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Sample records for chikungunya surveillance designing

  1. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  2. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelly Chris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data.

  3. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    OpenAIRE

    Skelly Chris; Tilston Natasha; Weinstein Phil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. ...

  4. Chikungunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through infected blood. There have been outbreaks of chikungunya virus in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Indian and Pacific ... A blood test can show whether you have chikungunya virus. There are no vaccines or medicines to treat ...

  5. Surveillance of chikungunya virus inAndhraPradesh,Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CVMNareshKumar; P Sangamithra; M Rajasekhar; DVR Saigopal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The study involved survey and screening of areas suspected of chikungunya virus (CHIKV)infection, characterizing the causative agent and identifying the circulatingCHIKV genotype.Methods: Acute phase samples were screened by the use ofRTPCR using primer setDVRChk-F/DVRChk-R whereas convalescent samples were tested byCHIKV IgM strips. Results: Two hundred and seventy five acute phase samples were screened by RT-PCR, of which 149(54.18%) showed positivity forCHIKV. Later on192 convalescent phase samples were tested forCHIKV specific antibodies in which125(65.10%) samples were found to be positive. Four CHIKV strains were selected and subjected to cloning followed by nucleotide sequencing and were submitted to the GenbankDNAdatabase with the Accession numbers(GQ119362,GQ119363, GQ119364, andFJ225403). The Sequence analysis of“CHIK-Kadapa” strain(GQ119362)with other CHIKV isolates suggested that the present CHIKV strain has (99.23± 0.52) % and100 %identity with Central East South African isolates(CESA) at nucleotide and amino acid levels respectively. Two unique non synonymous mutations S168L andD183Vwere depicted in E1 gene of the selected strains of the present study.Conclusions:The14 months survey revealed the circulation of CHIKV in2008-2009in Andhra Pradesh and the causative agent is identified to be of Central East South African(CESA) origin. The importance of the non synonymous mutations (S168L and D183V) and their role in the mobility and strength of theE1-E1andE1-E2 interactions needs further investigations. The study also urges the need for intensifying the epidemiological and entomological surveillance to combat any suchCHIKV outbreak in the near future.

  6. Surveillance of dengue and chikungunya infection in Dong Thap, Vietnam:A 13-month study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham Thi Kim Lien; Phan Thi Nga; Laurence Briant; Truong Ba Tang; Bui Minh Trang; Laurent Gavotte; Emmanuel Cornillot; Vu Trong Duoc; Tran Nhu Duong; Roger Frutos

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a surveillance in Dong Thap, at the border with Cambodia by assessing the presence of DENV serotypes and CHIKV among patients hospitalized at Dong Thap general hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive analysis was conducted on a cohort of 131 patients hospitalized with acute fever and symptoms compatible with dengue or chikungunya. The study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2013. The full clinical picture was established as well as serological and molecular detection. Serological analysis was sequentially performed on blood samples collected on admission and an average of seven days after admission. The detection of IgM antibody to DENV was performed by IgM capture ELISA and the detection of DENV and CHIKV RNA was done by reverse-transcription multiplex PCR. Results: 101 patients out of 131 (77%) were confirmed with dengue. All four dengue serotypes were detected with a predominance of DENV2 and DENV4. No chikungunya infection was detected although reported in neighboring Cambodia. A differential efficiency of serological dengue detection was observed. Efficiency was 29% upon admission and 53% after seven days on the same patients. 30 patients out of 131 (23%) were negative with both DENV and CHIKV. Conclusions: Dengue is at risk of being underestimated and chikungunya is not systematically detected. Changes in detection and surveillance procedures are therefore discussed to increase efficiency of dengue detection and continue the monitoring the emergence of CHIKV in Dong Thap province and in Vietnam.

  7. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  8. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  9. Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control

  10. Structure based design towards the identification of novel binding sites and inhibitors for the chikungunya virus envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Adel A; Keller, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus that is widespread in tropical regions and is spreading quickly to temperate climates with recent epidemics in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. It is having an increasingly major impact on humans with potentially life-threatening and debilitating arthritis. Thus far, neither vaccines nor medications are available to treat or control the virus and therefore, the development of medicinal chemistry is a vital and immediate issue that needs to be addressed. The viral envelope proteins play a major role during infection through mediation of binding and fusion with the infected cell surfaces. The possible binding target sites of the chikungunya virus envelope proteins have not previously been investigated; we describe here for the first time the identification of novel sites for potential binding on the chikungunya glycoprotein complexes and the identification of possible antagonists for these sites through virtual screening using two successive docking scores; FRED docking for fast precise screening, with the top hits then subjected to a ranking scoring using the AUTODOCK algorithm. Both the immature and the mature forms of the chikungunya envelope proteins were included in the study to increase the probability of finding positive and reliable hits. Some small molecules have been identified as good in silico chikungunya virus envelope proteins inhibitors and these could be good templates for drug design targeting this virus.

