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Sample records for chikungunya surveillance designing

  1. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  2. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelly Chris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data.

  3. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    OpenAIRE

    Skelly Chris; Tilston Natasha; Weinstein Phil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. ...

  4. Chikungunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya is a virus that spread by the same kinds of mosquitoes that spread dengue and Zika ... through infected blood. There have been outbreaks of chikungunya virus in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Indian and ...

  5. Chikungunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same kinds of mosquitoes that spread dengue and Zika virus. Rarely, it can spread from mother to newborn ... blood test can show whether you have chikungunya virus. There are no vaccines or medicines to treat it. Drinking lots of ...

  6. Surveillance of dengue and chikungunya infection in Dong Thap, Vietnam:A 13-month study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham Thi Kim Lien; Phan Thi Nga; Laurence Briant; Truong Ba Tang; Bui Minh Trang; Laurent Gavotte; Emmanuel Cornillot; Vu Trong Duoc; Tran Nhu Duong; Roger Frutos

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a surveillance in Dong Thap, at the border with Cambodia by assessing the presence of DENV serotypes and CHIKV among patients hospitalized at Dong Thap general hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive analysis was conducted on a cohort of 131 patients hospitalized with acute fever and symptoms compatible with dengue or chikungunya. The study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2013. The full clinical picture was established as well as serological and molecular detection. Serological analysis was sequentially performed on blood samples collected on admission and an average of seven days after admission. The detection of IgM antibody to DENV was performed by IgM capture ELISA and the detection of DENV and CHIKV RNA was done by reverse-transcription multiplex PCR. Results: 101 patients out of 131 (77%) were confirmed with dengue. All four dengue serotypes were detected with a predominance of DENV2 and DENV4. No chikungunya infection was detected although reported in neighboring Cambodia. A differential efficiency of serological dengue detection was observed. Efficiency was 29% upon admission and 53% after seven days on the same patients. 30 patients out of 131 (23%) were negative with both DENV and CHIKV. Conclusions: Dengue is at risk of being underestimated and chikungunya is not systematically detected. Changes in detection and surveillance procedures are therefore discussed to increase efficiency of dengue detection and continue the monitoring the emergence of CHIKV in Dong Thap province and in Vietnam.

  7. Assessing Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Traps for Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Surveillance (3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, James F; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species. PMID:26375905

  8. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  9. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  10. Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control

  11. Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Control Pocket Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical guide consolidates information and procedures for surveillance and control of mosquitoes that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. The guide focuses on mosquitoes that transmit dengue but also makes reference to chikungunya and yellow fever because the pathogens that cause these ...

  12. Congenital Chikungunya

    OpenAIRE

    Gopakumar, Hariharan; Ramachandran, Sivji

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection manifesting in neonates is very rare. The prevalence of the entity was described only recently. We describe a neonate with chikungunya who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and features of multisytem involvement. Identification of this entity based on clinical and epidemiological background helps in appropriate management and aids in prognostication of the affected neonate.

  13. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Isolated in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Xue-Dong; Ye, Qing; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Shun-ya ZHU; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus strain, GD05/2010, isolated in 2010 from a patient with chikungunya fever in Guangdong, China. The sequence information is important for surveillance of this emerging arboviral infection in China.

  15. Mapping recent chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  16. Chikungunya: epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook. PMID:26918158

  17. Chikungunya Infection in Travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Hochedez, Patrick; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Debruyne, Monique; Bossi, Philippe; Hausfater, Pierre; Brucker, Gilles; Bricaire, Francois; Caumes, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.

  18. Designing surveillance for noninfectious outcomes of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanari, R M; Wilkerson, K; Swartzendruber, S

    1995-07-01

    We present basic information that a hospital epidemiologist needs when designing a surveillance system for noninfectious adverse outcomes of care. Specific topics reflect key characteristics of such a surveillance system: the purpose, rationale, priorities, definitions, data collection tools, data collection, analysis and reporting, and validation. PMID:7673650

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of localized control strategies to curtail chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Skrip, Laura A; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Brownstein, John S; Fish, Durland; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya, a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, causes debilitating disease characterized by an acute febrile phase and chronic joint pain. Chikungunya has recently spread to the island of St. Martin and subsequently throughout the Americas. The disease is now affecting 42 countries and territories throughout the Americas. While chikungunya is mainly a tropical disease, the recent introduction and subsequent spread of Ae. albopictus into temperate regions has increased the threat of chikungunya outbreaks beyond the tropics. Given that there are currently no vaccines or treatments for chikungunya, vector control remains the primary measure to curtail transmission. To investigate the effectiveness of a containment strategy that combines disease surveillance, localized vector control and transmission reduction measures, we developed a model of chikungunya transmission dynamics within a large residential neighborhood, explicitly accounting for human and mosquito movement. Our findings indicate that prompt targeted vector control efforts combined with measures to reduce transmission from symptomatic cases to mosquitoes may be highly effective approaches for controlling outbreaks of chikungunya, provided that sufficient detection of chikungunya cases can be achieved. PMID:27045523

  20. Chikungunya Virus in North-Eastern Italy: A Seroprevalence Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Gagliotti, Carlo; Silvi, Giuliano; Angelini, Raffaella; Sambri, Vittorio; Rezza, Giovanni; Massimiliani, Erika; Mattivi, Andrea; Grilli, Elisa; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Spataro, Nadir; Pierro, Anna Maria; Seyler, Thomas; Macini, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    After an outbreak of Chikungunya infection in Emilia-Romagna Region (North-eastern Italy), a survey was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibody to Chikungunya virus and the proportion of asymptomatic infections, to identify factors associated with infection, and evaluate the performance of the surveillance system. The method used was a survey on a random sample of residents of the village with the largest number of reported cases. The prevalence was 10.2% (33 of 325), being highe...

  1. Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    William Derval Aiken; Anzinger, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increase in serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) during the acute illness that caused him anxiety and confounded interpretation of the PSA test. Six weeks after the onset of Chikungunya Fever symptoms, the elevated serum PSA returned to baseline. The association of Chikungunya Fever and elevated serum PSA may result in misinterpretation ...

  2. Chikungunya virus, Cameroon, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrefitte, Christophe N.; Rousset, Dominique; Pastorino, Boris A.M.; Pouillot, Regis; Bessaud, Maël; Tock, Fabienne; Mansaray, Helene; Merle, Olivier L.; Pascual, Aurelie M.; Paupy, Christophe; Vessiere, Aurelia; Imbert, Patrice; Tchendjou, Patrice; Durand, Jean-Paul; Tolou, Hugues J.

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a patient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cameroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  3. Atypical Chikungunya virus infections: clinical manifestations, mortality and risk factors for severe disease during the 2005–2006 outbreak on Réunion

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulou, A.; Dominguez, M.; Helynck, B.; Sissoko, D.; Wichmann, Ole; Quenel, P; Germonneau, P.; Quatresous, I.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2005, an outbreak of Chikungunya fever occurred on the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean. During winter 2005, six patients developed meningoencephalitis and acute hepatitis due to Chikungunya virus. Our objectives were to determine the incidence and mortality of atypical Chikungunya viral infections and to identify risk factors for severe disease. A hospital-based surveillance system was established to collect data on atypical Chikungunya cases. Case reports, medical records and ...

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  5. Chikungunya viral disease in district Bhilwara (Rajasthan) India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Bhattacharya, D; Venkatesh, S; Jain, D C; Lal, Shiv

    2007-03-01

    An investigation of chikungunya outbreak cases was carried out in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan during Aug-Sep 2006. Fever with multiple joint pains was the first presenting feature. Aedes larval surveys indicate high Breteau index (78.6 to 200), House index (48.0 to 83.3) & Container index (41.1 to 73.6) above the critical index. Out of 40 sera samples tested, 12 showed HI antibodies for chikungunya virus in high titres and another five were positive for IgM antibodies against chikungunya. The clinico-epidemiological, laboratory and entomological investigations confirm that this episode of fever was due to chikungunya fever. Strengthening and intensification of surveillance along with educating the community were recommended for control of outbreak. PMID:18338713

  6. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  7. [Reemergence of Chikungunya virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel Galluzzo, C; Kaiser, L; Chappuis, F

    2015-05-01

    Arboviral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes such as Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile are global health issues of growing magnitude. Their dissemination in new areas is triggered by increased mobility of persons, animal reservoirs and vectors. This article describes virological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of Chikungunya, which causes sporadic cases or epidemics, sometimes massive, such as the one spreading in the Americas since December 2013. Chikungunya should be suspected in all travellers presenting with fever, arthralgia and sometimes a rash returning from an endemic area. In the absence of vaccine, individual protection relies on the prevention of mosquito bites. PMID:26103764

  8. Chikungunya vaccines in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  9. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias; Simon, Judith; Nagenborg, Michael

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...

  10. Chikungunya on the move

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was reported for the first time in the Americas. Since then it has spread quickly, with more than 1 million suspected and confirmed cases being reported in one year, where previously there were only sporadic travel-related cases. Transmission patterns suggest that the epidemic in the southern hemisphere is only beginning and that chikungunya will not go away anytime soon.

  11. Chikungunya myeloradiculopathy: A rare complication

    OpenAIRE

    Mohana Krishnan; De', Rahul; Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya, an alpha virus belonging to the family of Togaviridae is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito and presents with fever, headache, rash, and severe arthralgia. Chikungunya virus is not known to be neurotropic, but cases of meningoencephalitis have been reported during outbreaks. The clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings of a 56-year-old man who initially developed Chikungunya fever with arthralagia and later on lead to Chikungunya myeloradiculopathy,...

  12. Chikungunya: a reemerging infection spreading during 2010 dengue fever outbreak in National Capital Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V G; Das, Shukla; Roy, Priyamvada; Hada, Vivek; Mogha, Narendra Singh

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an important reemerging arbovirus illness, which is transmitted by the same vector as of dengue virus. Many cases of concurrent infections with multiple dengue virus serotypes have been reported in many countries. Also, concurrent infection with Chikungunya virus and dengue virus has been reported in the past in Delhi. Therefore, this study was done to detect Chikungunya IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever patients. In this study, 1666 serum samples suspected of dengue fever and collected during the outbreak period (August 2010-December 2010) were tested for dengue IgM antibodies, of which 736 tested negative. Of the 736 dengue IgM negative sera, 666 were tested for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The demographic profile and essential laboratory investigations were recorded. Chikungunya IgM was detected in 9.91 % of the patients. During the post-monsoon period though dengue dominated in numbers, the number of Chikungunya fever cases increased gradually followed by an abrupt decrease with the onset of winter. The Chikungunya IgM positive patients were suffering from fever of more than 5 days duration and had thrombocytopenia. Due to similarity in clinical features and vector transmitting dengue and Chikungunya virus, continuous surveillance of both dengue fever and Chikungunya fever is desirable for better management and epidemiological assessment. PMID:27366770

  13. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... with prudent use of resources while maintaining acceptable system performance. High-risk category units are selected for testing by identification of the presence of specific high-risk factor(s), while disregarding other factors that might also influence the risk. On this basis we argue that the most...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting the...

  14. An outbreak investigation of suspected Chikungunya fever in Nalgonda District, Telangana state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna Dumpala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: An outbreak of fever with joint pains occurred at Proddutur village, Nalgonda District, Telangana state, India. Methods: We investigated the out-break; attempted to identify the agent, source, mode of disease transmission, study clinico-epidemiological factors and recommend control measures during the period 11th-15th, February 2014. A rapid fever survey was conducted by using pre-tested, pre-designed epidemiological case sheets. Seventeen serum samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Entomological survey was conducted to identify and study the vectors. Results: The outbreak was observed to be a seasonal disease which started on 12th January, 2014 and continued till 18th February, 2014. Out of the total population of 1365 in the village, 259 cases were identified to have chikungunya fever as per case definition. Overall attack rate was 19%. Maximum cases occurred (24.1% in the age group of 21-30 years and the least (1.9% in the age group of less than one year and greater than 70 years (2.8%. Proportion of cases of Chikungunya was higher in females (51.9% compared with males (48.2%. Fever (100% and Joint pains (92.6% were the most common clinical manifestations; 61% had severe disability and needed family help to do daily normal activities. Out of seventeen serum samples sent for laboratory confirmation, 5, 2 and 2 were positive for Chikungunya, dengue and both Chikungunya and dengue together respectively. No mortality was reported. Conclusions: The occurrence of this outbreak stresses the need for carrying out continuous surveillance for vector borne diseases so that appropriate remedial measures are initiated.

  15. Design of a Blimp Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of Blimp Based Air Vehicle with the ability to perform vertical take-off and landing that can serve the purpose of surveillance in an area dangerous for humans. The design uses vectored thrusting to propel the blimp. Software is developed for visualizing the mechanical design of the blimp given its design parameters. The blimp is then developed by utilizing Polyurethane as fabric and helium gas is used for lifting the blimp. Brushless DC motors are used to generate thrust for lifting the blimp and servo motor is used to shift the motion axis of blimp by rotating the assembly of gondola carrying the propellers. A wireless camera is mounted for the purpose of surveillance and control. The video data is received at the base station where it isrecorded and afterwards analyzed for the presence of certain object. The control signals for the motors are generated and transmitted by an AT89C52 microcontroller through a 6-channel transmitter. The receiver present on the blimp decodes these signals and controls the motors accordingly.

  16. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  17. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer

    Full Text Available Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission.We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio and IgG ELISA (Novatec, respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95% of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50% to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas.These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods.

  18. THE PREVALENCE OF CHIKUNGUNYA ARBOVIRAL INFECTION I N AND AROUND BELLARY DISTRICT, KARNATAKA .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An arbovirus is one that multiplies in a blood suck ing arthropod and is transmitted by the bite to a vertebrate host . Chikungunya fever is a crippling disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted to human through mosquitoes. The sudden onset of very high fever along with rash and severe arthralgia ar e main symptoms. High morbidity with severe arthralgia persisted for several months made the people both physically and mentally weak. OBJECTIVES: To know the prevalence of chikungunya arboviral inf ection in and around Bellary district. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The laboratory records of clinically suspected chikungunya patients from January 2009 to December 2 011 analyzed retrospectively and results of Ig M anti chikungunya antibodies tested by Ig M capture enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (Mac ELISA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 1386 chikungunya suspected serum samples were analyzed, out of which 3 43 (24.75% samples were fond positive for chikungunya virus infection. Maximum nu mber of positive cases was seen in 2010 (28.40%. The present study emphasizes the continuous sero- epidemiological surveillance for the effective chikungunya arboviral infection contr ol programme. KEY WORDS:Chikungunya and Ig M antibody capture ELISA

  19. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lau, Eric HY

    2011-01-01

    Background: Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective: The aims of the study we...

  20. FAKTOR RISIKO KEJADIAN CHIKUNGUNYA DI KABUPATEN BOYOLALI,PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulus Susanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChikungunya fever is one of re-emerging diseases in Indonesia. The most prominent symptoms in chikungunya patients are severe pain in joints, especially in the knee, ankles, arms and hands joints , as well as joints of the spine so that the joints very difficult to be moved. The disease is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV group.Cases of Chiku-ngunya in Central Java were increased, starting in 2005 which totaled only 46 cases, then became 86 cases in 2006, and increased sharply to reach 2,801 cases in 2007. The cases were distributed in several districts in Central Java including Boyolali, which contributes to considerable number of Chikungunya cases. In 2007 and 2008 the number of Chikungunyacases in Boyolali reached 634 and 517 respectively. In this study a survey was conducted to establish the relationship between community characteristics, socio-economic conditions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the people,entomological and environmental survey as risk factors of Chikungunya in Boyolali. This study was an analytical epidemiologic study with case control study design. Results showed that cases of Chikungunya was majority in the age range of 20-45 and 46-64 years, 51 (39.23% and 50 cases (38.46% respectively, among them,80 females (61.54%. The most of the Chikungunya cases ; 34 (26.15%were not completed primary school and farmers, the main occupation of the people, were 41 cases (31.54%. Based on all of characteristic of the respondents, only gender that have significant relationshipswith the Chikungunya case (with P< 0.05. The characteristics of age, education, and occupation have no significant relationships with the case (P> 0.05. Knowledge and practices of the people on the prevention towards Chikungunya transmissions has no significant relationships to the case(with P > 0.05. Hanged cloth was also has no relationships with the case, but the existing of Aedes sp larvae shown significant relationships to the case (with P

  1. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  2. Designing Domain Specific Word Embeddings: Applications to Disease Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saurav; Chakraborty, Prithwish; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S.; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2016-01-01

    Traditional disease surveillance can be augmented with a wide variety of realtime sources such as news and social media. However, these sources are in general unstructured and construction of surveillance tools such as taxonomical correlations and trace mapping involves considerable human supervision. In this paper, we motivate a disease vocabulary driven word2vec model (Dis2Vec) which we use to model diseases and constituent attributes as word embeddings from the HealthMap news corpus. We us...

  3. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation. PMID:26942903

  4. FAKTOR SOSIODEMOGRAFI DAN LINGKUNGAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA CHIKUNGUNYA DI KELURAHAN CINERE, KECAMATAN LIMO, KOTA DEPOK 2006

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Djaja; Dewi Susanna; Fatmi Yumantini Oktikasari

    2008-01-01

    The impact of sosiodemographic and environmental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City in 2006. On october 2005, in Depok occured chikungunya outbreaks that attack 200 citizen at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. This study purpose is to know the impact of sosidemographic and enviromental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. Research design is case control study. The number of case group and control group is 118 pa...

  5. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  6. Design of quench signals real-time surveillance and measurement system on EAST Tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quench surveillance and protection is very important issues for the safety operation of the EAST device. The quench signals real -time surveillance and measurement system is designed. This paper focuses on its hardware, software and design functions. The system supplies effective data for experimenters for achieving realtime display, malfunction reporting, data management. It is implemented in experiments. The system which has favorable man -machine interface is proved to be effectively. (authors)

  7. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya – a blood group study in chikungunya affected families

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Vadde; Sarojamma Vemula; Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO) tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antig...

  8. A case of bilateral presumed chikungunya neuroretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh G; Giridhar A; Shedbele Archis; Kumar Ram; Saikumar S

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a relatively rare from of vector-borne viral fever caused by chikungunya virus and spread by bites of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. Epidemics of chikungunya fever have been reported in the past from different parts of the world. Although the virus had been passive for quite some time, recent reports of outbreaks of chikungunya fever in several parts of Southern India have confirmed the re-emergence of this virus. Symptoms of this infection include a...

  9. Extreme Zoom Surveillance: System Design and Image Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Yao; Besma R. Abidi; Mongi A. Abidi

    2007-01-01

    Applications of digital imaging with extreme zoom are traditionally found in astronomy and wild life monitoring. More recently, the need for such capabilities has extended to long range surveillance and wide area monitoring such as forest fires, harbors, and waterways. In this paper, we present a number of sensor arrangements for such applications, focusing on optical setups, auto-focusing mechanisms, and image deblurring techniques. Considering both the speed of convergence and robustness to...

  10. Design and Research of Distributed Real TimeSurveillance Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Distributed real time surveillance control system is used especially in distributed computer measure and control system, mostly inwidely dispersed measure points without human surveillance. This paper describes theory、construction、control strategy, stabilityanalysis of distributed real time supervisory control and data acquisition system, implements distributed measure signals collectionand design of supervisory control system. The realization of virtual instrument based on VC++ can accomplish measurementsignals acquisition, storage, display and analysis, also the result of surveillance control system is provided, and shows thefunctional powerful agility of virtual instrument based on VC++.

  11. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya – a blood group study in chikungunya affected families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Vadde

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antigens, the individuals were kept in four groups – A (108, B (98, AB (20 and O (243. The result obtained was showed all Rh positive blood group individuals are susceptible to chikungunya fever. Among ABO group, the blood group O +ve individuals are more susceptible to chikungunya than other blood groups. No blood group with Rh negative was affected with chikungunya, it indicates Rh -ve more resistance to chikungunya.

  12. Towards antivirals against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged in recent decades, causing major outbreaks of chikungunya fever in many parts of Africa and Asia, and since the end of 2013 also in Central and South America. Infections are usually associated with a low mortality rate, but can proceed into a painful chronic stage, during which patients may suffer from polyarthralgia and joint stiffness for weeks and even several years. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections. Current therapy therefore consists solely of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory agents to relieve symptoms. We here review molecules that have been reported to inhibit CHIKV replication, either as direct-acting antivirals, host-targeting drugs or those that act via a yet unknown mechanism. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." PMID:26119058

  13. Chikungunya: an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Sudeep; D Parashar

    2008-11-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK), a mosquito borne debilitating disease, is caused by CHIK virus, an alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. The sudden onset of very high fever along with rash, and severe arthralgia especially in the small joints of hands and toes are the characteristics of the disease. It was first reported from Tanzania in 1952-53 and spread subsequently to sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and Pacific causing large epidemics. The virus exists in three genotypes, the Asian, West African and East Central South African that are responsible for outbreaks in the respective areas. The first outbreak in Asia was in Bangkok in 1958 followed by other Asian countries. India experienced massive outbreaks of CHIK in the 1960s and early 70s mainly in cities. After a gap of 32 years an explosive outbreak of CHIK devastated the country affecting more than 1.4 million people in 13 states. The epidemic also witnessed many unusual clinico-pathological complications including CHIK associated deaths and mother to child transmission. High morbidity with severe arthralgia persisted for several months made the people mentally and physically weak. This review describes CHIK in general and highlights the various clinico-pathological aspects observed during the recent outbreak.

  14. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  15. Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses B Z Z Z Z . Aside from being ... or Aedes albopictus ) can spread dengue, chikungunya, or Zika viruses. People become infected with dengue, chikungunya, or Zika ...

  16. Impact of knowledge and practices on prevention of chikungunya in an epidemic area in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Pal Majra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Chikungunya is a re-emerging debilitating viral disease for which any specific cure or vaccine is not available. Aim : To study the impact of knowledge and practices on prevention of chikungunya. Settings and Design: Three primary health centers in rural area experiencing epidemic of chikungunya were selected for the study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a coastal district of India, which was experiencing an epidemic of chikungunya during the study period. Patients above 18 years of age, attending out-patient department of three primary health centers, were included in the study. Patients diagnosed as case of chikungunya were taken as cases and those with other morbidity and having none of their relatives or friends suffering or had suffered in the last month from chikungunya were taken as controls. Sample size was 150 and controls were three times the number of cases. A pre-tested, open-ended questionnaire was used to collect information by face to face interview technique. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentage, proportions, and Chi-square were used for statistical analyses. Results: Controls who were not affected by chikungunya were having better knowledge and practices about the vector and methods of preventing the disease than the cases. Knowledge and practices were found to be skewed toward people having more number of years of schooling and higher per capita income. Striking differences between knowledge and practices were also observed among cases as well as controls. Conclusions: People who had knowledge about the vector and methods of preventing the disease and had put their knowledge into practice were less likely to be effected by chikungunya. In the absence of any specific cure or effective vaccine, health education can prove to be an important tool for the control of chikungunya epidemic.

  17. The Chikungunya Epidemic: A look at five cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bethel Shiferaw; Paul Lam; Summer Tuthill; Hira Choudhry; Sarah Syed; Shadab Ahmed; Tabassum Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is an infection caused by the Chikungunya virus and transmitted by the bite of infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of Chikungunya virus infection are fever, joint pain or rash. Chikungunya virus outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, the first local transmission of Chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and territories. Chikungunya virus disease became a nationall...

  18. RHINO–an autonomous interactive surveillance robot for the needed ones: design and study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare services are in need of new tools and gadgets that could provide surveillance and people interaction of the needed ones with their surrounding environment. In order to address this problematic, an autonomous-interactive surveillance robot system is proposed in this research. RHINO (Robotic-Human Interface for the Needed Ones was designed under particular normative and will provide commonly needed features in the healthcare field. One of the principal aspects of the device is its particular design which allows the patient to have some privacy under a surveilled environment and without causing any interference in their daily lives. Another main factor is the ability of notifying the care provider or the family of the patient with e-mail or text-sms notifications in case of abnormal activities; so that video access by provider or Skype calls by family relatives could be performed throughout RHINO.

  19. Extreme Zoom Surveillance: System Design and Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yao

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Applications of digital imaging with extreme zoom are traditionally found in astronomy and wild life monitoring. More recently, the need for such capabilities has extended to long range surveillance and wide area monitoring such as forest fires, harbors, and waterways. In this paper, we present a number of sensor arrangements for such applications, focusing on optical setups, auto-focusing mechanisms, and image deblurring techniques. Considering both the speed of convergence and robustness to image degradations induced by high system magnifications and long observation distances, we introduce an auto-focusing algorithm based on sequential search with a variable step size. We derive the transition criteria following maximum likelihood (ML estimation for the selection of suitable step sizes. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is illustrated in real-time auto-focusing and tracking of faces from distances of 50m~300m. We also develop an image restoration algorithm for high magnification imaging systems, where an adaptive sharpness measure is employed as a cost function to guide the fine search for an optimal point spread function (PSF for image deblurring. Experimental results demonstrate a considerably enhanced robustness to image noise and artifacts and ability to select the optimum PSF, producing superior restored images.

  20. Potential Risk of Dengue and Chikungunya Outbreaks in Northern Italy Based on a Population Model of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frédéric Alexandre; Metz, Markus; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Pugliese, Andrea; Rosà, Roberto; Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The rapid invasion and spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. We used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern Italy to calibrate a population model for Aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the absence of control interventions. The model captured intra-year seasonality and heterogeneity across sites in mosquito abundance, based on local temperature patterns and the estimated site-specific mosquito habitat suitability. A robust negative correlation was found between the latter and local late spring precipitations, indicating a possible washout effect on larval breeding sites. The model predicts a significant risk of chikungunya outbreaks in most sites if a case is imported between the beginning of summer and up to mid-November, with an average outbreak probability between 4.9% and 25%, depending on the site. A lower risk is predicted for dengue, with an average probability between 4.2% and 10.8% for cases imported between mid-July and mid-September. This study shows the importance of an integrated entomological and medical surveillance for the evaluation of arboviral disease risk, which is a precondition for designing cost-effective vector control programs. PMID:27304211

  1. Antiviral activity of silymarin against chikungunya virus

    OpenAIRE

    Rafidah Lani; Pouya Hassandarvish; Chun Wei Chiam; Ehsan Moghaddam; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Kai Rausalu; Andres Merits; Stephen Higgs; Dana Vanlandingham; Sazaly Abu Bakar; Keivan Zandi

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of thre...

  2. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  3. A REVIEW ON CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar Birendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV belonging to the Togaviridae family of genus Alphavirus. It is a virus with a single stranded, positive sense RNA, as its genome. It is maintained in a sylvatic and urban cycle involving humans and the mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It has a major health impact on humans as it causes fever, rashes, arthralgia and myalgia. Polyarthralgia is the most important feature of CHIKV infection which primarily affects the small joints of the wrists and fingers along with the large joints like shoulders and knees. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatment regimens available for CHIKV infection. The molecular mechanism underlying the chronic polyarthralgia observed in patients is not well understood. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. In this review we have summarized the CHIKV organization, replication, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and pathogenesis with emphasis on the arthralgia.

  4. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    DALY was estimated for the first time. In view of re-emergence and spread of this infection in recent times it is warranted for derivation of disability weight for different health states of chikungunya to facilitate realistic estimates of DALYs. Quality epidemiological data from surveillance system to monitor vector-borne and zoonotic diseases would pave way for more realistic estimates of burden. The productivity loss in-terms of income foregone could be minimal as the estimation was made by using the minimum wage fixed by the government although the actual loss is expected to be higher.

