. Molecular genome tracking of East, Central and South African genotype of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia between 2006 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Yong Poovorawan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of the East, Central and South African(ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya virus(CHIKV)in terms of emerging and re-emerging infections, this study has been aimed at investigating the evolutionary parameters, genomic signatures and molecular tracking of theCHIKV ECSA genotype in South-east Asia and coastal areas of the Indian Ocean between 2006 and 2009 by using phylogenetic analysis and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) evolutionary estimation.Methods: Nearly complete genome sequences of53 CHIKV isolates from all genotypes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary parameter estimation. The amino acids of67of ECSA genotype during2006 to2009 were compared for finding molecular signature tracking. The ECSA genotype signatures were visualized to find the possible transmission root was projected onto a geographic map.Results:Phylogenetic analysis showed theECSA genotype was divided into2 groups. The first group comprises viruses from India and Southeast Asian countries. The second group consists of strains typically circulating in Sri Lanka in2008. The evolutionary parameters of these groups depicted the time of the most recent common ancestor at approximately 7.5years ago. The genomic signatures revealed the positions of amino acid variation in each group.Conclusions:The molecular evolution projected onto a geographical map showed the routes ofCHIKVtransmission from 2006 to2009. Molecular tracking will assist in understanding transmission routes, epidemiology and molecular evolution ofCHIKV.

  6. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-03-01

    In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies. PMID:27015222

  7. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-03-01

    In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

  8. Construction of Pseudovirus Based on Chikungunya Virus Envelope Protein%基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白假病毒模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娜; 安小平; 范华昊; 王娟; 李建彬; 刘大斌; 姜焕焕; 米志强; 童贻刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:以HIV为骨架构建单次复制性的含基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白的假病毒模型,观察其对哺乳动物细胞的侵染性.方法:PCR合成基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白基因,克隆到真核表达载体上,与HIV慢病毒包装系统质粒共转染293FT细胞,48 h后收培养上清,在8μg/mL Polybrene存在下感染293FT细胞,感染48 h后在荧光显微镜下观察结果.结果:PCR合成了基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白基因并克隆到真核表达载体上,测序结果正确;共转染293FT细胞后,检测到基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白的表达并包装成假病毒,感染新鲜293FT细胞后能够检测到绿色荧光蛋白.结论:合成的基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白基因能正确表达并包装成假病毒,含基孔肯雅病毒囊膜蛋白的假病毒能感染293FT细胞并表达绿色荧光蛋白,可用该假病毒模型进一步研究基孔肯雅病毒的感染性,筛选评价抗基孔肯雅病毒药物.%Objective: To construct replication-defective HIV-backborn pseudovirus using Chikungunya virus envelope protein and observe its infection in mammalian cells. Methods: The sequence of Chikungunya virus envelope protein gene was synthesized using overlapping PCR method and then was cloned into eukaryotic vector. The above plasmid was co-transfected into 293FT cells with HIV-based lentivirus packaging plasmids. Supernatant was collected and filtered with 0.22 μm filter after 48 hours, then was used to infect fresh 293FT cells in the presence of 8 μg/mL Polybrene. Results: The results of sequencing showed that correct sequence of Chikungunya virus envelope protein gene was synthesized and cloned into eukaryotic vector. The expression of Chikungunya virus envelope protein was observed and packaged into pseudovirus which could infect fresh 293FT cells effectively. Conclusion: The synthesized envelope protein gene of Chikungunya virus can be expressed correctly and packaged into pseudovirus. The packaged pseudovirus can infect 293FT

  9. Chikungunya in Europe: What’s next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of a febrile epidemic in humans in a coastal island city. This epidemic spread to Indian Ocean islands and India, where it continues and more than 1 million cases are suspected. Rezza and colleagues des...

  10. Presence of Autoimmune Antibody in Chikungunya Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Maek-a-nantawat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators.

  11. Chikungunya: an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Sudeep; D Parashar

    2008-11-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK), a mosquito borne debilitating disease, is caused by CHIK virus, an alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. The sudden onset of very high fever along with rash, and severe arthralgia especially in the small joints of hands and toes are the characteristics of the disease. It was first reported from Tanzania in 1952-53 and spread subsequently to sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and Pacific causing large epidemics. The virus exists in three genotypes, the Asian, West African and East Central South African that are responsible for outbreaks in the respective areas. The first outbreak in Asia was in Bangkok in 1958 followed by other Asian countries. India experienced massive outbreaks of CHIK in the 1960s and early 70s mainly in cities. After a gap of 32 years an explosive outbreak of CHIK devastated the country affecting more than 1.4 million people in 13 states. The epidemic also witnessed many unusual clinico-pathological complications including CHIK associated deaths and mother to child transmission. High morbidity with severe arthralgia persisted for several months made the people mentally and physically weak. This review describes CHIK in general and highlights the various clinico-pathological aspects observed during the recent outbreak.

  12. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-09-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

  13. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  14. Rapidly Evolving Outbreak of a Febrile Illness in Rural Haiti: The Importance of a Field Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus in Remote Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ian T; Dhanani, Naila; Ray, Lee Ann; Bentley, Regina M; Bush, Ruth L; Vanderpool, David M

    2015-11-01

    Although rarely fatal, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can lead to chronic debilitating sequelae. We describe the outbreak of suspected CHIKV in 93 subjects who presented voluntarily over 2 months to a remote rural Haitian general medical clinic staffed by international health care providers. Diagnosis was made on clinical signs and symptoms because no serum analysis was available in this remote rural site. The subjects were 18.0 ± 16.2 (median ± standard deviation) years of age and were of similar gender distribution. The presenting vital signs included a temperature of 102.3°F ± 0.6°F with fever lasting for 3.0 ± 0.7 days. Symptoms mainly consisted of symmetrical polyarthralgias in 82.8%, headache in 28.0%, abdominal pain in 17.2%, cough in 8.6%, maculopapular rash in 30.0%, and extremity bullae in 12.9%. In 84.9% of subjects, symptoms persisted for 7.1 ± 8.3 days with 16.1% having ongoing disability due to persistent pain (≥ 14 days duration). There were no deaths. In Haiti, especially in remote, rural regions, the risk for CHIKV spread is high given the shortage of detection methods and treatment in this tropical climate and the lack of preventative efforts underway. Implications for global public health are likely, with outbreak expansion and spread to neighboring countries, including the United States. PMID:26565773

  15. Rapidly Evolving Outbreak of a Febrile Illness in Rural Haiti: The Importance of a Field Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus in Remote Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ian T; Dhanani, Naila; Ray, Lee Ann; Bentley, Regina M; Bush, Ruth L; Vanderpool, David M

    2015-11-01

    Although rarely fatal, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can lead to chronic debilitating sequelae. We describe the outbreak of suspected CHIKV in 93 subjects who presented voluntarily over 2 months to a remote rural Haitian general medical clinic staffed by international health care providers. Diagnosis was made on clinical signs and symptoms because no serum analysis was available in this remote rural site. The subjects were 18.0 ± 16.2 (median ± standard deviation) years of age and were of similar gender distribution. The presenting vital signs included a temperature of 102.3°F ± 0.6°F with fever lasting for 3.0 ± 0.7 days. Symptoms mainly consisted of symmetrical polyarthralgias in 82.8%, headache in 28.0%, abdominal pain in 17.2%, cough in 8.6%, maculopapular rash in 30.0%, and extremity bullae in 12.9%. In 84.9% of subjects, symptoms persisted for 7.1 ± 8.3 days with 16.1% having ongoing disability due to persistent pain (≥ 14 days duration). There were no deaths. In Haiti, especially in remote, rural regions, the risk for CHIKV spread is high given the shortage of detection methods and treatment in this tropical climate and the lack of preventative efforts underway. Implications for global public health are likely, with outbreak expansion and spread to neighboring countries, including the United States.

  16. Chikungunya: a reemerging infection spreading during 2010 dengue fever outbreak in National Capital Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V G; Das, Shukla; Roy, Priyamvada; Hada, Vivek; Mogha, Narendra Singh

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an important reemerging arbovirus illness, which is transmitted by the same vector as of dengue virus. Many cases of concurrent infections with multiple dengue virus serotypes have been reported in many countries. Also, concurrent infection with Chikungunya virus and dengue virus has been reported in the past in Delhi. Therefore, this study was done to detect Chikungunya IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever patients. In this study, 1666 serum samples suspected of dengue fever and collected during the outbreak period (August 2010-December 2010) were tested for dengue IgM antibodies, of which 736 tested negative. Of the 736 dengue IgM negative sera, 666 were tested for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The demographic profile and essential laboratory investigations were recorded. Chikungunya IgM was detected in 9.91 % of the patients. During the post-monsoon period though dengue dominated in numbers, the number of Chikungunya fever cases increased gradually followed by an abrupt decrease with the onset of winter. The Chikungunya IgM positive patients were suffering from fever of more than 5 days duration and had thrombocytopenia. Due to similarity in clinical features and vector transmitting dengue and Chikungunya virus, continuous surveillance of both dengue fever and Chikungunya fever is desirable for better management and epidemiological assessment. PMID:27366770

  17. Development of 2, 7-Diamino-1, 8-Naphthyridine (DANP) Anchored Hairpin Primers for RT-PCR Detection of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huixin; Parimelalagan, Mariya; Takei, Fumie; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Ng, Lee Ching; Ho, Phui San; Nakatani, Kazuhiko; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    A molecular diagnostic platform with DANP-anchored hairpin primer was developed and evaluated for the rapid and cost-effective detection of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) with high sensitivity and specificity. The molecule 2, 7-diamino-1, 8-naphthyridine (DANP) binds to a cytosine-bulge and emits fluorescence at 450 nm when it is excited by 400 nm light. Thus, by measuring the decline in fluorescence emitted from DANP—primer complexes after PCR reaction, we could monitor the PCR progress. By adapting this property of DANP, we have previously developed the first generation DANP-coupled hairpin RT-PCR assay. In the current study, we improved the assay performance by conjugating the DANP molecule covalently onto the hairpin primer to fix the DANP/primer ratio at 1:1; and adjusting the excitation emission wavelength to 365/430 nm to minimize the background signal and a ‘turn-on’ system is achieved. After optimizing the PCR cycle number to 30, we not only shortened the total assay turnaround time to 60 minutes, but also further reduced the background fluorescence. The detection limit of our assay was 0.001 PFU per reaction. The DANP-anchored hairpin primer, targeting nsP2 gene of CHIKV genome, is highly specific to CHIKV, having no cross-reactivity to a panel of other RNA viruses tested. In conclusion, we report here a molecular diagnostic assay that is sensitive, specific, rapid and cost effective for CHIKV detection and can be performed where no real time PCR instrumentation is required. Our results from patient samples indicated 93.62% sensitivity and 100% specificity of this method, ensuring that it can be a useful tool for rapid detection of CHIKV for outbreaks in many parts of the world. PMID:27571201

  18. Association of HLA class-I and inhibitory KIR genotypes in Gabonese patients infected by Chikungunya or Dengue type-2 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Petitdemange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK cells provide defense in the early stages of the immune response against viral infections. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR expressed on the surface of NK cells play an important role in regulating NK cell response through recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules on target cells. Previous studies have shown that specific KIR/ligand combinations are associated with the outcome of several viral infectious diseases. METHODS: We investigated the impact of inhibitory and activating KIR and their HLA-class I ligand genotype on the susceptibility to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Dengue virus (DENV2 infections. From April to July 2010 in Gabon, a large outbreak of CHIKV and DENV2 concomitantly occurred in two provinces of Gabon (Ogooué-Lolo and Haut-Ogooué. We performed the genotypic analysis of KIR in the combination with their cognate HLA-class I ligands in 73 CHIKV and 55 DENV2 adult cases, compared with 54 healthy individuals. RESULTS: We found in CHIV-infected patients that KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS5 are significantly increased and decreased respectively, as compared to DENV2+ patients and healthy donors. The combination of KIR2DL1 and its cognate HLA-C2 ligand was significantly associated with the susceptibility to CHIKV infection. In contrast, no other inhibitory KIR-HLA pairs showed an association with the two mosquito-borne arboviruses. CONCLUSION: These observations are strongly suggestive that the NK cell repertoire shaped by the KIR2DL1:HLA-C2 interaction facilitate specific infection by CHIKV.

  19. Mosquito vector indicators and virus detection during Chikungunya fever outbreak in Dongguan,Guangdong province%一起基孔肯雅热暴发的蚊媒监控及其病毒检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段金花; 蔡松武; 吴德; 刘文华; 吴军; 周惠琼; 邹钦

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析基孔肯雅热流行与诱蚊诱卵指数的关系,调查白纹伊蚊成幼虫感染基孔肯雅病毒状况.方法 基孔肯雅热流行期间,通过诱蚊诱卵器和布雷图指数调查蚊虫密度和采集蚊虫,用实时荧光PCR和细胞分离2种方法对野外捕获的白纹伊蚊体内病毒进行检测.结果 确认基孔肯雅热暴发流行后,启动包括应急灭蚊的综合控制措施1周后,疫情得到有效控制,布雷图指数和诱蚊诱卵指数下降到5以下;采集的蚊样品按照时间和地点分成27份进行病毒检测,成蚊标本都显示病毒阴性,有3份乙醇浸泡处理的蚊幼虫标本为可疑阳性,占总幼虫标本(24份)的12.5%.细胞培养分离病毒均为阴性.该社区共报告病例253例,应急控制在22d结束.结论 基孔肯雅热暴发流行时,诱蚊诱卵器法作为应急灭蚊安全、有效、简便易行的评价方法,尤其在成蚊控制效果评价和捕获成蚊检测带病毒指数上有优势,流行期间白纹伊蚊对基孔肯雅病毒的感染率、传播率有待进一步研究.%Objective To analyze the association between prevalence of Chikungunya fever and Mosq-ovitrap index (MOI) and to investigate the infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in larval and adult Aedes albopictus. Methods Mosquitoes were collected by mosq-ovitrap and the mosquito density was also determined by Breteau index (BI) during Chikungunya fever outbreak. CHIKV was detected in the Ae. Albopictus samples collected in the field by real-time fluorescence PCR and cell culture for isolation. Results Comprehensive emergency control measures were taken for anti-mosquito purpose after the confirmation of Chikungunya fever outbreak. After one week of emergency management, the epidemic situation was effectively controlled, as shown by the fact that both MOI and BI were lower than 5. The collected mosquito samples were divided into 27 groups according to collection time and location, and then CHIKV

  20. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-04-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanta Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant viral hepatitis has been well recognized; however, acute pancreatitis occurring in nonfulminant hepatitis is very rare. The case presented describes moderate pancreatitis in a young male, manifesting during the course of nonfulminant acute hepatitis E infection. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis E was confirmed by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to demonstrate Hepatitis E virus (HEV RNA in both stool and serum. Patients with acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain should have a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis suspected and appropriate investigations including serum amylase, lipase, biliary ultrasonography and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen should be undertaken. The identification of this unusual complication of Hepatitis E is important; however, the prognosis for patients with Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection is good, and uncomplicated recovery with conservative treatment is expected.

  2. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Lei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  3. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  4. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hemanta Kumar Nayak; Nitish L Kamble; Nishant Raizada; Sandeep Garg,; Mradul Kumar Daga

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant viral hepatitis has been well recognized; however, acute pancreatitis occurring in nonfulminant hepatitis is very rare. The case presented describes moderate pancreatitis in a young male, manifesting during the course of nonfulminant acute hepatitis E infection. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis E was confirmed by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate Hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in both stool and ser...