  11. Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Control Pocket Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical guide consolidates information and procedures for surveillance and control of mosquitoes that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. The guide focuses on mosquitoes that transmit dengue but also makes reference to chikungunya and yellow fever because the pathogens that cause these ...

  12. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  13. Chikungunya: epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook. PMID:26918158

  14. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  15. 2011年东莞市登革热与基孔肯雅热监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of dengue and chikungunya fever in Dongguan in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建孟; 袁达康; 黄勇; 陈平华; 杨华可; 黎景全; 李艳芬; 陈永迪; 李宇政

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To discover the cases of dengue fever and chikungunya fever early and estimate their epidemic situation in Dongguan and give warning to control their ourbreak in time. Methods; All the serum samples of stringent surveillance cases and routine surveillance cases from June 204 to August 31* in 2011 were detected by real - time PCR first, then the cases with dengue nucleic acid negative were tested by ELISA for IgM detection. Results; 248 qualified serum samples were detected, including 234 samples of stringent surveillance cases and 14 of routine surveillance cases. 3 samples of routine surveillance cases were dengue virus positive, accounting for 1.21% (3/248). Of the 3 dengue positive cases, 2 were IgM positive and 1 was nucleic acid positive(IV type). 2 imported cases of dengue were identified at last. Conclusion: Dengue fever cases were found earlier by lab stringency surveillance, and its epidemic and outbreak was controlled in time, which gave great protection in part of public health to the world college sports meeting in Shenzhen in 2011.%目的:尽早发现登革热与基孔肯雅热病例,及时采取有效防控措施.方法:对2011年6月20日-201 1年8月31日东莞市应急监测病例及疫情监测病例血清样品,采用荧光PCR检测登革热与基孔肯雅热病毒核酸,登革热核酸检测阴性者,再用ELISA法检测登革热病毒IgM抗体.结果:共收集及检测248份合格血清样品.其中,应急监测病例血清234份,检测结果均为阴性;疫情监测病例血清14份,检出2份为登革热IgM抗体阳性,1份为登革热核酸阳性,为Ⅳ型;确诊2例为登革热输入性病例.结论:通过实验室应急监测,发现了登革热病例,及时控制了疫情的传播扩散.

  16. Molecular characterization of dengue and chikungunya virus strains circulating in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afreen, Nazia; Deeba, Farah; Khan, Wajihul H; Haider, Shakir H; Kazim, Syed Naqui; Ishrat, Romana; Naqvi, Irshad Hussain; Shareef, Mohammad Y; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2014-12-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are acute viral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. Both diseases are transmitted by common mosquito vectors resulting in their co-circulation in a region. Molecular and serological tests specific for both dengue and chikungunya infections were performed on 87 acute phase blood samples collected from patients with suspected dengue/chikungunya infections in Delhi from September to December, 2011. RT-PCR and IgM ELISA were performed to detect dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). NS1 and IgG ELISA were also performed to detect DENV specific antigen and secondary DENV infection. DENV infection was detected in 49%, CHIKV infection in 29% and co-infection with DENV and CHIKV in 10% of the samples by RT-PCR. DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected in this study. Nine DENV-1 strains, six DENV-2 strains and 20 CHIKV strains were characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of their respective envelope protein genes. DENV-1 strains grouped in the American African genotype, DENV-2 strains in the Cosmopolitan genotype and CHIKV strains in the East Central South African genotype by phylogenetic analysis. This is one of the few studies reporting the phylogeny of two dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 and DENV-2) and CHIKV. Surveillance and monitoring of DENV and CHIKV strains are important for design of strategies to control impending epidemics.

  17. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  18. Chikungunya viral disease in district Bhilwara (Rajasthan) India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Bhattacharya, D; Venkatesh, S; Jain, D C; Lal, Shiv

    2007-03-01

    An investigation of chikungunya outbreak cases was carried out in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan during Aug-Sep 2006. Fever with multiple joint pains was the first presenting feature. Aedes larval surveys indicate high Breteau index (78.6 to 200), House index (48.0 to 83.3) & Container index (41.1 to 73.6) above the critical index. Out of 40 sera samples tested, 12 showed HI antibodies for chikungunya virus in high titres and another five were positive for IgM antibodies against chikungunya. The clinico-epidemiological, laboratory and entomological investigations confirm that this episode of fever was due to chikungunya fever. Strengthening and intensification of surveillance along with educating the community were recommended for control of outbreak. PMID:18338713