  5. Design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of the IAEA publications under its Programme on Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and is addressed to administrative and technical authorities and specialists who consider the shallow-ground disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes of short half-lives. The report emphasizes the technological aspects, however it briefly discusses the safety philosophy and regulatory considerations too. The design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of the repositories in shallow ground are considered in some detail, paying special attention to their interrelated aspects. In particular, a review is given of the following aspects: main design and construction considerations in relation to the natural features of the site; design and construction aspects during the repository development process; activities related to operational and post-operational stages of the repository; major steps in repository operation and essential activities in shutdown and operational and post-operational surveillance

  6. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  7. Design and Implementation of an IP-Based Security Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    James Eke; Augustine C.O. Azubogu; Louisa C. Ohaneme; Emmanuel N. Ifeagwu; Cletus O. Ohaneme

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous loss of lives and properties that may be attributed to criminals in recent times worldwide has become a source of worry to all and sundry. The situation has come to the alarming rate that the authority has sought for the immediate means of checkmating it without delay. Therefore, this work centers on the design and implementation of an Internet Protocol (IP)based security surveillance system. It incorporates remote viewing and storage of live video feeds and also remote motion ...

  8. Antiviral Perspectives for Chikungunya Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Parashar; Sarah Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a thre...

  9. Design of a radiation surveillance unit for an unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a prototype of a compact environmental radiation surveillance instrument designed for a Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle. The instrument, which can be used for tracking a radioactive plume, mapping fallout and searching for point sources, consists of three different detector types (GM, NaI(Tl) and CZT) and an air sampling unit. In addition to the standard electronics for data acquisition, the system contains an onboard computer, a GPS receiver and environmental sensors, all enclosed in a single housing manufactured of fibreglass-reinforced composite material. The data collected during the flight is transmitted in real-time to the ground station via a TETRA radio network. The radiation surveillance unit is an independent module and as such can be used in, for example, aeroplanes, helicopters and cars

  10. Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya , S.K. Pradhan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of chikungunya virus is currently ongoing in many countries in Indian Ocean sinceJanuary 2005. The current outbreak appears to be the most severe and one of the biggest outbreakscaused by this virus. India, where this virus was last reported in 1973, is also amongst affectedcountries. Chikungunya virus has affected millions of the people in Africa and Southeast Asia, sinceit was first reported in 1952 in Tanzania. Even then, natural history of this disease is not fully understood.The intra-outbreak studies, point towards recent changes in the viral genome facilitatingthe rapid spread and enhanced pathogenecity. The available published scientific literature on chikungunyavirus was searched to understand the natural history of this disease, reasons for the currentoutbreak and the causes behind re-emergence of the virus in India.The paucity of the scientific information on various epidemiological aspects of chikungunya virusthreatens off an epidemic as control of spread of virus might be difficult in the absence of appropriateknowledge. There is an immediate need of the research on chikungunya virus, for an effectivevaccine besides strengthening the existing diagnostic laboratory facilities. The current outbreak canalso be taken as a lesson for establishment of a system for continuous surveillance of diseases, considereddisappeared from the countries. The re-emergence and epidemics are unpredictable phenomenabut the impact of such events can be ameliorated by appropriate knowledge and by being in theright state of preparedness

  11. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourisseau, Marion; Schilte, Clémentine; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Trouillet, Céline; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Rudnicka, Dominika; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Roux, Karin Le; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Fsihi, Hafida; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Blanchet, Fabien; Afonso, Philippe V; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ozden, Simona; Gessain, Antoine; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Verhasselt, Bruno; Zamborlini, Alessia; Saïb, Ali; Rey, Felix A; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Desprès, Philippe; Michault, Alain; Albert, Matthew L; Schwartz, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host. PMID:17604450

  12. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  13. Characterization of reemerging chikungunya virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Sourisseau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host.

  14. Major Design Drivers for LEO Space Surveillance in Europe and Solution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, Holger; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkrad, Heiner

    Europe is preparing for the development of an autonomous system for space situational aware-ness. One important segment of this new system will be dedicated to surveillance and tracking of space objects in Earth orbits. First concept and capability analysis studies have led to a draft system proposal. This proposal foresees, in a first deployment step, a groundbased system consisting of radar sensors and a network of optical telescopes. These sensors will be designed to have the capability of building up and maintaining a catalogue of space objects. A number of related services will be provided, including collision avoidance and the prediction of uncontrolled reentry events. Currently, the user requirements are consolidated, defining the different services, and the related accuracy and timeliness of the derived products. In this consolidation process parameters like the lower diameter limit above which catalogue coverage is to be achieved, the degree of population coverage in various orbital regions and the accuracy of the orbit data maintained in the catalogue are important design drivers for the selection of number and location of the sensors, and the definition of the required sensor performance. Further, the required minimum time for the detection of a manoeuvre, a newly launched object or a fragmentation event, significantly determines the required surveillance performance. In the requirement consolidation process the performance to be specified has to be based on a careful analysis which takes into account accuracy constraints of the services to be provided, the technical feasibility, complexity and costs. User requirements can thus not be defined with-out understanding the consequences they would pose on the system design. This paper will outline the design definition process for the surveillance and tracking segment of the European space situational awareness system. The paper will focus on the low-Earth orbits (LEO). It will present the core user

  15. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment

  16. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.

  17. Chikungunya virus iridocyclitis in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendradas Padmamalini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis with chikungunya virus infection in the left eye. A 20-year-old female was presented with a past history of fever suggestive of chikungunya with bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis and complicated cataract. She had a tripod dendritic pattern of keratic precipitates by confocal microscopy in the left eye with a stippled pattern of keratic precipitates in both eyes. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in the aqueous humor detected 98 copies/ml of chikungunya virus RNA. The patient underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation in the left eye with a good visual outcome. This is the first report where the presence of chikungunya virus RNA has been associated with a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis.

  18. Chikungunya: Information for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or heart disease • Deaths are rare The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types ... water from outdoor containers o Support local vector control programs • People at increased risk for severe disease ...

  19. Chikungunya and the eye: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Avadhani, Kavitha; Shetty, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya is a self-limited, systemic viral infection that has been a major health problem since the past few years. Ocular manifestations of the disease have become more prevalent in the recent years. Currently, there is neither a specific treatment nor vaccine available for chikungunya fever. This review highlights the current understanding on the pathogenesis, systemic changes with an emphasis on ocular findings, laboratory investigations, and prevention and treatment of this disease.

  20. Chikungunya virus iridocyclitis in Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Shetty, Rohit; Malathi, J.; H N Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    We are reporting a case of bilateral Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis with chikungunya virus infection in the left eye. A 20-year-old female was presented with a past history of fever suggestive of chikungunya with bilateral Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis and complicated cataract. She had a tripod dendritic pattern of keratic precipitates by confocal microscopy in the left eye with a stippled pattern of keratic precipitates in both eyes. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ...

  1. Chikungunya virus iridocyclitis in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendradas Padmamalini; Shetty Rohit; Malathi J; Madhavan H

    2010-01-01

    We are reporting a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis with chikungunya virus infection in the left eye. A 20-year-old female was presented with a past history of fever suggestive of chikungunya with bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis and complicated cataract. She had a tripod dendritic pattern of keratic precipitates by confocal microscopy in the left eye with a stippled pattern of keratic precipitates in both eyes. The real-time polymerase chain reac...

  2. Molecular modeling and docking study to elucidate novel chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the Asian and African countries. Absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against Chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify and develop novel leads for the same. Recently, nsP2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by Alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. Here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the nsP2 protease through homology modeling based on nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Further, the ligands were virtually screened based on various pharmacological, ADME/Tox filters and subjected to docking with the modeled Chikungunya nsP2 protease using AutoDock4.2. The interaction profiling of ligand with the protein was carried out using LigPlot+. The results demonstrated that the ligand with PubChem Id (CID_5808891 possessed highest binding affinity towards Chikungunya nsP2 protease with a good interaction profile with the active site residues. We hereby propose that these compounds could inhibit the nsP2 protease by binding to its active site. Moreover, they may provide structural scaffold for the design of novel leads with better efficacy and specificity for the nsP2 protease.

  3. Molecular Modeling and Docking Study to Elucidate Novel Chikungunya Virus nsP2 Protease Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, T; Asthana, Somya; Bissoyi, A

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the Asian and African countries. Absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against Chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify and develop novel leads for the same. Recently, nsP2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by Alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. Here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the nsP2 protease through homology modeling based on nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Further, the ligands were virtually screened based on various pharmacological, ADME/Tox filters and subjected to docking with the modeled Chikungunya nsP2 protease using AutoDock4.2. The interaction profiling of ligand with the protein was carried out using LigPlot(+). The results demonstrated that the ligand with PubChem Id (CID_5808891) possessed highest binding affinity towards Chikungunya nsP2 protease with a good interaction profile with the active site residues. We hereby propose that these compounds could inhibit the nsP2 protease by binding to its active site. Moreover, they may provide structural scaffold for the design of novel leads with better efficacy and specificity for the nsP2 protease. PMID:26664062

  4. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Thiboutot

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes fever disease, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and arthralgia. Indigenous to tropical Africa, recent large outbreaks have been reported in parts of South East Asia and several of its neighboring islands in 2005-07 and in Europe in 2007. Furthermore, positive cases have been confirmed in the United States in travelers returning from known outbreak areas. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment. With the threat of an emerging global pandemic, the peculiar problems associated with the more immediate and seasonal epidemics warrant the development of an effective vaccine. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting these concepts.

  5. Nowcast Predictions for Chikungunya Virus-Infected Travelers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  6. Nowcast Predictions for Local Transmission of Chikungunya Virus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  7. The First Imported Case Infected with Chikungunya Virus in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is caused by an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquito vector. With the increase of habitat of mosquito by global warming and frequent international travel and interchange, chikungunya reemerged and showed global distribution recently. Until now there has not been reported any case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea. A 23-year-old man has been the Republic of the Philippines for 1 week, and visited our emergency center due to fever and back pain. Chikungunya viral infection...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Clustering of Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Dominica

    OpenAIRE

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Ricketts, R. Paul; Brown, Heidi E.; Fish, Durland; Durham, David P.; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Christian, Trudy; Ahmed, Shalauddin; Marcellin, Clement; Shelly, Ellen; Owers, Katharine; Wenzel, Natasha; Alison P. Galvani; John S Brownstein

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Chikungunya is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Currently, there is an epidemic of chikungunya in several islands and countries in the Americas. Despite efforts at understanding and predicting spread, there have been no studies assessing the spatio-temporal spread of chikungunya in any of the Caribbean islands, mainly due to a lack of data. Here, we present a spatio-temporal analysis of the spread of chikungunya virus in Dominica, an island in the Western Hemisphere, using ...

  9. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown. PMID:26416113

  10. Chikungunya virus vaccines: Current strategies and prospects for developing plant-made vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-González, Jorge A; Angulo, Carlos; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-17

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging pathogen initially found in East Africa and currently spread into the Indian Ocean Islands, many regions of South East Asia, and in the Americas. No licensed vaccines against this eminent pathogen are available and thus intensive research in this field is a priority. This review presents the current scenario on the developments of Chikungunya virus vaccines and identifies the use of genetic engineered plants to develop attractive vaccines. The possible avenues to develop plant-made vaccines with distinct antigenic designs and expression modalities are identified and discussed considering current trends in the field. PMID:26073010

  11. Chikungunya fever in Israeli travelers returning from northwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanay, Amir; Schwartz, Eli; Bin, Hanna; Zeller, Hervé; Niedrig, Matthias; Dan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular touristic sites. We describe the case of three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash, and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. PMID:19006519

  12. CARRS Surveillance study: design and methods to assess burdens from multiple perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Manisha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs are a growing public health problem, but data on incidence, trends, and costs in developing countries is scarce. Comprehensive and standardised surveillance for non-communicable diseases was recommended at the United Nations High-level meeting in 2011. Aims: To develop a model surveillance system for CMDs and risk factors that could be adopted for continued assessment of burdens from multiple perspectives in South-Asian countries. Methods Design: Hybrid model with two cross-sectional serial surveys three years apart to monitor trend, with a three-year prospective follow-up of the first cohort. Sites: Three urban settings (Chennai and New Delhi in India; Karachi in Pakistan, 4000 participants in each site stratified by gender and age. Sampling methodology: Multi-stage cluster random sampling; followed by within-household participant selection through a combination of Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS and Kish methods. Culturally-appropriate and methodologically-relevant data collection instruments were developed to gather information on CMDs and their risk factors; quality of life, health-care utilisation and costs, along with objective measures of anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. The cohort follow-up is designed as a pilot study to understand the feasibility of estimating incidence of risk factors, disease events, morbidity, and mortality. Results The overall participant response rate in the first cross-sectional survey was 94.1% (Chennai 92.4%, n = 4943; Delhi 95.7%, n = 4425; Karachi 94.3%, n = 4016. 51.8% of the participants were females, 61.6% 60 years. Discussion This surveillance model will generate data on prevalence and trends; help study the complex life-course patterns of CMDs, and provide a platform for developing and testing interventions and tools for prevention and control of CMDs in South-Asia. It will also help understanding the

  13. Control of immunopathology during chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, Caroline; Wauquier, Nadia; Vieillard, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    After several decades of epidemiologic silence, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently re-emerged, causing explosive outbreaks and reaching the 5 continents. Transmitted through the bite of Aedes species mosquitoes, CHIKV is responsible for an acute febrile illness accompanied by several characteristic symptoms, including cutaneous rash, myalgia, and arthralgia, with the latter sometimes persisting for months or years. Although CHIKV has previously been known as a relatively benign disease, more recent epidemic events have brought waves of increased morbidity and fatality, leading it to become a serious public health problem. The host's immune response plays a crucial role in controlling the infection, but it might also contribute to the promotion of viral spread and immunopathology. This review focuses on the immune responses to CHIKV in human subjects with an emphasis on early antiviral immune responses. We assess recent developments in the understanding of their possible Janus-faced effects in the control of viral infection and pathogenesis. Although preventive vaccination and specific therapies are yet to be developed, exploring this interesting model of virus-host interactions might have a strong effect on the design of novel therapeutic options to minimize immunopathology without impairing beneficial host defenses. PMID:25843597

  14. Naturally surveilled space: the design of a male drug rehabilitation center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, A. R.; Aryanti, T.; Rahmanullah, F.

    2016-04-01

    The increase of drug addicts in Indonesia has not been supported by adequate facilities, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite being treated in a rehabilitation center, drug addicts may still use drugs surreptitiously and put themselves in danger. Architectural design may contribute to this either positively or negatively. This article elaborates a therapeutic design of a male rehabilitation center in the borderland of Bandung city, Indonesia. Employing the notion of natural surveillance, the rehabilitation center is designed to allow continual control over attendees without them feeling suppressed. The center design uses the behavioral approach to consider both attendees’ physical and psychological comforts, as well as their security. Building masses are designed in a way that forms an inward orientation and are laid out circularly according to the therapy processes that attendees must undertake. Moreover, rooms are planned differently in response to attendees’ unique conditions and restrictive physical requirements, such as their restriction on lighting and requirement of water for treatment. The landscape uses shady trees and vegetations as natural borders to demarcate the private zone, where attendees live, from the public area, where visitors may enter. The design is intended to provide a model for a responsive drug rehabilitation center that facilitates drug addicts’ recovery.

  15. SEJARAH CHIKUNGUNYA DI INDONESIA, SUATU PENYAKIT RE EMERGING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Wibowo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya also known as knuckle fever or joint fever, caused by Alphavirus infections. It was first time reported by laboratory test in Indonesia during Chikungunya outbreaks in Jambi and Yogyakarta provinces during 1982-1985. Epidemiology analysis indicated that during 1982-85 Chikungunya epidemic was occurred in 15 provinces, among young and adults. The symptoms were: fever 2-7 days onset of illness: 100%, joint fever: 95%; exanthema: 65% and headache: 100%. Serological test by HAI showed that 96/139% were Chikungunya positive. To 2001-2002 Chikungunya epidemic it was repEorted several chkungunya epidemics occurred in Sumatera and Java islands, 80/238% was serologically positive against IgM and IgG Chikungunya, 25/238% by Chik RT-PCR and there is no significantly different between diseases symptoms. It was also reported that A aegypti is a vektor dominant of the disease.   Keywords: Chikungunya, fever

  16. Entomo-epidemiological investigations of chikungunya outbreak in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An outbreak of fever with severe joint pain started in the Palam area of Delhi in August 2010. An entomological and epidemiological investigation of this outbreak was conducted to ascertain the nature and cause of the outbreak. Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate the nature and cause of the outbreak and to contain its further spread. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Palam area of south-west Delhi, situated at a distance of about 20 km from Medical College. It is one of the field practice areas for training of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Department of Community Medicine of Medical College of Delhi. Materials and Methods: All patients attending OPD of Primary Health Center (PHC Palam, complaining of ever with incapacitating joint pain, were screened for chikungunya fever. Of the 750 suspected chikungunya patients, 130 blood samples were randomly drawn amongst these patients. Out of the 130 tested, 97 (70.8% were positive for the IgM antibodies against chikungunya virus. House-to-house survey was conducted in the affected area for more cases and to find out the vector-breeding sites. Statistical Analysis: Frequency distributions were calculated for age and sex. Results: The main breeding sites of the mosquitoes were the desert coolers of houses, water stored in metal and plastic containers, and water collections at construction sites. Aedes mosquito was present in almost all the houses surveyed in the area. Conclusions: It was concluded that the routine campaigns need to be organized regularly within the community highlighting the potential breeding grounds of mosquitoes and the possible control methods. Source reduction strategies like cleaning of desert coolers on weekly basis, emptying of water containers, and close monitoring of construction sites for potential breeding of the vector needs to be done on a regular basis to avoid future outbreaks.

  17. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  18. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  19. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  20. Chikungunya in Europe: What’s next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of a febrile epidemic in humans in a coastal island city. This epidemic spread to Indian Ocean islands and India, where it continues and more than 1 million cases are suspected. Rezza and colleagues des...

  1. Connective tissue metabolism in chikungunya patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemula Sarojamma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of Chikungunya virus (CHIK virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIK virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Previous reports have indicated that infection with CHIK virus produces an acute arthritis in human hosts by large area of necrosis and collagenosis or fibrosis. Results We carried out the present study to determine the effect of chikungunya on the collagen and connective tissue metabolism in 75 chikungunya-affected people. First, we screened for mucopolysaccharides in urine by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB test. Appearance of heavy precipitate indicates the presence of higher levels of mucopolysaccharides and later quantified by DMB dye method. The urinary mucopolysaccharide in CHIK patients was 342 ± 45 mg/l compared to healthy controls (45 ± 5.6 mg/l. The collagen building blocks, proline and hydroxyproline were also measured in CHIK patients and observed higher excretion compared to healthy controls. Urinary excretions hydroxyproline was greater than the proline levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CHIK virus infection affects and damage the cartilage and connective metabolism and releases the degraded products from the tissue and responsible for increasing the levels of proline, hydroxyproline and mucopolysaccharides in CHIK affected patients.

  2. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  3. Chikungunya – an emerging infection in Bangladesh: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Rashedul; Rahman, Md. Mujibur; Moniruzzaman, Md; RAHIM, Abdur; Barua, Satyajit; Biswas, Rajib; Biswas, Pijous; Mowla, Syed Ghulam Mogni; Chowdhury, MA Jalil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus endemic to Africa, Southeast Asia and India that causes acute febrile polyarthralgia and arthritis. In this short case series, we discuss six Bangladeshi patients with chikungunya fever. Though Bangladesh is in endemic zone, it is not common here, hence it demands attention for proper diagnosis and management. Case presentation The six cases of chikungunya we report occurred in native Bangladeshi women with ages ranging from 20 to 50 years ...

  4. A study of the outbreak of Chikungunya fever

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Supriya Satish; Patil, Satish R.; Durgawale, P. M.; Patil, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chikungunya fever occurred in an epidemic form in the state of Maharashtra after a gap of about 32 years. Many cases with symptoms which were suggestive of Chikungunya fever were reported from the village Kasegaon, Dist Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hence, this study was done to assess the magnitude of the outbreak and to identify the possible socio-environmental factors which are responsible for Chikungunya fever.

  5. Case Reports of Neuro-Chikungunya in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chusri, Sarunyou; Siripaitoon, Pisud; Hirunpat, Siriporn; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in reports of neurologic complications as major causes of morbidity and mortality in chikungunya virus infection. As a part of 2004–2009 global outbreaks, an unprecedented large chikungunya epidemic occurred in Southern Thailand during 2008–2009 in which 49,069 cases were reported. During this period, we encountered two patients with meningoencephalitis and another patient with myeloneuropathy among 1,018 cases diagnosed as chikungunya in our hospital. The cli...

  6. SEJARAH CHIKUNGUNYA DI INDONESIA, SUATU PENYAKIT RE EMERGING?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo Wibowo

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya also known as knuckle fever or joint fever, caused by Alphavirus infections. It was first time reported by laboratory test in Indonesia during Chikungunya outbreaks in Jambi and Yogyakarta provinces during 1982-1985. Epidemiology analysis indicated that during 1982-85 Chikungunya epidemic was occurred in 15 provinces, among young and adults. The symptoms were: fever 2-7 days onset of illness: 100%, joint fever: 95%; exanthema: 65% and headache: 100%. Serological test by HAI showed...

  7. Painful cervical lymphadenopathy: An unusual presentation of chikungunya

    OpenAIRE

    Keny, Mukundraj S; Pereira, Ian A; deSa, Sunita B; Gomes, Edwin J

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya is an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquito that represents a major public health burden worldwide including India. The disease presents as sudden onset of high-grade fever, severe arthralgias, and rash. Here, we describe a case of a patient who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and myalgia and later was diagnosed as chikungunya. Lymphadenopathy has been described before as a less common symptom of chikungunya. But this is probably, the first case of chikun...

  8. MULTIPLICATION OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUSES IN AEDES MOSQUITOES

    OpenAIRE

    Soedarto Soekiman

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of Aedes aegypti (Surabaya strain) and Aedes albopictus (Malang strain) were studied to compare their susceptibility to oral infection with dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses. Growth curves of dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses in these mosquitoes indicated that both mosquito species were susceptible to oral infection with these viruses. Electron microscopic observation of the salivary glands of A. aegypti and A. albopictus infected with Chikungunya virus showed that this organ...

  9. Approaches to the treatment of disease induced by chikungunya virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bettadapura, Jayaram; Herrero, Lara J.; Taylor, Adam; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus, a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes fever, rash and persistent arthralgia/arthritis in humans. Severe outbreaks have occurred resulting in infections of millions of people in Southeast Asia and Africa. Currently there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines for prevention and treatment of chikungunya infections. Herein we report the current status of research on antiviral drugs and vaccines for chikungunya virus infections.

  10. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  11. Design and implementation of a Space-Time Intelligence System for disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie A.; Kaufmann, Andrew M.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling chronic and infectious diseases entails tracking and describing individuals and their attributes (such as disease status, date of diagnosis, risk factors and so on) as they move and change through space and time. Using Geographic Information Systems, researchers can model, visualize and query spatial data, but their ability to address time has been limited by the lack of temporal referencing in the underlying data structures. In this paper, we discuss issues in designing data structures, indexing, and queries for spatio-temporal data within the context of health surveillance. We describe a space-time object model that treats modeled individuals as a chain of linked observations comprised of an ID, space-time coordinate, and time-referenced attributes. Movement models for these modeled individuals are functions that may be simple (e.g. linear, using vector representation) or more complex. We present several spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and epidemiological queries emergent from the data model. We demonstrate this approach in a representative application, a simulation of the spread of influenza in a hospital ward.

  12. FAKTOR SOSIODEMOGRAFI DAN LINGKUNGAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA CHIKUNGUNYA DI KELURAHAN CINERE, KECAMATAN LIMO, KOTA DEPOK 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Djaja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sosiodemographic and environmental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City in 2006. On october 2005, in Depok occured chikungunya outbreaks that attack 200 citizen at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. This study purpose is to know the impact of sosidemographic and enviromental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. Research design is case control study. The number of case group and control group is 118 patient. Factor studied are education, knowlwdge, house density, age, occupation, sex, mobility, anti-mosquito chemical, existance of mosquito-larva, container, and wire netting. The result of the study suggest that there are three variabels that involved in chikungunya outbreaks, namely education (OR=1,9: 1,12-3,23, age (OR= 2,1: 1,22-3,46, and house density (OR=2,2: 1,25-3,80. Multivariat analysis showed that the most dominant factors are house density, and followed by education. Probability of chikungunya outbreaks is 2,1 for low house density and low education

  13. Domestic and environmental factors of chikungunya-affected families in Thiruvananthapuram (Rural district of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural of Kerala. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural district during November 2007. Materials and Methods : Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers. These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area. The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method. Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%. The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 8.01 (6.06-14.60], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.

  14. Designing Normative Messages About Active Surveillance for Men With Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Robert J; Kinsman, Gianna T; Le, Yen-Chi L; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Active surveillance is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. The authors examined the acceptability of normative messages about active surveillance as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N = 331). They rated messages about active surveillance for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message "You don't have to panic … you have time to think about your options" was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by more than 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the active surveillance protocol and "knowing in plenty of time" if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For active surveillance to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an active surveillance protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  15. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented. PMID:26596650

  16. Designing serological surveillance programmes to document freedom from disease with special reference to exotic viral diseases of pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, K.D.C.; Mortensen, S.; Olsen, A.M.;

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance programmes based on laboratory screening tests are increasingly used to document freedom from disease in order to facilitate trade, The following aspects must be considered when designing such programmes: diseases to be selected; epidemiology of the diseases; unit of analysis (animal...... or herd); target age group (or target farm type); test characteristics and sample size. Issues related to these aspects are discussed and illustrated using the example of serological surveillance for exotic viral diseases in the pig population of Denmark, Sampling designs based on individual animal...... samples are compared with herd-based sampling (two-stage sampling). While the latter is likely to require a larger sample size, the increased level of information and the reliability of the results obtained are considered to be worth the expense. Issues related to the development of international...

  17. Myeloradiculopathy associated with chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Anna M; Batra, Ayush; Colorado, Rene A; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is endemic to parts of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and more recently the Caribbean. Patients typically present with fever, rash, and arthralgias, though neurologic symptoms, primarily encephalitis, have been described. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who was clinically diagnosed with CHIKV while traveling in the Dominican Republic and presented 10 days later with left lower extremity weakness, a corresponding enhancing thoracic spinal cord lesion, and positive CHIKV serologies. She initially responded to corticosteroids, followed by relapsing symptoms and gradual clinical improvement. The time lapse between acute CHIKV infection and the onset of myelopathic sequelae suggests an immune-mediated phenomenon rather than direct activity of the virus itself. Chikungunya virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in endemic areas. The progression of symptoms despite corticosteroid administration suggests more aggressive immunomodulatory therapies may be warranted at disease onset. PMID:26306687

  18. Control of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the vectors of dengue and chikungunya, by using pheromone C21 with an insect growth regulator: Results of multicentric trials from 2007-12 in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Nagpal

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The use of C21 attracticide hampered pupal formation, thus inhibiting adult population in the study areas. The study established that C21 attracticide was efficacious in the field conditions and has potential for use in surveillance and management of dengue and chikungunya mosquitoes.