  5. 应用含内参的多重实时荧光RT-PCR方法快速检测登革病毒和基孔肯雅病毒%Rapid detection of Dengue virus and Chikungunya virus by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay with an internal control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑夔; 丁国允; 周惠琼; 谢雪妹; 李小波; 师永霞; 苏锦坤; 黄吉城

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立一种登革病毒、基孔肯雅病毒并含人类基因内参检测的多重实时荧光RT-PCR方法,能在同一反应管内同时检测目前发现的所有来源的登革病毒或基孔肯雅病毒.方法 针对登革病毒3′端非编码区和基孔肯雅病毒结构蛋白E2-6K-E1区以及人体各类组织细胞中均能稳定表达的RNAse P基因,设计了3套特异性引物和探针,建立了1套能同时检测登革病毒、基孔肯雅病毒及含有人类基因检测内参的多重实时荧光RT-PCR方法,对其灵敏性和特异性进行了验证,并对临床发热病人标本进行了应用评估.结果 该方法对检测体外转录合成的登革病毒和基孔肯雅病毒RNA的灵敏性可达最低每个反应10~100拷贝,对检测登革1型病毒和基孔肯雅病毒的灵敏性分别可达最低每个反应0.1 TCID50/mL和1 TCID50/mL.用20株登革病毒、4株基孔肯雅病毒和日本脑炎病毒、西尼罗病毒、黄热病毒、盖塔病毒、辛德毕斯病毒各1株进行检测,方法的特异性均为100%.方法应用于189份发热病人血清标本检测,可准确地鉴定出其中登革病毒或基孔肯雅病毒核酸阳性的标本,且所有血清标本均能被内参引物和探针有效地扩增和杂交.结论 本研究建立了一种高灵敏性、高特异性且含人类基因内参检测的登革病毒和基孔肯雅病毒多重实时荧光RT-PCR检测方法,可作为登革热或基孔肯雅热病人早期快速鉴别诊断的有效工具,也可用于蚊媒携带登革病毒或基孔肯雅病毒的高通量快速筛查.%The purpose was to establish a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of Dengue virus and Chikun-gunya virus in one tube, which could detect all Dengue virus or Chikungunya virus strains from different origins . Based on sequences of 3 -UTR of Dengue virus , E2-6K-E1 region of Chikungunya virus's structural protein and RNAse P gene which stably expressed in all human organs , 3 pairs of

  6. 实时荧光PCR检测基孔肯雅病毒方法的建立及初步应用%The Establishment of Real Time Fluorescent PCR Detecting Method and Preliminary Application on Pathogenesis of Chikungunya Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方巧云; 琚雄飞; 刘特; 严宇斌; 刘燕; 曾健君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish real time PCR (RT -PCR) detection method for Chikungunya virus. Methods Primer and FAM probe were chosen for virus gene. The samples were analyzed by TaqMan - FAM PCR and SYBR Green - based RT - PCR techniques on a fluorescence real - time PCR instrument, and the results were compared with those by conventional RT - PCR. Results TaqMan PCR and SYBR RT - PCR positive rates of Chikungunya virus were 17. 5% and 17. 5% ; the conventional RT - PCR were 15%. These results revealed much rapid and increase sensitivity of the real - time PCR method. There were no significant differences between these methods. Conclusion The fluorescence quantitative PCR provides a more specific, more rapid and sensitive method for quantitative detection of Chikungunya virus. It is helpful for the rapid detection of Chikungunya fever.%目的 建立基孔肯雅病毒的荧光定量PCR检测方法.方法 针对基孔肯雅病毒的基因序列,设计、合成引物、探针及反应体系,摸索出最佳反应条件,建立TaqMan荧光探针法和SYBR荧光染料法.利用建立的方法对30例基孔肯雅热病标本和10份基孔肯雅病毒保存液进行扩增、检测和结果分析,并与常规RT - PCR方法的检测结果进行比对.结果 实时荧光定量PCR法比常规RT - PCR法快速、灵敏.40份标本TaqMan荧光探针法、SYBR荧光染料法和常规RT - PCR方法的阳性率分别为:17.5%、17.5%、15%.统计分析表明,3种方法差异不具有统计学意义.结论 实时荧光定量PCR方法快速且具有较好的特异性、敏感性、重复性,适用于基孔肯雅病毒的快速检验.

  7. Proteomics profiling of chikungunya-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells reveal important mosquito cell factors in virus replication.

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    Regina Ching Hua Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is the only causative agent of CHIKV fever with persistent arthralgia, and in some cases may lead to neurological complications which can be highly fatal, therefore it poses severe health issues in many parts of the world. CHIKV transmission can be mediated via the Aedes albopictus mosquito; however, very little is currently known about the involvement of mosquito cellular factors during CHIKV-infection within the mosquito cells. Unravelling the neglected aspects of mosquito proteome changes in CHIKV-infected mosquito cells may increase our understanding on the differences in the host factors between arthropod and mammalian cells for successful replication of CHIKV. In this study, the CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells with differential cellular proteins expression were profiled using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE coupled with the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. 2DE analysis on CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells has shown 23 mosquito cellular proteins that are differentially regulated, and which are involved diverse biological pathways, such as protein folding and metabolic processes. Among those identified mosquito proteins, spermatogenesis-associated factor, enolase phosphatase e-1 and chaperonin-60kD have been found to regulate CHIKV infection. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown of these proteins has demonstrated the biological importance of these host proteins that mediate CHIKV infection. These findings have provided an insight to the importance of mosquito host factors in the replication of CHIKV, thus providing a potential channel for developing novel antiviral strategies against CHIKV transmission.

  8. [Chikungunya on Reunion Island: chronicle of an epidemic foretold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, Fabrice; Borgherini, Giannandrea; Staikowsky, Frédéric; Arvin-Berod, Claude; Poubeau, Patrice

    2006-04-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by a mosquito of the genus Aedes. It is currently epidemic on Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean. It is essentially characterized by an influenza syndrome but associated with polyarthralgia and an eruption. The disabling and chronic nature of the arthralgia is the most remarkable clinical aspect of chikungunya infection. Severe and unusual forms have appeared, not previously described in the literature. These forms must be studied to determine whether there is a direct relation between the chikungunya virus and the severity factors. Treatment is solely symptomatic, combining analgesic and/or antiinflammatory agents. There is no vaccine. The epidemic is not limited to Reunion: cases of chikungunya have also been reported in neighboring islands (Maurice, Seychelles, and Madagascar). Travelers planning to visit the region should be counseled. PMID:16614609

  9. Chikungunya viral disease in district Bhilwara (Rajasthan) India.

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    Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Bhattacharya, D; Venkatesh, S; Jain, D C; Lal, Shiv

    2007-03-01

    An investigation of chikungunya outbreak cases was carried out in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan during Aug-Sep 2006. Fever with multiple joint pains was the first presenting feature. Aedes larval surveys indicate high Breteau index (78.6 to 200), House index (48.0 to 83.3) & Container index (41.1 to 73.6) above the critical index. Out of 40 sera samples tested, 12 showed HI antibodies for chikungunya virus in high titres and another five were positive for IgM antibodies against chikungunya. The clinico-epidemiological, laboratory and entomological investigations confirm that this episode of fever was due to chikungunya fever. Strengthening and intensification of surveillance along with educating the community were recommended for control of outbreak. PMID:18338713

  10. Clinical profile of chikungunya patients during the epidemic of 2007 in Kerala, India

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    Krishna Pillai Vijayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of the present Chikungunya pandemic with a mutation in the Chik virus is already established in many parts of the world, including Kerala. Kerala was one of the worst-affected states of India in the Chikungunya epidemic of 2006-2007. It is important to discuss the clinical features of patients affected by Chikungunya fever in the context of this change in the epidemiology of the disease. Aim: This study tries to analyze the clinical picture of the Chikungunya patients in Kerala during the epidemic of 2007. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in five of the most affected districts in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect the information. Ten clusters each were selected from all the five districts, and the size of the clusters were 18 houses each. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and symptoms was the major case-finding strategy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 3623 residents in the surveyed households, 1913 (52.8% had Chikungunya clinically. Most of the affected were in the adult age group (73.4%. Swelling of the joints was seen in 69.9% of the patients, followed by headache (64.1% and itching (50.3%. The knee joint was the most common joint affected (52%. The number of patients with persistence of any of the symptoms even after 1 month of illness was 1388 (72.6%. Taking bed rest till the relief of joint pain was found to be a protective factor for the persistence of the symptoms. Recurrence of symptoms with a period of disease-free interval was complained by 669 (35.0% people. Older age (>40 years, a presentation of high-grade fever with shivering, involvement of the small joints of the hand, presence of rashes or joint swelling during the first week of fever and fever lasting for more than 1 week were the significant risk factors for recurrence of symptoms predicted by a

  11. Chikungunya infection in India: results of a prospective hospital based multi-centric study.

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    Pratima Ray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIKV has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7 days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Karnataka (South; Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS Rajasthan (West, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS New Delhi (North from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36% followed by west (16.28% and north (0.56% India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05. Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05. Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM were detected for more than 60 days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15 revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. CONCLUSIONS: The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate

  12. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

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    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  13. Neurocognitive outcome of children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus infection: the CHIMERE cohort study on Reunion Island.

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    Patrick Gérardin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neurocognitive outcome in children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus (p-CHIKV infection.The CHIMERE ambispective cohort study compared the neurocognitive function of 33 p-CHIKV-infected children (all but one enrolled retrospectively at around two years of age with 135 uninfected peers (all enrolled prospectively. Psychomotor development was assessed using the revised Brunet-Lezine scale, examiners blinded to infectious status. Development quotients (DQ with subscores covering movement/posture, coordination, language, sociability skills were calculated. Predictors of global neurodevelopmental delay (GND, DQ ≤ 85, were investigated using multivariate Poisson regression modeling. Neuroradiologic follow-up using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans was proposed for most of the children with severe forms.The mean DQ score was 86.3 (95%CI: 81.0-91.5 in infected children compared to 100.2 (95%CI: 98.0-102.5 in uninfected peers (P<0.001. Fifty-one percent (n = 17 of infected children had a GND compared to 15% (n = 21 of uninfected children (P<0.001. Specific neurocognitive delays in p-CHIKV-infected children were as follows: coordination and language (57%, sociability (36%, movement/posture (27%. After adjustment for maternal social situation, small for gestational age, and head circumference, p-CHIKV infection was found associated with GND (incidence rate ratio: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.45-5.34. Further adjustments on gestational age or breastfeeding did not change the independent effect of CHIKV infection on neurocognitive outcome. The mean DQ of p-CHIKV-infected children was lower in severe encephalopathic children than in non-severe children (77.6 versus 91.2, P<0.001. Of the 12 cases of CHIKV neonatal encephalopathy, five developed a microcephaly (head circumference <-2 standard deviations and four matched the definition of cerebral palsy. MRI scans showed severe restrictions of white matter areas

  14. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

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    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  15. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

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    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  16. A review of advances in molecular biology testing for Chikungunya virus infection%我国基孔肯雅病毒分子生物学检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新国; 周红宁; 郭晓芳

    2016-01-01

    基孔肯雅热(Chikungunya Fever,CHIK)是由基孔肯雅病毒(Chikungunya virus,CHIKV)感染引起的,经蚊虫叮咬传播的一种人、兽共患急性传染病,主要流行于热带和亚热带地区.人对CHIKV普遍易感,感染后主要临床特征为发热、皮疹和严重的关节痛等症状.实验室检测CHIKV技术主要包括病毒分离技术、血清学试验和分子生物学检测技术,其中,分子生物学检测CHIKV具有快速、准确鉴别和诊断等特点,对于及早发现CHIK病例,防止病例扩散具有重要价值.本文对常见的CHIKV分子生物学检测技术研究进展进行综述.

  17. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic?

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    Michelle M Thiboutot

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes fever disease, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and arthralgia. Indigenous to tropical Africa, recent large outbreaks have been reported in parts of South East Asia and several of its neighboring islands in 2005-07 and in Europe in 2007. Furthermore, positive cases have been confirmed in the United States in travelers returning from known outbreak areas. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment. With the threat of an emerging global pandemic, the peculiar problems associated with the more immediate and seasonal epidemics warrant the development of an effective vaccine. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting these concepts.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Cholestatic Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seok-Jin; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

    2013-01-01

    Infection-induced acute hepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis is associated with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis E virus. Although rare, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection should be considered also in the differential diagnosis if the patient has acute hepatitis combined with pancreatitis. We report a case of EBV infection with cholestatic hepatitis and pancreatitis with review of literature. An 11-year-old female was admitted due to 1-day history of abdominal pain a...

  19. Replication cycle of chikungunya: A re-emerging arbovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Solignat, Maxime; Gay, Bernard; Higgs, Stephen; Briant, Laurence; Devaux, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses (or arthropod-borne viruses), represent a threat for the new century. The 2005–2006 year unprecedented epidemics of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the French Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, followed by several outbreaks in other parts of the world such as India, have attracted the attention of clinicians, scientists, and state authorities about the risks linked to this re-emerging mosquito-borne virus. CHIKV, which belongs to the Alphaviruses genus, was not previously regarded a...

  20. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India.

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    Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer

    Full Text Available Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission.We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio and IgG ELISA (Novatec, respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95% of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50% to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas.These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods.

  1. Diagnosis and management of imported Chikungunya fever in Taiwan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia. PMID:20466336

  2. Emergence of chikungunya in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts, Champassak Province, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, May to September 2012

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    Viengsavanh Kitthiphong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chikungunya is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, which are widespread in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. However, chikungunya virus (CHIKV had not been detected in the country before outbreaks reported in July 2012. The first outbreaks were detected through health care worker event-based surveillance. Methods: The case definition for the outbreaks was defined as a person with acute onset of fever (> 38 °C and severe arthralgia (joint pain or arthritis from 1 May 2012 in Champassak Province. Rapid response teams conducted active case finding, performed an environmental assessment including an entomological survey and implemented control measures. Descriptive analysis was undertaken in Microsoft Excel. Results: There were 197 cases (attack rate 3.4% of suspected chikungunya reported from 10 villages in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts of Champassak Province. All age groups (age range: seven months–74 years were affected with slightly more female (56% than male cases. Thirty-one per cent (16 of 52 of serum samples tested positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction. The environmental assessment found poor water storage practices and high entomological indices. Discussion: These outbreaks show the effectiveness of health care worker event-based surveillance and the importance of sharing of information across borders for detecting emerging diseases. Public health education is an important measure to prevent epidemics of chikungunya. Information about chikungunya should be supplied to health care workers in the region so they are alert to the potential spread and are able to implement control measures for this disease.

  3. Virion Structure of Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus

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    Mullapudi, Edukondalu; Přidal, Antonín; Pálková, Lenka; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pollination services provided by the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) are critical for agricultural production and the diversity of wild flowering plants. However, honeybees suffer from environmental pollution, habitat loss, and pathogens, including viruses that can cause fatal diseases. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV), from the family Dicistroviridae, has been shown to cause colony collapse disorder in the United States. Here, we present the IAPV virion structure determined to a resolution of 4.0 Å and the structure of a pentamer of capsid protein protomers at a resolution of 2.7 Å. IAPV has major capsid proteins VP1 and VP3 with noncanonical jellyroll β-barrel folds composed of only seven instead of eight β-strands, as is the rule for proteins of other viruses with the same fold. The maturation of dicistroviruses is connected to the cleavage of precursor capsid protein VP0 into subunits VP3 and VP4. We show that a putative catalytic site formed by the residues Asp-Asp-Phe of VP1 is optimally positioned to perform the cleavage. Furthermore, unlike many picornaviruses, IAPV does not contain a hydrophobic pocket in capsid protein VP1 that could be targeted by capsid-binding antiviral compounds. IMPORTANCE Honeybee pollination is required for agricultural production and to sustain the biodiversity of wild flora. However, honeybee populations in Europe and North America are under pressure from pathogens, including viruses that cause colony losses. Viruses from the family Dicistroviridae can cause honeybee infections that are lethal, not only to individual honeybees, but to whole colonies. Here, we present the virion structure of an Aparavirus, Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV), a member of a complex of closely related viruses that are distributed worldwide. IAPV exhibits unique structural features not observed in other picorna-like viruses. Capsid protein VP1 of IAPV does not contain a hydrophobic pocket, implying that capsid

  4. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

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    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  5. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B H; Taylor, Carmel T; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeff J; Hall, Roy A

    2015-06-08

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  6. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  7. Microglia retard dengue virus-induced acute viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Chih-Peng; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Jhan, Ming-Kai; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection may also present acute viral encephalitis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that encephalitic DENV-infected mice exhibited progressive hunchback posture, limbic seizures, limbic weakness, paralysis, and lethality 7 days post-infection. These symptoms were accompanied by CNS inflammation, neurotoxicity, and blood-brain barrier destruction. Microglial cells surrounding the blood vessels and injured hippocampus regions were activated by DENV infection. Pharmacologically depleting microglia unexpectedly increased viral replication, neuropathy, and mortality in DENV-infected mice. In microglia-depleted mice, the DENV infection-mediated expression of antiviral cytokines and the infiltration of CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was abolished. DENV infection prompted the antigen-presenting cell-like differentiation of microglia, which in turn stimulated CTL proliferation and activation. These results suggest that microglial cells play a key role in facilitating antiviral immune responses against DENV infection and acute viral encephalitis. PMID:27279150

  8. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection.

  9. Tracking virus-specific CD4+ T cells during and after acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD4+ T cell help is critical in maintaining antiviral immune responses and such help has been shown to be sustained in acute resolving hepatitis C. In contrast, in evolving chronic hepatitis C CD4+ T cell helper responses appear to be absent or short-lived, using functional assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a novel HLA-DR1 tetramer containing a highly targeted CD4+ T cell epitope from the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4 to track number and phenotype of hepatitis C virus specific CD4+ T cells in a cohort of seven HLA-DR1 positive patients with acute hepatitis C in comparison to patients with chronic or resolved hepatitis C. We observed peptide-specific T cells in all seven patients with acute hepatitis C regardless of outcome at frequencies up to 0.65% of CD4+ T cells. Among patients who transiently controlled virus replication we observed loss of function, and/or physical deletion of tetramer+ CD4+ T cells before viral recrudescence. In some patients with chronic hepatitis C very low numbers of tetramer+ cells were detectable in peripheral blood, compared to robust responses detected in spontaneous resolvers. Importantly we did not observe escape mutations in this key CD4+ T cell epitope in patients with evolving chronic hepatitis C. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During acute hepatitis C a CD4+ T cell response against this epitope is readily induced in most, if not all, HLA-DR1+ patients. This antiviral T cell population becomes functionally impaired or is deleted early in the course of disease in those where viremia persists.