  19. Design of a Blimp Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of Blimp Based Air Vehicle with the ability to perform vertical take-off and landing that can serve the purpose of surveillance in an area dangerous for humans. The design uses vectored thrusting to propel the blimp. Software is developed for visualizing the mechanical design of the blimp given its design parameters. The blimp is then developed by utilizing Polyurethane as fabric and helium gas is used for lifting the blimp. Brushless DC motors are used to generate thrust for lifting the blimp and servo motor is used to shift the motion axis of blimp by rotating the assembly of gondola carrying the propellers. A wireless camera is mounted for the purpose of surveillance and control. The video data is received at the base station where it isrecorded and afterwards analyzed for the presence of certain object. The control signals for the motors are generated and transmitted by an AT89C52 microcontroller through a 6-channel transmitter. The receiver present on the blimp decodes these signals and controls the motors accordingly.

  20. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lau, Eric HY

    2011-01-01

    Background: Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective: The aims of the study we...

  1. Chikungunya: a reemerging infection spreading during 2010 dengue fever outbreak in National Capital Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V G; Das, Shukla; Roy, Priyamvada; Hada, Vivek; Mogha, Narendra Singh

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an important reemerging arbovirus illness, which is transmitted by the same vector as of dengue virus. Many cases of concurrent infections with multiple dengue virus serotypes have been reported in many countries. Also, concurrent infection with Chikungunya virus and dengue virus has been reported in the past in Delhi. Therefore, this study was done to detect Chikungunya IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever patients. In this study, 1666 serum samples suspected of dengue fever and collected during the outbreak period (August 2010-December 2010) were tested for dengue IgM antibodies, of which 736 tested negative. Of the 736 dengue IgM negative sera, 666 were tested for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The demographic profile and essential laboratory investigations were recorded. Chikungunya IgM was detected in 9.91 % of the patients. During the post-monsoon period though dengue dominated in numbers, the number of Chikungunya fever cases increased gradually followed by an abrupt decrease with the onset of winter. The Chikungunya IgM positive patients were suffering from fever of more than 5 days duration and had thrombocytopenia. Due to similarity in clinical features and vector transmitting dengue and Chikungunya virus, continuous surveillance of both dengue fever and Chikungunya fever is desirable for better management and epidemiological assessment. PMID:27366770

  2. Chikungunya virus: emerging targets and new opportunities for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Adel A; Mahalingam, Suresh; Keller, Paul A

    2014-02-27

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus that is widespread in tropical regions and is spreading quickly to temperate climates with recent epidemics in Africa and Asia and documented outbreaks in Europe and the Americas. It is having an increasingly major impact on humankind, with potentially life-threatening and debilitating arthritis. There is no treatment available, and only in the past 24 months have lead compounds for development as potential therapeutics been reported. This Perspective discusses the chikungunya virus as a significant, new emerging topic for medicinal chemistry, highlighting the key viral target proteins and their molecular functions that can be used in drug design, as well as the most important ongoing developments for anti-chikungunya virus research. It represents a complete picture of the current medicinal chemistry of chikungunya, supporting the development of chemotherapeutics through drug discovery and design targeting this virus.

  3. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  4. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer

    Full Text Available Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission.We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio and IgG ELISA (Novatec, respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95% of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50% to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas.These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods.

  5. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven;

    2016-01-01

    and chikungunya virus among participants presenting with malaria-like symptoms (fever, headache, rash, vomit, and joint pain) in three communities with distinct ecologies of north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: Cross sectional studies were conducted among 1100 participants (aged 2-70 years) presenting with malaria....... Further analyses revealed that headache and joint pain were significantly associated with chikungunya IgM seropositivity. CONCLUSION: In north-eastern Tanzania, mainly chikungunya virus appears to be actively circulating in the population. Continuous surveillance is needed to determine the contribution...

  6. Deliberate attenuation of chikungunya virus by adaptation to heparan sulfate-dependent infectivity: a model for rational arboviral vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christina L; Hritz, Jozef; Sun, Chengqun; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Song, Timothy Y; Ghedin, Elodie; Higgs, Stephen; Klimstra, William B; Ryman, Kate D