  19. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-29

    Chikungunya fever has reemerged in India, with thousands of people reporting moderate to high fever with arthralgia and arthritis. Learn what researchers at the National Institute of Virology in Pune, India, determined after analying blood samples collected from suspected case-patients in 3 Indian states.  Created: 8/29/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/13/2006.

  20. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...

  1. Antiviral activity of silymarin against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chiam, Chun Wei; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Rausalu, Kai; Merits, Andres; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection. PMID:26078201

  2. The Global Virus Network: Challenging chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweegan, Edward; Weaver, Scott C; Lecuit, Marc; Frieman, Matthew; Morrison, Thomas E; Hrynkow, Sharon

    2015-08-01

    The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection and management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources and expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses and international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, and advocates for funding and evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps and opportunities, including models of infection and disease, candidate vaccines and antivirals, epidemiology and vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, and policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World". PMID:26071007

  3. Chikungunya: un virus que nos acecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El virus chikungunya representa una amenaza para Costa Rica. Este arbovirus ha sido introducido al continente americano desde finales de 2013. Debido a sus características epidemiológicas y virológicas, y a la presencia de sus vectores en el país, este virus puede llegar a convertirse en la nueva enfermedad endémica de Costa Rica. Aunque el chikungunya tiene una baja tasa de mortalidad, su alta tasa de ataque podría colapsar el sistema de salud nacional durante una epidemia. En esta revisión se resume aspectos clínicos, virológicos, epidemiológicos y entomológicos relacionados con esta virosis, para identificar, diagnosticar y diferenciar posibles casos de fiebre por chikungunya en el país. Además, se enfatiza en el control epidemiológico y de vectores, para prevenir epidemias de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica.

  4. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  5. A generative-oriented model-driven design environment for customizable video surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Nuno; Rodrigues, Pedro; Vale, João; Garcia, Paulo; Cardoso, Paulo; Monteiro, João L.; Cabral, Jorge; Mendes, José A.; Ekpanyapong, Mongkol; Tavares, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    To tackle the growing complexity and huge demand for tailored domestic video surveillance systems along with a high demanding time-to-market expectation, engineers at IVV Automação, LDAa are exploiting video surveillance domain as families of systems that can be developed following a pay-as-you-go fashion rather than developing an ex-nihilo new product. Several and different new functionalities are required for each new product’s hardware platforms (e.g., ranging from mobile phone, PDA to des...

  6. An imported case of Chikungunya fever from Madagascar: use of the sentinel traveller for detecting emerging arboviral infections in tropical and European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Thierry; Ezzedine, Khaled; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Malvy, Denis

    2009-01-01

    A major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic affected the South-Western Indian Ocean islands in 2005. This major outbreak raised concerns about the possibility of the emergence of CHIKV infections in Europe as an autochthonous CHIKV outbreak occurred in the Ravenna region of Italy during the summer of 2007 and was linked to a viraemic index case originating in Kerala, India. This report highlights the need for surveillance in countries where such emerging infections could be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:19174303

  7. SBSS Demonstrator: A design for efficient demonstration of Space-based Space Surveillance end-to-end capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzmann, Jens; Flohrer, Tim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Wagner, Axel; Silha, Jiri; Willemsen, Philip; Teston, Frederic

    This paper presents the capabilities of a Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) demonstration mission for Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) based on a micro-satellite platform. The results have been produced in the frame of ESA’s "Assessment Study for Space Based Space Surveillance Demonstration Mission" performed by the Airbus Defence and Space consortium. Space Surveillance and Tracking is part of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and covers the detection, tracking and cataloguing of space debris and satellites. Derived SST services comprise a catalogue of these man-made objects, collision warning, detection and characterisation of in-orbit fragmentations, sub-catalogue debris characterisation, etc. The assessment of SBSS in a SST system architecture has shown that both an operational SBSS and also already a well-designed space-based demonstrator can provide substantial performance in terms of surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO objects. Especially the early deployment of a demonstrator, possible by using standard equipment, could boost initial operating capability and create a self-maintained object catalogue. Furthermore, unique statistical information about small-size LEO debris (mm size) can be collected in-situ. Unlike classical technology demonstration missions, the primary goal is the demonstration and optimisation of the functional elements in a complex end-to-end chain (mission planning, observation strategies, data acquisition, processing and fusion, etc.) until the final products can be offered to the users. Also past and current missions by the US (SBV, SBSS) and Canada (Sapphire, NEOSSat) underline the advantages of space-based space surveillance. The presented SBSS system concept takes the ESA SST System Requirements (derived within the ESA SSA Preparatory Program) into account and aims at fulfilling SST core requirements in a stand-alone manner. Additionally, requirments for detection and characterisation of small-sized LEO debris are

  8. Clinical profile of chikungunya patients during the epidemic of 2007 in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Pillai Vijayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of the present Chikungunya pandemic with a mutation in the Chik virus is already established in many parts of the world, including Kerala. Kerala was one of the worst-affected states of India in the Chikungunya epidemic of 2006-2007. It is important to discuss the clinical features of patients affected by Chikungunya fever in the context of this change in the epidemiology of the disease. Aim: This study tries to analyze the clinical picture of the Chikungunya patients in Kerala during the epidemic of 2007. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in five of the most affected districts in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect the information. Ten clusters each were selected from all the five districts, and the size of the clusters were 18 houses each. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and symptoms was the major case-finding strategy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 3623 residents in the surveyed households, 1913 (52.8% had Chikungunya clinically. Most of the affected were in the adult age group (73.4%. Swelling of the joints was seen in 69.9% of the patients, followed by headache (64.1% and itching (50.3%. The knee joint was the most common joint affected (52%. The number of patients with persistence of any of the symptoms even after 1 month of illness was 1388 (72.6%. Taking bed rest till the relief of joint pain was found to be a protective factor for the persistence of the symptoms. Recurrence of symptoms with a period of disease-free interval was complained by 669 (35.0% people. Older age (>40 years, a presentation of high-grade fever with shivering, involvement of the small joints of the hand, presence of rashes or joint swelling during the first week of fever and fever lasting for more than 1 week were the significant risk factors for recurrence of symptoms predicted by a

  9. Emergence of chikungunya in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts, Champassak Province, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, May to September 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viengsavanh Kitthiphong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chikungunya is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, which are widespread in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. However, chikungunya virus (CHIKV had not been detected in the country before outbreaks reported in July 2012. The first outbreaks were detected through health care worker event-based surveillance. Methods: The case definition for the outbreaks was defined as a person with acute onset of fever (> 38 °C and severe arthralgia (joint pain or arthritis from 1 May 2012 in Champassak Province. Rapid response teams conducted active case finding, performed an environmental assessment including an entomological survey and implemented control measures. Descriptive analysis was undertaken in Microsoft Excel. Results: There were 197 cases (attack rate 3.4% of suspected chikungunya reported from 10 villages in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts of Champassak Province. All age groups (age range: seven months–74 years were affected with slightly more female (56% than male cases. Thirty-one per cent (16 of 52 of serum samples tested positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction. The environmental assessment found poor water storage practices and high entomological indices. Discussion: These outbreaks show the effectiveness of health care worker event-based surveillance and the importance of sharing of information across borders for detecting emerging diseases. Public health education is an important measure to prevent epidemics of chikungunya. Information about chikungunya should be supplied to health care workers in the region so they are alert to the potential spread and are able to implement control measures for this disease.

  10. Benzouracil-coumarin-arene conjugates as inhibiting agents for chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Jih Ru; Kapoor, Mohit; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Horng, Jia-Cherng; Chen, I-Chia; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that was first recognized in an epidemic form in East Africa in 1952-1953. The virus is primarily transmitted through mosquitoes and the resulting disease, chikungunya fever, is found in nearly 40 countries. Neither an effective vaccine nor a specific antiviral drug exists for treatments of chikungunya fever. Thus 22 new conjugated compounds of uracil-coumarin-arene were designed and synthesized as potential inhibiting agents. Their chemical structures were determined unambiguously by spectroscopic methods, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The three units in these conjugates were connected by specially designed -SCH2- and -OSO2- joints. Five of these new conjugates were found to inhibit CHIKV in Vero cells with significant potency (EC50 = 10.2-19.1 μM) and showed low toxicity (CC50 = 75.2-178 μM). The selective index values were 8.8-11.5 for three conjugates. By analysis of the data from the anti-viral assays, the structure-activity relationship is derived on the basis of the nature of the uracil, the functional groups attached to the arene, and the joints between the ring units. PMID:25839734

  11. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  12. Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Olga D; Major, Chelsea; Acevedo, Veronica; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Waterman, Stephen; Barrera, Roberto; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-01-01

    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Puerto Rico reported its first laboratory-positive chikungunya case in May 2014 (4), and subsequently identified approximately 29,000 suspected cases throughout the island by the end of 2015.(†) Because conventional vector control approaches often fail to result in effective and sustainable prevention of infection with viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes (5), and to improve surveillance of mosquito population densities, CDC developed an Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) (6) to attract and capture the female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for transmission of infectious agents to humans (Figure). The AGO trap is a simple, low-cost device that requires no use of pesticides and no servicing for an extended period of time (6). PMID:27171600

  13. Do we need a vaccine against chikungunya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, the chikungunya (CHIKV) virus has expanded its range of activity, conquering new territories and becoming an important global health threat. In particular, the challenge represented by the recent emergence of CHIKV in the Americas has strengthened the need of a safe and effective vaccine. Although research on vaccines against CHIKV has been slow, a few vaccine candidates have been tested over the years. Inactivated and attenuated vaccine candidates have shown promising results in phase I/II trials, and engineered vaccines have proven to be safe and immunogenic in mouse and/or non-human primate models. Recently, a vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLP) has been successfully tested in a phase I trial. However, large phase I/II controlled trials, which are needed in order to provide evidence of vaccine efficacy, may be planned only under certain conditions. First, they should be conducted during epidemic periods, when a large number of cases occur, in order to ensure an adequate study power. Second, they are expensive and investments returns are not always guaranteed. To overcome this problem, public/private partnership and government support, the identification of target population groups for vaccination and the commitment of donor agencies are key factors for supporting both the development and the availability of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases like chikungunya. PMID:25971340

  14. Chikungunya virus, epidemiology, clinics and phylogenesis:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra Lo Presti; Alessia Lai; Eleonora Cella; Gianguglielmo Zehender; Massimo Ciccozzi

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash.Chikungunya virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes;Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin, disseminates to liver, muscle, joints, lymphoid tissue and brain, presumably through the blood.Phylogenetic studies showed that the IndianOcean and theIndian subcontinent epidemics were caused by two different introductions of distinct strains ofEast/Central/SouthAfrican genotype ofCHIKV.The paraphyletic grouping ofAfricanCHIK viruses supports the historical evidence that the virus was introduced into Asia fromAfrica.Phylogenetic analysis dividedChikungunya virus isolates into three distinct genotypes based on geographical origins: thefirst, theWestAfrica genotype, consisted of isolates fromSenegal andNigeria; the second contained strains fromEast/Central/SouthAfrican genotype, while the third contained solelyAsian.The most recent common ancestor for the recent epidemic, which ravagedIndianOcean islands andIndian subcontinent in2004–2007, was found to date in2002.Asian lineage dated about1952 and exhibits similarspread patterns of the recentIndian Ocean outbreak lineage, with successive epidemics detected along an eastward path.Asian group splitted into two clades: anIndian lineage and a south east lineage.Outbreaks ofChikungunya virus fever inAsia have not been associated necessarily with outbreaks inAfrica.Phylogenetic tools can reconstruct geographic spread ofChikungunya virus during the epidemics wave.The good management of patients with acuteChikungunya virus infection is essential for public health in susceptible areas with currentAedes spp activity.

  15. Vectors of Chikungunya Virus in Senegal : Transmission cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Thonnon, J.; M. Diallo; Traore-Lamizana, M.; Fontenille, D.

    1999-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Ke´dougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. F...

  16. Neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection: astrogliosis and innate immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Fiona M; Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Purcell, Olivia M; Didier, Peter J; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Weaver, Scott C; Roy, Chad J; MacLean, Andrew G

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya, "that which bends up" in the Makonde dialect, is an emerging global health threat, with increasing incidence of neurological complications. Until 2013, Chikungunya infection had been largely restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean, with cases within the USA reported to be from foreign travel. However, in 2014, over 1 million suspected cases were reported in the Americas, and a recently infected human could serve as an unwitting reservoir for the virus resulting in an epidemic in the continental USA. Chikungunya infection is increasingly being associated with neurological sequelae. In this study, we sought to understand the role of astrocytes in the neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection. Even after virus has been cleared form the circulation, astrocytes were activated with regard to TLR2 expression. In addition, white matter astrocytes were hypertrophic, with increased arbor volume in gray matter astrocytes. Combined, these would alter the number and distribution of synapses that each astrocyte would be capable of forming. These results provide the first evidence that Chikungunya infection induces morphometric and innate immune activation of astrocytes in vivo. Perturbed glia-neuron signaling could be a major driving factor in the development of Chikungunya-associated neuropathology. PMID:26419894

  17. Design of object surveillance system based on enhanced fish-eye lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Wu; Kuntao Yang; Qiaolian Xiang; Nanyang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the object surveillance system based on the enhanced fish-eye lens and the high speed digital signal processor (DSP). The improved fish-eye lens images an ellipse picture on the charge-coupled device (CCD) surface, which increases both the utilization rate of the 4:3 rectangular CCD and the imaging resolution, and remains the view angle of 183°. The algorithm of auto-adapted renewal background subtraction (ARBS) is also explored to extract the object from the monitoring image. The experimental result shows that the ARBS algorithm has high anti-jamming ability and high resolution, leading to excellent object detecting ability from the enhanced elliptical fish-eye image under varies en-vironments. This system has potential applications in different security monitoring fields due to its wide monitoring space, simple structure, working stability, and reliability.

  18. A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis

  19. Exploring pig trade patterns to inform the design of risk-based disease surveillance and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, C; Relun, A; Wall, B; Morris, A; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the patterns of animal contact networks provides essential information for the design of risk-based animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This study characterises pig movements throughout England and Wales between 2009 and 2013 with a view to characterising spatial and temporal patterns, network topology and trade communities. Data were extracted from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)'s RADAR (Rapid Analysis and Detection of Animal-related Risks) database, and analysed using descriptive and network approaches. A total of 61,937,855 pigs were moved through 872,493 movements of batches in England and Wales during the 5-year study period. Results show that the network exhibited scale-free and small-world topologies, indicating the potential for diseases to quickly spread within the pig industry. The findings also provide suggestions for how risk-based surveillance strategies could be optimised in the country by taking account of highly connected holdings, geographical regions and time periods with the greatest number of movements and pigs moved, as these are likely to be at higher risk for disease introduction. This study is also the first attempt to identify trade communities in the country, information which could be used to facilitate the pig trade and maintain disease-free status across the country in the event of an outbreak. PMID:27357836

  20. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  1. Therapeutics and vaccines against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Tero; Couderc, Therese; Courderc, Therese; Ng, Lisa F P; Hallengärd, David; Powers, Ann; Lecuit, Marc; Esteban, Mariano; Merits, Andres; Roques, Pierre; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 and Kaur and Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease. PMID:25897811

  2. Chikungunya: epidemiology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle R. Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook.

  3. Surveillance-Based Program Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sanusi, Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objective to analyze the Integrated Behavioral & Biological Surveillance (IBBS) 2011 data for designing a condom utilization program. Introduction The IBBS is part of the Indonesian MoH HIV Surveillance System, which include Serological Surveillance, Behavioral Surveillance, Reproductive Tract Infection Survey, and monthly HIV/AIDS facility-based (hospitals, HCs, VCT Sites) monthly reports. The IBBS 2011 was conducted in 11 provinces (22 districts/municipalities) encompassing eight Most At Ri...

  4. Detection of Chikungunya Virus Antigen by a Novel Rapid Immunochromatographic Test

    OpenAIRE

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E.; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates fro...

  5. A complex adenovirus vaccine against chikungunya virus provides complete protection against viraemia and arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Danher; Suhrbier, Andreas; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Gardner, Joy; Luo, Min; Le, Thuy T.; Anraku, Itaru; Sakalian, Michael; Einfeld, David; Dong, John Y

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, recently caused the largest epidemic ever seen for this virus. Chikungunya disease primarily manifests as a painful and debilitating arthralgia/arthritis, and no effective drug or vaccine is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant chikungunya virus vaccine comprising a non-replicating complex adenovirus vector encoding the structural polyprotein cassette of chikungunya virus. A single immunisation with this vaccine consistently induc...

  6. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  7. Chikungunya infection confirmed in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket (Thailand)

    OpenAIRE

    Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M.; Cnops, L.; Clerinx, J; van Gompel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya infection has been increasingly reported in international travellers following its epidemic re-emergence in the Indian Ocean islands in 2006 and its spread to southern Asia thereafter. We describe the first case of chikungunya in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket, Thailand and discuss the potential implications of chikungunya cases imported to European countries for patient management and public health.

  8. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  9. A comprehensive immunoinformatics and target site study revealed the corner-stone toward Chikungunya virus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Anayet; Khan, Md Arif; Datta, Amit; Mazumder, Md Habibul Hasan; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal

    2015-05-01

    Recent concerning facts of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); a Togaviridae family alphavirus has proved this as a worldwide emerging threat which causes Chikungunya fever and devitalizing arthritis. Despite severe outbreaks and lack of antiviral drug, a mere progress has been made regarding to an epitope-based vaccine designed for CHIKV. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites by using various immunoinformatics and docking simulation tools. Initially, whole proteome of CHIKV was retrieved from database and perused to identify the most immunogenic protein. Structural properties of the selected protein were analyzed. The capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity by T cell and B cell were checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 397 to 405 and the sequence YYYELYPTM were found as the most potential B cell and T cell epitopes respectively. This peptide could interact with as many as 19 HLAs and showed high population coverage ranging from 69.50% to 84.94%. By using in silico docking techniques the epitope was further assessed for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post therapeutic strategy, three dimensional structure was predicted along with validation and verification that resulted in molecular docking study to identify the potential drug binding sites and suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. Finally, pharmacophore study was also performed in quest of seeing potent drug activity. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing and target site prediction against CHIKV opens up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Chikungunya virus research; the results require validation by in vitro and in vivo

  10. Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ozden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIK virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells, and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans.

  11. Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, Rachmat; Nickols, Brian; Forrester, Naomi; Tretyakova, Irina; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a pandemic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared and compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 and E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 and E2-82 were 0.064% and 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% and 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety. PMID:26855330

  12. Nutritional surveillance*

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for i...

  13. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  14. [The chikungunya epidemic in the Caribbean: implications for travellers and physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the first autochthonous cases of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were reported on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. The chikungunya virus has since become endemic in the Caribbean due to autochthonous transmission. In the presence of fever and joint symptoms in any traveller returning from the Caribbean, CHIKV should be considered. Although symptoms resemble those of dengue fever, the course of chikungunya is milder. Chikungunya much more commonly causes chronic joint pain. Laboratory tests for the chikungunya virus may give false positive results due to cross reactions with closely related viruses, so taking a full disease and travel history from the patient is necessary in order to interpret these test results correctly. There is no specific treatment for the chikungunya virus. A correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary additional tests and unjustified treatment. The chikungunya virus can be prevented by the use of insect-repelling substances, nets and air-conditioning. PMID:25269640

  15. Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Chen, Rubing; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity and economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions and, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, and the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural and temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors and nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses. PMID:26986235

  16. DENGUE, CHIKUNGUNYA E EBOLA: VIROSES AMBIENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Cristina Ferreira Camello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/sustinere.2014.14122Várias viroses emergentes ou reemergentes podem ser veiculadas por mosquitos. Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, os mesmos que transmitem o vírus da dengue e da febre amarela, podem disseminar o vírus Chikungunya que este ano no Brasil já fez cerca de 1000 casos confirmados. A doença tem parâmetros semelhantes aos da Dengue, e embora a taxa de letalidade seja muito baixa, sequelas podem permanecer no individuo por um ano. Em 2014 a partir de setembro o mundo observou perplexo a ressurgência de um vírus hemorrágico letal, em uma das piores epidemias já ocorridas no continente africano. O vírus Ebola atingiu mais de 6000 pessoas. Estudos no sentido de melhorar as estratégias de contenção da disseminação de vetores e dos vírus devem ser estabelecidas, enquanto aguardamos a produção de vacinas eficazes. O mundo não é imune a uma infecção endêmica, localizada no interior de um continente e não estamos preparados para atender uma demanda deste porte.

  17. Mathematical modeling of Chikungunya fever control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya fever is a global concern due to the occurrence of large outbreaks, the presence of persistent arthropathy and its rapid expansion throughout various continents. Globalization and climate change have contributed to the expansion of the geographical areas where mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia) remain. It is necessary to improve the techniques of vector control in the presence of large outbreaks in The American Region. We derive measures of disease control, using a mathematical model of mosquito-human interaction, by means of three scenarios: a) a single vector b) two vectors, c) two vectors and human and non-human reservoirs. The basic reproductive number and critical control measures were deduced by using computer algebra with Maple (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Control measures were simulated with parameter values obtained from published data. According to the number of households in high risk areas, the goals of effective vector control to reduce the likelihood of mosquito-human transmission would be established. Besides the two vectors, if presence of other non-human reservoirs were reported, the monthly target of effective elimination of the vector would be approximately double compared to the presence of a single vector. The model shows the need to periodically evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures.

  18. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  19. Surveillance of Mosquitoes and Selected Arthropod-Borne Viruses in the Context of Milan EXPO 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Mario; Calzolari, Mattia; Prosperi, Alice; Perulli, Simona; Faccin, Francesca; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Tironi, Marco; Bertoletti, Marco; Defilippo, Francesco; Moreno, Ana; Farioli, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Dottori, Michele; Lelli, Davide; Lavazza, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO) hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy), raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the EXPO area and in the two major regional airports using both Center for Disease Control CO₂ and Biogents Sentinel traps. This surveillance aimed to estimate the presence and densities of putative vectors, and also to support investigations, including the vector species involved and area of diffusion, on the local spread of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) by competent vectors. From 3544 mosquitoes belonging to five different species, 28 pools of Culex spp. and 45 pools of Aedes spp. were screened for the presence of WNV, and for both Chikungunya and flaviviruses, respectively. The entomological surveillance highlighted a low density of potential vectors in the surveyed areas and did not reveal the presence of Chikungunya or Dengue viruses in the local competent vectors inside the EXPO area or in the two airports. In addition, the surveillance reported a low density of Culex spp. mosquitoes, which all tested negative for WNV. PMID:27399756

  20. Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    After an absence of ≈200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by ...

  1. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hak, E; Loon, S.; Buskens, E; van Essen, G. A.; Bakker, D.; Tacken, M.A.J.B.; van Hout, B.A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media, acute respiratory disease (ARD), heart failure, myocardial infarction, depression or diabetes dysregulation. Per case four controls are sampled, frequency matched on age and high-risk co-morbidit...

  2. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...

  3. GPS-Guided Real-time Aerial Surveillance System Design : New Approach with Improvised GPRS for M2M Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Musoro, Tamugri King Asa

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveillance has become a vital part of security, law enforcement and even warfare, whereby unmanned aerial vehicles fitted with cameras provide real-time surveillance. A multi-rotor helicopter was the vehicle of choice in this project and has a history that goes beyond the Archimedes and the Leonardo Da Vinci era. Nowadays new technologies have scaled down these multi-rotor aerial vehicles, many mini-versions exit and have become increasingly agile. The inclusion of wireless technolog...

  4. Globalization of Chikungunya Virus: Threat to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of the febrile epidemic in a coastal island city. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in tropical Africa and Asia; the fever is rarely fatal but can incapacitate for weeks. Control was delayed,...

  5. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  6. Outbreak of Dengue and Chikungunya Fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Harisoa, Julie; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Biacabe, Sophie; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Zeller, Hervé; Raoelina, Yolande; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent; Soares, Jean Louis

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue-like syndrome occurred in Toamasina from January through March 2006. Dengue type l or chikungunya viruses were detected in 38 of 55 patients sampled. Aedes albopictus was the only potential vector collected. Of 4,242 randomly selected representative residents interviewed retrospectively, 67.5% reported a dengue-like syndrome during this period.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    During 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  8. Virus Chikungunya in Colombia, a simple matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an RNA alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. The alphaviruses consist of 29 species, including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses among others. CHIKV is transmitted by vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albipictus, which are abundant in the South American tropics.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  10. Drought-associated chikungunya emergence along coastal East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemics of chikungunya fever, an Aedes spp.-borne viral disease, affected hundreds of thousands of people in western Indian Ocean islands and India during 2005--2006. The initial outbreaks occurred in coastal Kenya (Lamu, then Mombasa) in 2004. We investigated ecoclimatic conditions associated wit...

  11. [Dengue and chikungunya acquired during travel in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aart, C.J. van; Braks, M.A.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Mast, Q. de; Tostmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    - The global incidence of dengue and chikungunya has greatly increased over recent decades, partly due to the increase of geographic distribution of both vectors.- These infections are endemic to the tropics and subtropics, however autochthonous transmission and outbreaks have been described in non-

  12. ACUTE COMPLICATIONS OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya fever is the arthropode borne viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes to humans. Earlier it was prevalent in those areas with humid atmosphere and plenty of rain with changing monsoon pattern this disease becoming prevalent in dec can land scape including Karnataka. It is important to recognise the clinical signs and symptoms, alterations in the biochemical parameters and the multi system involvement pattern to manage chikungunya fever cases effectively. The current study is under taken to analyse the varying clinical presentation , laboratory parameters and complications of chikungunya Fever. AIM: To study the various acute complications of chikungunya fever. METHODS: 100 cases of confirmed chikungunya infection admitted to KIMS, Bangalore between december 2009 to September 2011 were studied. A detailed clinical history and physical examination was done and baseline investigations were performed. The cases were followed - up daily for the clinical and laboratory parameters. The data related to each of these cases was collected, compiled and analysed. RESULTS: Out of total 100 cases 54 were male and 48 were female. Most of the cases were found in September(22%, followed by October (22%, August (18%, July (16%. Majority of patien ts were from urban area (56% Most common LFT abnormality was raised SGOT and SGPT that was seen in 8% of the patients. 4% of patients had platelet count less than 20, 000. Eighteen patients had systemic complications. Complications observed are Hepatitis (8%, meningoencephalitis (4% conjunctivitis (4% anduveitis in (2%. No death reported in the study. CONCLUSION : In our present study, Hepatitis, Meningoencephalitis, Conjunctivitis and Uveitis are various Acute complications observed in the study. Pla telet count does not correlate with complications of the disease. A focused history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate relevant investigations can aid for early diagnosis and treatment

  13. Urological manifestations of Chikungunya fever: A single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya Ramen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya is a viral infection often associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction. This study evaluates the urological squeal of Chikungunya fever in a single centre after an epidemic in 2006-2007 in India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 13 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms after Chikungunya fever was evaluated and outcome following intervention assessed. Results: A total of 13 patients (M:F=9:4, with age ranging from 30 to 72 years, were included in the study. They presented with chronic urinary retention (n=9, 69.23% of which two had paraparesis, voiding symptoms alone (n=7, 53.8%, storage symptoms alone (n=3, 23%, and acute urinary retention (n=1, 7.6%. Presentation with lower urinary tract symptoms after an episode of Chikungunya fever was after a mean period of 163 days (range 30-360 days. Mean serum creatinine on presentation was 1.8 mg/dl (0.6-6.5 mg/dl. Evaluation revealed dilated upper tract in four (30.7% patients. Cystometrography showed acontractile detrusor (n=3, 37.5%, hypocontractile detrusor (n=3, 37.5%, overactive detrusor (n=1, 12.5% and normal study (n=1, 12.5%. At the mean follow up of 11 months, 11 patients (84.6% had satisfactory functional outcome after intervention, namely supra pubic diversion and bladder training (n=5, 38.4%, alpha blocker (n=3, 23%, timed frequent voiding (n=2, 15.3%, clean intermittent catheterization (n=2, 15.3%, trial void with alpha blocker (n=1, 7.6% while two are on continuing supra pubic diversion due to persistent neurological deficit. Conclusions: Chikungunya fever is an uncommon entity in urological practice, often associated with urinary symptoms. An accurate assessment of the symptoms and timely intervention prevents upper tract deterioration and improves the quality of life.