  10. Chikungunya: epidemiology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle R. Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook.

  11. A Within-Host Chikungunya Virus Infection Model with Delay%基孔肯雅病毒在宿主体内的时滞动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 刘贤宁

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,a within‐host Chikungunya virus infection model with discrete delays is considered and analyzed .Firstly ,the positivity and boundedness of solutions are proved and the basic reproductive number R0 is computed .Secondly ,the existence of equilibria is discussed .There always exists a virus‐free equilibrium point ,and there is a unique endemic equilibrium point when R0 > 1 .Finally ,the global stabili‐ties of the virus‐free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are obtained by constructing Lyapunov functions .%建立并分析了一个考虑基孔肯雅病毒在宿主体内的离散时滞动力学模型。首先,证明了解的正性和有界性,并计算出基本再生数 R0;其次,讨论了模型平衡点的存在性,得出无感染平衡点始终存在,而当 R0>1时,存在唯一的地方病平衡点;最后,通过构造 Lyapunov 泛函,得到了无病平衡点的全局稳定性及地方病平衡点的全局稳定性。

  12. Effectiveness of ultra-low volume nighttime applications of an adulticide against diurnal Aedes albopictus, a critical vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Farajollahi

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, continues expanding its geographic range and involvement in mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue. Vector control programs rarely attempt to suppress this diurnal species with an ultra-low volume (ULV adulticide because for maximum efficacy applications are conducted at night. During 2009-2011 we performed experimental nighttime applications of a novel adulticide (DUET® against field populations of Ae. albopictus within an urban site composed of approximately 1,000 parcels (home and yard in northeastern USA. Dual applications at mid label rate of the adulticide spaced one or two days apart accomplished significantly higher control (85.0 ± 5.4% average reduction than single full rate applications (73.0 ± 5.4%. Our results demonstrate that nighttime ULV adulticiding is effective in reducing Ae. albopictus abundance and highlight its potential for use as part of integrated pest management programs and during disease epidemics when reducing human illness is of paramount importance.

  13. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  14. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection. PMID:26280524

  15. Chikungunya Fever: Case Report in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Harter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  16. Chikungunya: unos meses después del ataque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In May of 2014, the editorial of the MVZ Cordoba magazine announced the warning of the inevitable arrival of the Chikungunya virus to Colombia, especially in the Caribbean region given its climatic conditions of tropical humidity, as well as the presence of the well known competent vector of dengue: Aedes aegypti (1. The abundant population of this mosquito in the Caribbean allowed a quick adaptation of the Chikungunya virus and facilitated its dissemination throughout the entire Atlantic coast. The OPS (Pan-American Health Organization and the Ministry of Health of Colombia knew of its imminent arrival and allocated resources to control the vector and mitigate the epidemiologic impact of this new arbovirus. However, it has been observed that the fumigation campaigns were not systematic and did not even take place in some rural populations of the Atlantic coast.

  17. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. ...

  18. Dissemination and transmission of the E1-226V variant of chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus are controlled at the midgut barrier level.

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    Camilo Arias-Goeta

    Full Text Available Emergence of arboviruses could result from their ability to exploit new environments, for example a new host. This ability is facilitated by the high mutation rate occurring during viral genome replication. The last emergence of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean region corroborates this statement since a single viral mutation at the position 226 on the E1 glycoprotein (E1-A226V was associated with enhanced transmission by the mosquito Aedes albopictus in regions where the major mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is absent.We used direct competition assays in vivo to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the selection of E1-226V by Ae. albopictus. When the original variant E1-226A and the newly emerged E1-226V were provided in the same blood-meal at equal titers to both species of mosquitoes, we found that the proportion of both variants was drastically different in the two mosquito species. Following ingestion of the infectious blood-meal, the E1-226V variant was preferentially selected in Ae. albopictus, whereas the E1-226A variant was sometimes favored in Ae. aegypti. Interestingly, when the two variants were introduced into the mosquitoes by intrathoracic inoculations, E1-226V was no longer favored for dissemination and transmission in Ae. albopictus, showing that the midgut barrier plays a key role in E1-226V selection.This study sheds light on the role of the midgut barrier in the selection of novel arbovirus emerging variants. We also bring new insight into how the pre-existing variant E1-226V was selected among other viral variants including E1-226A. Indeed the E1-226V variant present at low levels in natural viral populations could rapidly emerge after being selected in Ae. albopictus at the midgut barrier level.

  19. The role of respiratory syncytial virus and other viral pathogens in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B S; Dollete, F R; Yolken, R H

    1982-07-01

    We utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. Viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. In addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. Seven of these children had RSV identified as the sole middle ear pathogen, whereas six children had otitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as either the sole middle ear pathogen or in combination with RSV. Similarly, all three children with respiratory infections caused by influenza virus had ear infections caused by bacterial pathogens, either alone or in combination with influenza virus. These findings suggest that, in patients with viral respiratory infection, coexisting acute otitis media may be associated with the recovery of either viruses or bacteria from the middle ear exudates.

  20. Preparation, characterization and immunogenicity analysis of Chikungunya virus-like particles produced in insect cells%基孔肯雅病毒样颗粒的制备及免疫原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建东; 张全福; 张硕; 李川; 刘琴芝; 梁米芳; 李德新

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价基孔肯雅病毒(CHIKV)病毒样颗粒(VLPs)免疫原性.方法 通过构建CHIKV结构蛋白编码基因C-E3-E2-6K-E1昆虫细胞表达载体,然后与杆状病毒线性DNA共转染SF9昆虫细胞制备重组杆状病毒,感染悬浮培养的SF9细胞制备VLPs.IFA、SDS-PAGE和Western-Blot法对表达产物进行鉴定分析,用纯化VLPs免疫BALB/c小鼠,评价免疫原性.结果 CHIKV结构蛋白装配形成病毒样球形颗粒,免疫小鼠可诱导CHIKV特异性抗体,能够有效中和CHIKV感染Vero细胞.结论 CHIKV VLPs能够通过杆状病毒系统在昆虫细胞中有效分泌表达,并具有较强免疫原性,为基于CHIKV VLPs的免疫学检测试剂乃至疫苗的研制奠定了基础.%Objective To prepare the virus-like particles (VLPs) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and evaluate the immunogenicity.Method CHIKV structural protein C-E3-E2-6K-E1 encoding gene were amplified by fusion PCR,and cloned into an insect cell expression vector.The recombinant Baculovirus were recovered by co-transfection of the expression plasmid with baculovirus linear DNA into SF9 insect cells,and CHIKV VLPs were prepared from suspension culture SF9 cells.Structural proteins expression were analyzed using IFA,SDS-PAGE and Western-Blot,and morphological analysis via electron microscopy.Result Which showed that CHIKV structural proteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant and assembled into virus-like spherical particles.BALB /c mice were immunized with the VLPs,high levels of CHIKV specific antibodies were detected in the sera,and CHIKV infection of Vero cells could be effectively neutralized.Couclusion The results showed that CHIKV VLPs can be efficiently produced by the baculovirus expression system in insect cells,and specific IgG and neutralization antibodies could be induced in mice after VLPs immunization.This research laid the foundation for the development of CHIKV VLPs based on immunological detection reagents and even vaccines.

  1. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  2. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelly Chris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data.

  3. Acute transverse myelitis caused by Coxsackie virus B4 infection: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, B; Lee, K.

    1998-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis is a rare clinical manifestation of Coxsackie virus infection which cause acute and progressive debilitating illness associated with loss of spinal cord function in the affected patients. A 62 year-old female developed symptoms of rapidly progressive paraplegia with sensory loss. On spinal MRI, T2 sagittal image showed increased signal intensity with cord swelling at T11-L2 level and 8 folds or greater rise of Coxsackie virus B4 neutralizing antibody titers was obser...

  4. Molecular genetic analysis of two Chikungunya virus strains isolated in Shenzhen%深圳市新分离两株基孔肯雅热病毒的分子遗传学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少坚; 任燕; 孙华杰; 李贻汉; 蔡剑辉; 何小媚; 白江涛; 阳帆; 王金明

    2015-01-01

    目的 对2010~2012年深圳市报告的两起输入性基孔肯雅热病原体进行分子遗传学分析.方法 利用C6/36细胞从病人血清中分离基孔肯雅病毒(Chikungunya virus,CHIKV),对分离得到的CHIKV进行全基因组测序和构建系统发生树,结合流行病学资料对其分子遗传特征进行分析.结果 成功分离得到两株CHIKV,分别命名为SZ_20101028和SZ 20120702,SZ_20101028全基因组长为12377bp,SZ_20120823全基因组长为11893bp;构建系统发生树分析,结果表明,SZ_20101028是印度洋亚型,ECSA型的后裔.SZ_20120702为Asian亚型.结论 SZ_20101028与最近10年来在印度洋岛屿爆发流行新亚型且与2010年由输入性引发起东莞疫情爆发的毒株亲源性最高,为99%;而SZ_20120702为Asian亚型,不是近年来爆发流行株.

  5. 基孔肯雅病毒的纳米金实时荧光PCR方法的建立%Development of gold nanoparticle-assisted real-time fluorescence PCR for quantitative detection of Chikungunya viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕清丽; 杨鹏飞; 房健慧; 张丽萍; 张晓龙; 曹晓梅; 姚李四

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立一种检测基孔肯雅病毒纳米金实时荧光定量PCR的方法.方法 以课题组建立的普通实时荧光PCR方法为基础,在PCR体系中添加不同大小粒径的纳米金进行体系优化,评价优化后的体系.结果 添加纳米金的实时荧光PCR较不添加的扩增效率高;优化后的纳米金实时荧光PCR产物的Ct值与模板稀释浓度存在良好的线性关系,回归方程:y=-3.31x+41.78,R2=0.9997,PCR扩增效率为99.5%.结论 纳米金能提高实时荧光PCR的反应效率.%Objective To develop a gold nanoparticle-assisted real-time fluorescence PCR array for quantitative detection of Chikungunya viruses. Methods On the basis of the real-time PCR that we had established, gold nanoparticles of different sizes were added to the system for optimization, which was then evaluated. Results It was found that the amplification efficacy of the system with gold nanoparticles was higher than that without gold nanoparticles, amounting to 99.5%. There existed a good linear relationship between the Ct value of the products by gold nanoparticle-assisted real-time fluorescence PCR and the concentrations of templates, with the regression equation being y=-3.31x+ 41.78,R2=0.9997. Conclusion Gold nanoparticle-assisted realtime fluorescence PCR has the potential to improve the efficiency of PCR amplification.

  6. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of complete genome of Chikungunya virus%基孔肯雅病毒全基因组的多序列比对及遗传进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙遗芳; 柯昌文; 郭中敏; 陆家海

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解基孔肯雅病毒(Chikungunya virus,CHIKV)毒株的时间、地区及基因型的分布情况,不同时间和地区分离毒株的相似性,核苷酸位点的变异情况以及病毒的遗传进化趋势,为基孔肯雅热的预防和控制奠定基础.方法 对美国国立生物技术信息中心(NCBI)中收录的CHIKV毒株全基因组序列共133条用DNAStar7.1软件进行核苷酸和氨基酸相似性比较及变异分析,用Mega 6.06进行遗传进化分析.结果 CHIKV组内核苷酸序列相似性在97.7% ~ 100.0%之间,CHIKV组内氨基酸序列相似性在80.3% ~ 100.0%之间,组内相似性较高,变异率较低;CHIKV碱基间的转换较为常见占碱基突变的81.02%;分离时间、地区相近的毒株遗传距离较近,不同谱系的东/中/南非型毒株已蔓延至欧亚各地区.结论 CHIKV毒株存在一定的变异,但具有较高的遗传稳定性.

  7. A review of advances in normal serology testing for Chikungunya virus infection%基孔肯雅病毒常见血清学检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓羽; 周红宁; 郭晓芳

    2014-01-01

    基孔肯雅热是由基孔肯雅病毒(Chikungunya virus,CHIKV)经伊蚊叮咬传播的一种自然疫源性疾病,人群普遍对CHIKV易感,临床上多以突起发热、皮疹、关节疼痛和轻度出血为主要特征,主要分布在非洲、南亚、东南亚热带和亚热带地区.由于目前无疫苗预防和特效药治疗,及时开展疑似CHIK病例实验室诊断检测,防止其暴发与流行具有重要的意义.现今实验室检测CHIKV感染技术主要包括血清学试验、病毒分离技术和分子生物学检测技术,其中前者具有操作简便、快速特点,较容易现场推广应用.常见的血清学检测方法主要包括中和试验(Neutralization test,NT)、血凝抑制试验(Hemagglutimation inhibition test,HI)、酶联免疫吸附试验(Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)、免疫层析试验(Immunochromatography assay,ICA)、间接免疫荧光试验(Indirect immunofluorescence assay,IFA)等.本文对上述常见的基孔肯稚血清学检测方法进行了综述.

  8. Cutaneous manifestations in patients suspected of chikungunya disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Soma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : An epidemic of chikungunya disease occurred in India during late 2005 through 2006 affecting nearly 1,400,000 people. Aim : To study the cutaneous manifestations in suspected cases of chikungunya disease. Settings and Design : Patients who attended our outpatient departments from January 2006 to September 2006 were prospectively included if they had symptoms of chikungunya disease according to the ′case definition′ of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Directorate General of Health Services, Government of India. The criteria were an acute illness characterized by the sudden onset of fever and several symptoms such as joint pain, headache, backache, photophobia, and eruption during an epidemic of chikungunya fever in the absence of confirmatory serological tests. Materials and Methods : A total of 115 patients (65 men and 50 women who satisfied the above criteria were enrolled for the study. Results : An erythematous maculopapular rash subsiding without any sequelae in 3-4 days was the most common cutaneous finding in our patients. Genital ulcers distributed predominantly over the scrotum and base of the penile shaft in men and labia majora in women were the second most common manifestation. Other manifestations included tenderness/edema of hands and feet, grouped hyperpigmented macules over the nose and cheeks, fixed drug eruptions, erythema nodosum, erythema multiformae, generalized urticarial eruptions, and flare up of pre-existing psoriasis and lichen planus. Conclusions : To conclude, a plethora of cutaneous manifestations were noted in suspected cases of chikungunya disease. Genital ulcers, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported during the earlier epidemics but have been reported by others during the present one.

  9. Studies on the role of mononuclear phagocytes in resistance to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    The role of mononuclear phagocytes in various phases of the acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was studied. The anti-macrophage agent carrageenan delayed virus clearance. Carrageenan was most effective when given before virus inoculation, suggesting that it interfered...... with early events in the host response to the virus. Correspondingly, carrageenan enhanced early virus multiplication. Pretreatment with carrageenan apparently did not inhibit induction of the T-cell response and had little or no direct effect on T-cell-dependent anti-viral activity. The LCMV-induced natural...

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: A hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, P; Prakash, S.; Gupta, S; Singh, K.P.; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D. D.; Singh, J; Jain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I v...

  11. Acute hepatitis associated with autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection--San Antonio, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sanchez, Roger; Heseltine, Gary; Alsip, Bryan; Kamili, Saleem; Hu, Dale J; Guerra, Fernando; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2011-10-01

    Locally acquired hepatitis E infection is increasingly being observed in industrialized countries. We report 2 cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in the United States. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3a related to US-2 and swine hepatitis E virus strains was isolated from one of the patients, indicating potential food-borne or zoonotic transmission. PMID:21896699

  12. Chicken pox infection (varicella zoster virus) and acute monoarthritis: evidence against a direct viral mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, C G; Read, S J; Giddins, G.; Eglin, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A 9 year old boy developed acute monoarthritis of the left knee concurrent with the appearance of a varicella zoster virus (VZV) rash. Repeated VZV DNA hybridisation of the cells within the synovial fluid and synovial membrane failed to show any evidence of intracellular virus. Virus was isolated from synovial fluid 24 hours after the start of clinical infection but not later. These findings suggest that the mechanism of the arthritis is not due to viral replication inside the swollen joint.

  13. Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes : prevalences of bacteria and viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruohola, Aino; Meurman, Olli; Nikkari, Simo; Skottman, Tuukka; Salmi, Aimo; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Eerola, Erkki; Allander, Tobias; Niesters, Hubert; Heikkinen, Terho; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria are found in 50%-90% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) with or without otorrhea, and viruses are found in 20%-49% of cases. However, for at least 15% of patients with AOM, the microbiological etiology is never determined. Our aim was to specify the full etiology of acute midd

  14. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Jan C. Wilschut; Stephen G.S. Vreden; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission ...