  14. A worksite intervention to reduce the cardiovascular risk: proposal of a study design easy to integrate within Italian organization of occupational health surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Marangi, Gianluca; Bontadi, Danilo; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca; Bortolotto, Melania; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchiori, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial amount of knowledge on effectiveness of worksite health promotion (WHP) in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, WHP programs are not systematically applied in Italy. The aim was to design an intervention easy to integrate within the Italian organization of workplace health surveillance. Methods We used the “pretest-posttest design”. Workers were employed in multiple occupations and resident in Veneto region, Italy. Occupational physicians (OPs) perfor...

  15. Surveillance Angels

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data. Human operators are supposed to give a semantic interpretation of the observed data. They are searching for suspicious or unwanted behaviour. The increase of surveillance sensors in the military ...

  16. Effect of Mosquito Repellent on the Transmission Model of Chikungunya Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Surapol Naowarat; Prasit Thongjaem; Tang, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: In 2008 there was a large outbreak of Chikungunya fever in southern Thailand. Chikungunya fever is an emerging disease which tends to affect rubber plantation and fruit orchard workers more than other occupation. This study we considers the efficacy of using mosquito repellent as a way to prevent and control the spread of Chikungunya fever. The mathematical model of the dynamic of this disease is proposed and analyzed. Approach: A standard dynamical modeling method was appl...

  17. Co-distribution and Co-infection of Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, L.; Liang, S.; Milinovich, G; Soares Magalhaes, RJ; Clements, AC; Hu, W; Brasil, P; Frentiu, FD; Dunning, R.; Yakob, L

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Methods Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in ...

  18. Immunogenicity of Escherichia coli expressed envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Nagesh K.; Priya, Raj; Shrivastava, Ambuj

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging infection, is an arthropod-borne viral disease prevalent in different parts of the world, particularly Africa and South East Asia. Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein is involved in binding to host receptors and it contains specific epitopes that elicit virus neutralizing antibodies. A highly immunogenic, recombinant Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein was produced by bioreactor in Escherichia coli for development of a suitable diagnostic and vaccine candida...

  19. Chikungunya Viral Fitness Measures within the Vector and Subsequent Transmission Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wearing, Helen J.; Mores, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein) was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South A...

  20. Co-distribution and co-infection of chikungunya and dengue viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, L.; Liang, S.; Milinovich, G; Soares Magalhaes, RJ; Clements, AC; Hu, W; Brasil, P; Frentiu, FD; Dunning, R; Yakob, L

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in the same pati...

  1. Co-distribution and Co-infection of Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Liang, Shaohong; Milinovich, Gabriel; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Archie C.A. Clements; Hu, Wenbiao; Brasil, Patricia; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Dunning, Rebecca; Yakob, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in the same patient. A...

  2. DNA Vaccine Initiates Replication of Live Attenuated Chikungunya Virus In Vitro and Elicits Protective Immune Response in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hearn, Jason; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes outbreaks of chikungunya fever worldwide and represents an emerging pandemic threat. Vaccine development against CHIKV has proved challenging. Currently there is no approved vaccine or specific therapy for the disease.

  3. Profile of The Chikungunya Infection: A Neglected Vector Borne Disease which is Prevalent In The Rajkot District

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagwati, Chundawat; M, Madhulika; Mehta, Krunal D; Y.S, Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya Virus has been responsible for significant human morbidity probably for several hundred years; yet in spite of its prevalence, the Chikungunya Virus epidemiology and the mechanisms of virulence and pathogenesis are still poorly understood and undetermined.

  4. Chikungunya: unos meses después del ataque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In May of 2014, the editorial of the MVZ Cordoba magazine announced the warning of the inevitable arrival of the Chikungunya virus to Colombia, especially in the Caribbean region given its climatic conditions of tropical humidity, as well as the presence of the well known competent vector of dengue: Aedes aegypti (1. The abundant population of this mosquito in the Caribbean allowed a quick adaptation of the Chikungunya virus and facilitated its dissemination throughout the entire Atlantic coast. The OPS (Pan-American Health Organization and the Ministry of Health of Colombia knew of its imminent arrival and allocated resources to control the vector and mitigate the epidemiologic impact of this new arbovirus. However, it has been observed that the fumigation campaigns were not systematic and did not even take place in some rural populations of the Atlantic coast.

  5. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. ...

  6. Virus Chikungunya in Colombia, a simple matter of time?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco González T.; Salim Mattar V.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an RNA alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. The alphaviruses consist of 29 species, including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses among others. CHIKV is transmitted by vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albipictus, which are abundant in the South American tropics.CHIKV was first isolated in 1953 in the serum of a patient in Tanzania during an epidemic of dengue. In a recent dendrogram, this isolate appeared with the name of Ross l...

  7. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Mardekian, Stacey K.; Roberts, Amity L.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important...

  8. Assessment of flavaglines as potential chikungunya virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Thuaud, Frédéric; Basmadjian, Christine; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Ubol, Sukathida; Désaubry, Laurent; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that recently caused large epidemics in islands in, and countries around, the Indian Ocean. There is currently no specific drug for therapeutic treatment or for use as a prophylactic agent against infection and no commercially available vaccine. Prohibitin has been identified as a receptor protein used by chikungunya virus to enter mammalian cells. Recently, synthetic sulfonyl amidines and flavaglines (FLs), a class of naturally occurring plant compounds with potent anti-cancer and cytoprotective and neuroprotective activities, have been shown to interact directly with prohibitin. This study therefore sought to determine whether three prohibitin ligands (sulfonyl amidine 1 m and the flavaglines FL3 and FL23) were able to inhibit CHIKV infection of mammalian Hek293T/17 cells. All three compounds inhibited infection and reduced virus production when cells were treated before infection but not when added after infection. Pretreatment of cells for only 15 minutes prior to infection followed by washing out of the compound resulted in significant inhibition of entry and virus production. These results suggest that further investigation of prohibitin ligands as potential Chikungunya virus entry inhibitors is warranted. PMID:25643977

  9. Chikungunya triggers an autophagic process which promotes viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya Virus (ChikV surprised by a massive re-emerging outbreak in Indian Ocean in 2006, reaching Europe in 2007 and exhibited exceptional severe physiopathology in infants and elderly patients. In this context, it is important to analyze the innate immune host responses triggered against ChikV. Autophagy has been shown to be an important component of the innate immune response and is involved in host defense elimination of different pathogens. However, the autophagic process was recently observed to be hijacked by virus for their own replication. Here we provide the first evidence that hallmarks of autophagy are specifically found in HEK.293 infected cells and are involved in ChikV replication. Methods To test the capacity of ChikV to mobilize the autophagic machinery, we performed fluorescence microscopy experiments on HEK.GFP.LC3 stable cells, and followed the LC3 distribution during the time course of ChikV infection. To confirm this, we performed electron microscopy on HEK.293 infected cells. To test the effect of ChikV-induced-autophagy on viral replication, we blocked the autophagic process, either by pharmacological (3-MA or genetic inhibition (siRNA against the transcript of Beclin 1, an autophagic protein, and analyzed the percentage of infected cells and the viral RNA load released in the supernatant. Moreover, the effect of induction of autophagy by Rapamycin on viral replication was tested. Results The increasing number of GFP-LC3 positive cells with a punctate staining together with the enhanced number of GFP-LC3 dots per cell showed that ChikV triggered an autophagic process in HEK.293 infected cells. Those results were confirmed by electron microscopy analysis since numerous membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagosomes were observed in infected cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of autophagy, either by biochemical reagent and RNA interference, dramatically decreases ChikV replication

  10. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Chahar, Harendra S; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K; Broor, Shobha

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses.

  11. Risk Factors for Severity of Chikungunya in Children: A Prospective Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Barrios-Redondo, Katherine; Zarate-Vergara, Andrea; Tirado-Pérez, Irina; Fortich, Rossana; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Mattar, Salim

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya appeared during the second half of 2014 in Colombia. A prospective cohort study was carried to detect differences and severity between neonates and older children. Of 54 children with chikungunya, neonates had a higher viral load and greater frequency of severe laboratory and clinical findings. PMID:26986769

  12. Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Associated with Chikungunya Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollé, Amélie; Schepers, Kinda; Cassadou, Sylvie; Curlier, Elodie; Madeux, Benjamin; Hermann-Storck, Cécile; Fabre, Isabelle; Lamaury, Isabelle; Tressières, Benoit; Thiery, Guillaume; Hoen, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    During a 2014 outbreak, 450 patients with confirmed chikungunya virus infection were admitted to the University Hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe. Of these, 110 were nonpregnant adults; 42 had severe disease, and of those, 25 had severe sepsis or septic shock and 12 died. Severe sepsis may be a rare complication of chikungunya virus infection. PMID:27088710

  13. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  14. Diagnosis and management of imported Chikungunya fever in Taiwan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia. PMID:20466336

  15. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of increasing reports of dengue and chikungunya activity in Tanzania, limited research has been done to document the general epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya in the country. This study aimed at determining the sero-prevalence and prevalence of acute infections of dengue...... with malaria-like symptoms at health facilities at Bondo dispensary (Bondo, Tanga), Hai hospital (Hai, Kilimanjaro) and TPC hospital (Lower Moshi). Participants who were malaria negative using rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) were screened for sero-positivity towards dengue and chikungunya Immunoglobulin...... G and M (IgG and IgM) using ELISA-based kits. Participants with specific symptoms defined as probable dengue and/or chikungunya by WHO (fever and various combinations of symptoms such as headache, rash, nausea/vomit, and joint pain) were further screened for acute dengue and chikungunya infections...

  16. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. 基于智能视频监控的安防系统设计%A security system design based on intelligent video surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为民; 胡向臻

    2013-01-01

    针对当前流行的视频监控系统不能智能识别监视目标、不能智能处理突发状况等问题,提出了一种基于智能视频监控的安防系统设计方案.该系统主要由监控端、管理端和服务端三部分组成,利用网络摄像机、红外探测、电子围栏等设备对安防区域实施联合监控:借助数字图像分析技术,实时检测监控场景下的运动目标,并对其定位、识别、行为理解,智能地管控安防区域.文中重点阐述了智能视频监控系统的架构设计及视频智能分析的实现.%A security system design based on intelligent video surveillance is presented against the shortcomings of prevalent video surveillance. This system mainly consists of three parts: monitor terminal, management and server. It works by monitoring the implementation of the security area through the use of network camera, infrared detection, electronic fences and other equipment. With the help of digital image analyzing technique, this system can do real-time detection of moving target, and locate, analyze, comprehend and control the target area. This paper focuses on the design of intelligent video surveillance system and the realization of intelligent video analysis.

  18. Influenza surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

  19. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  20. Imported chikungunya cases in an area newly colonised by Aedes albopictus: mathematical assessment of the best public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Thomas; Jourdain, Frédéric; Perrin, Yvon; Noel, Harold; Paty, Marie-Claire; de Valk, Henriette; Septfons, Alexandra; Simard, Frédéric; Fontenille, Didier; Roche, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to identify the optimal strategy that should be used by public health authorities against transmission of chikungunya virus in mainland France. The theoretical model we developed, which mimics the current surveillance system, predicted that without vector control (VC), the probability of local transmission after introduction of viraemic patients was around 2%, and the number of autochthonous cases between five and 15 persons per hectare, depending on the number of imported cases. Compared with this baseline, we considered different strategies (VC after clinical suspicion of a case or after laboratory confirmation, for imported or autochthonous cases): Awaiting laboratory confirmation for suspected imported cases to implement VC had no significant impact on the epidemiological outcomes analysed, mainly because of the delay before entering into the surveillance system. However, waiting for laboratory confirmation of autochthonous cases before implementing VC resulted in more frequent outbreaks. After analysing the economic cost of such strategies, our study suggested implementing VC immediately after the notification of a suspected autochthonous case as the most efficient strategy in settings where local transmission has been proven. Nevertheless, we identified that decreasing reporting time for imported cases should remain a priority. PMID:27172607

  1. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future. PMID:26943997

  2. Mayaro and Chikungunya; two alphaviruses with clinical and epidemiological similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1780, Philadelphia suffered an unusual outbreak of hemorrhagic fever, which years later was identified as dengue (1. One hundred years later, in Memphis, 1500 people died from yellow fever, which caused residents to abandoned the city (2. Even though these stories may seem anecdotes, they show how dramatic hemorrhagic arbovirus outbreaks can be. The tropic host arboviruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV, Dengue, and Zika (ZIKV; but there are others, such as Mayaro, Oropuche, and Bussuquara, among others, which have still not been studied in depth by the public health systems of our countries.

  3. [Situational panorama of Mexico against the chikungunya virus pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation. PMID:25760749

  4. Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Mayaro virus (MAYV are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae. MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses.

  5. Conceptual Design for Expert Centres Supporting Optical and Laser Observations in a Space Surveillance and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohrer, T.

    One of the goals of ESA's SSA Programme in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment is the successful establishment of expert centres for optical and laser observations. These centres will serve as the focal point for the interfacing with segment-external sensors and assets. They will also provide feedback on the provided data and will be able to request and manage observations. Benefits are expected in the coordination and monitoring of sensors and data providers, as well as through the expert support provision to the SST segment, such as in particular for sensor qualification and calibration. The establishment of the expert centres will have a strong technological focus on the complex networking and integration of heterogeneous sensors in a coherent SST segment, for which the enormous expertise that is available in Europe will be used. We report on the requirements analysis and the plans for the establishment of the centre,that is expected to start in 2015.

  6. Information surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  7. Destructive arthritis in a patient with chikungunya virus infection with persistent specific IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Receveur Marie-Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology of the chronic stage is poorly understood. Case presentation We report the first case of CHIKV infection with chronic associated rheumatism in a patient who developed progressive erosive arthritis with expression of inflammatory mediators and persistence of specific IgM antibodies over 24 months following infection. Conclusions Understanding the specific features of chikungunya virus as well as how the virus interacts with its host are essential for the prevention, treatment or cure of chikungunya disease.

  8. Chikungunya, a paradigm of neglected tropical disease that emerged to be a new health global risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeron, Virginie; Sam, I-Ching; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric; Roques, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes chronic and incapacitating arthralgia in human populations. Since its discovery in 1952, CHIKV was responsible for sporadic and infrequent outbreaks. However, since 2005, global Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred, inducing some fatalities and associated with severe and chronic morbidity. Chikungunya is thus considered as an important re-emerging public health problem in both tropical and temperate countries, where the distribution of the Aedes mosquito vectors continues to expand. This review highlights the most recent advances in our knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, biology, treatment and vaccination strategies of CHIKV. PMID:25453326

  9. Design of Video and Audio Surveillance System Based on DM642%基于DM642的视频音频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红飞; 宋升金; 许永辉

    2011-01-01

    为实现视频音频数据的实时采集传输,提出了一种基于DM642的视频音频监控系统的设计方案.硬件上,利用DM642丰富的外设资源,完成了视频输入、输出模块,音频输入输出模块和以太网接口模块的设计.软件上,基于DSP/BIOS实时操作系统,实现对视频音频数据的管理和控制,并构建Web服务器,用户可通过浏览器访问系统,实现远程监控.测试结果表明,该系统性能稳定,符合设计要求.%In older to realize real-time acquisition and transmission of video and audio data, a video and audio surveillance system based on DM642 is proposed. In this system, the hardware modules of video input and output interface, audio input and output interface and Ethernet interface were designed by the rich resources of DM642. The software was developed based on DSP/BIOS real-time operating system, which achieved the management and control of video and audio data. The WEB server was also designed in the DSP, which achieved network transmission and remote surveillance. Test results show that the system works stable and meets the needs of design.

  10. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  11. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Suresh, Abidha; Vanamail, Perumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kalianna Gounder; Mathew, Jacob; Jose, Varakilparambil Thomas; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2011-12-01

    India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002). Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019) and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016) years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala. PMID:22241110

  12. Association of ABO blood groups with Chikungunya virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardhan Vishnu R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV an emerging arboviral infection of public health concern belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. Blood group antigens are generally known to act as receptors for various etiological agents. The studies defining the relationship between blood groups and CHIKV is limited and hence it is necessary to study these parameters in detail. In the present study 1500 subjects were enrolled and demographic data (Age, Gender, Blood group, CHIKV infection status, and CHIKV infection confirmation mode was collected from them. The risk of acquiring CHIKV disease and its association with factors such as blood group, age and gender was analyzed statistically. The data of this study showed a possible association between blood group, age and gender of the study population with CHIKV infection. It is observed that CHIKV infections were higher in individuals with Rh positive blood group when compared to their Rh negative counterparts.CHIKV infections were found to be higher in Rh positive individuals of AB and A blood groups than that of Rh negative counterparts. Results also indicated that infections were higher in adults belonging to the age group > 30 years and also higher in males as compared to females enrolled in this study. These data present further evidence for the association of the blood groups, age and gender to susceptibility to CHIKV infection. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. This is the second study showing the possible association of blood groups with chikungunya.

  13. A study of the 2006 Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. V. Pydiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya epidemic outbreaks have affected more than 1 million people in 2005-2006 in many Indian Ocean islands and in India. Mauritius experienced a major outbreak in February/March 2006 following a minor outbreak in April/May 2005. No cases have been registered on the island since August 2006. The objectives of this study were to understand the timing and development of the 2006-outbreak in Mauritius, to investigate the possibility of a future outbreak, and to propose measures to prevent the recurrence of an epidemic in Mauritius. Mauritius rainfall, temperature and humidity data were analyzed. A door-to-door household census-type survey was carried out in a study locality on the island. A compartmental human-mosquito interaction model was integrated to understand outbreak evolutions in the surveyed locality and in a theoretical locality. It was observed that the onset of the 2006-outbreak in February followed an abnormally high rainfall in the third week of January 2006. 51% of the surveyed population was found to be suspected Chikungunya cases. Computer simulations indicated that a small number of infected humans and mosquitoes existed in the surveyed locality at the outbreak onset. From simulations in the theoretical locality, it was deduced that the level of infectivity in some localities may be below a herd immunity threshold and that the additional percentage of infected inhabitants in a follow-up epidemic would be significantly reduced with the case-reactive control of infected adult mosquitoes.

  14. EPIDEMIOL O GY OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunasree

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chikungunya fever is a self - limiting viral fever spread by mosquito bite and has become an epidemic. The proportion of cases has increased in Andhra Pradesh. We report a prospective analysis of cases of c hikungunya fever referred from various primary health centers of rural, tribal and semiurban areas of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. AIMS OF STUDY: To analyse the burden of C hikungunya fever in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh . MATERIAL AND METHODS : A prospective descriptive study was under taken between January - 2013 to December - 2014 by testing clinically suspected c hikungunya fever patients attending tertiary care centre in the Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The blood collected from suspected patients was analyzed for CHIK specific IgM antibodies by ELISA method using Nivchik kit. The data was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period the total number of samples screened with clinical suspicion of c hikungunya fever was 127, out of which 23(18.11% were positive for IgM antibodies. The number of seropositive cases referred from rural area was 3 in number and from tribal areas 20. The seasonal distribution of cases was variable. CONCLUSION: Chikungunya fever is self limiting disease . Efforts have to be made through community awareness and early institution of supportive therapy. Vector control measures should be in full swing

  15. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002. Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019 and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016 years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala.

  16. An on-line pressurizer surveillance system design to prevent small-break loss-of-coolant accidents through power-operated relief valves using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by a stuck-open power-operated relief valve is one of the important contributors to nuclear power plant risk. A pressurizer surveillance system was designed to use a microcomputer to prevent the malfunction of the system; the effect of this improvement has been assessed through probabilistic risk assessment. The microcomputer diagnoses the malfunction of the system by a process-checking method and automatically performs the backup action related to each malfunction. This improvement means that we can correctly diagnose ''spurious opening,'' ''failure to reclose,'' and ''small-break LOCA,'' which are difficult for operators to diagnose quickly and correctly, and by taking automatic backup action one can reduce the probability of human error

  17. [Chikungunya, La Réunion and Mayotte, 2005-2006: an epidemic without a story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006. PMID

  18. Effect of Holding Conditions on the Detection of Chikungunya and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Mosquito Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Turell, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging and re-emerging arboviruses continue to be a threat to global public health, and viral surveillance of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control operations. Due to the tropical climate of many of the affected areas, it may be difficult to maintain a cold chain as the samples travel from collection sites to laboratories for testing. We determined how suboptimal holding temperatures affected the ability to detect viruses in pools of mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus individuals were inoculated with chikungunya virus or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus suspensions, respectively, and placed at 26°C for 8 days. One infected mosquito was then added to a vial of 24 negative mosquitoes and held at -80°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22°C, or 35°C for up to 14 days. Mosquito pools were analyzed for both infectious virus by plaque assay and for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). At higher temperatures, the amount of infectious virus decreased rapidly, but viruses in samples held at 4°C or lower remained relatively stable. In contrast, viral RNA was detectable from pools held at all temperatures and holding times by RT-qPCR. Cycle threshold (Ct) values increased as temperatures and holding times increased. These findings suggest that if viral RNA detection is the goal of surveillance efforts, then mosquito pools do not require storage at ≤4°C. This enhances the feasibility of field-based arbovirus surveillance programs in which maintaining a cold chain may not be a possibility. PMID:27105216

  19. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses.

  20. Neonatal Chikungunya a€“ A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    MANGALGI, Sharanabasavesh M; SHENOY, Sangeetha S; MARALUSIDDAPPA, Pradeep G; APRAMEYA, Indumathi V

    2011-01-01

    Background: After 32years, the reemergence of Chikungunya infection was reported in India in the year 2006. During this phase, vertical transmission of the disease was also noted. Methodology: A prospective study of neonatal chikungunya was done and the presentation and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: We had a total of 8 cases of vertically transmitted disease. Majority presented with features of encephalopathy and during the course of the disease all developed perioral hyperpig...

  1. Simple Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Chikungunya versus Dengue Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Vernon J; Chow, Angela; Zheng, Xiaohui; Carrasco, Luis R.; Cook, Alex R.; Lye, David C.; Ng, Lee-Ching; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are co-circulating vector-borne diseases with substantial overlap in clinical presentations. It is important to differentiate between them during first presentation as their management, especially for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), is different. This study compares their clinical presentation in Singapore adults to derive predictors to assist doctors in diagnostic decision-making. Methods We compared 117 patients with chikungunya infection diagnosed with rev...

  2. Prevalence of Malaria, Dengue, and Chikungunya Significantly Associated with Mosquito Breeding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Zulkifle, Mohammad; Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites. Methods: The study was observational and analytical. A total of 162 houses and 670 subjects were observed during the study period. One hundred forty-two febrile patients were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed consent from all febrile patients, 140 blood samples were collected to diagnose malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Larval samples were collected by ...

  3. Simple clinical and laboratory predictors of Chikungunya versus dengue infections in adults.

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    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue and chikungunya are co-circulating vector-borne diseases with substantial overlap in clinical presentations. It is important to differentiate between them during first presentation as their management, especially for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, is different. This study compares their clinical presentation in Singapore adults to derive predictors to assist doctors in diagnostic decision-making. METHODS: We compared 117 patients with chikungunya infection diagnosed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with 917 dengue RT-PCR-positive adult patients (including 55 with DHF. We compared dengue fever (DF, DHF, and chikungunya infections by evaluating clinical characteristics of dengue and chikungunya; developing classification tools via multivariate logistic regression models and classification trees of disease etiology using clinical and laboratory factors; and assessing the time course of several clinical variables. FINDINGS: At first presentation to hospital, significantly more chikungunya patients had myalgia or arthralgia, and fewer had a sore throat, cough (for DF, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia or tachycardia than DF or DHF patients. From the decision trees, platelets <118 × 10(9/L was the only distinguishing feature for DF versus chikungunya with an overall correct classification of 89%. For DHF versus chikungunya using platelets <100 × 10(9/L and the presence of bleeding, the overall correct classification was 98%. The time course analysis supported platelet count as the key distinguishing variable. INTERPRETATION: There is substantial overlap in clinical presentation between dengue and chikungunya infections, but simple clinical and laboratory variables can predict these infections at presentation for appropriate management.

  4. BEHAVIOR AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTOR ON CHIKUNGUNYA OUTBREAKS AT SALATIGA CITY IN 2012 = FAKTOR RISIKO PERILAKU DAN LINGKUNGAN RUMAH PADA KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA CHIKUNGUNYA DI KOTA SALATIGA TAHUN 2012

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    Diana Andriyani Pratamawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available EnglishABSTRACTOn February 9, 2012 date specified chikungunya outbreak in Salatiga. This study aimed to examine behavioral and environmental risk factors associated with the disease, vector, modes of transmission, treatment seeking, as well as ways to prevent chikungunya on people in the hamlet Sinoman and Rekesan during the chikungunya outbreak in 2012 . This type of research is used case-control study. This study was conducted in January through April of 2012. Interview and observations conducted on 134 respondents. There is no relationship between the incidence of chikungunya respondent behavior and the behavior of the respondent is not proven as a risk factor chikungunya. But  events, there is a relationship between the incidence of chikungunya lighting and home lighting proved to be a risk factor for chikungunya incidence and its risk by 2.8 times. In addition to lighting, there is a relationship between the incidence of chikungunya home humidity, although not statistically proven as a risk factor for chikungunya. There was a significant association between the presence of mosquitoes on the clothes hanging in the incidence of chikungunya, in harmony with it has been shown that the presence of mosquitoes at the clothes hanging heightens the risk by 4.19 times causing events are expected to cultivate back chikungunya. People must have eradication of mosquito breeding activity, do not hang clothes secondhand, using a wire gauze on the vent, and the use of anti-mosquito drugs to avoid contact with the mosquitoborne chikungunya .IndonesiaKejadian luar biasa (KLB penyakit chikungunya di Kota Salatiga pada tanggal 9 Februari 2012 Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji faktor risiko perilaku dan lingkungan rumah, yang berkaitan dengan penyakit, vektor, cara penularan, pencarian pengobatan, serta cara pencegahan chikungunya di Dusun Sinoman dan Rekesan ketika KLB Chikungunya tahun 2012. Rancangan penelitian adalah case control. Penelitian ini

  5. Chikungunya viral fitness measures within the vector and subsequent transmission potential.

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    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V-Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors.

  6. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

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    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  7. Spatial and Temporal Clustering of Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Dominica.

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    Elaine O Nsoesie

    Full Text Available Using geo-referenced case data, we present spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses of the early spread of the 2013-2015 chikungunya virus (CHIKV in Dominica, an island in the Caribbean. Spatial coordinates of the locations of the first 417 reported cases observed between December 15th, 2013 and March 11th, 2014, were captured using the Global Positioning System (GPS. We observed a preponderance of female cases, which has been reported for CHIKV outbreaks in other regions. We also noted statistically significant spatial and spatio-temporal clusters in highly populated areas and observed major clusters prior to implementation of intensive vector control programs suggesting early vector control measures, and education had an impact on the spread of the CHIKV epidemic in Dominica. A dynamical identification of clusters can lead to local assessment of risk and provide opportunities for targeted control efforts for nations experiencing CHIKV outbreaks.

  8. Inactivation of Chikungunya virus by 1,5 iodonapthyl azide

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    Sharma Anuj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod borne alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. CHIKV is a reemerging virus for which there is no safe prophylactic vaccine. A live attenuated strain of CHIKV, CHIK181/25, was previously demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in humans, however, it showed residual virulence causing transient arthralgia. Findings In this study, we demonstrate the complete inactivation of CHIKV181/25 by 1,5 iodonapthyl azide (INA. No cytopathic effect and virus replication was observed in cells infected with the INA-inactivated CHIKV. However, a reduction in the INA-inactivated CHIK virus-antibody binding capacity was observed by western blot analysis. Conclusion INA completely inactivated CHIKV and can further be explored for developing an inactivated-CHIKV vaccine.

  9. Chikungunya fever. Rheumatic manifestations of an emerging disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target. PMID:25192946

  10. Chikungunya fever: a re-emerging viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, M; Mittal, V; Bhattacharya, D; Rana, Uvs; Lal, S

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak. PMID:18227590

  11. Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.

  12. Chikungunya virus,epidemiology,clinics and phylogenesis:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra; Lo; Presti; Alessia; Lai; Eleonora; Cella; Gianguglielmo; Zehender; Massimo; Ciccozzi

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunva virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunva fever,a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash.Chikungunva virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes:Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin,disseminates to liver,muscle,joints.lymphoid tissue and brain,presumably through the blood.Phylogenetic studies showed that the Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent epidemics were caused by two different introductions of distinct strains of East/Central/South African genotype of CHIKV.The paraphyletic grouping of African CHIK viruses supports the historical evidence that the virus was introduced into Asia from Africa.Phylogenetic analysis divided Chikungunva virus isolates into three distinct genotypes based on geographical origins:the first,the West Africa genotype,consisted of isolates from Senegal and Nigeria;the second contained strains from East/Central/South African genotype,while the third contained solely Asian.The most recent common ancestor for the recent epidemic,which ravaged Indian Ocean islands and Indian subcontinent in 2004- 2007.was found to date in 2002.Asian lineage dated about 1952 and exhibits similar spread patterns of the recent Indian Ocean outbreak lineage,with successive epidemics detected along an eastward path.Asian group splitted into two clades:an Indian lineage and a south east lineage.Outbreaks of Chikungunya virus fever in Asia have not been associated necessarily with outbreaks in Africa.Phylogenetic tools can reconstruct geographic spread of Chikungunva virus during the epidemics wave.The good management of patients with acute Chikungunva virus infection is essential for public health in susceptible areas with current Aedes spp activity.

  13. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  14. Design of Video Surveillance System Based on Android Platform%基于Android平台的视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏崇毓; 张菲菲

    2012-01-01

    According to the open source feature of Android, this paper introduces the application of Android software platform in designing a video surveillance system, including function requirement and the technology essentials in designing the system based on Android. On that basis, the software programming in a smart phone for accessing a server as a video database on the Internet is implemented using Java language and Eclipse kit, remote playing video data and controlling a PTZ(Pan/TihYZoom)via Internet are realized.%根据Android开源性特点,介绍Android系统软件开发平台在视频监控系统没计中的应用,包括系统的功能需求和Android应用开发过程中的技术要领.在此基础上,利用Java语言和Eclipse开发编辑工具,设计完成基于Android平台的智能手机对网络视频监控系统中特定服务器的访问.实验结果表明,该设计可实现对视频数据的播放和云台的远程网络控制.

  15. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) inhibitors from natural sources: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the re-emerging "neglected" tropical diseases whose recent outbreak affected not only Africa and South-East Asia but also several parts of America and Europe. To date, despite its serious nature, no antivirals or vaccines were developed in order to counter this resurgent infectious disease. The recent advancement in crystallography and availability of crystal structures of certain domains of CHIKV initiates the development of anti-CHIKV agents using structure-based drug design or synthetic medicinal chemistry approach. Despite the fact that almost 50% of the new chemical entities against several biological targets were either obtained from natural products or natural product analogues, a very humble effort was directed towards identification of novel CHIKV inhibitors from natural products. In this review, besides a brief overview on CHIKV as well as the nature as a source of medicines, we highlight the current progress and future steps towards the discovery of CHIKV inhibitors from natural products. This report could pave the road towards the design of novel semi-synthetic derivatives with enhanced anti-viral activities. PMID:25921858

  16. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK BASED CONVEYOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Trohák; Máté Kolozsi-Tóth; Péter Rádi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we will introduce an intelligent conveyor surveillance system. We started a research project to design and develop a conveyor surveillance system based on wireless sensor network and GPRS communication. Our system is able to measure temperature on fixed and moving, rotating surfaces and able to detect smoke. We would like to introduce the developed devices and give an application example.

  17. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  18. A study on Chikungunya outbreak of 2009 in Balussery, Kozhikode, India

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    Meenakshi K. Deepa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by the Chikungunya virus, belonging to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. In Kerala the first Chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2006 affecting 14 districts. The re-emergence of the disease occurred in Kozhikode district in Kerala in May 2009. A survey was undertaken in Panangad village, which was the worst affected location. The aim of the survey was to understand the nature and magnitude of the Chikungunya fever, the clinical signs and symptoms. Methods: A total number of 436 cases were surveyed door to door in 7 different localities in the Panangad village of Balussery of Kozhikode district. The patient history, clinical signs and symptoms of the Chikungunya cases were recorded. The signs and symptoms recorded consisted of fever, chills, arthalgia, eye pain, back pain, headache, edema, rash, oral ulcers, hyperpigmentation, itch, myalgia, sore throat, distaste, photophobia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, hypotension, dermatitis, and dizziness. Results: The major symptoms were fever (100%, arthralgia (81.65%, and myalgia (77.98%. Significant differences were observed in the following symptoms: chills (15.36%, eye pain (7.56%, back pain (30.96%, headache (41.28%, edema (50.68%, rash (29.58%, oral ulcer (14.9%, itch (42.88%, hyperpigmentation (4.58%, sore throat (8.71%, distaste (6.88%, nausea (6.65%, vomiting (12.61%, diarrhea (1.37%, neck pain (0.91%, and dizziness (3.21%. The Chikungunya cases were more severely affected with more or less all of the above mentioned symptoms in the higher age group (>45 years compared to the lower age group (1-30 years. Conclusion: Chikungunya was found to be the major vector born disease in Kerala state. The major clinical symptoms in affected cases were fever, edema, myalgia, and arthralgia. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 59-62

  19. Comparitive evaluation of different systems of medicines and the present scenario of chikungunya in Kerala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip C; Saraswathi R; Krishnan PN; AK Azeem; Raseena; Abdul azeez; Ramya; Jaywin jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify the chikungunya outbreaks in both indoor and outdoor patients in some selected hospitals in our locality and the burden and magnitude of the disease, to compare different system of medicines (allopathic, Ayurvedic, homeopathy etc) and to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacists and other health care professionals in the treatment of chikungunya. Methods:A six-month study was carried out. Detailed history was taken from the case history, personal interview of doctors and suspected cases. Personal data such as name age, sex, location, date of onset of illness, medical history, general/systemic examination features, drugs used (allopathy, Ayurveda, homeopathy, or traditional) for the treatment, etc. were noted down. A simple questionnaire was prepared and distributed to various doctors practicing various systems of medicines. Results:A total of 209 suspected cases were identified from July to December, 2009. People in the age group of 20-40 years were more affected. The study revealed that females were more affected than males. The Grade-III (58.73%) population was more prone to chikungunya than Grade-II (38.75%) and Grade-I (2.87%). It showed that fever, pain in muscles, and sleeping disturbances were the intense symptoms of chikungunya. Myocarditis and arthritis were concomitant diseases which worsened chikungunya symptoms. It also indicated the effective medicine for compliance is nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Conclusions:From our study we found that in some places there is no proper documentation, even though there are proper guidelines framed by the relevant authorities. It can be concluded from the study that all the systems of medicine are equally important for the management of chikungunya. Additional effort in promoting the guidelines at local level and proper documentation helps to achieve the goal of curbing the chikungunya. It is high time to increase our effort and promote these messages at

  20. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of chikungunya fever: Lessons learned from the re-emerging epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Alladi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever, caused by "Chikungunya virus," is an arbovirus disease transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes. Chikungunya fever epidemics have been reported from several countries around the world. The disease that was silent for nearly 32 years re-emerged in the October 2005 outbreak in India that is still ongoing. The incubation period ranges from 3 to 12 days. The onset is usually abrupt and the acute stage is characterized by sudden onset with high-grade fever, severe arthralgias, myalgias, and skin rash. Swollen tender joints and crippling arthritis are usually evident. In the chronic stage, relapses that include sensation of fever, asthenia, exacerbation of arthralgias, inflammatory polyarthritis, and stiffness may be evident. Neurological, ocular, and mucocutaneous manifestations have also been described. Chronic arthritis may develop in about 15% of the patients. Viral culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of Chikungunya fever. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification have also been found to be useful. Serodiagnostic methods for the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies against Chikungunya virus are more frequently used. Chikungunya is a self-limiting disease; however, severe manifestations such as meningoencephalitis, fulminant hepatitis, and bleeding manifestations may sometimes be life-threatening. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Prevention by educating the community and public health officials, vector control measures appear to be the best approach at controlling Chikungunya fever as no commercially available vaccine is available for public use in India for this condition presently.

  1. Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Landini, M P

    2016-07-01

    This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV and its establishment in the Caribbean and in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) and Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean and Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation and clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance and early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe and North America. PMID:26751121

  2. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  3. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  4. Riesgo de brucela en humanos. Diseño de un sistema de vigilancia Risk of brucellosis in human being. A design of a system of disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Márquez Jaca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis es una zoonosis que se trasmite directa o indirectamente al hombre, a partir de reservorios animales, y es considerada una enfermedad ocupacional. Con el objetivo de estratificar el riesgo de brucela, para el diseño de un sistema de vigilancia, se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica bietápica durante los años 2009-2010 en el municipio San Cristóbal. Durante la primera se estratificó el riesgo de brucela y en la segunda, se diseñó un sistema de vigilancia. Las unidades de análisis para la investigación están constituidas por la totalidad de animales, pertenecientes al sector estatal del municipio, de la cual se abastece (carnes, leche y derivados, la población y la totalidad de trabajadores expuestos ocupacionalmente al riesgo de brucela. La brucelosis es un importante problema de salud entre la masa animal, incide en ello, los bovinos, porcinos y los búfalos, todas las fuentes de alimento de la población, las principales zonas de riesgo para la salud de los humanos se encuentran en los Consejos Populares José Martí y López Peña, considerados estos de alto riesgo epidemiológico para la salud de la población. Se propone un sistema de vigilancia conjunto con medicina veterinaria que garantizará el control de la enfermedad, tanto en los animales como en las personas.Brucellosis is a zoonosis that is directly or indirectly transmitted to human being from reservoir of animals, and it is considered an occupational disease. Aimed at stratifying the risk of brucellosis to design a system of disease surveillance a research of technological innovation was carried out in two stages from 2009-2010 in San Cristobal. During the first stage the stratification of brucellosis risk was completed; designing the system of disease surveillance on the second stage. Units of analysis were constituted from the total of animals belonging to the state sector in the municipality, from which the locality obtains

  5. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of Chikungunya Virus Strains Isolated in Mexico: First Detection of Imported and Autochthonous Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; Fragoso-Fonseca, David Esaú; Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Vázquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Núñez-León, Alma; Torres-Rodríguez, María de la Luz; Torres-Longoria, Belem; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruíz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is responsible for acute polyarthralgia epidemics. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two chikungunya virus strains, InDRE04 and InDRE51, identified in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Chiapas in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the Asian genotype. PMID:25953170

  7. Preliminary results of the surveillance extension program of NPP Paks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preliminary stage of the surveillance extension programme at NPP Paks. To prepare the surveillance extension programme 5 set of specimens including 6 different forging and weldment have been irradiated and tested. The obtained results are used in the final design of the extended surveillance programme of NPP Paks. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  8. Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farah; Islam, Asimul; Kazim, Syed Naqui; Naqvi, Irshad Hussain; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2016-04-01

    The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea and joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation and molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells and organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load and cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine candidates have been tested on humans and animal models during clinical and preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology and recent advances in the development of drugs and vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection. PMID:26657109

  9. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the [guidance] to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidanič, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  11. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  12. Chikungunya Virus Sequences Across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  13. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  14. Identification of chikungunya virus interacting proteins in mammalian cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandar S Paingankar; Vidya A Arankalle

    2014-06-01

    Identification and characterization of virus host interactions is an essential step for the development of novel antiviral strategies. Very few studies have been targeted towards identification of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) interacting host proteins. In current study, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight analysis (MALDI TOF/TOF) were employed for the identification of CHIKV binding proteins in mammalian cells. HSP70 and actin were identified as virus binding proteins in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells, whereas STAT-2 was identified as an additional protein in Vero-E6 cells. Pre-incubation with anti-HSP70 antibody and miRNA silencing of HSP70 significantly reduced the CHIKV production in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells at early time points. These results suggest that CHIKV exploits the housekeeping molecules such as actin, HSP70 and STAT-2 to establish infection in the mammalian cells.

  15. Suramin inhibits chikungunya virus replication through multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Irina C; van Hoolwerff, Marcella; Wolters, Laura A; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Yang, Shih Chi; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Hwu, Jih Ru; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe and often persistent arthritis. In recent years, millions of people have been infected with this virus for which registered antivirals are still lacking. Using our recently established in vitro assay, we discovered that the approved anti-parasitic drug suramin inhibits CHIKV RNA synthesis (IC50 of ∼5μM). The compound inhibited replication of various CHIKV isolates in cell culture with an EC50 of ∼80μM (CC50>5mM) and was also active against Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus. In vitro studies hinted that suramin interferes with (re)initiation of RNA synthesis, whereas time-of-addition studies suggested it to also interfere with a post-attachment early step in infection, possibly entry. CHIKV (nsP4) mutants resistant against favipiravir or ribavirin, which target the viral RNA polymerase, did not exhibit cross-resistance to suramin, suggesting a different mode of action. The assessment of the activity of a variety of suramin-related compounds in cell culture and the in vitro assay for RNA synthesis provided more insight into the moieties required for antiviral activity. The antiviral effect of suramin-containing liposomes was also analyzed. Its approved status makes it worthwhile to explore the use of suramin to prevent and/or treat CHIKV infections. PMID:26112648

  16. Emergence of chikungunya virus infection in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Mohapatra, Namita; Beuria, Mihir K; Kerketta, Anna S; Sabat, Jyotsna; Kar, Shantanu K; Rao, Epari V; Hazra, Rupensu K; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Nitisheel

    2010-05-01

    From September through October 2006, an unknown disease characterized by acute onset of fever, joint pain with or without swelling, and maculopapular rash along with fatigue was reported from three villages of Cuttack and one village of Kendrapara district of Orissa, India, by the State Health Department. Upon learning this, a team from Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Bhubaneswar, Orissa, conducted an epidemiological investigation in the area. Household survey was carried out and clinical examination of the symptomatic individuals (n = 1289: Kendrapara, 752; Cuttack, 537) undertaken. Based on the recorded chikungunya (CHIK) fever symptoms, a vector-borne viral disease was considered for provisional diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 217 symptomatic individuals; to confirm the diagnosis, sera were tested for anti-CHIK antibody (immunoglobulin M), which revealed 63% (64/101) and 40% (47/116) seropositivity in the samples from Kendrapara and Cuttack district, respectively. The illness was managed with analgesics like paracetamol. No death was recorded due to the illness. Entomological survey in the areas revealed the presence of Aedes mosquitoes: aegypti, albopictus, and vittatus. The per-man-hour density of Aedes vectors ranged from 0.8 to 7.6. High larval indices, house index >17% and Breteau index >70%, also indicated Aedes breeding in the area. The investigation documented circulation of CHIK in Orissa, India, and helped to take preventive steps in the outbreak area, with the suggested vector control measures. PMID:19874187

  17. Assessing the Origin of and Potential for International Spread of Chikungunya Virus from the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Bogoch, Isaac; Brownstein, John S.; Miniota, Jennifer; Nicolucci, Adrian; Hu, Wei; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Cetron, Martin; Creatore, Maria Isabella; German, Matthew; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the first time, an outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in the Americas. Locally acquired infections have been confirmed in fourteen Caribbean countries and dependent territories, Guyana and French Guiana, in which a large number of North American travelers vacation. Should some travelers become infected with chikungunya virus, they could potentially introduce it into the United States, where there are competent Aedes mosquito vectors, with the possibility of local transmission. Methods: We analyzed historical data on airline travelers departing areas of the Caribbean and South America, where locally acquired cases of chikungunya have been confirmed as of May 12th, 2014. The final destinations of travelers departing these areas between May and July 2012 were determined and overlaid on maps of the reported distribution of Aedes aeygpti and albopictus mosquitoes in the United States, to identify potential areas at risk of autochthonous transmission. Results: The United States alone accounted for 52.1% of the final destinations of all international travelers departing chikungunya indigenous areas of the Caribbean between May and July 2012. Cities in the United States with the highest volume of air travelers were New York City, Miami and San Juan (Puerto Rico). Miami and San Juan were high travel-volume cities where Aedes aeygpti or albopictus are reported and where climatic conditions could be suitable for autochthonous transmission. Conclusion: The rapidly evolving outbreak of chikungunya in the Caribbean poses a growing risk to countries and areas linked by air travel, including the United States where competent Aedes mosquitoes exist. The risk of chikungunya importation into the United States may be elevated following key travel periods in the spring, when large numbers of North American travelers typically vacation in the Caribbean. PMID:24944846

  18. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance of...... activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor...... visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  19. Congenital Chikungunya with Centro-facial Pigmentation and Persistent Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpigmentation over face in a neonate is rare and the differentials for the same are also rare. Congenital chickengunya, fungal and viral infections, drug rash are few differentials. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection manifesting in neonates is very rare. The prevalence of the entity was described only recently. We describe a neonate with hyperpigmentation on day 3 of life with stormy course thereafter. The distinguishing rash on face helped us in clinching the diagnosis of congenital chikungunya and fungal sepsis. Identification of this entity was based on characteristic skin rash and epidemiological background.

  20. A Preliminary Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Transmission of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul; Lonngren, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is a known vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika and the goal of this study is to propose the first mathematical model to describe the dynamic transmission of these three diseases. We present two preliminary models that consist of the SEIR model for the human populations and an SEI model for the vector to describe (a) the single transmission dynamics of dengue, Chikungunya or Zika, and (b) any possible coinfection between two diseases in the same population. In order to do that...

  1. Climate-driven mathematical models to understand the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of a chikungunya outbreak in the presence of widespread asymptomatic infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommar, Carlos J.; Robinson, Marguerite; Lowe, Rachel; Conan, Anne; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    found to be an insufficient mechanism to halt the spread of the disease, which can be readily carried to neighbouring nodes via sub-clinical individuals. Furthermore, the impact of topology structure versus precipitation levels is assessed and precipitation is found to be the dominant factor driving spatio-temporal transmission. Our results highlight the urgent need to establish adequate monitoring and mosquito control programs in vulnerable countries. These models can help to inform public health officials on both the impact and potential spatial expansion of vector-borne diseases through both urban and rural regions under the influence of dynamic climatic conditions. Given the climate sensitivity of vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, it is important to link the monitoring of meteorological conditions to public health surveillance and control.

  2. Using climate information to understand the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of a chikungunya outbreak in the presence of widespread asymptomatic infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommar, C. J.; Lowe, R.; Robinson, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    found to be an insufficient mechanism to halt the spread of the disease, which can be readily carried to neighbouring nodes via sub-clinical individuals. Furthermore, the impact of topology structure versus precipitation levels is assessed and precipitation is found to be the dominant factor driving spatio-temporal transmission. Our results highlight the urgent need to establish adequate monitoring and mosquito control programs in vulnerable countries. These models can help to inform public health officials on both the impact and potential spatial expansion of vector-borne diseases through both urban and rural regions under the influence of dynamic climatic conditions. Given the climate sensitivity of vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, it is important to link the monitoring of meteorological conditions to public health surveillance and control.

  3. 基于 H.264的云端视频监控系统设计%Design of cloud video surveillance system based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾博文; 沈永良; 张金富

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于 H.264视频编码算法并采用云服务器实现的视频监控系统设计方案。该方案是视频采集端与监控控制端分离的分布式监控系统。视频采集部分采用三星Exynos4412处理器基于Linux实时操作系统进行软件设计;视频实时编码采用FFmpeg音视频解决方案,对USB摄像头采集的视频基于 H.264编码,选用实时消息传输协议(RTMP)通过网络传输给监控控制端。监控控制端基于云服务器平台设计,云服务器选用流媒体直播服务器,对视频数据进行实时解码、播放与存储。测试结果显示,系统具有良好的实时性,满足了基本的设计需求。%A design method of the video surveillance system based on H.264 and cloud server is proposed . It is a distributed monitoring system which separates the video capture and monitor control into two parts . The software design of video capture part using a central processing unit from Samsung named Exynos4412 is based on the Linux real‐time operating system .The real‐time encoding of video uses FFmpeg solution which encodes the video captured by USB camera based on H.264 and then transmits it by real time messaging protocol through the Internet .The control and monitoring system is based on cloud server , adopting the live streaming server .It has the function of real‐time decoding ,real‐time playing and storage . According to the test results , the system has good real‐time capability and meets the need of design requirement .

  4. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina Armand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP. The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease, by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS. Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of

  5. 基于CMOS图像传感器的视频监视实验系统设计%Design of Video Surveillance System Based on CMOS Image Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 仲元昌; 梁善友; 李彩玲

    2012-01-01

    针对提高视频监视器的性价比问题,提出了基于CMOS图像传感器的视频监视器设计方案,即采用低电压、微功耗、低廉的CMOS图像传感器、视频编码芯片、LCD显示屏,构建了基于CMOS图像传感器的视频监视系统.给出了视频采集模块电路、监视器模块电路的设计原理.该系统能够清晰地显示的被监视的视频图像,性价比较高,可广泛应用于视频监视领域.%Aimed at improving the performance-to-price ratio of video surveillance systems, a video monitor was designed based on the CMOS image sensor using CMOS image sensors, video encoding chips, and LCD display. A video surveillance system was built based on CMOS image sensor. The video capture module circuit and the monitor module circuit design principles were given. The results show that the system can monitor and clearly display video images, with high performance-to-price ratio, and can be widely used in the field of video surveillance.

  6. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in

  7. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Guillermina; Ramirez, Stephania; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  8. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barclay Victoria C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  9. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  10. Evaluation of Commercially Available Chikungunya Virus Immunoglobulin M Detection Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Holloway, Kimberly; de Salazar, P Martinez; Valadere, Anne M; Drebot, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, and the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ≥ 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC and CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% and 98% concordance with CDC and CARPHA results, respectively, and had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA had high performance at CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM and additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased and reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results and limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests and three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits. PMID:26976887

  11. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  12. Containment and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of containment and surveillance measures in complementing nuclear materials accountancy to achieve safeguards objectives is discussed. The variety of techniques used, particularly optical surveillance and sealing systems, is described. Containment and surveillance reduce the cost of IAEA inspections and reduce the intrusiveness of the IAEA into normal plant operations by reducing the frequency of physical inventory measurements. 10 refs., 12 figs., poster presentations included

  13. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  14. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  15. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  16. Performance of the RealStar Chikungunya Virus Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Kit▿

    OpenAIRE

    Panning, Marcus; Hess, Markus; Fischer, Waldemar; Grywna, Klaus; Pfeffer, Martin; Drosten, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A novel commercial Chikungunya virus real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) kit was evaluated on a comprehensive panel of original patient samples. The assay was 100% sensitive and specific in comparison to a published real-time RT-PCR. Viral loads from both assays were highly correlated. The kit proved to be suitable for routine use in patient care.

  17. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Tiffany F; Díaz-González, Esteban E; Erasmus, Jesse H; Malo-García, Iliana R; Langsjoen, Rose M; Patterson, Edward I; Auguste, Dawn I; Forrester, Naomi L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-11-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  18. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  19. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  20. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian 'Tiger' mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors. PMID:25491436

  1. Concurrent chikungunya and dengue virus infections during simultaneous outbreaks, Gabon, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Eric M.; Nkoghe Mba, Dieudonne; Ollomo, Benjamin; Nze-Nkogue, Chimene; Becquart, Pierre; Grard, Gilda; Pourrut, Xavier; Charrel, Remi; Moureau, Gregory; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angelique; De-Lamballerie, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of febrile illness occurred in Gabon in 2007, with 20,000 suspected cases. Chikungunya or dengue-2 virus infections were identified in 321 patients; 8 patients had documented co-infections. Aedes albopictus was identified as the principal vector for the transmission of both viruses.

  2. Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rezza, Giovanni; El-Sawaf, Gamal; Faggioni, Giovanni; Vescio, Fenicia; Al Ameri, Ranya; De Santis, Riccardo; Helaly, Ghada; Pomponi, Alice; Metwally, Dalia; Fantini, Massimo; Qadi, Hussein; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lista, Florigio

    2014-01-01

    We investigated 400 cases of dengue-like illness in persons hospitalized during an outbreak in Al Hudaydah, Yemen, in 2012. Overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. Dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. The co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in Yemen.

  3. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  4. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  5. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  6. Chikungunya virus infection: report of the first case diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Gomes Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Initially diagnosed in Africa and Asia, the Chikungunya virus has been detected in the last three years in the Caribbean, Italy, France, and the United States of America. Herein, we report the first case for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010.

  7. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complica

  8. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  9. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  10. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  11. Use of a multi-criteria analysis framework to inform the design of risk based general surveillance systems for animal disease in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Wicks, R M; Martin, P A J; Sergeant, E S G; Randall, L A; Garner, M G

    2013-11-01

    Australia is a major exporter of livestock and livestock products; a trade assisted by a favourable animal health status. However, increasing international travel and trade, land use changes and climatic change increase the risks of exotic and emerging diseases. At the same time, public sector resources for managing these risks are static or declining. Animal health authorities in Australia identified the need to develop a consistent national approach to surveillance that allocates resources according to risk. A study was undertaken to assess the relative likelihood of occurrence of eight significant diseases of concern to animal health authorities with the aim of producing risk maps to better manage animal disease surveillance. The likelihood of disease occurrence was considered in terms of the likelihood that a disease is introduced and the likelihood that the disease establishes and spreads. Pathways for introduction and exposure and for establishment and spread were identified and data layers representing the factors contributing to each pathway produced as raster maps. A multi-criteria analysis process was used to combine data layers into pathways and pathways into likelihood maps using weightings that reflect the relative importance of each layer and pathway. The likelihood maps for introduction and exposure and for establishment and spread were combined to generate national likelihood maps for each disease. To inform Australia's general surveillance system that exists to detect any disease of importance, the spatial profiles of the eight diseases were subsequently combined using weightings to reflect their relative consequences. The result was a map of relative likelihood of occurrence of any significant disease. Current surveillance activity was assessed by combining data layers for government disease investigations, proximity to vets and wildlife disease investigations. Comparison of the overall risk and current surveillance maps showed that the

  12. Consentful surveillance: supporting user understanding and control

    OpenAIRE

    Gomer, Richard C.; schraefel, monica c

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance and surveillance-like practices are common on the free web services that we use. We argue that, although such practices can provide value to users, they should be done ‘consentfully’ as a way of empowering individuals and applying consumer preference to the market. Our research on this subject raises some key challenges for interaction designers and researchers to address: explanations, timing, and measurement.