  15. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

  16. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian 'Tiger' mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors. PMID:25491436

  17. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks. PMID:27630820

  18. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Zonneveld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  19. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  20. Two novel epistatic mutations (E1:K211E and E2:V264A) in structural proteins of Chikungunya virus enhance fitness in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankita; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Sukumaran, D; Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Expansion of CHIKV outbreaks with appearance of novel mutations are reported from many parts of the world. Two novel mutations viz. E1:K211E and E2:V264A in background of E1:226A are recently identified from Aedes aegypti dominated areas of India. In this study, the role of these mutations in modulation of infectivity, dissemination and transmission by two different Aedes species was studied. Mutations were sequentially constructed in CHIKV genome and female Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were orally infected with eight different CHIKV mutants. Double mutant virus containing E1:K211E and E2:V264A mutations in background of E1:226A revealed remarkably higher fitness for Ae. aegypti, as indicated by significant increase in virus infectivity (13 fold), dissemination (15 fold) and transmission (62 fold) compared to parental E1:226A virus. These results indicate that adaptive mutations in CHIKV are leading to efficient CHIKV circulation in Ae. aegypti endemic areas, contributing and sustaining the major CHIKV outbreaks. PMID:27423270

  1. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  2. Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Ivan; de Miranda, Joachim R; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wäckers, Felix; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) together with Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Kashmir bee virus (KBV) constitute a complex of closely related dicistroviruses. They are infamous for their high mortality after injection in honeybees. These viruses have also been reported in non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators such as bumblebees, which got infected with IAPV when placed in the same greenhouse with IAPV infected honeybee hives. Here we orally infected Bombus terrestris workers with different doses of either IAPV or KBV viral particles. The success of the infection was established by analysis of the bumblebees after the impact studies: 50days after infection. Doses of 0.5×10(7) and 1×10(7) virus particles per bee were infectious over this period, for IAPV and KBV respectively, while a dose of 0.5×10(6) IAPV particles per bee was not infectious. The impact of virus infection was studied in micro-colonies consisting of 5 bumblebees, one of which becomes a pseudo-queen which proceeds to lay unfertilized (drone) eggs. The impact parameters studied were: the establishment of a laying pseudo-queen, the timing of egg-laying, the number of drones produced, the weight of these drones and worker mortality. In this setup KBV infection resulted in a significant slower colony startup and offspring production, while only the latter can be reported for IAPV. Neither virus increased worker mortality, at the oral doses used. We recommend further studies on how these viruses transmit between different pollinator species. It is also vital to understand how viral prevalence can affect wild bee populations because disturbance of the natural host-virus association may deteriorate the already critically endangered status of many bumblebee species. PMID:25004171

  3. High Dose Intraveneous Vitamin C and Chikungunya Fever: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michael J.; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Berdiel, Miguel J.; Duconge, Jorge; Rodríguez-López, Joshua L.; Hunninghake, Ron; Cobas-Rosario, Vicente J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chikungunya (CHIKV) fever is a viral disease produced by a single-stranded RNA Alphavirus from the Togaviridae genus. Its transmission occurs only through mosquito vectors, principally Aedes aegypti. It requires a human-mosquito-human transmission cycle. It is associated with severe arthritis/arthralgias, myalgias, high fever, headache, and maculopapular rash. Joint ache appears to be symmetrical. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 7 days, where the high fever is typically presented. It is followed by arthralgias and myalgias, and rashes, which last for 3 to 5 days. However, the arthralgias can persist for months after the infection, which can contribute to severe arthritis. As of now, no vaccine exists for the virus and no official treatment has been developed aside from standard procedures of the use of acetaminophen (paracetamol), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is a case report of a 54-year old Hispanic individual that reported left shoulder pain, left knee pain and fever. The symptoms started on a Saturday in September 2014 in middle of the night. The patient was treated with high doses of intravenous vitamin C over two days. The symptoms resolved after the infusions without any side effects. Based on the positive outcome in this case, we propose that intravenous vitamin C should be studied further as a potential treatment for acute viral infections. PMID:25705076

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  5. Morphological and Molecular Genetic Characteristics of Chikungunya Virus%深圳市首例基孔肯雅病毒的形态学及分子遗传特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少坚; 张仁利; 罗敏; 张倩; 阳帆; 刘涛; 黄达娜; 吴春利; 胡章立; 柯昌文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the morphological and genetic characteristics of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) , and provide basic information for further genomit: and proteomic analysis, and vaccine research and development. Methods C6/36 cells were used for the isolation of CHIKV from patient serum and BHK-21 cells were used for the propagation of the virus. The viral particles were concentrated using 7% PEG8000. CHIKV microstructure was studied by ultrathin sections and negative staining. Whole genome was sequenced and phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the genome sequence. Results CHIKV was successfully isolated and concentrated. CHtKV (named SZ-20101028) which was isolated from the sera is belong to the E1-A226 mutant strain, with a genome size of 12 377bp. The virus is a new subtype of the recent 10 years outbreak in the Indian Ocean islands. Conclusion A new subtype of CHIKV was isolated and propagated in laboratory conditions. The morphology and genome sequence were studied, which provide basic information for further genomic and proteomic analysis, and vaccine research and development.%目的 对深圳市首发基孔肯雅病毒(CHIKV)进行分离、增殖培养、浓缩、形态学观察及构建系统发生树分析,为后续基因组信息解析、蛋白组分析、单克隆抗体制备及疫苗研发等应用性研究提供实验基础.方法 利用C6/36细胞从病人血清中分离CHIKV,采用BHK-21细胞对CHIKV进行大量的增殖培养,经7%PEG8000浓缩,超薄切片和负染观察CHIKV显微结构;对分离得到的CHIKV株进行全基因组测序和构建系统发生树,结合流行病学资料对其分子遗传特征进行分析.结果 CHIKV被成功分离并浓缩;在透射电镜下观察CHIKV的直径约为70 nm,圆形有包膜,表面有纤突;CHIKV(SZ-20101028)基因组长为12 377bp,属于E1-A226突变株;该病毒是最近10年来在印度洋岛屿爆发流行的新亚型,与流行病学调查资料相吻合.结论 以现有的条

  6. Congenital Chikungunya with Centro-facial Pigmentation and Persistent Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpigmentation over face in a neonate is rare and the differentials for the same are also rare. Congenital chickengunya, fungal and viral infections, drug rash are few differentials. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection manifesting in neonates is very rare. The prevalence of the entity was described only recently. We describe a neonate with hyperpigmentation on day 3 of life with stormy course thereafter. The distinguishing rash on face helped us in clinching the diagnosis of congenital chikungunya and fungal sepsis. Identification of this entity was based on characteristic skin rash and epidemiological background.

  7. A study on Chikungunya outbreak of 2009 in Balussery, Kozhikode, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi K. Deepa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by the Chikungunya virus, belonging to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. In Kerala the first Chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2006 affecting 14 districts. The re-emergence of the disease occurred in Kozhikode district in Kerala in May 2009. A survey was undertaken in Panangad village, which was the worst affected location. The aim of the survey was to understand the nature and magnitude of the Chikungunya fever, the clinical signs and symptoms. Methods: A total number of 436 cases were surveyed door to door in 7 different localities in the Panangad village of Balussery of Kozhikode district. The patient history, clinical signs and symptoms of the Chikungunya cases were recorded. The signs and symptoms recorded consisted of fever, chills, arthalgia, eye pain, back pain, headache, edema, rash, oral ulcers, hyperpigmentation, itch, myalgia, sore throat, distaste, photophobia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, hypotension, dermatitis, and dizziness. Results: The major symptoms were fever (100%, arthralgia (81.65%, and myalgia (77.98%. Significant differences were observed in the following symptoms: chills (15.36%, eye pain (7.56%, back pain (30.96%, headache (41.28%, edema (50.68%, rash (29.58%, oral ulcer (14.9%, itch (42.88%, hyperpigmentation (4.58%, sore throat (8.71%, distaste (6.88%, nausea (6.65%, vomiting (12.61%, diarrhea (1.37%, neck pain (0.91%, and dizziness (3.21%. The Chikungunya cases were more severely affected with more or less all of the above mentioned symptoms in the higher age group (>45 years compared to the lower age group (1-30 years. Conclusion: Chikungunya was found to be the major vector born disease in Kerala state. The major clinical symptoms in affected cases were fever, edema, myalgia, and arthralgia. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 59-62

  8. Human Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Salivary Proteins: A Potential Biomarker to Evaluate the Efficacy of Vector Control in an Area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Doucoure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluatedbefore and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker.

  9. Human antibody response to Aedes albopictus salivary proteins: a potential biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of vector control in an area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Drame, Papa Makhtar; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab) response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluated before and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker. PMID:24822216

  10. [Acute severe coxsackie virus B myocarditis of pseudonecrotic form. Apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T; Boudjemaa, B; Carrié, D; Chakra, G; Ferrières, J; Delay, M; Bernadet, P

    1993-05-01

    This study reports two cases of acute severe Coxsackie virus B4 myocarditis in which the immediate clinical signs suggested the acute phase of myocardial infarction, apparently antero-lateral in the first case in a context of cardiogenic shock and infero-lateral in the second case, in the context of acute pulmonary edema. Both cases were characterized by the severity of the initial signs. Numerous other cases of acute Coxsackie virus B myocarditis, simulating myocardial infarction, have been reported in the literature and these contexts deserve to be recognized earlier as they call for specific treatment. The immediate outcome was favorable in both cases but required massive cardiological intensive care in the first patient. Long term follow-up was excellent. PMID:8396381

  11. Hepatitis B virus replication in acute glomerulonephritis with chronic active hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cadrobbi, P; Bortolotti, F; Zacchello, G.; Rinaldi, R; Armigliato, M; Realdi, G

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year old boy who had chronic active hepatitis type B with features of ongoing liver damage and active virus replication, developed acute membranous glomerulonephritis two years after the clinical onset of liver disease, when both hepatitis B e antigen and antibody were detectable in serum. After withdrawal of short term steroid treatment and resolution of hepatitis B virus replication, both glomerulonephritis and chronic hepatitis went into remission. Some months later hepatitis B surface...

  12. Borna disease virus induces acute fatal neurological disorders in neonatal gerbils without virus- and immune-mediated cell destructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a noncytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that is known to cause neurological disturbances in various animal species. Our previous experiment demonstrated that neonate gerbils develop an acute fatal neurological disease following infection with BDV , Virology 282, 65-76). The study suggested that BDV directly causes functional damage of neuronal cells resulting in the lethal disorder in neonatal gerbils. To extend this finding, we examined whether BDV can induce neurological diseases in the absence of virus- and immune-mediated cell destruction, by using cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated neonatal gerbils. Although CsA completely suppressed specific antibody production and brain inflammation in the infected gerbil brains, the fatal neurological disorder was not inhibited by the treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CsA treatment significantly decreased brain levels of cytokines, except interleukin (IL)-1β, in the infected gerbils. These results suggested that BDV replication, as well as brain cytokines, at least IL-1β, rapidly induces fatal disturbances in gerbil brain. We demonstrate here that BDV exhibits a unique neuropathogenesis in neonatal gerbil that may be pathologically and immunologically different from those in two other established rodent models, rats and mice. With this novel rodent model of virus infection it should be possible not only to examine acute neurological disturbances without severe neuroanatomical and immunopathological alterations but also to analyze molecular and cellular damage by virus replication in the central nervous system

  13. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 2006, chikungunya emerged as a major ever known epidemic in India. Disability adjusted life years (DALY is an appropriate summary measure of population health to express epidemiological burden of diseases. We estimated the burden due to suspected chikungunya using DALYs for the first time and compared between the states and also with the burden due to other vector-borne diseases in India. The economic burden was also assessed in terms of productivity loss.Methods: Data on the reported cases of fever/suspected cases of chikungunya from different states during 2006 in India were used. Years lived with disability (YLD were calculated for non-fatal cases to estimate DALY. Since the disability weight for chikungunya is not available, the weights available for rheumatic arthritis, comparable to the disease outcome of chikungunya were used for the estimation. The burden was estimated for both acute and chronic cases. It is considered that about 11.5% of cases were reported to have extended morbidity with persisting arthralgia. For acute disease, the average duration of illness was considered to be nine days and for chronic cases it was six months on an average. The productivity loss due to income foregone by the working class was calculated using minimum official wage.Results: National burden of chikungunya was estimated to be 25,588 DALYs lost during 2006 epidemic, with an overall burden of 45.26 DALYs per million. It varied from 0.01 to 265.62 per million in different states. Karnataka alone contributed as high as 55% of the national burden. Persistent arthralgia was found to impose heavy burden, accounting for 69% of the total DALYs. The productivity loss in terms of income foregone was estimated to be a minimum of Rs. 391 million. Interpretation & conclusion: The chikungunya epidemic in the year 2006 imposed heavy epidemiological burden and productivity loss to the community. The burden of chikungunya in terms of

  14. Radiculoplexopathy with conduction block caused by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Palmer, William; Cros, Didier

    2005-02-01

    The authors report a case of cervicobrachial radiculoplexopathy with proximal conduction block (CB), associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The patient presented with pain, paresthesias, and monomelic weakness in the left C7-8, and T1 myotomes. The illness was monophasic with rapid recovery. Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated CB in the proximal left median and ulnar nerve segments. The authors conclude that this syndrome resulted from a postinfectious process following acute EBV infection. PMID:15699388

  15. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  16. Risk factors and molecular characterization of acute sporadic symptomatic hepatitis E virus infection in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kittiyod Poovorawan; Salyavit Jitmitrapab; Sombat Treeprasertsuk; Thanunrat Thongmee; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Pisit Tangkijvanich; Piyawat Komolmit; Yong Poovorawan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report clinical outcomes and viral genotypes of acute symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection inThailand.Methods:Forty patients with acute symptomaticHEV infection were recruited during2009-2013.Clinical, demographic and laboratory data were collected.Diagnosis was accomplished by detection of anti-HEVIgM and/orHEVRNA in the serum or stool.HEV genotypes were classified by direct sequencing ofRT-PCRproducts and phylogenetic analysis. Results:The high risk group, comprising immune-compromised, liver cirrhosis and very elderly (>80 years) patients(17 cases), had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase at presentation compared with the low risk group.Two fatal cases resulted from acute hepatitisE in the high risk group.Initial clinical presentation did not show statistically significant differences.In six cases (6/40), the virus could be detected in serum or stool byRT-PCR and sequencing.Upon molecular characterization, the viruses were classified asHEV genotype3f and were in the same cluster as Thai swineHEV.Conclusions:Our data showed that acuteHEV infection has various clinical presentations and outcomes.Higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase were observed in high risk patients.All isolated viruses were identified asHEV genotype3f possibly originating from swine.

  17. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  18. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  19. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O

    1990-05-01

    We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.

  20. Role of viruses in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T

    2000-05-01

    To date there is ample evidence suggesting a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of AOM. Respiratory viral infection appears to initiate the cascade of events that finally leads to development of AOM (Fig. 1). The pathogenesis of AOM is complicated, involving a network of factors, some probably not yet identified, which affect each other in a time-dependent manner. Increased knowledge of the detailed mechanisms of viral infection, the host inflammatory response during URI and the interaction between viruses and bacteria could lead to major advances in the prevention of AOM.

  1. The Epidemic Trend and Control Strategies of Chikungunya Fever%基孔肯雅热的流行现况及其防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春芳; 司菡; 陆家海

    2009-01-01

    基孔肯雅热(Chikungunya fever,CHIK)是由基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya virus,CHIKV)引起的一种急性传染病.本文针对基孔肯雅热的病原学、流行现况、诊断方法、防治对策等方面做一综述.

  2. Varroa destructor is an effective vector of Israeli acute paralysis virus in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Pennacchio, Francesco; Caprio, Emilio; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a significant marker of honeybee colony collapse disorder (CCD). In the present work, we provide the first evidence that Varroa destructor is IAPV replication-competent and capable of vectoring IAPV in honeybees. The honeybees became infected with IAPV after exposure to Varroa mites that carried the virus. The copy number of IAPV in bees was positively correlated with the density of Varroa mites and time period of exposure to Varroa mites. Further, we showed that the mite-virus association could possibly reduce host immunity and therefore promote elevated levels of virus replication. This study defines an active role of Varroa mites in IAPV transmission and sheds light on the epidemiology of IAPV infection in honeybees.

  3. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Christodoulou, I; Rohde, G;

    2011-01-01

    accurate and sensitive methodologies. This systematic review summarizes current knowledge and developments in infection epidemiology of acute asthma in children and adults, describing the known impact for each individual agent and highlighting knowledge gaps. Among infectious agents, human rhinoviruses are...... the most prevalent in regard to asthma exacerbations. The newly identified type-C rhinoviruses may prove to be particularly relevant. Respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus are important in infants, while influenza viruses seem to induce severe exacerbations mostly in adults. Other agents are...