  13. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies. PMID:27294950

  14. Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Blijleven, Jelle S; van Oijen, Antoine M; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV infection. A critical step in the life cycle of CHIKV is fusion of the viral membrane with a host cell membrane. Here, we elucidate this process using ensemble-averaging liposome-virus fusion studies, in which the fusion behaviour of a large virus population is measured, and a newly developed microscopy-based single-particle assay, in which the fusion kinetics of an individual particle can be visualised. The combination of these approaches allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the kinetics, lipid dependency and pH dependency of hemifusion. We found that CHIKV fusion is strictly dependent on low pH, with a threshold of pH 6.2 and optimal fusion efficiency below pH 5.6. At this pH, CHIKV fuses rapidly with target membranes, with typically half of the fusion occurring within 2 s after acidification. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the target membrane were found to strongly enhance the fusion process. By analysing our single-particle data using kinetic models, we were able to deduce that the number of rate-limiting steps occurring before hemifusion equals about three. To explain these data, we propose a mechanistic model in which multiple E1 fusion trimers are involved in initiating the fusion process. PMID:25872739

  15. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  16. Current research and clinical trials for a vaccine against Chikungunya virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Singh,1 Mala Chhabra,1 Veena Mittal,1 Pankaj Sharma,1 Moshahid A Rizvi,2 Lakhvir Singh Chauhan,1 Arvind Rai1 1National Centre for Disease Control, Sham Nath Marg, 2Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India Abstract: Chikungunya infection is a self-limiting Aedes mosquito-borne arboviral disease with variable clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic illness to a very severe and crippling arthralgia. Until recently, Chikungunya was a little known disease that re-emerged in 2005–2006, leading to major outbreaks on the Indian Ocean Islands and in South East Asia, and eventually extending its range to temperate regions. It drew global attention due to its explosive onset, extensive geographic distribution, and high morbidity. Since re-emergence, an estimated one million symptomatic cases with 0.1% fatality per year have been reported globally. A lack of herd immunity, vector control, and globalization and trade are clearly a problem in the spread of this disease. The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has also acquired biologically important mutations during its evolution, increasing its geographic reach. This disease has resulted in a loss of productivity in affected communities. The absence of a vaccine or an effective antiviral therapy makes dealing with this disease challenging for those involved in public health. There is an emergent need for an effective vaccine against CHIKV infection. The candidates that have been tested include attenuated living, nonliving and genetically engineered vaccines. Several of these vaccine candidates are in preclinical and clinical trials. This review outlines the current knowledge about chikungunya infection and vaccine development. Keywords: Chikungunya, outbreaks, epidemics, genotypes, vaccines, therapy

  17. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  18. Novel Approach of Geographic Information Systems on Recent Out-Breaks of Chikungunya in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, S.; V.M. Chakkaravarthy; T. Ambrose

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to provide detailed picture and baseline data about recent outbreak of chikungunya virus in public health sectors. The data were collected from the Director of Medical Science (DMS) department of economic and statistics in Chennai. The present investigation, chikungunya outbreak in different districts of Tamil Nadu was plotted in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software and rainfall was correlated to forecast with recent outbreak. Smoothing methods was adapted to filter t...

  19. A new design of blowdown sampling and of an assembly for heat transfer tube surveillance specimens as a way to extending the lifetime of WWER-440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 16 boiler water sampling probes were installed at two steam generators of unit 4 of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The blowing-down was modified by means of an internal structure so that it proceeds from areas with the highest concentrations of impurities. An asset of this approach is the feasibility of mounting the structure into operated steam generators. A surveillance specimen programme was developed to detect primary circuit leaks. Heat transfer tube surveillance specimens are approximately 600 mm long, are filled with water or air and pressure sealed at the two ends. The tube specimens are fastened in a special assembly and suspended on a support system in the steam generator. The specimens can be removed at a preselected time during scheduled outage without disturbing the compactness of the tube beam. (M.D.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  20. Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Harry E; Seaton, Brent L; Matud, Jose L; Batterman, Hollis J

    2015-03-01

    Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody and/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers and RNA detection and to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification and CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, and 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers and RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered and 238 deidentified and tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) and 16% with IgG titers of ≥1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, and (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset. PMID:25540275

  1. [Chikungunya fever--expanded distribution of a re-emerging tropical infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has been originally distributed in several parts of Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia. The disease is caused by Chikungunya virus, an enveloped, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus of the alphavirus genus (family Togaviridae). In Asia, virus transmission to humans occurs predominantly by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. In rural Africa, other mosquito species are also implicated in virus transmission. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, headache, backache, myalgia, and rash as well as painful and long-lasting arthralgia, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Joint pain frequently persists for two or more months. Treatment strategies are primarily supportive and symptomatic and comprise the continuous application of certain analgetics, i.e., paracetamol (acetaminophen) and several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Although there is no generally recommended specific antiviral therapy, the use of chloroquine, ribavirin and interferon-alpha might be useful. In 2005 and 2006, the largest epidemic of Chikungunya fever ever recorded has been occurred in the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean and in India. The epidemic affected at least 1.3 million cases in India alone. The most affected island was the French territory La Réunion, where approximately one third of the total population (266,000 of 770,000) suffered from the disease. Based on the extent of the epidemic and the busy tourism between India/the islands of the Indian Ocean and Europe, numerous cases have been reported in several European countries since 2005. In 2007, one of these travellers served as "index patient" for the first outbreak of Chikungunya fever in a temperate region. Between July and September 2007, more than 200 cases of infection with Chikungunya virus have been notified in a region of north eastern Italy. The first autochthonic outbreak in Europe has been associated with the presence of A

  2. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoye, B.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.M.; Klaassen, M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian infl uenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideratio...

  3. A Framework For An Event Driven Video Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Declan Kieran; Jonathan Weir; WeiQi Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an event driven surveillance system that uses multiple cameras. The purpose of this system is to enable thorough exploration of surveillance events. The system uses a client-server web architecture as this provides scalability for further development of the system infrastructure. The system is designed to be accessed by surveillance operators who can review and comment on events generated by our event detection processing modules. We do not just focus on event detecti...

  4. PHSkb: A knowledgebase to support notifiable disease surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins Richard S; Groseclose Samuel L; Ma Haobo; Doyle Timothy J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Notifiable disease surveillance in the United States is predominantly a passive process that is often limited by poor timeliness and low sensitivity. Interoperable tools are needed that interact more seamlessly with existing clinical and laboratory data to improve notifiable disease surveillance. Description The Public Health Surveillance Knowledgebase (PHSkb™) is a computer database designed to provide quick, easy access to domain knowledge regarding notifiable diseases a...

  5. Total process surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the current operating behaviour of a process or power plant is the key to maximizing the efficiency and safety of operation and the quality of the product. Early detection of plant component or sensor degradation and failure improves operating safety, product quality and plant availability. This paper describes the design and development of a Total Process Surveillance system which assimilates all the sensor information available on a plant to provide the operators with a succinct report on the status of the plant behaviour. The heart of the system is a robust model-based observer which can estimate internal plant states, and provides a residual signal with powerful fault detection and isolation features. Several results are presented which illustrate the performance of the system in detecting and isolating multiple fault scenarios in a fast reactor plant. A structure for the practical implementation of the system is described, and comments are given on its contribution to the final experimental work planned for AEA Technology's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). (Author)

  6. Hubungan Pengetahuan, Sikap, Sarana Dan Prasarana Serta Dukungan Petugas Kesehatan Dengan Pencegahan Penyakit Chikungunya Menggunakan Metode Pemberantasan Sarang Nyamuk (Psn) Oleh Kepala Keluarga Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Nurussalam Kabupaten Aceh Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Liswati

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya merupakan sebuah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus Chikungunya (CHIKV) yang berasal dari benua Afrika. Di Provinsi Nangroe Aceh Darusalam (NAD) kasus chikungunya terjadi pada tahun 2000, dan menyebar ke daerah Kabupaten Aceh Timur pada tahun 2009 dengan kejadian luar biasa yakni terdapat 4403 kasus selama 8 bulan (April – November 2009). Kasus chikungunya menyebar di seluruh kecamatan yang ada di Kabupaten Aceh Timur, dengan kasus terbanyak terdapat di Puskesmas Nurus Salam yakn...

  7. Investigating transmission in a two-wave epidemic of chikungunya Fever, réunion island. : Reproduction number of Chikungunya fever

    OpenAIRE

    Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Thomas, Guy; Vergu, Elisa; Renault, Philippe; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    An epidemic of Chikungunya fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, spectacularly swept through R?ion Island (population 780,000) in 2005-2006. There were 3000 cases in a first wave (March-June 2005) and more than 250,000 cases in a second (December 2005-April 2006). Adapting newly developed epidemiological tools to vector-borne diseases, we show that despite this massive difference in magnitude, the transmission potential as measured by the number of secondary cases per index case (or reproduc...

  8. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  9. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  10. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  11. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV. PMID:25305334

  12. A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Joseph, Rajan; Kamaraj, T; Jambulingam, P

    2008-08-01

    Kerala State in India was gripped by a renewed and widespread outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection during 2007. Here, we report the A226V mutation in the glycoprotein envelope 1 (E1) gene of the virus among isolates collected from the three worst-affected districts of the state during this outbreak. This mutation had already been suggested to be directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity in Aedes albopictus. The badly affected districts in Kerala State during 2007 have abundant rubber plantations, which supported prolific breeding of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in the region and molecular evolution of CHIKV may be contributing factors for the renewed epidemic of chikungunya fever during 2007. PMID:18632966

  13. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively. PMID:24879904

  14. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents. PMID:27177310

  15. Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W; Yin, X-X; Lee, B-J; Li, Y-G

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia and severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment and no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient and easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry. PMID:26104337

  16. Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Penny A; Raphael, Anthony P; Yamada, Miko; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Gardner, Joy; Le, Thuy T T; Prow, Natalie A; Dang, Nhung; Schroder, Wayne A; Prow, Tarl W; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-09-22

    Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines. PMID:26296498

  17. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Zajko

    2015-01-01

    Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital "content" through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the inte...

  18. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Indraveer Singh; Harshawardhan Patil

    2010-01-01

    Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up grada...

  19. A Re-Examination of the History of Etiologic Confusion between Dengue and Chikungunya.

    OpenAIRE

    Goro Kuno

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the perception of many researchers that the recent invasion of chikungunya (CHIK) in the Western Hemisphere marked the first episode in history, a recent publication reminded them that CHIK had prevailed in the West Indies and southern regions of the United States from 1827-1828 under the guise of "dengue" (DEN), and that many old outbreaks of so-called "dengue" actually represented the CHIK cases erroneously identified as "dengue." In hindsight, this confusion was unavoidable, gi...

  20. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model)

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Broeckel; Nicole Haese; Ilhem Messaoudi; Streblow, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunit...

  1. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Chipwaza; Joseph P Mugasa; Majige Selemani; Mbaraka Amuri; Fausta Mosha; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests...

  2. THE PREVALENCE OF CHIKUNGUNYA ARBOVIRAL INFECTION I N AND AROUND BELLARY DISTRICT, KARNATAKA .

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan; Kumudini T. S,; Krishna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An arbovirus is one that multiplies in a blood suck ing arthropod and is transmitted by the bite to a vertebrate host . Chikungunya fever is a crippling disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted to human through mosquitoes. The sudden onset of very high fever along with rash and severe arthralgia ar e main symptoms. High morbidity with severe arthralgia persisted for several months made the people both physically and mentally weak. OB...

  3. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Chikungunya Virus of Different Genotypes from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sam, I-Ching; Loong, Shih-Keng; Michael, Jasmine Chandramathi; Chua, Chong-Long; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff; Vythilingam, Indra; Chan, Shie-Yien; Chiam, Chun-Wei; Yeong, Yze-Shiuan; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently re-emerged globally. The epidemic East/Central/South African (ECSA) strains have spread for the first time to Asia, which previously only had endemic Asian strains. In Malaysia, the ECSA strain caused an extensive nationwide outbreak in 2008, while the Asian strains only caused limited outbreaks prior to this. To gain insight into these observed epidemiological differences, we compared genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of...

  4. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L.; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures ...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Broad and Ultrapotent Human Monoclonal Antibodies with Therapeutic Activity against Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott A; Silva, Laurie A; Fox, Julie M; Flyak, Andrew I; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Khomadiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W; Kahle, Kristen M; Fong, Rachel H; Swayne, Sherri; Doranz, Benjamin J; McGee, Charles E; Heise, Mark T; Pal, Pankaj; Brien, James D; Austin, S Kyle; Diamond, Michael S; Dermody, Terence S; Crowe, James E

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that causes acute febrile infection associated with polyarthralgia in humans. Mechanisms of protective immunity against CHIKV are poorly understood, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are available. We isolated and characterized human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize CHIKV infectivity. Among the 30 mAbs isolated, 13 had broad and ultrapotent neutralizing activity (IC50 vaccine development. PMID:26159721

  6. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  7. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstrom, J.M. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); McMaster, W.M. [McMaster (W.M.), Heiskell, TN (United States)

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  8. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy

  9. Effect of Mosquito Repellent on the Transmission Model of Chikungunya Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapol Naowarat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In 2008 there was a large outbreak of Chikungunya fever in southern Thailand. Chikungunya fever is an emerging disease which tends to affect rubber plantation and fruit orchard workers more than other occupation. This study we considers the efficacy of using mosquito repellent as a way to prevent and control the spread of Chikungunya fever. The mathematical model of the dynamic of this disease is proposed and analyzed. Approach: A standard dynamical modeling method was applied for analysis the dynamical model. The stability of the model was determined by using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Results: The conditions for disease free and endemic state are found. To determine the basic reproductive number (R0 which is the threshold parameter, if R00>1, there exist the endemic equilibrium state, which is locally asymptotically stable. Conclusion: It was found that the use of mosquito repellent significantly reduce transmission and infection of this disease which it may be an alternative intervention for communities to prevent and control the disease.

  10. Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in understanding speech, tinnitus and vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus and it was persistent causing significant handicap to him based on self report tinnitus handicap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety and stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression and anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells and may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon and absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD and vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies. PMID:25728940

  11. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  12. Relative risk estimation of Chikungunya disease in Malaysia: An analysis based on Poisson-gamma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2015-05-01

    Disease mapping is a method to display the geographical distribution of disease occurrence, which generally involves the usage and interpretation of a map to show the incidence of certain diseases. Relative risk (RR) estimation is one of the most important issues in disease mapping. This paper begins by providing a brief overview of Chikungunya disease. This is followed by a review of the classical model used in disease mapping, based on the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), which we then apply to our Chikungunya data. We then fit an extension of the classical model, which we refer to as a Poisson-Gamma model, when prior distributions for the relative risks are assumed known. Both results are displayed and compared using maps and we reveal a smoother map with fewer extremes values of estimated relative risk. The extensions of this paper will consider other methods that are relevant to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods, in order to inform and direct government strategy for monitoring and controlling Chikungunya disease.

  13. Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal E Carbajo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

  14. Offshore Surveillance of Wave Buoys

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrberg, Simon

    2007-01-01

    To gain further knowledge about the motion of the wave buoys involved in the Islandsberg project for wave power, a surveillance system has been designed. The base for the system consists of a lattice tower to be placed on one of two islets southwest of Lysekil: Klammerskären. The distance from the islets to the wave energy research park and the wave buoys is between 150 and 300 meters. The tower will be 12 meters high and in it a network camera will be mounted, together with a small wind turb...

  15. Reactor surveillance by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time noise analysis system is designed for the TRIGA reactor at Istanbul Technical University. By means of the noise techniques, reactor surveillance is performed together with failure diagnosis. The fast data processing is carried out by FFT in real-time so that malfunction or non-stationary operation of the reactor in long term can be identified by comparing the noise power spectra with the corresponding reference patterns while the decision making procedure is accomplished by the method of hypothesis testing. The system being computer based safety instrumentation involves CAMAC in conjunction with the RT-11 (PDP-11) single user dedicated environment. (author)

  16. Video surveillance as an indispensable part of radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increasing passenger and baggage traffic at customs passages makes video surveillance system an indispensable part of a set of radiation monitors. This report presents a design decision of software and apparatus complex, radiation monitor with video surveillance system. The optimality of decisions made is demonstrated

  17. Antiviral Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers are Protective against Chikungunya Virus Infection on Cell-based and Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shirley; Chen, Huixin; Chen, Caiyun Karen; Min, Nyo; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in human is associated with debilitating and persistent arthralgia and arthritis. Currently, there is no specific vaccine or effective antiviral available. Anti-CHIKV Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer (CPMO) was evaluated for its antiviral efficacy and cytotoxcity in human cells and neonate murine model. Two CPMOs were designed to block translation initiation of a highly conserved sequence in CHIKV non-structural and structural polyprotein, respectively. Pre-treatment of HeLa cells with CPMO1 significantly suppressed CHIKV titre, CHIKV E2 protein expression and prevented CHIKV-induced CPE. CPMO1 activity was also CHIKV-specific as shown by the lack of cross-reactivity against SINV or DENV replication. When administered prophylactically in neonate mice, 15 μg/g CPMO1v conferred 100% survival against CHIKV disease. In parallel, these mice demonstrated significant reduction in viremia and viral load in various tissues. Immunohistological examination of skeletal muscles and liver of CPMO1v-treated mice also showed healthy tissue morphology, in contrast to evident manifestation of CHIKV pathogenesis in PBS- or scrambled sCPMO1v-treated groups. Taken together, our findings highlight for the first time that CPMO1v has strong protective effect against CHIKV infection. This warrants future development of morpholino as an alternative antiviral agent to address CHIKV infection in clinical applications. PMID:26224141

  18. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Infections Among United States Community Service Volunteers Returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Esposito, Douglas H; Biggs, Holly M; Decenteceo, Michelle; Klevos, Andrew; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kosoy, Olga I; McPherson, Heidi; Sullivan, Carmen; Voorhees, Dayton; Baron, David; Watkins, Jim; Gaul, Linda; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Fischer, Marc; Sharp, Tyler M; Jentes, Emily S

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infection and illnesses and evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, and mosquito exposures and avoidance behaviors and provided serum for CHIKV and DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection and two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, and 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, and 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (∼95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily and mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks and should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas. PMID:26976891

  20. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  1. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  2. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraveer Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

  3. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  4. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME SURVEILLANCE NETWORK (FASSNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDC, in collaboration with four states, has developed the first state-based program specifically designed to monitor trends in the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The program, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet), reports that many children continue t...

  5. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  6. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination. PMID:20194988

  7. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  8. Unattended digital video surveillance: A system prototype for EURATOM safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever increasing capabilities in video and computer technology have changed the face of video surveillance. From yesterday's film and analog video tape-based systems, we now emerge into the digital era with surveillance systems capable of digital image processing, image analysis, decision control logic, and random data access features -- all of which provide greater versatility with the potential for increased effectiveness in video surveillance. Digital systems also offer other advantages such as the ability to ''compress'' data, providing increased storage capacities and the potential for allowing longer surveillance Periods. Remote surveillance and system to system communications are also a benefit that can be derived from digital surveillance systems. All of these features are extremely important in today's climate Of increasing safeguards activity and decreasing budgets -- Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguards Systems Group and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate have teamed to design and implement a period surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance and data review. In this Paper we will familiarize you with system components and features and report on progress in developmental areas such as image compression and region of interest processing

  9. 移动终端视频监控系统客户端的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Client-Side for Mobile Video Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金刚; 王书振; 黄旻; 陈能锦

    2012-01-01

    随着社会的发展和科技的进步,移动终端视频监控系统在社会生活和工业生产中发挥着越来越重要的作用.通过分析现阶段视频监控用户随时随地查看视频监控画面的实际需求,本文将现有的IP网络与无线网络相结合作为传输网络,以J2ME作为主要的编程,MVC模式作为软件的主要框架,3GP作为主要封装格式封装H.264视频数据,提出了一个移动终端视频监控系统客户端的设计;简要介绍了客户端的系统架构和各模块的功能以及核心功能模块的设计思想.通过对通信指令及视频数据的传输和软件界面设计,实现了用户登录,设备信息添加、修改、删除,PTZ(云台)控制,通道选择,心跳保持(keep alive),操作帮助,监控画面查看等功能,能基本满足普通用户的一般需求.%With the development of society and the progress of technology, mobile video surveillance system plays a more and more important role in social life and industry production. Mobile video surveillance system is consisted of server-side and client-side. The design of client-side is focused on. Through the analysis on the actual demand from current video surveillance user monitoring video screen at anytime and anywhere, by taking the combination of IP network and the wireless network as transmission network, J2ME as the main programming language, the MVC pattern as the main frame of software, the 3GP is used as the main packaging formats to encapsulate H.264 video data, A schematic design of client-side for mobile video surveillance system is proposed. The architecture and module functions are briefly introduced; the design idea of core function modules is also given. Based on the communication instruction, video data transmission, and the software design, the functions involving a user login, adding, modifying, and deleting device information, PTZ control, channel selection, keep alive, operation assistance, viewing monitor screen and

  10. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index......-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current...

  11. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  12. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 11 (ASR-11) is a short-range digital, integrated primary and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) radar system with a 60 nautical...

  13. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  14. Design and implementation of Cell-PREVEN: a real-time surveillance system for adverse events using cell phones in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H; Karras, Bryant T; Campos, Pablo E; Buendia, Clara; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    With more clinical trials involving evaluations of new drugs or vaccines, monitoring for early detection of adverse events is essential. The overall goal of this study was to develop an interactive-computer system using cell phones for real-time collection and transmission of adverse events related to metronidazole administration among female sex workers (FSW) in Peru. We developed an application for cell phones in Spanish, called Cell-PREVEN, based on a system from Voxiva Inc. We used cell phones to enter data collected by interviewers from FSW in three communities. Information was stored in an online database, where it could be immediately accessed worldwide and exported over a secure Internet connection. E-mail and text messages sent to mobile devices alerted key personnel to selected symptoms. This pilot project has demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a public-health-surveillance system based on cell phones to collect data in real-time in Peru (http://www.prevenperu.org). PMID:16779025

  15. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS wil

  17. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  18. Hyperferritinemic syndrome: Still's disease and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by fulminant Chikungunya infection: a case report of two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Juan-Felipe; Navarro, Erika-Paola; Echeverry, Alex; Moncada, Pablo A; Cañas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2015-11-01

    There are four medical conditions characterized by high levels of ferritin, the macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), adult onset Still' s disease (AOSD), catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), and septic shock, that share similar clinical and laboratory features, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism. This common syndrome entity is termed "the hyperferritinemic syndrome." Here, we describe two different cases of hyperferritinemic syndrome triggered by Chikungunya fever virus infection: a 21-year-old female with SLE and a 32-year-old male patient who developed AOSD after the coinfection of dengue and Chikungunya viruses. PMID:26233722

  19. Chikungunya, o la incapacidad del sistema general de seguridad social en salud para prevenir. Preguntas para reflexionar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídice Alvarez-Miño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, el virus del Chikungunya no es un evento nuevo. La fiebre Chikungunya es una enfermedad vírica transmitida al ser humano por mosquitos, la cual fue descrita por primera vez durante un brote ocurrido en el sur de Tanzanía en 19521 . Este país africano, ubicado en el trópico, tiene características similares, en lo ambiental y climático, a Colombia. Es decir, compartimos ambientes comunes en los cuales el mismo vector (Aedes Aegypti puede transmitir diferentes enfermedades, entre ellas el dengue.

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project

  1. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  2. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus during an outbreak in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Re-emergence of Chikungunya is a major public health problem in the southern states of India. Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate an outbreak of Chikungunya, in June-August 2008 using PCR and determine the prevalent genotypes of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV associated with the outbreak. Materials and Methods: Samples of blood were collected (in heparinized vacutainer tubes from suspected patients of CHIKV infection from both Government Taluk Hospital in Kerala and a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A one-step RT-PCR was carried out on a block thermo-cycler targeting the E2 gene that codes for the viral envelope protein. The amplicons were verified for 305 bp size by standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were purified, sequenced, and compared with other CHIKV strains reported from different geographical regions. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 4. Results: Altogether 118 samples were collected from patients who presented with sudden onset of fever and/or joint pain, myalgia, and headache. CHIKV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 14 patients and all these cases were from Kerala. The positivity correlated with the early stage of the disease as all these patients had fever of less than seven days duration. The study isolates have been allotted the GenBank accession nos. GQ272368-GQ272381. Phylogenetic analysis of recent CHIKV isolates by partial sequencing of E2 region shows that isolates are closely related to strains from neighboring states and the African type. Conclusion: RT-PCR is a useful technique for the early detection of CHIKV infection during outbreaks. Molecular characterization of the strains indicates that majority of the strains have originated from the Central/East African strains of CHIKV.

  3. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaea Richard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR.CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7-90%, 18-78% and 5-53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39-41%, 3-17% and 0-14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector.As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there is no Ae. aegypti.