  4. [Chikungunya fever--expanded distribution of a re-emerging tropical infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has been originally distributed in several parts of Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia. The disease is caused by Chikungunya virus, an enveloped, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus of the alphavirus genus (family Togaviridae). In Asia, virus transmission to humans occurs predominantly by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. In rural Africa, other mosquito species are also implicated in virus transmission. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, headache, backache, myalgia, and rash as well as painful and long-lasting arthralgia, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Joint pain frequently persists for two or more months. Treatment strategies are primarily supportive and symptomatic and comprise the continuous application of certain analgetics, i.e., paracetamol (acetaminophen) and several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Although there is no generally recommended specific antiviral therapy, the use of chloroquine, ribavirin and interferon-alpha might be useful. In 2005 and 2006, the largest epidemic of Chikungunya fever ever recorded has been occurred in the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean and in India. The epidemic affected at least 1.3 million cases in India alone. The most affected island was the French territory La Réunion, where approximately one third of the total population (266,000 of 770,000) suffered from the disease. Based on the extent of the epidemic and the busy tourism between India/the islands of the Indian Ocean and Europe, numerous cases have been reported in several European countries since 2005. In 2007, one of these travellers served as "index patient" for the first outbreak of Chikungunya fever in a temperate region. Between July and September 2007, more than 200 cases of infection with Chikungunya virus have been notified in a region of north eastern Italy. The first autochthonic outbreak in Europe has been associated with the presence of A

  5. Chikungunya fever: a re-emerging viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, M; Mittal, V; Bhattacharya, D; Rana, Uvs; Lal, S

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak. PMID:18227590

  6. Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.

  7. Entomo-epidemiological investigations of chikungunya outbreak in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An outbreak of fever with severe joint pain started in the Palam area of Delhi in August 2010. An entomological and epidemiological investigation of this outbreak was conducted to ascertain the nature and cause of the outbreak. Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate the nature and cause of the outbreak and to contain its further spread. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Palam area of south-west Delhi, situated at a distance of about 20 km from Medical College. It is one of the field practice areas for training of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Department of Community Medicine of Medical College of Delhi. Materials and Methods: All patients attending OPD of Primary Health Center (PHC Palam, complaining of ever with incapacitating joint pain, were screened for chikungunya fever. Of the 750 suspected chikungunya patients, 130 blood samples were randomly drawn amongst these patients. Out of the 130 tested, 97 (70.8% were positive for the IgM antibodies against chikungunya virus. House-to-house survey was conducted in the affected area for more cases and to find out the vector-breeding sites. Statistical Analysis: Frequency distributions were calculated for age and sex. Results: The main breeding sites of the mosquitoes were the desert coolers of houses, water stored in metal and plastic containers, and water collections at construction sites. Aedes mosquito was present in almost all the houses surveyed in the area. Conclusions: It was concluded that the routine campaigns need to be organized regularly within the community highlighting the potential breeding grounds of mosquitoes and the possible control methods. Source reduction strategies like cleaning of desert coolers on weekly basis, emptying of water containers, and close monitoring of construction sites for potential breeding of the vector needs to be done on a regular basis to avoid future outbreaks.

  8. Infección aguda por el VHB Acute infection by Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alegre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El espectro clínico de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B es muy amplio, con cuadros que van desde una hepatitis anictérica y subclínica a una hepatitis ictérica aguda grave e incluso, en algunos casos, a una hepatitis fulminante. El diagnóstico depende en gran medida del grado de sospecha clínica de la hepatitis, estableciéndose el origen etiológico por el virus B mediante el estudio de marcadores serológicos y/o DNA en sangre. Aunque en la mayor parte de los casos la evolución de la hepatitis aguda por virus B es favorable, con resolución espontánea de la clínica en 4-8 semanas, no es infrecuente en ciertos casos, sobre todo en la infancia, la progresión a hepatitis crónica. No existe ningún tratamiento específico para la infección aguda por virus B que reduzca su gravedad o prevenga su evolución a hepatitis crónica. Se recomienda, no obstante, el reposo relativo, y la administración de una dieta hipercalórica. En las hepatitis agudas graves debe indicarse ingreso hospitalario; en casos de hepatitis fulminante ingreso en UCI para monitorización intensiva y valoración de trasplante hepático si no se produce mejoría espontánea. En el presente artículo se revisa, de forma breve y esquemática, la clínica, el diagnóstico, el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B.The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis B virus infection is very broad, with clinical manifestations that range from anicteric and sub-clinical hepatitis to severe acute icteric hepatitis and even, in some cases, to fulminant hepatitis. Diagnosis depends to a large extent on the degree of clinical suspicion of hepatitis, establishing the aetiological origin of the B virus through the study of serological markers and/or DNA in the blood. Although in the majority of cases there is a favourable evolution of acute hepatitis B virus infection, with spontaneous resolution of the clinical manifestations

  9. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    correlation between the host's ability to mount a virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and its capacity to combat virus. Moreover, pretreatment with silica and carrageenan prolonged viraemia without impairment of the peak Tc-cell response. These findings indicate that Tc cells have...

  10. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic. PMID:19240010

  11. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaguchi,Kohsaku

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past 3 years, and amebic colitis was shown by colonofi berscopy during hospitalization. The patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis B, concurrent with amebic colitis, and was successfully treated with lamivudine and metronidazole. In Japanese patients with acute hepatitis B virus genotype A infection, homosexual activity tends to be high. Furthermore, in Japanese homosexual men, amebiasis has been increasing. Thus, in Japanese patients with acute hepatitis B, a determination of genotype should be performed in order to investigate the route of transmission of hepatitis B virus, and a search for amebiasis should be performed in patients with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype A. Furthermore, education of homosexual men regarding hepatitis B virus, hepatitis B virus vaccination, and amebiasis is urgently required.

  12. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, M

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinic...

  13. Novel Approach for Detection of Enteric Viruses To Enable Syndrome Surveillance of Acute Viral Gastroenteritis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Svraka, Sanela; van der Veer, Bas; Duizer, Erwin; Dekkers, Jojanneke; Koopmans, Marion; Vennema, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with viruses, particularly noroviruses, being the leading cause in developed countries. In The Netherlands, systematic surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks of suspected viral etiology was established by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 1994. Since 2002, the total number of outbreaks reported has been increasing, and with that comes the need for sensitive assays that can be performed quickly...

  14. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Margolis Harold S; Onischenko Gennady G; Yashina Tatiana L; Brown Matthew S; Favorov Michael O; Sharapov Makhmudkhan B; Chorba Terence L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995...

  15. Identification of Viruses in Cases of Pediatric Acute Encephalitis and Encephalopathy Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Torii, Yuka; Okada, Ryo; Hayano, Satoshi; Ando, Shotaro; Kamiya, Yasuko; Kojima, Seiji; Ito, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome that is occasionally associated with viral infection. Comprehensive virus detection assays are desirable because viral pathogens have not been identified in many cases. We evaluated the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detecting viruses in clinical samples of encephalitis/encephalopathy patients. We first determined the sensitivity and quantitative performance of NGS by comparing the NGS-determined number of sequences of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) in clinical serum samples with the HHV-6 load measured using real-time PCR. HHV-6 was measured as it occasionally causes neurologic disorders in children. The sensitivity of NGS for detection of HHV-6 sequences was equivalent to that of real-time PCR, and the number of HHV-6 reads was significantly correlated with HHV-6 load. Next, we investigated the ability of NGS to detect viral sequences in 18 pediatric patients with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy of unknown etiology. A large number of Coxsackievirus A9 and mumps viral sequences were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 2 and 1 patients, respectively. In addition, Torque teno virus and Pepper mild mottle viral sequences were detected in the sera of one patient each. These data indicate that NGS is useful for detection of causative viruses in patients with pediatric encephalitis/encephalopathy. PMID:27625312

  16. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  17. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  18. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  19. Chikungunya fever: CNS infection and pathologies of a re-emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Trina; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine; Hoarau, Jean Jacques; Krejbich Trotot, Pascale; Denizot, Melanie; Lee-Pat-Yuen, Ghislaine; Sahoo, Renubala; Guiraud, Pascale; Ramful, Duksha; Robin, Stephanie; Alessandri, Jean Luc; Gauzere, Bernard Alex; Gasque, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and causes an acute symptomatic illness with fever, skin rash, and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve into chronic rheumatoid arthritis in elderly patients. This is a tropical disease originally described in central/east Africa in the 1960s, but its 2004 re-emergence in Africa and rapid spread in lands in and around the Indian Ocean (Reunion island, India, Malaysia) as well as Europe (Italy) led to almost 6 million cases worldwide. The risk of importation and spreading diseases with long-term sequelae is even greater today given the global distribution of the vectors (including in the Americas), increased tourism and the apparent capacity of CHIKV to produce high levels of viremia (10(9)-10(12) virus/ml of blood) and new mutants. CHIKV-associated neuropathology was described early in the 1960s, but it is the unprecedented incidence rate in Indian Ocean areas with efficient clinical facilities that allowed a better description of cases with severe encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, peripheral neuropathies and deaths among newborns (mother-to-child infection), infants and elderly patients. Death rates following CHIKV infection were estimated at 1:1000 cases in la Reunion's outbreak. These clinical observations have been corroborated by experimental infection in several mouse models, leading to CNS pathologies. We further describe in this review the capacity of CHIKV to infect neurons and glial cells, delineate the fundamental innate (intrinsic) immune defence mechanisms to protect from infection and argue about the possible mechanisms involved in the encephalopathy. PMID:20026374

  20. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L.; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures ...

  1. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.

  2. Virus profile in children with acute respiratory infections with various severities in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Runan; Song Qinwei; Qian Yuan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Sun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children globally.This study aimed to determine the virus profile in children with ARI presenting with different severities.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARI in Beijing from September 2010 to March 2011 were investigated for 18 respiratory viruses using an xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast (RVP Fast) assay.The Pearson chisquare analysis was used to identify statistical significance.Results Of 270 cases from three groups of ARI patients,including Out-patients,In-patients and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU),viruses were detected in 176 (65.2%) specimens with the RVP Fast assay.The viral detection rate from the Out-patients group (50.0%) was significantly lower than that from the In-patients (71.1%) and ICU-patients (74.4%) groups.The virus distribution was different between the Out-patients group and the other hospitalized groups,while the virus detection rate and distribution characteristics were similar between the In-patients and ICU-patients groups.The coinfection rates of the Out-patients group,the In-patients group,and the ICU-patients group were 15.6%,50.0% and 35.8%,respectively.In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (ADV),human rhinovirus (HRV) was frequently detected from children with serious illnesses,followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV),human bocavirus (HBoV) and coronaviruses.Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was detected in children with lower respiratory illness,but rarely from those with serious illnesses in the ICU-patient group.Conclusion In addition to so-called common respiratory viruses,virus detection in children with ARI should include those thoucht to be uncommon respiratory viruses,especially when there are severe ARI-related clinical illnesses.

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus infection facilitates acute colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana;

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory...... virus infections in facilitating colonization and infection with P. aeruginosa. A study was undertaken to determine whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection could facilitate the initiation of an acute infection with P. aeruginosa in vivo. Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with P....... aeruginosa, with and without simultaneous inoculation with RSV. Lung function measurements were undertaken using Whole Body Plethysmography and lungs were harvested 24 hr after inoculation. Mice exposed to RSV and P. aeruginosa showed 2,000 times higher colony-forming units (CFU) counts of P. aeruginosa...

  4. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  5. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Raboni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV, RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus (AstV. NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26% were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5, HAdV/NoV (3 and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1. The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.

  6. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  7. Barr humbug: acute cerebellar ataxia due to Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Machin, Nicholas; Lavin, Timothy; Ul Haq, Mian Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with neurological sequellae, but rarely there is acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) in an adult. We present a novel case of a 26-year-old man, who presented with ACA. He had normal MRI and CSF analysis. Serum testing confirmed active EBV. A course of oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg for 4 weeks, with a subsequent taper was started. He made a full recovery within 3 weeks of presentation. PMID:27558189

  8. Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in understanding speech, tinnitus and vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus and it was persistent causing significant handicap to him based on self report tinnitus handicap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety and stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression and anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells and may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon and absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD and vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies. PMID:25728940

  9. Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal E Carbajo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

  10. Chikungunya fever in the Emilia Romagna region: what is the public health message?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquitoborne alphavirus indigenous to African countries, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, where it causes endemic and epidemic chikungunya (CHIK fever [1]. Chikungunya infection is transmitted by biting mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes. Since the identification of the virus in the 1950s [2] in Africa, transmission to humans has been usually associated with bites of A. aegypti mosquitoes. In recent outbreaks occurring in the South-eastern islands of the Indian Ocean, transmission has also been associated with A. albopictus, also known as the “tiger mosquito.” This species is indigenous to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Indian Ocean, but has recently spread to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. [3]. Although tropical forests are considered to be their original habitat, A. aegypti and A. albopictus have developed the capacity to exploit artificial environments [4]. Besides the natural habitat consisting of tree holes filled with water and other small natural pools, they are capable of breeding in any artificial habitat with small reservoirs of stagnant water, such as vases, buckets, tires and other containers found around houses in urban and periurban areas.

  11. Acute infection by hepatitis E virus with a slight immunoglobulin M antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Imanishi, Mamiko; Ishige, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody response is generally regarded as a useful marker for diagnosing primary infection. However, in some cases, this antibody is not detected during the acute phase of infection. An 81-year-old man with stable membranous nephropathy who presented with asymptomatic acute liver dysfunction came to our hospital. HEV RNA of genotype 3 was detected in his serum, and he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E. According to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-level positivity for anti-HEV IgG and IgA antibodies was observed, but the assay was negative for IgM antibody throughout the clinical course of infection. The patient was not immunosuppressed. We further investigated the presence of IgM antibody using two other polyclonal antibodies against human IgM as secondary antibodies and another recombinant ORF2 protein of genotype 3 as an immobilized antigen. IgM was weakly detected in the serum during the acute phase only by the test with the antigen of genotype 3. Multi-genotype antigens can detect a slight IgM antibody response; however, anti-HEV IgA is more useful in diagnosing primary HEV infection, particularly in cases with a low IgM antibody response. PMID:26215116

  12. Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Aaron M; Iqbal, Kashif; Schillie, Sarah; Britton, James; Kainer, Marion A; Tressler, Stacy; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As many as 2.2 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1), and approximately 15%-25% of persons with chronic HBV infection will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer (2). Since 2006, the overall U.S. incidence of acute HBV infection has remained stable; the rate in 2013 was 1.0 case per 100,000 persons (3). Hepatitis B vaccination is highly effective in preventing HBV infection and is recommended for all infants (beginning at birth), all adolescents, and adults at risk for HBV infection (e.g., persons who inject drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and others). Hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low among adults: 2013 National Health Interview Survey data indicated that coverage with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine was 32.6% for adults aged 19-49 years (4). Injection drug use is a risk factor for both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV. Among young adults in some rural U.S. communities, an increased incidence of HCV infection has been associated with a concurrent increase of injection drug use (5); and recent data indicate an increase of acute HCV infection in the Appalachian region associated with injection drug use (6). Using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2006-2013, CDC assessed the incidence of acute HBV infection in three of the four Appalachian states (Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia) included in the HCV infection study (6). Similar to the increase of HCV infections recently reported, an increase in incident cases of acute HBV infection in these three states has occurred among non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 30-39 years who reported injection drug use as a common risk factor. Since 2009, cases of acute HBV infection have been reported from more non-urban than urban regions. Evidence-based services to prevent HBV infection are needed. PMID:26821369

  13. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F.; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents. PMID:27177310

  14. Replication cycle of chikungunya: a re-emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solignat, Maxime; Gay, Bernard; Higgs, Stephen; Briant, Laurence; Devaux, Christian

    2009-10-25

    Arboviruses (or arthropod-borne viruses), represent a threat for the new century. The 2005-2006 year unprecedented epidemics of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the French Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, followed by several outbreaks in other parts of the world such as India, have attracted the attention of clinicians, scientists, and state authorities about the risks linked to this re-emerging mosquito-borne virus. CHIKV, which belongs to the Alphaviruses genus, was not previously regarded as a highly pathogenic arbovirus. However, this opinion was challenged by the death of several CHIKV-infected persons in Reunion Island. The epidemic episode began in December 2005 and four months later the seroprevalence survey report indicated that 236,000 persons, more than 30% of Reunion Island population, had been infected with CHIKV, among which 0.4-0.5% of cases were fatal. Since the epidemic peak, the infection case number has continued to increase to almost 40% of the population, with a total of more than 250 fatalities. Although information available on CHIKV is growing quite rapidly, we are still far from understanding the strategies required for the ecologic success of this virus, virus replication, its interactions with its vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, and its genetic evolution. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge of CHIKV genomic organization, cell tropism, and the virus replication cycle, and evaluate the possibility to predict its future evolution. Such understanding may be applied in order to anticipate future epidemics and reduce the incidence by development and application of, for example, vaccination and antiviral therapy. PMID:19732931

  15. A prospective evaluation of diagnostic methodologies for the acute diagnosis of dengue virus infection on the Thailand-Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia L.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jarman, Richard G; Blacksell, Stuart D; Nosten, François H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Clinically useful diagnostic tests of dengue virus infection are lacking. We prospectively evaluated the performance of real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT)-PCR, NS-1 antigen and IgM antibody tests to confirm dengue virus infection in acute blood specimens from 162 patients presenting with undifferentiated febrile illness compatible with dengue infection. rRT-PCR was the most sensitive test (89%) and potentially could be used as a single test for confirmation of dengue infection. NS-...