  4. Estimating drivers of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in its invasion of the americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T Alex; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Grenfell, Bryan T; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that has caused explosive outbreaks in Africa and Asia for decades and invaded the Americas just over a year ago. During this ongoing invasion, it has spread to 45 countries where it has been transmitted autochthonously, infecting nearly 1.3 million people in total. Methods Here, we made use of weekly, country-level case reports to infer relationships between transmission and two putative climatic drivers: temperature and precipitation averaged across each country on a monthly basis. To do so, we used a TSIR model that enabled us to infer a parametric relationship between climatic drivers and transmission potential, and we applied a new method for incorporating a probabilistic description of the serial interval distribution into the TSIR framework. Results We found significant relationships between transmission and linear and quadratic terms for temperature and precipitation and a linear term for log incidence during the previous pathogen generation. The lattermost suggests that case numbers three to four weeks ago are largely predictive of current case numbers. This effect is quite nonlinear at the country level, however, due to an estimated mixing parameter of 0.74. Relationships between transmission and the climatic variables that we estimated were biologically plausible and in line with expectations. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Americas can be correlated successfully with putative climatic drivers, even at the coarse scale of countries and using long-term average climate data. Overall, this provides a preliminary suggestion that successfully forecasting the future trajectory of a Chikungunya outbreak and the receptivity of virgin areas may be possible. Our results also provide tentative estimates of timeframes and areas of greatest risk, and our extension of the TSIR model provides a novel tool for modeling vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:25737803

  5. CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THIS ARBOVIRUS INFECTION? (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa-Díaz Margarita María

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: for Colombia the arrival of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV constitutes a potential problem of public health due to in the country as much in rural as urban areas, the presence of the A. Aegypti mosquito, vector of the infection, the same of the dengue virus, is endemic. Objective: To carry out a thematic review referent to the CHIKV and to the febrile syndrome that it causes. Methods: Descriptive bibliographic review, with search in the databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and Medline; including review articles, case reports and clinical trials. Results: 107 articles were found, from which 78 documents were used for convenience between review, research reports, case reports, bulletins and epidemiological reports. Conclusions: The CHIKV is an Alphavirus with an only serotype described. It is one of the 29 species belong to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family and has two cycles of transmission: Sylvatic or enzootic and urban or epizootic. The incubation period varies between one and twelve days. High fever, cutaneous rash and severe osteoarticular pain are the clinical characteristics that appear in six days, with low lethality and that are difficult to differenciate of other tropical diseases, including Malaria and Dengue. In the majority of the cases, a permanent immunity is acquired. The treatment of the disease is symptomatic and available vaccine does not exist. The sanity authorities must strengthen the programs of vector control to confront this tropical disease. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:317-328. KEYWORDS Chikungunya virus, Chikungunya virus infection, Alphavirus, Alphavirus infections

  6. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  7. Design of real-time video surveillance system Supporting wireless-network%支持无线网络的实时视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴颖萌

    2012-01-01

    为了解决有线网络视频监控的布线问题和工作人员的移动化监控问题,设计并实现了一种支持IP摄像头、DVR、3G手机作为视频数据采集前端,兼容H.264和MPEG4等编码标准和支持PC和3G手机进行客户端监看的实时视频监控系统,该系统实现视频的采集、压缩、传输、解码、显示、控制、录像、事件通知、电子地图等功能,该系统支持前端采集设备的多流输出和高并发访问,适应了3G手机的带宽,提高了服务器使用效率,达到了利用手机进行移动视频监控的目的。%To solve the wiring problem of wire-network video surveillance and the removable suiveillance problem of worker, a type of real-time video surveillance system that support IP camera/DVR/3G smartphone at the front-end of video data capture and support H.264/MPEG4 as the encoding method and support PC/3G smartphone at the client of video monitoring is designed and imple- mented. The system implements the function of video capture, compression, transmission, decoding, display, control, record, event no- tify, electronic map. The system supports multiple output streams and high concurrent access of the front-end capturing device,adapts to 3G network's bandwidth, improves the server's using efficiency and achieves the desired goal that realizes mobile video surveil- lance by smart phone.

  8. 基于教务信息的教室监控系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of the Classroom Video Surveillance System Based on Educational Administration Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆辉; 牟艳; 高晴; 童年

    2015-01-01

    In order to combine educational administration information with classroom video surveillance together,a design,using mobile terminal to realize classroom video surveillance on the basis of existing educational management and classroom monitoring system,is proposed to perform a specific function of watching video image with mobile devices according to educational administration information.In this thesis,a mobile terminal software based on IOS is developed,and the architecture and hardware platform of the system,the stream media technology,MVC pattern and the development of classroom video surveillance software are introduced.The system greatly satisfies the demand of teaching and management.It has very high practical value because it can not only play high -definition classroom video smoothly and browse detailed educational administration information according to the list of course information with mobile terminal,but also be an electronic examination spot.The test result shows that the system is stable and reliable which has already been applied to Hohai University's Changzhou campus successfully.%为了将教务信息和教室监控相结合,实现在移动终端根据教务信息点播观看教室监控视频,提出了在现有教务管理和教室监控系统基础上利用移动终端完成教室监控的设计方案,并开发了基于 IOS 系统的监控终端软件。介绍了整个系统的总体架构、硬件平台、流媒体传输技术、MVC 设计模式和教室监控终端软件开发。整个系统满足教学和视频监控的功能需求,可以在移动终端根据课程信息列表清晰流畅地播放教室监控视频和浏览详细的教务信息;还可以作为电子考场,实现无人监考,具有很高的实用价值。经过测试,系统运行稳定可靠,并成功应用于河海大学常州校区。

  9. A Re-Examination of the History of Etiologic Confusion between Dengue and Chikungunya

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the perception of many researchers that the recent invasion of chikungunya (CHIK) in the Western Hemisphere marked the first episode in history, a recent publication reminded them that CHIK had prevailed in the West Indies and southern regions of the United States from 1827–1828 under the guise of “dengue” (DEN), and that many old outbreaks of so-called “dengue” actually represented the CHIK cases erroneously identified as “dengue.” In hindsight, this confusion was unavoidable, gi...

  10. Low Seroprevalence Indicates Vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to Infection with Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Awadalkareem; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weber, Christopher; Schnierle, Barbara; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reiche, Sven; Jassoy, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern and central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic. PMID:26974266

  11. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Chikungunya Virus Strains Circulating in the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciotti, Robert S; Lambert, Amy J

    2016-04-01

    In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated for the first time in the Western Hemisphere (WH) during an epidemic on the island of St. Martin. Subsequently, the virus has spread to 42 countries or territories in the Caribbean, Central, South, and North America. In this study, we have determined the full genomic sequences of 29 temporally and geographically diverse CHIKV strains from 16 countries of the WH. Phylogenetic analyses revealed minimal evolution among compared emergent CHIKV strains of the New World. PMID:26856917

  13. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the open-quotes hit or missclose quotes type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA's required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Advanced Mobile Surveillance System for Multiple People Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Bandaru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops an efficient people surveillance system capable of tracking multiple people on different terrains. Recorded video on rough terrains is affected by jitters resulting into significant error between the desired and captured video flow. Video stabilization is achieved by calculating the motion and compensational parameters using the LSE analytical solution to minimize the error between present and desired output video captured from an autonomous robot’s camera moving on a rough terrain used for surveillance of unidentified people. This is the first paper to the best of our knowledge which makes use of this method to design mobile wireless robot for human surveillance applications. As the method used is fast then conventional methods, making the proposed system a highly efficient surveillance system as compared to previous systems. The superiority of the method used is demonstrated using different evaluation parameters like RMCD, variability and reliability. The system can be used for surveillance of people under different environmental conditions.

  16. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  17. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  18. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  19. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  20. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  1. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by...... peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications...

  2. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohasin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008.

  3. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha V L

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  4. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moulin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  5. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E; Selby, K; Cherpillod, P; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27006779

  6. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, E.; Selby, K.; Cherpillod, P.; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  7. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Man Kwan; Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  8. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den P.; Volz, A.; Roose, J.M.; Sewbalaksing, V.D.; Pijlman, G.P.; Middelkoop, van I.; Duiverman, V.; Wetering, van de E.; Sutter, G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Martina, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been docum

  9. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya Virus Protects AG129 Mice against Lethal Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van den Doel (Petra); A. Volz (Asisa); J.M. Roose (Jouke M.); V.D. Sewbalaksing (Varsha); G.P. Pijlman (Gorben); I. van Middelkoop (Ingeborg); V. Duiverman (Vincent); E. van de Wetering (Eva); G. Sutter (Gerd); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome ha

  10. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin E.; Selby K.; Cherpillod P.; Kaiser L; Boillat-Blanco N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  11. A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, L.Y.H.; Kam, Y.W.; Metz, S.W.H.; Hobson-Peters, J.; Prow, N.A.; McCarthy, S.; Smith, D.W.; Pijlman, G.P.; Ng, L.F.P.; Hall, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development and evaluation of

  12. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H; Ng, Lisa F P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  13. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  14. Dengue, chikungunya … and the missing entity - Zika fever: A new emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Rina; Ray, Sougat; Tilak, V W; Mukherji, Sandip

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a relative newcomer from the flavivirus group that includes dengue, Japanese encepahalitis and yellow fever, is one of the emerging pathogens that is fast transcending geographical boundaries. It is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the same Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which cause dengue and chikungunya. In addition to the vector-mediated transmission of Zika fever, probable human-to-human transmission through exchange of body fluids, including sexual and perinatal transmission and through blood transfusion, makes containment of this new entity more challenging. Moreover, a high index of suspicion by an astute physician is necessary for diagnosis of Zika fever in view of the similarity of symptoms with dengue and chikungunya, especially in areas, where these two diseases are already endemic. Zika, till recently, has had minimal impact, but its true potential is unfolding with increasing detection of congenital malformities, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes in patients with recent history of ZIKV infection, or when mothers get infected with Zika during first or second trimester of pregnancy. The association, however, needs to be established, nonetheless it is important that we keep a close vigil on this emerging vector borne disease - the 'ZIKA' fever. PMID:27257326

  15. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H.; Ng, Lisa F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  16. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  17. Mathematical Model of Three Age-Structured Transmission Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusto, Folashade B.; Easley, Shamise; Freeman, Kenneth; Thomas, Madison

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new age-structured deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of chikungunya virus. The model is analyzed to gain insights into the qualitative features of its associated equilibria. Some of the theoretical and epidemiological findings indicate that the stable disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. Furthermore, the model undergoes, in the presence of disease induced mortality, the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where the stable disease-free equilibrium of the model coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. Further analysis of the model indicates that the qualitative dynamics of the model are not altered by the inclusion of age structure. This is further emphasized by the sensitivity analysis results, which shows that the dominant parameters of the model are not altered by the inclusion of age structure. However, the numerical simulations show the flaw of the exclusion of age in the transmission dynamics of chikungunya with regard to control implementations. The exclusion of age structure fails to show the age distribution needed for an effective age based control strategy, leading to a one size fits all blanket control for the entire population.

  18. Computational Approach Towards Exploring Potential Anti-Chikungunya Activity of Selected Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Seyedeh Somayeh; Shukri, Munirah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Oo, Adrian; Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya infection in humans. Despite the widespread distribution of CHIKV, no antiviral medication or vaccine is available against this virus. Therefore, it is crucial to find an effective compound to combat CHIKV. We aimed to predict the possible interactions between non-structural protein 3 (nsP) of CHIKV as one of the most important viral elements in CHIKV intracellular replication and 3 potential flavonoids using a computational approach. The 3-dimensional structure of nsP3 was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank, prepared and, using AutoDock Vina, docked with baicalin, naringenin and quercetagetin as ligands. The first-rated ligand with the strongest binding affinity towards the targeted protein was determined based on the minimum binding energy. Further analysis was conducted to identify both the active site of the protein that reacts with the tested ligands and all of the existing intermolecular bonds. Compared to the other ligands, baicalin was identified as the most potential inhibitor of viral activity by showing the best binding affinity (-9.8 kcal/mol). Baicalin can be considered a good candidate for further evaluation as a potentially efficient antiviral against CHIKV. PMID:27071308

  19. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. PMID:26611396

  20. Production and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive to Chikungunya envelope E2 glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Anne-Claire; Rubrecht, Laetitia; Navarro-Sanchez, Martha Erika; Maréchal, Valérie; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lapalud, Priscilla; Laune, Daniel; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Desprès, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is an arbovirosis of major impact in public health in Asia and Africa. Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is member of the genus Alphavirus and belongs to the Semliki Forest (SF) antigenic complex. We describe for the first time a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to CHIK envelope E2 glycoprotein. For the screening of E2-specific MAbs, we expressed a recombinant soluble CHIK E2 protein in Drosophila S2 cells. Analyzed by immunological methods, MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 were selected on the basis of their reactivity. Their epitopes are located to the outer surface of CHIK virion. These MAbs have no cross reactivity with related members of SF antigenic complex with the notable exception of Igbo-Ora virus. Anti-CHIK E2 MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 should be helpful for studying the biology of CHIK virus and pathogenesis of disease. The combination of 8A4 and 3E4 is suitable for developing a specific antigen-capture ELISA. PMID:17949772

  1. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  2. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-03-01

    In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies. PMID:27015222

  3. A prototype radonmeter for seismic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Porfidia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A new 222Rn monitoring prototype has been designed, assembled and tested at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING specifically addressed to seismic surveillance tasks, exploiting environmental monitoring, etc. It operates with an a scintillation technique (photomultiplier + Lucas Cell coupled with a water input system, that lets continuous dehumidified gas flow, stripped from groundwater under monitoring. Several laboratory tests have been carried out to check the stability and versatility of the system; moreover statistical tests have been accomplished on several data sets obtained with an 241Am radioactive standard source, to check stability of the photomultiplier. A customised water flow system has been developed to perform both the highest efficiency and lowest influence of external noise parameters. This new prototype is very cheap and will be integrated within the new multiparametric geochemical monitoring system GMS II, that is currently being developed at ING, specifically designed for geochemical surveillance of seismic events.

  4. Extended surveillance as a support to PLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The safe exploitation of the reactor pressure vessel was and is always a major concern in nuclear power plant life management. At present, issues like Plant Life Extension, where utilities look into the possibility of license renewal after 40 years of operation, are becoming relevant in the USA. In other countries PLIM beyond the design life of the NPP could also be desirable from the economic viewpoint. The limiting factor could, however, be the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The reactor pressure vessel surveillance procedures as defined by regulatory legislation is limited and can be supplemented with valuable information that can be extracted in parallel to conventional surveillance testing or through additional testing on surveillance material. This is justified for several reasons: 1. The current methodology is semi-empirical, contains flaws and is in a number of cases over conservative. Without giving in on safety, we need to try and understand the material behavior more fundamentally; 2. Some reactor surveillance materials demonstrate inconsistent behavior with respect to the overall trend. These materials are called 'outlier' materials. But are they really outliers or is this connected to the indexing methodology used? 3. Additional data, for example the results of instrumented Charpy-V impact tests, have been obtained on many surveillance test specimens and are not adequately exploited in the actual surveillance methodology; 4. Scientific research provides substantial information and understanding of degradation mechanisms in reactor pressure vessel steels. Although we will not concentrate on this topic, the development of powerful microscopic investigation techniques, like FEGSTEM, APFIM, SANS, positron annihilation, internal friction, ... led to an intensified development of radiation damage modelling and are an input to micromechanical modelling. Moreover, due to the ever increasing computer power, additional multi-scale (time and

  5. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  6. Self-Surveillance Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jerry; Shilton, Katie; Estrin, D; Burke, Jeffrey A; Hansen, Mark,

    2011-01-01

    It has become cliché to observe that new information technologies endanger privacy. Typically, the threat is viewed as coming from Big Brother (the government) or Company Man (the firm). But for a nascent data practice we call “self-surveillance,” the threat may actually come from ourselves. Using various existing and emerging technologies, such as GPS-enabled smartphones, we are beginning to measure ourselves in granular detail – how long we sleep, where we drive, what we breathe, what w...

  7. Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Jeyamani

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dreaded complication of cirrhosis as it is the commonest cause of mortality in these patients. The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in the management of this tumor as nearly 50–70% of selected patients with early HCC survive for a median period of up to 5 years after liver transplantation, resection or local ablation. Surveillance has been found to be an effective tool to detect early tumors and expand the applicability of these curative trea...

  8. International safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant: containment and surveillance concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts for containment/surveillance for reprocessing plants are described, conceptual designs are developed, and their effectiveness is evaluated. A technical approach to design of containment/surveillance systems is presented, and design considerations are discussed. This is the second in a series of reports. The first described the basis for the study of international safeguards for reprocessing plants. In this second report, only containment/surveillance is discussed. The third report will discuss the integration of concepts for containment/surveillance and material accountancy

  9. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational cei...

  10. Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O'Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ce...

  11. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  12. Impact of postdischarge surveillance on surgical site infection rates for several surgical procedures: results from the nosocomial surveillance network in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C; Snoeren, Ruud L M M; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) registered after hospital discharge with respect to various surgical procedures and to identify the procedures for which postdischarge surveillance (PDS) is most important. DESIGN: Prospective SSI surveillance with voluntary PDS. Recommended methods for PDS in the Dutch national nosocomial surveillance network are addition of a special registration card to the outpatient medical record, on which the surgeon notes clinical sym...

  13. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  14. A Roadmap for Policy Dialogue and Economic Surveillance in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaihongGao

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the forward-looking framework of policy dialogue and economic surveillance in East Asia, based on analysis of the necessities, constraints and difficulties, together with criteria for effective surveillance. It proposes a roadmap for strengthening the mechanism for surveillance in East Asia, with the emphases on defining different phases, designing possible approaches and identifying the key elements for better surveillance in the region. The study suggests that there should be three phases for forming strong institutionalized regional surveillance. It also discusses possible moves in the second phase with focus on the importance of specifying surveillance coverage and improving statistical infrastructure. The paper points out that the success of establishing a firmly institutionalized surveillance mechanism in East Asia, to a large extent, relies on a common understanding among the countries in the region on the following issues: the necessity of a common monetary regime, the vital importance of statistical infrastructure and the essential elements of political consideration.

  15. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the UKFirst cases of dourine in Botswana and equine infectious anaemia in GreeceSummary of UK surveillance testing, October to December 2015These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27179087

  16. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  17. Production of Chikungunya Virus-Like Particles and Subunit Vaccines in Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Stefan W; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a reemerging human pathogen that causes debilitating arthritic disease in humans. Like dengue and Zika virus, CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in an epidemic urban cycle, and is now rapidly spreading through the Americas since its introduction in the Caribbean in late 2013. There are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs available, and only a few vaccine candidates have passed Phase I human clinical trials. Using recombinant baculovirus expression technology, we have generated CHIKV glycoprotein subunit and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that are amenable to large scale production in insect cells. These vaccines, in particular the VLPs, have shown high immunogenicity and protection against CHIKV infection in different animal models of CHIKV-induced disease. Here, we describe the production, purification, and characterization of these potent CHIKV vaccine candidates. PMID:27233282

  18. Detection of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes albopictus in Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2012-10-01

    We detected Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection among wild populations of Aedes albopictus female specimens during the CHIKV outbreaks of 2009 and 2006 collected in different localities in Kerala State, India. The envelope 1 gene (E1) sequences of the virus isolate 2009 from the mosquito species showed close genetic relatedness (Kimura 2 Parameter genetic distance=0.0013) to CHIKV-positive isolates from human serum samples from the same area. E1 gene sequences from Ae. albopictus, as well as from human isolates, had the crucial non-synonymous C/T mutation at position 10670, leading to the A226V amino acid change. This natural inclination indicated the role of this mosquito species in the transmission of CHIKV during its recent outbreaks in Kerala State. PMID:22925018

  19. Control of the Transmission of Chikungunya Fever Epidemic Through the use of Adulticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naowarat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Another newly emerging disease, chikungunya fever, has appeared in various places such as the Island of Reunion, Thailand and other India. To control an epidemic of disease once it has been established, the use of adulticide is proposed. Approach: To simulate the effects of different control measurement, a mathematical model incorporating the specific features of this disease has been proposed. Using the standard methods for analyzing the dynamical stability of the system, the role of the efficacy of the adulticide on the basic reproduction number of the disease is studied. Results and Conclusion: It was found that below a particular value of the efficacy which depends on the values of the parameters used in the model, adulticide would not be effective at controlling the epidemic.

  20. Effective chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine produced in insect cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.

  1. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for detecting chikungunya virus and dengue virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piyathida Pongsiri; Kesmanee Praianantathavorn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Sunchai Payungporn; Yong Poovorawan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To develop diagnostic test for detection chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Dengue virus (DENV)infection.Methods:We have performed a rapid, accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify and differentiateCHIKV and DENV infection by single-step multiplex real-timeRT-PCR.Results: The assay’s sensitivity was97.65%, specificity was 92.59% and accuracy was95.82% when compared to conventional RT-PCR. Additionally, there was no cross-reaction betweenCHIKV, DENV, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C, hepatitis A or hepatitis E virus.Conclusions:This rapid and reliable assay provides a means for simultaneous early diagnosis ofCHIKV andDENV in a single-step reaction.

  2. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  3. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  4. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  5. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies. PMID:27427208

  6. Development of Neutralization Assay Using an eGFP Chikungunya Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Lin Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a member of the Alphavirus genus, is an important human emerging/re-emerging pathogen. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against CHIKV infection. Herein, we construct an infectious clone of CHIKV and an eGFP reporter CHIKV (eGFP-CHIKV with an isolated strain (assigned to Asian lineage from CHIKV-infected patients. The eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus allows for direct visualization of viral replication through the levels of eGFP expression. Using a known CHIKV inhibitor, ribavirin, we confirmed that the eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus could be used to identify inhibitors against CHIKV. Importantly, we developed a novel and reliable eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus-based neutralization assay that could be used for rapid screening neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV.

  7. Phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus among travelers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Costa Conteville

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015. These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus.

  8. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Hoornweg, Tabitha E; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research. PMID:26198242

  9. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection—From Virus CellBinding to Membrane Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike K. S. van Duijl-Richter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

  10. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  11. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  12. Chikungunya fever among patients with acute febrile illness attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Baswanna Galate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.

  13. Genetic analysis of chikungunya viruses imported to mainland China in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has caused large outbreaks worldwide in recent years, especially on the islands of the Indian Ocean and India. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti, which are widespread in China, with an especially high population density in southern China. Analyses of full-length viral sequences revealed the acquisition of a single adaptive mutation providing a selective advantage for the transmission of CHIKV by this species. No outbreaks due to the local transmission of CHIKV have been reported in China, and no cases of importation were detected on mainland China before 2008. We followed the spread of imported CHIKV in southern China and analyzed the genetic character of the detected viruses to evaluate their potential for evolution. Results The importation of CHIKV to mainland China was first detected in 2008. The genomic sequences of four of the imported viruses were identified, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences were clustered in the Indian Ocean group; however, seven amino acid changes were detected in the nonstructural protein-coding region, and five amino acid changes were noted in the structural protein-coding regions. In particular, a novel substitution in E2 was detected (K252Q, which may impact the neurovirulence of CHIKV. The adaptive mutation A226V in E1 was observed in two imported cases of chikungunya disease. Conclusions Laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections among travelers visiting China in 2008 were presented, new mutations in the viral nucleic acids and proteins may represent adaptive mutations for human or mosquito hosts.

  14. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldbach Rob W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of envelope proteins E1 and E2 and to develop a CHIKV subunit vaccine, C-terminally his-tagged E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins were produced at high levels in insect cells with baculovirus vectors using their native signal peptides located in CHIKV 6K and E3, respectively. Results Expression in the presence of either tunicamycin or furin inhibitor showed that a substantial portion of recombinant intracellular E1 and precursor E3E2 was glycosylated, but that a smaller fraction of E3E2 was processed by furin into mature E3 and E2. Deletion of the C-terminal transmembrane domains of E1 and E2 enabled secretion of furin-cleaved, fully processed E1 and E2 subunits, which could then be efficiently purified from cell culture fluid via metal affinity chromatography. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on living baculovirus-infected Sf21 cells revealed that full-length E1 and E2 translocated to the plasma membrane, suggesting similar posttranslational processing of E1 and E2, as in a natural CHIKV infection. Baculovirus-directed expression of E1 displayed fusogenic activity as concluded from syncytia formation. CHIKV-E2 was able to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Conclusions Chikungunya virus glycoproteins could be functionally expressed at high levels in insect cells and are properly glycosylated and cleaved by furin. The ability of purified, secreted CHIKV-E2 to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits underscores the potential use of E2 in a subunit vaccine to prevent CHIKV infections.

  15. Molecular investigations of chikungunya virus during outbreaks in Orissa, Eastern India in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswadeep; Sahu, Abhipsa; Das, Mumani; Patra, Aparna; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2012-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of genus Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The resurgence of CHIKV in different parts of India is a point of major public health concern. In 2010, chikungunya outbreaks with high epidemic magnitude were recorded in coastal areas of Orissa, Eastern India, affecting more than 15,000 people coupled with severe arthralgia and prolonged morbidites. Detailed entomological, serological and molecular investigation of this unprecendented outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 1359 mosquito samples belonging to A. albopictus, A. aegypti, A. vittatus, A. edwardsii and Culex species and 220 patients serum from the affected areas. In this study, CHIKV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were done to detect recent infection of CHIKV in serum samples and adult mosquitoes collected from the affected areas. The high maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) (15.2) in A. albopictus mosquitoes indicated that it was the principal vector involved in transmission of CHIKV in Orissa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak belonged to the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype. Genetic characterization of envelope glycoprotein (E1 and E2) genes revealed that all the CHIKV isolates from Orissa had the E1-A226V mutation that enhances viral dissemination and transmissibility by A. albopictus mosquitoes along with E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations, which play an epistatic role with E1-A226V mutation in adaptation of CHIKV to A. albopictus by increasing its midgut infectivity, thereby favoring its vectorial capacity. Our results showed the involvement of A. albopictus vector in the recent outbreaks in Orissa and circulation of IOL strains of ECSA genotype of CHIKV with E1-A226V, E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations in vectors and patients serum. PMID:22484761

  16. Infection by chikungunya virus modulates the expression of several proteins in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchankouo-Nguetcheu Stephane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission. Methods We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Gel profile comparisons showed that CHIKV at 3 DPI modulated the level of 13 proteins, and at 5 DPI 20 proteins. The amount of 10 putatively secreted proteins was regulated at both time points. These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. CHIKV also modulated the quantity of proteins involved in several metabolic pathways and in cell signalling. Conclusion Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti salivary glands infected with CHIKV. We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by arboviruses. For example, proteins involved in blood-feeding such as the short D7, an adenosine deaminase and inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, may favour virus transmission by exerting an increased anti-inflammatory effect. This would allow the vector to bite without the bite being detected. Other proteins, like the anti-freeze protein, may support vector protection.

  17. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial relationsh

  18. Surveyor mobile surveillance system for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful program was recently conducted to test and evaluate a commercial-ready, wireless, remotely operated surveillance system for use in nuclear power plants. This evaluation of the Surveyor mobile surveillance system took place at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station. The remotely operated vehicle measures radiation, temperature and relative humidity and provides optical inspection capability. The vehicle is readily maneuvered in 36-inch wide passageways and labyrinth entries and can climb stairs, negotiating 180-degree turns on stair landings. The system consists of a supervisory control station and a rugged, remotely-operated, battery-powered vehicle. The surveyor system is specifically designed to decrease personnel radiation exposure by supplementing the functions of an auxiliary operator or wealth physics technician to perform periodic component inspections inside particular areas within a nuclear power plant

  19. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly

  20. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... technologies can be found across many domains, including culture, food, learning, work and general living. Individuals use tools and techniques to track themselves, thereby translating their own habits, bodies, moods, and thoughts into objects to scrutinize and transform. In addition, self-tracking is often...... coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...