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  17. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  18. Identification of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus Fu-J carrying complete v-fps oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Transduction of oncogenes by ALVs and generation of acute transforming viruses is common in natural viral infections. In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid oncogenicity of Fu-J, an acutely transforming avian leukosis virus isolated from fibrosarcomas in crossbreed broilers infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in China, complete genomic structure of Fu-J virus was determined by PCR amplification and compared with those of Fu-J1, Fu-J2, Fu-J3, Fu-J4, and Fu-J5 reported previously. The results showed that the genome of Fu-J was defective, with parts of gag gene replaced by the complete v-fps oncogene and encoded a 137 kDa Gag-fps fusion protein. Sequence analysis revealed that Fu-J and Fu-J1 to Fu-J5 were related quasi-species variants carrying different lengths of v-fps oncogenes generated from recombination between helper virus and c-fps gene. Comparison of virus carrying v-fps oncogene also gave us a glimpse of the molecular characterization and evolution process of the acutely transforming ALV.

  19. Epidemic situation of chikungunya fever in China%我国基孔肯雅热的流行状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 刘起勇

    2011-01-01

    2010年10月,广东省东莞市暴发了我国首起基孔肯雅热社区聚集性疫情,打破了其长期以来以散在输入性病例为特征的流行现状.基孔肯雅热是一种由基孔肯雅病毒引起的急性传染病,伊蚊是其主要传播媒介.而我国大多数地区拥有其主要传播媒介埃及伊蚊和白纹伊蚊,一旦病原体侵入,可能暴发基孔肯雅热疫情.如何控制该疫情,防止疫情的进一步扩散,是摆在我们面前的当务之急.现就基孔肯雅病毒的病原学特征以及基孔肯雅热在我国历年的流行状况做一概述,以便更好地认识基孔肯雅热,为有效地监测和防治提供科学依据.%In October 2010, China's first community-based chikungunya fever (CHIK) outbreak occurred in Dongguan,Guangdong, a deviation from the long-term predominance of sporadic imported cases. CHIK is an acute infectious disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which are widely distributed in China.A CHIK outbreak may occur following the invasion of CHIKV. Hence, it is urgent to formulate control measures to prevent further spread of this disease. This study gives an overview of the pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of CHIK to promote understanding of this disease and improve surveillance, prevention and control programs.

  20. Acute lung injury induced by H9N2 virus in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Shan Yunfeng; Chi Ying; Wen Tian; Han Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have repeatedly caused infections in mammals even humans in many countries.The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute lung injury (ALI) caused by H9N2 viral infection in mice.Methods Six-to eight-week-old female SPF C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1x104 MID50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK)] virus.Clinical signs,pathological changes,virus titration in tissues of mice,arterial blood gas,and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were observed at different time points after AIV infection.Results H9N2-AIV-infected mice exhibited severe respiratory syndrome,with a mortality rate of 50%.Lung histopathological changes in infected mice included diffuse pneumonia,alveolar damage,inflammatory cellular infiltration,interstitial and alveolar edema,and hemorrhage.In addition,H9N2 viral infection resulted in severe progressive hypoxemia,lymphopenia,and a significant increase in interleukin 1,interleukin 6,tumor necrosis factor,and interferon in BALF and serum.Conclusions The results suggest that H9N2 viral infection induces a typical ALl in mice that resembles the common features of ALl.Our data may facilitate the future studies of potential avian H9N2 disease in humans.

  1. The Impact of Specific Viruses on Clinical Outcome in Children Presenting with Acute Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Gagliardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and type of viral genomes have been suggested as the main etiology for inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. Information on the clinical implication of this finding in a large population of children is lacking. We evaluated the prevalence, type, and clinical impact of specific viral genomes in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB collected between 2001 and 2013 among 63 children admitted to our hospital for acute heart failure (median age 2.8 years. Viral genome was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Patients underwent a complete two-dimensional echocardiographic examination at hospital admission and at discharge and were followed-up for 10 years. Twenty-seven adverse events (7 deaths and 20 cardiac transplantations occurred during the follow-up. Viral genome was amplified in 19/63 biopsies (35%; PVB19 was the most commonly isolated virus. Presence of specific viral genome was associated with a significant recovery in ejection fraction, compared to patients without viral evidence (p < 0.05. In Cox-regression analysis, higher survival rate was related to virus-positive biopsies (p < 0.05. When comparing long-term prognosis among different viral groups, a trend towards better prognosis was observed in the presence of isolated Parvovirus B19 (PVB19 (p = 0.07. In our series, presence of a virus-positive EMB (mainly PVB19 was associated with improvement over time in cardiac function and better long-term prognosis.

  2. Sequential bottlenecks drive viral evolution in early acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena A Bull

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral population was conducted in four subjects followed from very early acute infection to resolution of disease outcome. By means of next generation sequencing (NGS and standard cloning/Sanger sequencing, genetic diversity and viral variants were quantified over the course of the infection at frequencies as low as 0.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of reassembled viral variants revealed acute infection was dominated by two sequential bottleneck events, irrespective of subsequent chronicity or clearance. The first bottleneck was associated with transmission, with one to two viral variants successfully establishing infection. The second occurred approximately 100 days post-infection, and was characterized by a decline in viral diversity. In the two subjects who developed chronic infection, this second bottleneck was followed by the emergence of a new viral population, which evolved from the founder variants via a selective sweep with fixation in a small number of mutated sites. The diversity at sites with non-synonymous mutation was higher in predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes, suggesting immune-driven evolution. These results provide the first detailed analysis of early within-host evolution of HCV, indicating strong selective forces limit viral evolution in the acute phase of infection.

  3. Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into chromosomal DNA during acute hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerald C Kimbi; Anna Kramvis; Michael C Kew

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the serum from black African patients with acute hepatitis B to ascertain if integrants of viral DNA can be detected in fragments of cellular DNA leaking from damaged hepatocytes into the circulation.METHODS: DNA was extracted from the sera of five patients with uncomplicated acute hepatitis B and one with fulminant disease. Two subgenomic PCRs designed to amplify the complete genome of HBV were used and the resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced.RESULTS: HBV and chromosomal DNA were amplified from the sera of all the patients. In one patient with uncomplicated disease, HBV DNA was integrated into host chromosome 7 q11.23 in the WBSCR1 gene. The viral DNA comprised 200 nucleotides covering the S and X genes in opposite orientation, with a 1 169 nudeotide deletion. The right virus/host junction was situated at nucleotide 1774 in the cohesive overlap region of the viral genome, at a preferred topoisomerase I cleavage motif. The chromosomal DNA was not rearranged.The patient made a full recovery and seroconverted to anti-HBs- and anti-HBe-positivity. Neither HBV nor chromosomal DNA could be amplified from his serum at that time.CONCLUSION: Integration of viral DNA into chromosomal DNA may occur rarely during acute hepatitis B and, with clonal propagation of the integrant, might play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  4. Patterns of hepatitis C virus RNA levels during acute infection: the InC3 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Hajarizadeh

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of HCV RNA levels during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection provides insights into immunopathogenesis and is important for vaccine design. This study evaluated patterns of HCV RNA levels and associated factors among individuals with acute infection.Data were from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts of acute HCV (InC3 Study. Participants with well-characterized acute HCV infection (detected within three months post-infection and interval between the peak and subsequent HCV RNA levels ≤ 120 days were categorised by a priori-defined patterns of HCV RNA levels: i spontaneous clearance, ii partial viral control with persistence (≥ 1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak and iii viral plateau with persistence (increase or <1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak. Factors associated with HCV RNA patterns were assessed using multinomial logistic regression.Among 643 individuals with acute HCV, 162 with well-characterized acute HCV were identified: spontaneous clearance (32%, partial viral control with persistence (27%, and viral plateau with persistence (41%. HCV RNA levels reached a high viraemic phase within two months following infection, with higher levels in the spontaneous clearance and partial viral control groups, compared to the viral plateau group (median: 6.0, 6.2, 5.3 log IU/mL, respectively; P = 0.018. In the two groups with persistence, Interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3 CC genotype was independently associated with partial viral control compared to viral plateau (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.08, 7.02. In the two groups with viral control, female sex was independently associated with spontaneous clearance compared to partial viral control (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.04, 7.83.Among individuals with acute HCV, a spectrum of HCV RNA patterns is evident. IFNL3 CC genotype is associated with initial viral control, while female sex is associated with ultimate

  5. Comparative studies on virus detection in acute respiratory diseases in humans by means of RIA and cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In winter 1981, 146 patients with an acute respiratory infection were examined. Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained by intranasal catheter. Comparative investigations were performed by cultivation in tissue culture and by a four-layer radioimmunoassay. In the radioimmunoassay, polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, ginea pig antivirus immunoglobulins as the captive antibodies, rabbit anti-virus immunoglobulins as the secondary antibodies and 125I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were used as the indicator antibodies. The radioimmunoassay was developed for the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B virus and parainfluenza type 1, type 2 and type 3 virus. Tissue culture seems to be more sensitive for detection of adenovirus and influenza A virus, though some infections with influenza A virus could only be diagnosed by the radioimmunoassay. In other cases (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza B virus) antigen detection by radioimmunoassay is more efficient. Presently the combination of both antigen-detection-systems still is the optimal diagnostic procedure for detecting virus infections of the respiratory tract. (orig./MG)

  6. Elevation of soluble VCAM-1 plasma levels in children with acute dengue virus infection of varying severity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, P.; Murgue, B.; Deparis, X.; Gorp, E. van; Setiati, T.E.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Groen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 million infections with dengue viruses are estimated to occur annually. The majority of the cases develop mild disease, whereas only small proportion of the infected individuals develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations at the end of the acute phase of illness. In this study, the

  7. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Acute and Mild Strains of Classical Swine Fever Virus Subgenotype 3.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-In; Han, Song-Hee; Hyun, HyeSook; Lim, Ji-Ae; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of two classical swine fever virus strains (JJ9811 and YI9908). Both belong to subgenotype 3.2. Strain JJ9811 causes mild symptoms and strain YI9908 causes acute symptoms. The sequences were 95.7% homologous at the nucleotide level and 95.6% homologous at the amino acid level. PMID:26823570

  8. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Acute and Mild Strains of Classical Swine Fever Virus Subgenotype 3.2

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seong-In; Han, Song-Hee; Hyun, HyeSook; Lim, Ji-Ae; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of two classical swine fever virus strains (JJ9811 and YI9908). Both belong to subgenotype 3.2. Strain JJ9811 causes mild symptoms and strain YI9908 causes acute symptoms. The sequences were 95.7% homologous at the nucleotide level and 95.6% homologous at the amino acid level.

  9. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

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    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  10. Chandipura virus: a major cause of acute encephalitis in children in North Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandale, Babasaheb V; Tikute, Sanjaykumar S; Arankalle, Vidya A; Sathe, Padmakar S; Joshi, Manohar V; Ranadive, Satish N; Kanojia, Phoolchand C; Eshwarachary, D; Kumarswamy, M; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2008-01-01

    A hospital-based surveillance was undertaken between May 2005 and April 2006 to elucidate the contribution of Chandipura virus (CHPV) to acute viral encephalitis cases in children, seroconversion in recovered cases and to compare the seroprevalences of anti-CHPV IgM and N antibodies in areas reporting cases with those without any case of acute viral encephalitis. During this period, 90 cases of acute encephalitis were hospitalized in the pediatric wards of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial (MGM) Hospital, Warangal. There were 49 deaths (Case Fatality Rate, i.e., CFR of 54.4%). Clinical samples and records were obtained from 52 suspected cases. The cases were below 15 years, majority in 0-4 years (35/52, 67.3%). Computerized tomography (CT) scans and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) picture favored viral etiology. No neurological sequelae were observed. CHPV etiology was detected in 25 cases (48.1%, n = 52; RNA in 20, IgM in 3 and N antibody seroconversion in 2). JEV etiology was detected in 5 cases (IgM in 4 cases and seroconversion in 1 case). Anti-CHPV IgM seroprevalence in contacts (26/167, 15.6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in non-contacts (11/430, 2.6%); which was also observed in children <15 years (19/90, 21.1% vs. 3/109, 2.7%). Anti-CHPV N antibody seroprevalence in <15 years contacts (66/90, 73.3%) and non-contacts (77/109, 70.6%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in contacts (75/77, 97.4%) and non-contacts (302/321, 94.1%) more than 15 years respectively. CHPV appears to be the major cause of acute viral encephalitis in children in endemic areas during early monsoon months.

  11. Molecular and Virological Investigation of a Focal Chikungunya Outbreak in Northern India

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    Manisha Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is one of the most important arboviral infections of medical significance. The objective of the present study is to identify and characterize the etiology of a focal febrile arthritis outbreak from Gwalior, northern India, during October-November 2010. A detailed virological (isolation and molecular (end-point RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, and nucleotide sequencing investigation of this outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 52 clinical samples and 15 mosquito pools from the affected region. The investigation revealed the presence of CHIK viral RNA in 29% of clinical samples and 13% mosquito pool by RT-PCR. The quantification of CHIK viral RNA in samples varied from 102.50 to 106.67 copies/mL, as demonstrated through quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, six CHIK viruses were isolated from RT-PCR positive samples. The nucleotide sequences of partial E1 gene of five representative CHIK viruses were deciphered, which revealed that all the viral strains from this outbreak belong to the recently emerging ECS African genotype. Identification of Chikungunya virus ECSA African genotype as the etiology of the present outbreak confirms the continued circulation of the novel genotype, since 2006, in India. The identification of CHIK virus in Aedes aegypti also confirmed it as the major vector in northern India.

  12. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer;

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...... multisystemic infection similar to measles virus (MV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) infections in their susceptible natural hosts. The wild-type CDVs investigated provoked marked virulence differences inducing mild versus marked to severe acute disease. The mildly virulent wild-type induced transient lymphopenia...... despite the development of massive infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exceeding that determined for the highly virulent wild-type, indicating an inverse relationship between acute virulence and the extent of viremia between the investigated wild-types. Single-cell cytokine production...

  13. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

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    Chaoul Nada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi, and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun to 35% (ileum at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum or IgM (duodenum plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses

  14. Surveillance of dengue and chikungunya infection in Dong Thap, Vietnam:A 13-month study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham Thi Kim Lien; Phan Thi Nga; Laurence Briant; Truong Ba Tang; Bui Minh Trang; Laurent Gavotte; Emmanuel Cornillot; Vu Trong Duoc; Tran Nhu Duong; Roger Frutos

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a surveillance in Dong Thap, at the border with Cambodia by assessing the presence of DENV serotypes and CHIKV among patients hospitalized at Dong Thap general hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive analysis was conducted on a cohort of 131 patients hospitalized with acute fever and symptoms compatible with dengue or chikungunya. The study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2013. The full clinical picture was established as well as serological and molecular detection. Serological analysis was sequentially performed on blood samples collected on admission and an average of seven days after admission. The detection of IgM antibody to DENV was performed by IgM capture ELISA and the detection of DENV and CHIKV RNA was done by reverse-transcription multiplex PCR. Results: 101 patients out of 131 (77%) were confirmed with dengue. All four dengue serotypes were detected with a predominance of DENV2 and DENV4. No chikungunya infection was detected although reported in neighboring Cambodia. A differential efficiency of serological dengue detection was observed. Efficiency was 29% upon admission and 53% after seven days on the same patients. 30 patients out of 131 (23%) were negative with both DENV and CHIKV. Conclusions: Dengue is at risk of being underestimated and chikungunya is not systematically detected. Changes in detection and surveillance procedures are therefore discussed to increase efficiency of dengue detection and continue the monitoring the emergence of CHIKV in Dong Thap province and in Vietnam.

  15. 云南基孔肯雅热研究概况%Current progress in research of Chikungunya fever in Yunnan Province in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳红; 宝福凯; 柳爱华

    2013-01-01

    基孔肯雅热(Chikungunya fever,CHIK)是由基孔肯雅病毒(Chikungunya virus,CHIKV)引起的一种急性自然疫源性传染病,经伊蚊叮咬而传播.由于CHIK的分布与其传播媒介伊蚊的分布密切相关,因此云南具有引起本病流行的条件,是CHIK主要流行省份之一.本文拟对云南CHIK研究的历史和现状做一综述.

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type-1 central nervous system disease with acute retinal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Aye, Aye Mya Min; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Nor, Norazlin Kamal; Visvaraja, Subrayan; Tajunisah, Iqbal; Ong, Lai Choo

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease. PMID:24378951

  17. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  18. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  19. Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Pérez-Girón, José Vicente; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Rissland, Jürgen; Ferreira, Davis F; Jaenisch, Thomas; Gómez-Medina, Sergio; Günther, Stephan; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

  20. Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Pérez-Girón, José Vicente; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Rissland, Jürgen; Ferreira, Davis F; Jaenisch, Thomas; Gómez-Medina, Sergio; Günther, Stephan; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase. PMID:26702627

  1. Establishment of realtime RT-PCR assay to detect polio virus in the Acute Flaccid Paralysis laboratory surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Susanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Virus polio indigenous terakhir ditemukan di Indonesia tahun 1995 tetapi ancaman viruspolio impor dan mutasi virus dari Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV menjadi Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (VDPVmasih berlanjut. Tahun 1991 WHO mengembangkan Surveilans Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP dan tahun2014, identifikasi virus polio dengan real-time reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRTPCRmulai digunakan di Laboratorium Nasional Polio Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan.Tujuan dari penggunaan rRT-PCR untuk mendapatkan metode yang cepat dan lebih baik dalam memantausirkulasi dan mutasi virus polio.Metode: Isolat polio positif diidentifikasi menggunakanan rRT PCR dengan kombinasi primer dan probeyang ditetapkan WHO. RNA virus di konversi ke cDNA menggunakan reverse transcriptase lalu diamplifikasimenggunakan taq polymerase. Produk PCR di deteksi dan diidentifikasi dengan hibridisasi menggunakanprobe spesifik. Sintesis cDNA dan reaksi PCR menggunakan primer yang dilekatkan di probe. Kombinasiprimer dan probe menghasilkan identifikasi serotipe dan intratypic differentiation (ITD dari isolat virus.Hasil: Selama tahun 2014, NPL Jakarta menerima 604 kasus AFP dari surveilans dan lima kasusterdeteksi positif mengandung virus polio. Semua spesimen positif mengandung virus polio yang berasaldari vaksin. Dua kasus positif virus polio tipe P2 (40%, satu kasus jenis virus polio P1 (20%, 1 kasusjenis virus polio P3 (20% dan satu kasus virus polio campuran jenis P1 + P2 (20%.Kesimpulan: Real-time PCR dapat digunakan di Laboratorium Polio Jakarta untuk membantu identifikasivirus Polio secara cepat. Tes ini dapat digunakan untuk memantau sirkulasi virus polio pada populasiyang rutin diimunisasi dengan OPV. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:27-31Kata kunci: ITD, Poliovirus, Identification, rRT-PCR AbstractBackground: The last indigenous polio was detected in 1995 but the threat of wild type polio viruses and themutation of Oral

  2. Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chêne

    Full Text Available Human herpes viruses (HHVs are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8. We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0 and 14 days later (after treatment, or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.

  3. The Impact of Specific Viruses on Clinical Outcome in Children Presenting with Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Maria Giulia; Fierabracci, Alessandra; Pilati, Mara; Chinali, Marcello; Bassano, Carlo; Saura, Francesca; Giovannoni, Isabella; Francalanci, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The presence and type of viral genomes have been suggested as the main etiology for inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. Information on the clinical implication of this finding in a large population of children is lacking. We evaluated the prevalence, type, and clinical impact of specific viral genomes in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) collected between 2001 and 2013 among 63 children admitted to our hospital for acute heart failure (median age 2.8 years). Viral genome was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients underwent a complete two-dimensional echocardiographic examination at hospital admission and at discharge and were followed-up for 10 years. Twenty-seven adverse events (7 deaths and 20 cardiac transplantations) occurred during the follow-up. Viral genome was amplified in 19/63 biopsies (35%); PVB19 was the most commonly isolated virus. Presence of specific viral genome was associated with a significant recovery in ejection fraction, compared to patients without viral evidence (p Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) (p = 0.07). In our series, presence of a virus-positive EMB (mainly PVB19) was associated with improvement over time in cardiac function and better long-term prognosis. PMID:27043551

  4. Precore mutant of hepatitis B virus prevails in acute and chronic infections in an area in which hepatitis B is endemic.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, C. M.; Yeh, C T; Chiu, C T; Sheen, I S; Liaw, Y F

    1996-01-01

    By using an amplification-created restriction site method, the precore TAG mutant of hepatitis B virus was detected in 6 (75%) of 8 acute fulminant hepatitis B patients, 7 (58%) of 12 acute self-limiting hepatitis B patients, 35 (81%) of 43 hepatitis B virus surface antigen carriers with fulminant hepatitis, and 42 (70%) of 60 hepatitis B virus surface antigen carriers with chronic hepatitis. The precore TAG mutant prevails in acute and chronic hepatitis B of various severity in this area whe...

  5. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  6. Serum Galectin-9 and Galectin-3-Binding Protein in Acute Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Yao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious threat for public health and induces various inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including galectins and glycoproteins. Diverse immune responses and immunological pathways are induced in different phases of dengue fever progression. However, the status of serum galectins and glycoproteins is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration and potential interaction of soluble galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-9, galectin-3 binding protein (galectin-3BP), glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and E-, L-, and P-selectin in patients with dengue fever in acute febrile phase. In this study, 317 febrile patients (187 dengue patients, 150 non-dengue patients that included 48 patients with bacterial infection and 102 patients with other febrile illness) who presented to the emergency department and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Our results showed the levels of galectin-9 and galectin-3BP were significantly higher in dengue patients than those in healthy controls. Lower serum levels of galectin-1, galectin-3, and E-, L-, and P-selectin in dengue patients were detected compared to bacteria-infected patients, but not to healthy controls. In addition, strong correlation between galectin-9 and galectin-3BP was observed in dengue patients. In summary, our study suggested galectin-9 and galectin-3BP might be critical inflammatory mediators in acute dengue virus infection. PMID:27240351

  7. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  8. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Chen Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Li Xing; Chong Tang; Xiangwu Ju; Feng Guo; Jiejie Deng; Yan Zhao; Peng Yang; Jun Tang; Penghui Yang; Huanling Wang; Zhongpeng Zhao; Zhinan Yin; Bin Cao; Xiliang Wang; Chengyu Jiang; Yang Sun; Taisheng Li; Chen Wang; Zhong Wang; Zhen Zou; Yiwu Yan; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus(S-OIV H1N1)that infected almost every country in the world.Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury.In this report,we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease.The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir(Tamiflu)administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model.Moreover,elevated levels of IL-17,Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing.IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice.These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.

  9. Production and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive to Chikungunya envelope E2 glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Anne-Claire; Rubrecht, Laetitia; Navarro-Sanchez, Martha Erika; Maréchal, Valérie; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lapalud, Priscilla; Laune, Daniel; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Desprès, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is an arbovirosis of major impact in public health in Asia and Africa. Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is member of the genus Alphavirus and belongs to the Semliki Forest (SF) antigenic complex. We describe for the first time a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to CHIK envelope E2 glycoprotein. For the screening of E2-specific MAbs, we expressed a recombinant soluble CHIK E2 protein in Drosophila S2 cells. Analyzed by immunological methods, MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 were selected on the basis of their reactivity. Their epitopes are located to the outer surface of CHIK virion. These MAbs have no cross reactivity with related members of SF antigenic complex with the notable exception of Igbo-Ora virus. Anti-CHIK E2 MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 should be helpful for studying the biology of CHIK virus and pathogenesis of disease. The combination of 8A4 and 3E4 is suitable for developing a specific antigen-capture ELISA. PMID:17949772

  10. A Role for RNA Viruses in the Pathogenesis of Burkitt's Lymphoma: The Need for Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corry van den Bosch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain infectious agents are associated with lymphomas, but the strength of the association varies geographically, suggesting that local environmental factors make important contributions to lymphomagenesis. Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma has well-defined environmental requirements making it particularly suitable for research into local environmental factors. The Epstein-Barr virus and holoendemic Malaria are recognized as important cofactors in endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma and their contributions are discussed. Additionally, infection with Chikungunya Fever, a potentially oncogenic arbovirus, was associated with the onset of endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma in one study and also with space-time case clusters of the lymphoma. Chikungunya Virus has several characteristics typical of oncogenic viruses. The Flavivirus, Hepatitis C, a Class 1 Human Carcinogen, closely related to the arboviruses, Yellow Fever, and Dengue, is also more distantly related to Chikungunya Virus. The mechanisms of oncogenesis believed to operate in Hepatitis C lymphomagenesis are discussed, as is their potential applicability to Chikungunya Virus.

  11. A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F W; Collier, A M; Sanyal, M A; Watkins, J M; Fairclough, D L; Clyde, W A; Denny, F W

    1982-06-10

    We analyzed data from a 14-year longitudinal study of respiratory infections in young children to determine the relative importance of viral respiratory infection and nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as factors influencing the occurrence of acute otitis media with effusion. The incidence of this disorder was increased in children with viral respiratory infections (average relative risk, 3.2; P less than 0.0001). Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus (type A or B), and adenovirus conferred a greater risk of otitis media than did infection with parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, or rhinovirus. Colonization of the nasopharynx with Str. pneumoniae or H. influenzae had a lesser effect on the incidence of the disease (average relative risk; 1.5; P less than 0.01). Infections with the viruses more closely associated with acute otitis media (respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and influenza A or B) were correlated with an increased risk of recurrent disease. Prevention of selected otitis-associated viral infections should reduce the incidence of this disease.

  12. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Kobashi, Haruhiko; Takaki, Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa, Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; Ishikawa, Shin; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  13. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Ishikawa, Shin; Tatsukawa, Masashi; Nawa, Toru; Kato, Jun; Takaki, Akinobu; Kobashi, Haruhiko; Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent withamebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice.Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during thepast 3 y...

  14. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  15. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  16. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  17. Etiological Role of Viruses in Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis in The Netherlands from 1994 through 2005▿

    OpenAIRE

    Svraka, Sanela; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Bruin, Erwin; van der Veer, Bas; Dorresteijn, Bram; Koopmans, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide. In developed countries, viruses, particularly noroviruses, are recognized as the leading cause. In The Netherlands, the surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks with suspected viral etiologies (as determined by Kaplan criteria) was established by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 1994. This paper presents an overview of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks reported from 1994 through 2005. A minimum e...

  18. New Immunochromatographic Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Acute Puumala Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujakka, Helena; Koistinen, Vesa; Eerikäinen, Pekka; Kuronen, Ilpo; Mononen, Ilkka; Parviainen, Markku; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Närvänen, Ale; Vapalahti, Olli

    2001-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic rapid test, POC PUUMALA (Erilab Ltd., Kuopio, Finland), for detection of acute-phase Puumala virus (PUUV) infection was developed based on a highly purified baculovirus-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein antigen and lateral immunodiffusion techniques. After addition of sample (5 μl of serum, plasma, or fingertip blood) and buffer, PUUV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, if present, together with the gold-conjugated anti-human IgM, formed a specific colored line in 5 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated with 200 serum samples and 30 fingertip blood samples. The reference method for the serum samples was a μ-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgM and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for IgG antibodies. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100 and 99%, respectively, for unfrozen serum samples (n = 103; 12 PUUV IgM-positive samples). When freeze-thawed serum samples were used, the sensitivity and specificity were each 97.1% (n = 70; 35 PUUV IgM-positive samples). The specificity of the test was 96.2% for 27 serum samples with nonspecific IgM antibodies or rheumatoid factor (RF). The fingertip blood samples (n = 30) were negative, but they gave clear positive results when spiked with IgM-positive sera (n = 20). The results were in good agreement with the standard diagnostic methods. The rapid performance, the lack of need for refined laboratory equipment, and the high specificity with fresh serum and fingertip blood samples indicate that the developed POC PUUMALA rapid test is a useful tool for fast diagnosis of acute PUUV infection. PMID:11376049

  19. Analysis of the Molecular Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Symptomatic Acute Infections in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Belén; Mojsiejczuk, Laura Noelia; Torres, Carolina; Sevic, Ina; González López Ledesma, María Mora; Perez, Paula Soledad; Bouzas, María Belén; Galdame, Omar; Marciano, Sebastián; Fainboim, Hugo; Flichman, Diego Martín; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a globally distributed human pathogen that leads to both self-limited and chronic infections. At least eight genotypes (A-H) with distinct geographical allocations and phylodynamic behaviors have been described. They differ substantially in many virological and probably some clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to analyze full-length HBV genome sequences from individuals with symptomatic acute HBV infections using phylogenetic and coalescent methods. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in the following subgenotype distribution: F1b (52.7%), A2 (18.2%), F4 (18.2%) and A1, B2, D3 and F2a 1.8% each. These results contrast with those previously reported from chronic infections, where subgenotypes F1b, F4, A2 and genotype D were evenly distributed. This differential distribution might be related to recent internal migrations and/or intrinsic biological features of each viral genotype that could impact on the probability of transmission. The coalescence analysis showed that after a diversification process started in the 80s, the current sequences of subgenotype F1b were grouped in at least four highly supported lineages, whereas subgenotype F4 revealed a more limited diversification pattern with most lineages without offspring in the present. In addition, the genetic characterization of the studied sequences showed that only two of them presented mutations of clinical relevance at S codifyng region and none at the polymerase catalytic domains. Finally, since the acute infections could be an expression of the genotypes currently being transmitted to new hosts, the predominance of subgenotype F1b might have epidemiological, as well as, clinical relevance due to its potential adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases. PMID:27433800

  20. Full-breadth analysis of CD8+ T-cell responses in acute hepatitis C virus infection and early therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Georg M; Lucas, Michaela; Timm, Joerg; Ouchi, Kei; Kim, Arthur Y; Day, Cheryl L; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Sheridan, Isabelle; Casson, Deborah R; Reiser, Markus; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Li, Bin; Allen, Todd M; Chung, Raymond T; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D

    2005-10-01

    Multispecific CD8(+) T-cell responses are thought to be important for the control of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but to date little information is actually available on the breadth of responses at early time points. Additionally, the influence of early therapy on these responses and their relationships to outcome are controversial. To investigate this issue, we performed comprehensive analysis of the breadth and frequencies of virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses on the single epitope level in eight acutely infected individuals who were all started on early therapy. During the acute phase, responses against up to five peptides were identified. During therapy, CD8(+) T-cell responses decreased rather than increased as virus was controlled, and no new specificities emerged. A sustained virological response following completion of treatment was independent of CD8(+) T-cell responses, as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses. Rapid recrudescence also occurred despite broad CD8(+) T-cell responses. Importantly, in vivo suppression of CD3(+) T cells using OKT3 in one subject did not result in recurrence of viremia. These data suggest that broad CD8(+) T-cell responses alone may be insufficient to contain HCV replication, and also that early therapy is effective independent of such responses. PMID:16189000

  1. Importance of brood maintenance terms in simple models of the honeybee - Varroa destructor - acute bee paralysis virus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple mathematical model of the infestation of a honeybee colony by the Acute Paralysis Virus, which is carried by parasitic varroa mites (Varroa destructor. This is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the dependent variables: number of mites that carry the virus, number of healthy bees and number of sick bees. We study this model with a mix of analytical and computational techniques. Our results indicate that, depending on model parameters and initial data, bee colonies in which the virus is present can, over years, function seemingly like healthy colonies before they decline and disappear rapidly (e.g. Colony Collapse Disorder, wintering losses. This is a consequence of the fact that a certain number of worker bees is required in a colony to maintain and care for the brood, in order to ensure continued production of new bees.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  3. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis and Human Herpes Virus Type-6 Infection: First Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maria Miguel; Antunes, Henedina; Lobo, Ana Luísa; Branca, Fernando; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Moreira-Pinto, João

    2016-01-01

    A three-year-old male child presented with erythematous maculopapular nonpruritic generalized rash, poor feeding, vomiting, and cramping generalized abdominal pain. He was previously healthy and there was no family history of immunologic or other diseases. On examination he was afebrile, hemodynamically stable, with painful palpation of the right upper quadrant and positive Murphy's sign. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, elevated aminotransferase activity, and features of cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound showed gallbladder wall thickening of 8 mm with a positive sonographic Murphy's sign, without gallstones or pericholecystic fluid. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis (AAC) was diagnosed. Tests for underlying infectious causes were negative except positive blood specimen for Human Herpes Virus Type-6 (HHV-6) by polymerase chain reaction. With supportive therapy the child became progressively less symptomatic with gradual improvement. The child was discharged on the sixth day, asymptomatic and with improved analytic values. Two months later he had IgM negative and IgG positive antibodies (1/160) for HHV-6, which confirmed the diagnosis of previous infection. In a six-month follow-up period he remains asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of AAC associated with HHV-6 infection. PMID:27200203

  4. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis and Human Herpes Virus Type-6 Infection: First Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Miguel Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year-old male child presented with erythematous maculopapular nonpruritic generalized rash, poor feeding, vomiting, and cramping generalized abdominal pain. He was previously healthy and there was no family history of immunologic or other diseases. On examination he was afebrile, hemodynamically stable, with painful palpation of the right upper quadrant and positive Murphy’s sign. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, elevated aminotransferase activity, and features of cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound showed gallbladder wall thickening of 8 mm with a positive sonographic Murphy’s sign, without gallstones or pericholecystic fluid. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis (AAC was diagnosed. Tests for underlying infectious causes were negative except positive blood specimen for Human Herpes Virus Type-6 (HHV-6 by polymerase chain reaction. With supportive therapy the child became progressively less symptomatic with gradual improvement. The child was discharged on the sixth day, asymptomatic and with improved analytic values. Two months later he had IgM negative and IgG positive antibodies (1/160 for HHV-6, which confirmed the diagnosis of previous infection. In a six-month follow-up period he remains asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of AAC associated with HHV-6 infection.