  1. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  2. Surveillance of items important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides guidance and recommendations on surveillance activities to ensure that structures, systems and components important to safety are available to perform their functions in accordance with design intent and assumptions. Surveillance includes planned activities carried out to verify that the plant is operated within the prescribed operational limits and conditions, and to detect in time any deterioration of structures, systems and components that could result in an unsafe condition. These activities can be classified as: 1) Monitoring plant parameters and system status; 2) Checking and calibrating instrumentation; 3) Testing and inspecting structures, systems and components; 4) Evaluating the results of items 1) and 3). All the activities mentioned above are covered in this Guide. Collectively, such activities are referred to as the surveillance programme. Also covered are requirements and recommendations defining the basis and extent of the surveillance programme, and the administrative and technical aspects of its development and implementation

  3. Surveillance program and aging management at ETRR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance program, periodic testing, and in-service inspection are tools to manage the aging of the research reactors and keep the operation of the research reactors within its design, safety analysis, and operational limits and conditions (OLC's) for the lifetime of the research reactor. This paper describes the surveillance program and aging management of the most important systems, structures, and components (SSC's) of the second research reactor of Egypt (ETRR-II). We believe that the exchange of information and discussion between the members states, about this topic, can lead to the best practice for the research reactor surveillance and aging management. It is important for the members states to try to find benchmarking measures for this topic to make the aging management and surveillance program measurable and achievable. (author)

  4. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  5. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  6. Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemanee, Atchara; Wikan, Nitwara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tandem mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins by database searching. The methodology can routinely detect several thousand proteins in one analysis. The protocol we describe here has been used with both cells in culture that have been infected with chikungunya virus and specimens from Chikungunya fever patients. This protocol details the process for generating peptides for subsequent mass spectroscopic and bioinformatic analysis. PMID:27233271

  7. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  8. Host Alternation of Chikungunya Virus Increases Fitness while Restricting Population Diversity and Adaptability to Novel Selective Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, L. L.; Vignuzzi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which RNA arboviruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV), evolve and maintain the ability to infect vertebrate and invertebrate hosts are poorly understood. To understand how host specificity shapes arbovirus populations, we studied CHIKV populations passaged alternately between invertebrate and vertebrate cells (invertebrate ↔ vertebrate) to simulate natural alternation and contrasted the results with those for populations that were artificially released from cycling by p...

  9. Chikungunya Disease: Infection-Associated Markers from the Acute to the Chronic Phase of Arbovirus-Induced Arthralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis-Maguiraga, Laurence; Noret, Marion; Brun, Sonia; Le Grand, Roger; Gras, Gabriel; Roques, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2005, an outbreak of fever associated with joint pain occurred in La Réunion. The causal agent, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been known for 50 years and could thus be readily identified. This arbovirus is present worldwide, particularly in India, but also in Europe, with new variants returning to Africa. In humans, it causes a disease characterized by a typical acute infection, sometimes followed by persistent arthralgia and myalgia lasting months or years. Investigations in t...

  10. Design of Embedded Surveillance Based on S3C2440 and OV9650%基于S3C2440与OV9650的嵌入式监控设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡哲光

    2012-01-01

    Embedded video surveillance features small size, flexibility, high reliability, networking convenience and remote monitoring, which meet the growing needs of security. In this paper, the embedded monitoring system with video capture and encoding has been designed with the hardware platform made up of Samsung's S3C2440 and Omni Vision's the OV9650 image sensor as well as the embedded Linux software platform. What's more, this system is encoded with optimized XVID encoder. All these can ensure high compression ratio and image quality, making it suitable for banks, neighborhood, warehouse and other unattended applications. [Ch,4 fig.2 tab. 10 ref. ]%嵌入式视频监控具有小巧灵活、可靠性高、组网方便、可远程监控等优点,可满足当前社会日益增长的安保需求.文章以三星公司的S3C2440处理器和Omni Vision公司0V9650图像传感器为硬件平台,以嵌入式Linux为软件平台,设计具有视频采集和编码功能的嵌入式监控系统,并采用经过优化后的XVID编码器进行编码,在达到高压缩比的情况下保证图像质量,适合银行、小区门禁、仓库等无人值守场合.

  11. Diseño del Monitoreo Nacional de Indicadores Nutricionales (MONIN, Perú 2007-2010 Design of the National Surveillance of Nutritional Indicators (MONIN, Peru 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Campos-Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir el diseño y los métodos del monitoreo nacional de indicadores nutricionales (MONIN 2007-2010 conducido por INS/CENAN. Materiales y métodos. El MONIN fue diseñado como una encuesta continua (transversal repetida, por muestreo aleatorio estratificado y multietápico, del universo de niños menores de cinco años y gestantes residentes en el Perú, dividido en cinco estratos geográficos y seis trimestres (semanas permutadas aleatoriamente que fueron 78% del tiempo entre el 19 de noviembre de 2007 y el 2 de abril de 2010. Resultados. La muestra total ha obtenido 3 827 niños en 361 conglomerados terminados. La pérdida ha sido 8,4% en los conglomerados, 1,8% de viviendas, 13,2% de hogares, 4,2% en antropometría, 13,3% en hemoglobina, 21,2% en consumo de alimentos; 55,0% en retinol y 29,9% en yoduria. Conclusiones. El diseño del MONIN es factible y su implementación resulta útil para la estimación de los indicadores de desnutrición infantil.Objectives. To describe the design and methods of the national surveillance of nutritional indicators (MONIN 2007-2010, carried out by INS/CENAN. Materials and methods. MONIN was designed as a continuous (repeated cross-sectional survey, with stratified multi-stage random sampling, considering the universe as all under five children and pregnant women residing in Peru, divided into 5 geographical strata and 6 trimesters (randomly permuted weeks, about 78% of the time between November 19, 2007 and April 2, 2010. Results. The total sample was 3,827 children in 361 completed clusters. The dropout rate was 8.4% in clusters, 1.8% in houses, and 13.2% in households. Dropout was also 4.2, 13.3, 21.2, 55% and 29% in anthropometry, hemoglobin, food intake, retinol and ioduria measurements, respectively. Conclusions. The MONIN design is feasible and useful for the estimation of indicators of childhood malnutrition.

  12. Conceptual framework of public health surveillance and action and its application in health sector reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu Wondi; Carande-Kulis Vilma; Nsubuga Peter; Wuhib Tadesse; Ryan Mike; Chungong Stella; McNabb Scott JN; Rodier Guenael

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Because both public health surveillance and action are crucial, the authors initiated meetings at regional and national levels to assess and reform surveillance and action systems. These meetings emphasized improved epidemic preparedness, epidemic response, and highlighted standardized assessment and reform. Methods To standardize assessments, the authors designed a conceptual framework for surveillance and action that categorized the framework into eight core and four sup...

  13. Tools for surveillance system evaluation: Reviewing the need for participatory approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Calba, Clémentine; Grobois, Vladimir; Peyre, Marisa; Hoinville, Linda; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Saegerman, Claude; Goutard, Flavie

    2013-01-01

    While the need for effective animal health surveillance is widely recognised for diseases management, most veterinary services are facing significant budget constraints. There is a real need to develop cost-effective surveillance systems. To ensure quality of these systems, there is a further need to design comprehensive, timely, effective and affordable evaluation frameworks. Depending on epidemiological, sociological and economic factors, animal diseases surveillance systems can be complex,...

  14. Mathematical model of tumor-immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasa, Khaphetsi Joseph; Ouifki, Rachid; Eladdadi, Amina; Pillis, Lisette de

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel mathematical model involving various immune cell populations and tumor cell populations. The model describes how tumor cells evolve and survive the brief encounter with the immune system mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and the activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The model is composed of ordinary differential equations describing the interactions between these important immune lymphocytes and various tumor cell populations. Based on up-to-date knowledge of immune evasion and rational considerations, the model is designed to illustrate how tumors evade both arms of host immunity (i.e. innate and adaptive immunity). The model predicts that (a) an influx of an external source of NK cells might play a crucial role in enhancing NK-cell immune surveillance; (b) the host immune system alone is not fully effective against progression of tumor cells; (c) the development of immunoresistance by tumor cells is inevitable in tumor immune surveillance. Our model also supports the importance of infiltrating NK cells in tumor immune surveillance, which can be enhanced by NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27317864

  15. Spent fuel surveillance and monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting on ''Spent Fuel Surveillance and Monitoring Methods'' (27-30 October 1987) has been organized in accordance with recommendations of the International Standing Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management during its second meeting in 1986. The aim of the meeting was to discuss the above questions with emphasis on current design and operation criteria, safety principles and licensing requirements and procedures in order to prevent: inadvertent criticality, undue radiation exposure, unacceptable release of radioactivity as well as control for loss of storage pool water, crud impact, water chemistry, distribution and behaviour of particulates in cooling water, oxidation of intact and failed fuel rods as a function of temperature and burnup; distribution of radiation and temperature through dry cask wall, monitoring of leakages from pools and gas escapes from dry storage facilities, periodical integrity tests of the containment barriers, responsibilities of organizations for the required operation, structure, staff and subordination, etc. The presentations of the Meeting were divided into two sessions: Spent fuel surveillance programmes and practice in Member States (4 papers); Experimental methods developed in support of spent fuel surveillance programmes (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  17. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  18. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  19. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay Victoria C; Smith Rachel A; Findeis Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimi...

  20. The Effectiveness of IMF Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Biagio Bossone

    2008-01-01

    IMF surveillance of the international monetary and financial system is a global public good. Its effectiveness depends critically on the dynamics that underpin the mechanisms governing the IMF and global finance. These dynamics, in turn, reflect the interests and power of influence of countries (especially the largest), their cooperative attitude and international relations. Assessing the effectiveness of IMF surveillance, therefore, demands a clear understanding of the IMF and global financi...

  1. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  2. A Framework For An Event Driven Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Kieran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an event driven surveillance system that uses multiple cameras. The purpose of this system is to enable thorough exploration of surveillance events. The system uses a client-server web architecture as this provides scalability for further development of the system infrastructure. The system is designed to be accessed by surveillance operators who can review and comment on events generated by our event detection processing modules. We do not just focus on event detection, but are working towards the optimization of event detection. A multiple camera network system that tracks a moving object (or person and decides if this is an event of interest is also examined. Dynamic switching of the cameras is implemented to aid in human monitoring of the network. The camera displayed in the main view should be the camera with the most interesting activity occurring. Unusual activity is defined as activity occurring that is not of the norm. Normal activity is considered to be everyday repeated activity. Further thought will be given to the extension of this system into a distributed system that would effectively create an event web system. Our contributions are to the development of automated real-time switching of camera views to aid camera operators in the effort of effective video surveillance, and also the detection of events of interest within a surveillance environment, with appropriate alerts and storage of these events. To the best of our knowledge this system provides a novel approach to the technological surveillance paradigm.

  3. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  4. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  5. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  6. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  7. Cell-based analysis of Chikungunya virus E1 protein in membrane fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Szu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. Methods A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230 in membrane fusion activity. Results Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by CHIKV E1-H230A mutant baculovirus showed little fusion activity, and those bearing CHIKV E1-G91D mutant completely lost the ability to induce cell-cell fusion. Cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses of CHIKV E1-A226V and E1-V178A mutants exhibited the same membrane fusion capability as wild type. Although the E1 expression level of cells bearing monomeric-E1-based constructs (expressing E1 only was greater than that of cells bearing 26S-based constructs (expressing all structural proteins, the sizes of syncytial cells induced by infection of baculoviruses containing 26S-based constructs were larger than those from infections having monomeric-E1 constructs, suggesting that other viral structure proteins participate or regulate E1 fusion activity. Furthermore, membrane fusion in cells infected by baculovirus bearing the A226V mutation constructs exhibited increased cholesterol-dependences and lower pH thresholds

  8. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field

  9. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  10. Cancer incidence and survival in Lynch syndrome patients receiving colonoscopic and gynaecological surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentr...

  11. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras. W

  12. Active surveillance and control programme for Salmonella Dublin in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Rattenborg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    surveillance systems. Register data might be useful for design of effective surveillance programmes for Salmonella Dublin in cattle in the future. Statistical analysis of register-based variables confirmed previously known risk factors for becoming test-positive (i.e. purchase of animals from test...

  13. Surveillance study for creating the national clinical database relating to ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT of asymptomatic ischemic heart disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J-ACCESS 2 study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. Thus, a surveillance study was conducted as part of studies to create a national database related to electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of ischemic heart disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their prognoses will be followed for 3 years, stratified by patients' clinical background and SPECT findings. A total of 513 patients from 50 institutions were enrolled in this study, 297 of whom were men (age 66.2±0.4 years, mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)) and 261 women (age 67.8±0.5 years). They have a history of retinopathy (25.3%), neuropathy (19.9%), cerebrovascular disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and photocoagulation. Major risk factors for present disease were hypertension (82.3%) and hyperlipidemia (79.7%). In 244 patients (129 men and 115 women), body mass index (BMI) was 25 or more. Fifty-two of them (10.1%) underwent coronary angiography; of these, 26 (50.0%) had no coronary artery lesions with 75% or more stenosis, and only 1 (1.9%) had a left main trunk with 50% or more stenosis. An overwhelming majority of patients (94.3%) underwent SPECT imaging by a 1-day stress-followed-by-rest procedure. Stress procedure was exercise in most (70.8%) patients, followed by dipyridamole infusion in 14.6%, adenosine infusion in 6.6%, and adenosine triphosphate infusion in 5.7%. Endpoint of stress examination was most often fatigue in lower limbs (40.7%), followed by completion of pharmacological stress protocol (28.7%), and achievement of target heart rate (26.3%). The largest number of patients (198, 38.6%) received 99mTc-tetrofosmin at an initial dosage of 200-300 MBq (mean 331±3 MBq) followed by a second dosage of 700-800 MBq (mean 748±8 MBq). Among them, 491 (95.7%) received some kind of therapeutic drug: hypoglycemic drugs were

  14. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  15. High Dose Intraveneous Vitamin C and Chikungunya Fever: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michael J.; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Berdiel, Miguel J.; Duconge, Jorge; Rodríguez-López, Joshua L.; Hunninghake, Ron; Cobas-Rosario, Vicente J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chikungunya (CHIKV) fever is a viral disease produced by a single-stranded RNA Alphavirus from the Togaviridae genus. Its transmission occurs only through mosquito vectors, principally Aedes aegypti. It requires a human-mosquito-human transmission cycle. It is associated with severe arthritis/arthralgias, myalgias, high fever, headache, and maculopapular rash. Joint ache appears to be symmetrical. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 7 days, where the high fever is typically presented. It is followed by arthralgias and myalgias, and rashes, which last for 3 to 5 days. However, the arthralgias can persist for months after the infection, which can contribute to severe arthritis. As of now, no vaccine exists for the virus and no official treatment has been developed aside from standard procedures of the use of acetaminophen (paracetamol), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is a case report of a 54-year old Hispanic individual that reported left shoulder pain, left knee pain and fever. The symptoms started on a Saturday in September 2014 in middle of the night. The patient was treated with high doses of intravenous vitamin C over two days. The symptoms resolved after the infusions without any side effects. Based on the positive outcome in this case, we propose that intravenous vitamin C should be studied further as a potential treatment for acute viral infections. PMID:25705076

  16. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckel, Rebecca; Haese, Nicole; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Streblow, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis. PMID:26389957

  17. Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Finny S; Kaukinen, Pasi; Gläsker, Sabine; Bespalov, Maxim; Hanski, Leena; Wennerberg, Krister; Kümmerer, Beate M; Ahola, Tero

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type and reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 μM) and ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 μM) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 μM) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner and had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses--Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Abamectin and ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic and antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle. PMID:26752081

  18. Viremia in North American Mammals and Birds After Experimental Infection with Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Nemeth, Nicole M; Kohler, Dennis J; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range and evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian and 12 mammalian species representing both domestic and wild animals common to North America. Hamsters and inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV and were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals and a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife and that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats and wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics. PMID:26666699

  19. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV

  20. First Imported Case of Chikungunya Virus Infection in a Travelling Canadian Returning from the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first Canadian case of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection reported in a traveller returning from the Caribbean. Following multiple mosquito bites in Martinique Island in January 2014, the patient presented with high fever, headaches, arthralgia on both hands and feet, and a rash on the trunk upon his return to Canada. Initial serological testing for dengue virus infection was negative. Support therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was administered. The symptoms gradually improved 4 weeks after onset with residual arthralgia and morning joint stiffness. This clinical feature prompted the clinician to request CHIKV virus serology which was found to be positive for the presence of IgM and neutralizing antibodies. In 2014, over four hundred confirmed CHIKV infection cases were diagnosed in Canadian travellers returning from the Caribbean and Central America. Clinical suspicion of CHIKV or dengue virus infections should be considered in febrile patients with arthralgia returning from the recently CHIKV endemic countries of the Americas.

  1. Easy and inexpensive molecular detection of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Eliana P; Sánchez-Quete, Fernando; Durán, Sandra; Sandoval, Isabel; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-11-01

    Dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and zika (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) sharing a common vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. At initial stages, patients infected with these viruses have similar clinical manifestations, however, the outcomes and clinical management of these diseases are different, for this reason early and accurate identification of the causative virus is necessary. This paper reports the development of a rapid and specific nested-PCR for detection of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection in the same sample. A set of six outer primers targeting the C-preM, E1, and E gene respectively was used in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay, followed by the second round of amplification with specific inner primers for each virus. The specificity of the present assay was validated with positive and negative serum samples for viruses and supernatants of infected cells. The assay was tested using clinical samples from febrile patients. In these samples, we detected mono and dual infections and a case of triple co-infection DENV-CHIKV-ZIKV. This assay might be a useful and an inexpensive tool for detection of these infections in regions where these arboviruses co-circulate. PMID:27477452

  2. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-07-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  3. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy P Ledermann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s. Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.

  4. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis and quantitation of negative strand of chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Loong, Shih Keng; Yong, Sara Su Jin; Hooi, Poh Sim; Sam, I-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is useful for diagnosis and studying virus replication. We developed positive- and negative-strand qRT-PCR assays to detect nsP3 of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-strand RNA alphavirus that causes epidemic fever, rash, and arthritis. The positive- and negative-strand qRT-PCR assays had limits of quantification of 1 and 3 log10 RNA copies/reaction, respectively. Compared to a published E1 diagnostic assay using 30 laboratory-confirmed clinical samples, the positive-strand nsP3 qRT-PCR assay had higher R(2) and efficiency and detected more positive samples. Peak viral load of 12.9 log(10) RNA copies/mL was reached on day 2 of illness, and RNA was detectable up to day 9, even in the presence of anti-CHIKV IgM. There was no correlation between viral load and persistent arthralgia. The positive-strand nsP3 assay is suitable for diagnosis, while the negative-strand nsP3 assay, which uses tagged primers to increase specificity, is useful for study of active viral replication kinetics. PMID:23886793

  5. Insilico modeling of Wolbachia and its potentials in combating mosquito borne diseases Chikungunya and Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Guruprasad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito borne diseases are major health burden both in tropical and subtropical regions. The enormous use of insecticides to control mosquitoes causes biomagnification of chemicals in environment and mosquitoes have developed resistance to insecticides. The inefficiency of insecticides to combat mosquitoes prompted researchers to develop efficient alternative methods. Wolbachia endosymbiont is a one of efficient new approach to control mosquitoes. Wolbachia strain invade mosquitoes biology by reducing host lifespan, phenotype and inhibit virus replication. In the present study, insilico modeling and docking of Wolbachia and human pathogens Chikungunya (CHIK and Dengue (DEN virus was done. Docking is the method to find the binding affinity of protein and ligand complex molecules for finding potential inhibitor. Using Hex, we obtained energy total (e-total values in kcal/mol for all docked complex. In the contest of overall analyzing the docking E-total values of docked complexes reveals that WSP-B has show strong binding affinity than WSP-A to both DEN and CHIK. Based on obtained result, we suggest WSP-B has potential inhibitor for both DEN and CHIK virus. Further, biophysical characterization of Wolbachia will help to develop a drug to combat CHIK and DEN viruses.

  6. That Which Bends Up: A Case Report and Literature Review of Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Shana M; Monson, Benjamin J; Van Schooneveld, Trevor; Smith, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in a 39-year-old female who developed an acute febrile illness marked by polyarthralgia and rash after returning from Saint Lucia. This epidemic-prone pathogen is increasingly likely to be encountered by primary care and hospital physicians in the coming months. The virus was first locally transmitted in the Caribbean in December 2013 and has since spread to 44 countries and 47 US states, affecting a suspected 1.2 million people. A mosquito-borne virus, CHIKV causes a severe and symmetric polyarthralgia that can relapse for months to years, creating debilitating illness and profound socioeconomic consequences. Current treatment is limited to supportive measures, which are dependent on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Research into immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapies, and vaccines is ongoing. Prevention remains key in slowing the spread of disease. Patient education should focus on personal protective measures, such as insect repellant and remaining indoors, while public health departments should implement strategies to control vector breeding grounds. Given the possibility of relapsing and debilitating disease, general internists should consider CHIKV in the differential diagnosis of a returning traveler with acute onset of fever, polyarthralgia, and rash. PMID:26194641

  7. Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh D Gokhale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (CHIKV susceptibility and growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Methods: Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics and allozyme variation studies. Results: The dissemination and growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, and Nei′s genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  8. Simplified Bryostatin Analogues Protect Cells from Chikungunya Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveness, Daryl; Abdelnabi, Rana; Schrier, Adam J; Loy, Brian A; Verma, Vishal A; DeChristopher, Brian A; Near, Katherine E; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; Wender, Paul A

    2016-04-22

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus showing a recent resurgence and rapid spread worldwide. While vaccines are under development, there are currently no therapies to treat this disease, except for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, which alleviate the devastating arthritic and arthralgic symptoms. To identify novel inhibitors of the virus, analogues of the natural product bryostatin 1, a clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and HIV eradication, were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity and were found to be among the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication reported to date. Bryostatin-based therapeutic efforts and even recent anti-CHIKV strategies have centered on modulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Intriguingly, while the C ring of bryostatin primarily drives interactions with PKC, A- and B-ring functionality in these analogues has a significant effect on the observed cell-protective activity. Significantly, bryostatin 1 itself, a potent pan-PKC modulator, is inactive in these assays. These new findings indicate that the observed anti-CHIKV activity is not solely mediated by PKC modulation, suggesting possible as yet unidentified targets for CHIKV therapeutic intervention. The high potency and low toxicity of these bryologs make them promising new leads for the development of a CHIKV treatment. PMID:26900625

  9. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Broeckel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis.

  10. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Eric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Hamel, Rodolphe [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Neyret, Aymeric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Ekchariyawat, Peeraya [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Molès, Jean-Pierre [INSERM U1058, UM1, CHU Montpellier (France); Simmons, Graham [Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Chazal, Nathalie [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Desprès, Philippe [Unité Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); and others

    2015-02-15

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV.

  11. Brief Report: Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: A mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie M.; Taffner, Samantha; Malkova, Olga N.; Oh, Stephen T.; Kim, Alfred H.J.; Diamond, Michael S.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that spread to the Caribbean in 2013 and the United States in 2014. CHIKV-infected patients develop inflammatory arthritis that can persist for months to years, but little is known about the rheumatologic and immunologic features of CHIKV arthritis in humans, particularly as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we describe these features in a group of 10 American travelers who were nearly simultaneously infected while visiting Haiti in June 2014. METHODS Patients were assessed by history, physical examination, and laboratory studies. All patients with CHIKV arthritis had detectable anti-CHIKV IgG. Using cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF), we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CHIKV-infected patients, healthy controls, and patients with untreated, active RA. RESULTS Among ten CHIKV-infected individuals, eight developed persistent symmetric polyarthritis, who otherwise met the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for (seronegative) RA. CyTOF analysis revealed that RA and CHIKV-infected patients had greater percentages of activated and effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than healthy controls. CONCLUSION In addition to similar clinical features, patients with CHIKV infection and RA develop highly similar peripheral T cell phenotypes. These overlapping clinical and immunologic features highlight a need for rheumatologists to consider CHIKV infection when evaluating patients with new, symmetric polyarthritis. PMID:25605621

  12. Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit Chikungunya virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie McFarlane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi, has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways.

  13. Bioefficacy of botanical insecticides against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioefficacy of plant extracts viz., whole plants of Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), leaves of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae), Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae), Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) and Murrayakoenigii (Rutaceae), and aerial parts of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the early third instar larvae at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of Sphaeranthus indicus (201.11ppm) and hexane extract of Abutilon indicum (261.31ppm) was found to be effective. Conclusions: Further in-depth investigations on the crude extract/phytotoxic compounds of Sphaeranthus indicus are needed to elucidate the larvicidal activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity in Aedesaegypti should be identified, and small scale field trials are needed for usage of this plant as a mosquitocidal agent.

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya during a recent epidemic in Calicut, north Kerala, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Najeeba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There was a recent epidemic of chikungunya (CKG in Calicut and other northern districts of Kerala, South India, affecting thousands of people. Aims: To study the cutaneous manifestations of CKG and to have a serological and histopathological correlation. Methods: A total of 162 patients (63 males and 99 females with cutaneous manifestations of CKG were enrolled in the study and serological confirmation was done with capture IgM ELISA for CKG. Skin biopsy was done in all representative cases. Results: Cutaneous manifestations were found more in females. There were 23 children, the youngest being 39 days old. Generalized erythematous macular rash was the most common finding. Vesicles and bullae were also common especially in infants. Localized erythema of the nose and pinnae, erythema and swelling of the pre existing scars and striae and toxic epidermal necrolysis-like lesions sparing mucosae were the other interesting findings. Different types of pigmentation were observed with a striking nose pigmentation in a large number of patients, by looking at which even a retrospective diagnosis of CKG could be made. Hence we suggest this peculiar pigmentation may be called "chik sign". There was flare up of existing dermatoses like psoriasis, lichen planus and unmasking of Hansen′s disease with type 1 reaction. Serological tests were positive in 97%. Some hitherto unreported histopathologic findings like melanophages in the erythematous rashes were observed. Conclusion: A spectrum of cutaneous manifestations of CKG with a wide variety of unusual presentations with confirmed serological and histopathological evidence was encountered.

  15. Nuclear-powered infrared surveillance satellite study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the applicability of nuclear power to the Deep Space Surveillance System using long wave infrared detectors was conducted. Two possibilities are explored: a hybrid approach, in which nuclear heat sources are used to drive the cryogenic refrigerators, with the remainder of the power provided by a solar-array/battery system; and an all-nuclear approach. The former results in roughly halving the electric power requirements of the satellite, with weight reductions of 5 to 15 percent. The latter permits a monolithic spacecraft design approach with resultant design simplifications and dynamic stability/control advantages, as well as projected weight reductions of 15 to 20 percent as compared to the all-solar design approach. The spacecraft power requirements of 1000 to 1500 watts (e) are within the primary range of the nuclear-dynamic systems currently in development

  16. LTO and surveillance specimen programme of RPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant life extension (as well as Long Term Operation) to 60 or 80 years of operation also requires a reliable information about the potential irradiation embrittlement (and also thermal ageing) of reactor pressure vessel materials. Such information is usually obtained from testing specimens within the surveillance specimen programme that is designed for the design RPV life, regularly for 40 years only. Life extension requires modification of such programme (if there is still time to perform it) or a design of a new extended one. Such programme should have to contain RPV archive materials that are not in every case available. Thus, combination of archive materials and possible surrogate materials must be taken into account for this programme. Some complication can be expected with thermal ageing data as some laboratory tests at higher temperatures must be realized. The paper describes such program for NPP Dukovany, Czech Republic with WWER-440 type reactors. (authors)

  17. Microcomputer Infection Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a set of microcomputer programs designed to streamline and assist with infection control monitoring. The system is designed to capture patient demographic and culture data as well as the infection control practitioner's (ICP) evaluation of whether the infection is hospital (nosocomial) or community acquired. Once the data are acquired, they can be sorted and printed in a multitude of ways to generate various detailed line reports and tables. Organism sensitivity profiles...

  18. Dengue and other common causes of acute febrile illness in Asia: an active surveillance study in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosario Capeding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (≥ 38 °C for ≥ 2 days in 1,500 healthy children aged 2-14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8; 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants and S. Typhi (in 29.4%. The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8 and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2 by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7 and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2 of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation

  19. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine

    OpenAIRE

    Chonticha Saisawang; Sawanan Saitornuang; Pornpan Sillapee; Sukathida Ubol; Smith, Duncan R.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzym...

  20. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.