  5. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Sewage and Genotype 1 in Acute Hepatitis Cases, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Daniela; Manor, Yossi; Gozlan, Yael; Schwartz, Eli; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging infectious agent in developed countries. HEV genotypes 1 (G1) and 3 (G3) have been identified in environmental and clinical samples in Europe. In Israel, the overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was found to be 10.6%; however, reports of HEV infection are scarce. In this study, the presence of HEV in Israel was investigated using 169 sewage samples from 32 treatment facilities and 49 samples from acute hepatitis patients, all collected between 2013 and 2015. Fourteen sewage samples, from Haifa (11/18 samples), Tel Aviv (2/29 samples), and Beer Sheva (1/17 samples), regions with good sanitary conditions and middle-high socioeconomic populations, were HEV positive. Among the patient samples, 6.1% (3/49) were HEV positive, all returning travelers from India. Genotype analysis revealed G1 HEV in patients and G3 HEV sequences in sewage. Evidence that HEV could be establishing itself in our region may justify more active surveillance to monitor its spread. PMID:27246446

  6. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinical signs, diagnosis and hospital admissions were documented. During this study period, 365 young infants (51.5% male, 48.5% female with respiratory tract infection were visited in 6 hospitals. The median age of patients was 24 months (range: 1 month to 5 years.RSV infection was found in 70 out of 365 patients (19.18%.Among the 70 children with RSV infection, 29 patients (41.42% were under 12 months of age.The main clinical manifestations of RSV infection were cough (88.57% and coryza (78.57%. There were no significant differences between patients who were tested positive for RSV and those who were tested negative with regard to demographic variables and clinical diagnoses. This study indicates that RSV is an important cause of respiratory tract infection in infants and young children .Distinguishing RSV from other respiratory infection is difficult because of the similarity in clinical presentation among children.

  7. Acute flaccid paralysis due to West nile virus infection in adults: A paradigm shift entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV in the index patient. All three cases had a positive WNV immunoglobulin M antibody in serum/CSF and significantly high titer of WNV neutralizing antibody in serum, clearly distinguishing the infection from other Flaviviridae such as Japanese encephalitis. WNV has been recognized in India for many decades; however, AFP has not been adequately described. WNV is a flavivirus that is spread by Culex mosquitoes while they take blood meals from humans and lineage 1 is capable of causing a devastating neuro-invasive disease with fatal consequences or severe morbidity. We describe the first three laboratory confirmed cases of WNV induced AFP from Kerala and briefly enumerate the salient features of this emerging threat.

  8. Survival and prognostic factors in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Huang; Jin-Hua Hu; Hui-Fen Wang; Wei-Ping He; Jing Chen; Xue-Zhang Duan; Ai-Min Zhang; Xiao-Yan Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the survival rates and prognostic ffactors in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver ffailure (HBV-ACLF).METHODS: Clinical data in hospitalized patients with HBV-ACLF admitted ffrom 2006 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Their general conditions and survival were analyzed by survival analysis and Cox regression analysis.RESULTS: A total off 190 patients were included in this study. The overall 1-year survival rate was 57.6%. Patients not treated with antiviral drugs had a significantly higher mortality [relative risk (RR) = 0.609, P = 0.014].The highest risk off death in patients with ACLF was associated with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) (RR = 2.084, P =0.026), while other significant factors were electrolyte disturbances (RR = 2.062, P = 0.010), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (RR = 1.879, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy has a strong effffect on the prognosis off the patients with HBV-ACLF by improving their 1-year survival rate. HRS, electrolyte disturbances,and HE also affffect patient survival.

  9. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  10. Novel chikungunya vaccine candidate with an IRES-based attenuation and host range alteration mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Plante

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that has recently caused devastating urban epidemics of severe and sometimes chronic arthralgia. As with most other mosquito-borne viral diseases, control relies on reducing mosquito populations and their contact with people, which has been ineffective in most locations. Therefore, vaccines remain the best strategy to prevent most vector-borne diseases. Ideally, vaccines for diseases of resource-limited countries should combine low cost and single dose efficacy, yet induce rapid and long-lived immunity with negligible risk of serious adverse reactions. To develop such a vaccine to protect against chikungunya fever, we employed a rational attenuation mechanism that also prevents the infection of mosquito vectors. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES from encephalomyocarditis virus replaced the subgenomic promoter in a cDNA CHIKV clone, thus altering the levels and host-specific mechanism of structural protein gene expression. Testing in both normal outbred and interferon response-defective mice indicated that the new vaccine candidate is highly attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious after a single dose. Furthermore, it is incapable of replicating in mosquito cells or infecting mosquitoes in vivo. This IRES-based attenuation platform technology may be useful for the predictable attenuation of any alphavirus.

  11. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ohashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1 signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV, naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1. Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  12. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  13. Treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection with interferon-α 2b and ribavirin: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbul Mustafa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection becomes chronic in about 85 % of individuals as demonstrated by the persistence of HCV. It is necesseray to treat acute hepatitis C infection. Interferon-α is generally used for the treatment of acute HCV infection. Case presentation A 55-year-old woman with a history of fatique and icter was diagnosed as acute hepatitis C virus infection. She was treated with interferon-α 2b 3 million unite sc three times in a week and ribavirin 1000 mg daily for 6 months. Within 2 weeks of therapy, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT had became normal. At the end of the 3 months of therapy, HCV RNA was negative and remained negative 6 months after the end of interferon treatment (sustained response. Conclusion This report suggests that interferon-α 2b and ribavirin may have a role in treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

  14. The Hemagglutinin Stem-Binding Monoclonal Antibody VIS410 Controls Influenza Virus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Jones, Jeremy C; Russier, Marion; Vogel, Peter; Szretter, Kristy J; Sloan, Susan E; Seiler, Patrick; Trevejo, Jose M; Webby, Richard J; Govorkova, Elena A

    2016-04-01

    Most cases of severe influenza are associated with pulmonary complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and no antiviral drugs of proven value for treating such complications are currently available. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the stem of the influenza virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) is a rapidly developing strategy for the control of viruses of multiple HA subtypes. However, the mechanisms of action of these antibodies are not fully understood, and their ability to mitigate severe complications of influenza has been poorly studied. We evaluated the effect of treatment with VIS410, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HA stem region, on the development of ARDS in BALB/c mice after infection with influenza A(H7N9) viruses. Prophylactic administration of VIS410 resulted in the complete protection of mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. A single therapeutic dose of VIS410 given 24 h after virus inoculation resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 100% of mice inoculated with neuraminidase inhibitor-susceptible or -resistant A(H7N9) viruses. Compared to the outcomes in mock-treated controls, a single administration of VIS410 improved viral clearance from the lungs, reduced virus spread in lungs in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a lower lung injury score, reduced the extent of the alteration in lung vascular permeability and protein accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and improved lung physiologic function. Thus, antibodies targeting the HA stem can reduce the severity of ARDS and show promise as agents for controlling pulmonary complications in influenza. PMID:26787699

  15. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH. To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987 and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992. Results Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975–1976, and one during 1985–1987. During 1985–1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3–17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40–190 per 100,000 and among women aged 20–29 (15–21 per 100,000. During 1988–1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000 than in urban (8 per 100,000 populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16–5.93; p Conclusion In the absence of the availability of confirmatory testing, inferences regarding probable hepatitis epidemic etiologies can sometimes be made using surveillance data, comparing AVH incidence with AVH-associated mortality with an eye to population-based viral hepatitis control measures. Data presented here implicate HEV as the probable etiology of high mortality observed in pregnant women and in children less than 3 years of age in Uzbekistan during 1985–1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in

  16. Urinary BK virus excretion in children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Raeesi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: To demonstrate the role of BK virus in inducing ALL or increasing the number of relapses, prospective studies on larger scale of population and evaluating both serum and urine for BK virus are recommended.

  17. Kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10, and virus neutralising antibodies during acute ephemeral fever virus infections in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R; Elliot, N

    2015-12-15

    While fever and inflammation are hallmark features of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), the cytokine networks that underlie the acute phase of the disease have not been empirically defined in cattle. This study characterised the plasma kinetics of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and IL-10 during acute BEF and elucidated on the relationship between the onset of the virus neutralizing antibody response and resolution of viraemia in natural BEF virus (BEFV) infections in cattle. Plasma from three BEFV-infected and three uninfected cattle was tested for the study cytokines by a cELISA, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were consistently increased in the three virus-infected animals. Two of the infected heifers were recumbent and pyrexic on the first day of monitoring and increased cytokine production was already in progress by the time viraemia was detected in all the three infected animals. In all the virus-infected heifers, IL-1β was the most strongly expressed cytokine, IL-6 and IL-10 manifested intermediate plasma concentrations while TNF-α was the least expressed and demonstrated bi-phasic peaks three and five days after the onset of pyrexia. In two of the BEFV-infected heifers, viraemia resolved on the day of seroconversion while in the other infected animal, viral RNA was detectable up to three days after seroconversion. The present data document variable increase in plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 during natural BEFV infections and the fact that upregulation of all but TNF-α precedes seroconversion. In addition to virus neutralising antibodies, it is likely that cytokine-mediated cellular mechanisms may be required for resolution of viraemia in BEF. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of IL-10, its upregulation may potentially antagonise the fever response in BEFV

  18. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    OpenAIRE

    Skelly Chris; Tilston Natasha; Weinstein Phil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. ...

  19. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  20. Clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to 13 respiratory viruses detected by multiplex PCR in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Sook Lim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results : Viruses were identified in 270 children (83.1%. Co-infections with ?#242; viruses were observed in 71 patients (26.3 %. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most common virus detected (33.2%, followed by human rhinovirus (hRV (19.1%, influenza virus (Flu A (16.9%, human metapneumovirus (hMPV (15.4%, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs (8.3%, human bocavirus (hBoV (8.0%, adenovirus (ADV (5.8%, and human coronavirus (hCoV (2.2%. Clinical diagnoses of viral ALRIs were bronchiolitis (37.5%, pneumonia (34.5%, asthma exacerbation (20.9%, and croup (7.1%. Clinical diagnoses of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia were frequently demonstrated in patients who tested positive for RSV, hRV, hMPV, or Flu A. Flu A and hRV were most commonly identified in children older than 3 years and were the 2 leading causes of asthma exacerbation. hRV C was detected in 14 (4.3% children, who were significantly older than those infected with hRV A (mean±SD, 4.1±3.5 years vs. 1.7±2.3 years; P=0.009. hBoV was usually detected in young children (2.3±3.4 years with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Conclusion : This study described the features of ALRI associated with 13 respiratory viruses in Korean children. Additional investigations are required to define the roles of newly identified viruses in children with ALRIs.

  1. Type C virus particles produced in human T-cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a leukemic T-lymphoid malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda,Takuzo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy of four human T-cell lines revealed the production of type C virus particles in two T-cell lines: one derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the other from a leukemic T-lymphoid malignancy. Virus particles isolated from these cells had reverse transcriptase activity and the major internal structural protein of 30,000 daltons (p30. The indirect immunofluorescence test of these virus-producing cells with sera of patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL was negative. The data indicate that these retroviruses are different from adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV.

  2. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.;

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response......The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine...

  3. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period. PMID:26647761

  5. Immunosuppression during acute infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine is mediated by IL-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayna Díaz-San Segundo

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is one of the most contagious animal viruses, causing a devastating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with enormous economic consequences. Identification of the different parameters involved in the immune response elicited against FMDV remains unclear, and it is fundamental the understanding of such parameters before effective control measures can be put in place. In the present study, we show that interleukin-10 (IL-10 production by dendritic cells (DCs is drastically increased during acute infection with FMDV in swine. In vitro blockade of IL-10 with a neutralizing antibody against porcine IL-10 restores T cell activation by DCs. Additionally, we describe that FMDV infects DC precursors and interferes with DC maturation and antigen presentation capacity. Thus, we propose a new mechanism of virus immunity in which a non-persistent virus, FMDV, induces immunosuppression by an increment in the production of IL-10, which in turn, reduces T cell function. This reduction of T cell activity may result in a more potent induction of neutralizing antibody responses, clearing the viral infection.

  6. Gambaran Perilaku Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara terhadap Demam Chikungunya Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nik Arif Ridhwan Bin Azemi

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is one of spreading disease which is its cases tend to increase day by day. Chikungunya is similar to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, both transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In North Sumatera, first Chikungunya cases appeared on 2005 and till now its already spread to few districts. The aim of this research is to know the knowledge, attitude and practice among the student of the Medical Faculty in the University of North Sumatera about Chikungunya Fever. This research u...

  7. An imported case of Chikungunya fever from Madagascar: use of the sentinel traveller for detecting emerging arboviral infections in tropical and European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Thierry; Ezzedine, Khaled; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Malvy, Denis

    2009-01-01

    A major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic affected the South-Western Indian Ocean islands in 2005. This major outbreak raised concerns about the possibility of the emergence of CHIKV infections in Europe as an autochthonous CHIKV outbreak occurred in the Ravenna region of Italy during the summer of 2007 and was linked to a viraemic index case originating in Kerala, India. This report highlights the need for surveillance in countries where such emerging infections could be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:19174303

  8. 基孔肯雅病毒,不容小觑肆虐美洲的“登革病毒”%Watch out for Chikungunya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛子洋; 高娜; 安静

    2015-01-01

    2014年,一种类似于登革热的传染病———基孔肯雅热席卷了中南美洲,其病原体为基孔肯雅病毒,隶属于披膜病毒科甲病毒属的单股正链RN A病毒,传播媒介主要是伊蚊属,尤其是白纹伊蚊和埃及伊蚊。基孔肯雅热的临床症状与登革热十分相似,临床上需要鉴别诊断。2010年该疾病在我国广东曾小规模流行,其对人民健康造成的危害以及所带来的经济负担不亚于登革热,应高度重视,遏制其蔓延。%Numerous Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred throughout Central and South America in 201 4.Around a million of local residents suffered.Chikungunya virus is a member of Genus Alphavirus,Family Togaviridae.The genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA.Genus Aedes mosquitoes are main vectors,especially Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti.The disease caused by the virus shows some similarities with Dengue fever in clinical manifestations.We need to pay attention to diagnosis of those two diseases.A small-scale epidemic of Chikungunya occurred struck in Guangdong Province in 201 0 with the degree of health threat.It's in great need of controlling the spread of Chikungunya virus,for its economic burden is no less than that of Dengue virus.

  9. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hannah; Douthwaite, Sam; Newsholme, William; Horsfield, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  10. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Salter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  11. Dengue, chikungunya … and the missing entity - Zika fever: A new emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Rina; Ray, Sougat; Tilak, V W; Mukherji, Sandip

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a relative newcomer from the flavivirus group that includes dengue, Japanese encepahalitis and yellow fever, is one of the emerging pathogens that is fast transcending geographical boundaries. It is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the same Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which cause dengue and chikungunya. In addition to the vector-mediated transmission of Zika fever, probable human-to-human transmission through exchange of body fluids, including sexual and perinatal transmission and through blood transfusion, makes containment of this new entity more challenging. Moreover, a high index of suspicion by an astute physician is necessary for diagnosis of Zika fever in view of the similarity of symptoms with dengue and chikungunya, especially in areas, where these two diseases are already endemic. Zika, till recently, has had minimal impact, but its true potential is unfolding with increasing detection of congenital malformities, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes in patients with recent history of ZIKV infection, or when mothers get infected with Zika during first or second trimester of pregnancy. The association, however, needs to be established, nonetheless it is important that we keep a close vigil on this emerging vector borne disease - the 'ZIKA' fever. PMID:27257326

  12. Dynamics of Persistent and Acute Deformed Wing Virus Infections in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jay D.; Yan Ping Chen; Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman; Francesco Pennacchio; Michele Hamilton; Emilio Caprio; Gennaro Di Prisco; Xuan Zhang; Jilian Li

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of viruses are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Using honey bee Deformed wing virus (DWV) as a model, we conducted field and laboratory studies to investigate the roles of abiotic and biotic stress factors as well as host health conditions in dynamics of virus replication in honey bees. The results showed that temperature decline could lead to not only significant decrease in the rate for pupae to emerge as adult bees, but also an increased severity of the v...

  13. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  14. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, JP; Kraemer, MU; Brady, OJ; Pigott, DM; Shearer, FM; Weiss, DJ; Golding, N.; Ruktanonchai, CW; Gething, PW; Cohn, E.; Brownstein, JS; Khan, K; Tatem, AJ; Jaenisch, T; Murray, CJ

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak ...

  15. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  16. Follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza a (H1N1 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toufen Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on the long-term follow-up of patients with swine-origin influenza A virus infection that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Four patients were prospectively followed up with pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography for six months after admission to an intensive care unit. RESULTS: Pulmonary function test results assessed two months after admission to the intensive care unit showed reduced forced vital capacity in all patients and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in two patients. At six months, pulmonary function test results were available for three patients. Two patients continued to have a restrictive pattern, and none of the patients presented with abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. All of them had a diffuse ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography that improved after six months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the marked severity of lung disease at admission, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by swine-origin influenza A virus infection presented a late but substantial recovery over six months of follow-up.

  17. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  18. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  19. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  20. Emerging mosquito-borne viruses: transmission and modulation of host defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two highly pathogenic arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), recently (re-)emerged in both Europe and the Americas. This resulted in large-scale epidemics of severe encephalitic and arthritogenic human disease, respectively. Both