    2014-02-01

    Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus from the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, which causes fever, rash and severe persistent polyarthralgia in humans. Since there are currently no FDA licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies for CHIKV, the development of vaccine candidates is of critical importance. Historically, live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) for protection against arthropod-borne viruses have been created by blind cell culture passage leading to attenuation of disease, while maintaining immunogenicity. Attenuation may occur via multiple mechanisms. However, all examined arbovirus LAVs have in common the acquisition of positively charged amino acid substitutions in cell-surface attachment proteins that render virus infection partially dependent upon heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed sulfated polysaccharide, and appear to attenuate by retarding dissemination of virus particles in vivo. We previously reported that, like other wild-type Old World alphaviruses, CHIKV strain, La Réunion, (CHIKV-LR), does not depend upon HS for infectivity. To deliberately identify CHIKV attachment protein mutations that could be combined with other attenuating processes in a LAV candidate, we passaged CHIKV-LR on evolutionarily divergent cell-types. A panel of single amino acid substitutions was identified in the E2 glycoprotein of passaged virus populations that were predicted to increase electrostatic potential. Each of these substitutions was made in the CHIKV-LR cDNA clone and comparisons of the mutant viruses revealed surface exposure of the mutated residue on the spike and sensitivity to competition with the HS analog, heparin, to be primary correlates of attenuation in vivo. Furthermore, we have identified a mutation at E2 position 79 as a promising candidate for inclusion in a CHIKV LAV.

  7. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... risk estimates. The examples use Danish surveillance data from previously published studies to evaluate systems aimed at risk-based detection of new cases of an endemic infection, i.e. Salmonella in dairy cattle herds (Example 1), and for substantiating the absence of a specific infection, i...... are: A: to detect an emerging disease or infection, if it becomes introduced into a population; or B: to substantiate freedom from a condition in a population; or C: to detect cases and estimate the prevalence of an endemic condition in a population. In risk-based surveillance these aims should be met...

  8. Extreme Zoom Surveillance: System Design and Image Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Yao; Besma R. Abidi; Mongi A. Abidi

    2007-01-01

    Applications of digital imaging with extreme zoom are traditionally found in astronomy and wild life monitoring. More recently, the need for such capabilities has extended to long range surveillance and wide area monitoring such as forest fires, harbors, and waterways. In this paper, we present a number of sensor arrangements for such applications, focusing on optical setups, auto-focusing mechanisms, and image deblurring techniques. Considering both the speed of convergence and robustness to...

  9. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  10. Design and Research of Distributed Real TimeSurveillance Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Distributed real time surveillance control system is used especially in distributed computer measure and control system, mostly inwidely dispersed measure points without human surveillance. This paper describes theory、construction、control strategy, stabilityanalysis of distributed real time supervisory control and data acquisition system, implements distributed measure signals collectionand design of supervisory control system. The realization of virtual instrument based on VC++ can accomplish measurementsignals acquisition, storage, display and analysis, also the result of surveillance control system is provided, and shows thefunctional powerful agility of virtual instrument based on VC++.

  11. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

  12. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation. PMID:26942903

  13. FAKTOR SOSIODEMOGRAFI DAN LINGKUNGAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA CHIKUNGUNYA DI KELURAHAN CINERE, KECAMATAN LIMO, KOTA DEPOK 2006

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Djaja; Dewi Susanna; Fatmi Yumantini Oktikasari

    2008-01-01

    The impact of sosiodemographic and environmental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City in 2006. On october 2005, in Depok occured chikungunya outbreaks that attack 200 citizen at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. This study purpose is to know the impact of sosidemographic and enviromental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. Research design is case control study. The number of case group and control group is 118 pa...

  14. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system.

  15. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  16. Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdouits, Marion; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Tricou, Vianney; Ngoagouni, Carine; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the bite of mosquito vectors. Over the past 10 years, the virus has gained mutations that enhance its transmissibility by the Aedes albopictus vector, resulting in massive outbreaks in the Indian Ocean, Asia and Central Africa. Recent introduction of competent A. albopictus vectors into the Central African Republic (CAR) pose a threat of a Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) epidemic in this region. We undertook this study to assess the genetic diversity and background of CHIKV strains isolated in the CAR between 1975 and 1984 and also to estimate the ability of local strains to adapt to A. albopictus. Our results suggest that, local CHIKV strains have a genetic background compatible with quick adaptation to A. albopictus, as previously observed in other Central African countries. Intense surveillance of the human and vector populations is necessary to prevent or anticipate the emergence of a massive CHIKF epidemic in the CAR.

  17. Extreme Zoom Surveillance: System Design and Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yao

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Applications of digital imaging with extreme zoom are traditionally found in astronomy and wild life monitoring. More recently, the need for such capabilities has extended to long range surveillance and wide area monitoring such as forest fires, harbors, and waterways. In this paper, we present a number of sensor arrangements for such applications, focusing on optical setups, auto-focusing mechanisms, and image deblurring techniques. Considering both the speed of convergence and robustness to image degradations induced by high system magnifications and long observation distances, we introduce an auto-focusing algorithm based on sequential search with a variable step size. We derive the transition criteria following maximum likelihood (ML estimation for the selection of suitable step sizes. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is illustrated in real-time auto-focusing and tracking of faces from distances of 50m~300m. We also develop an image restoration algorithm for high magnification imaging systems, where an adaptive sharpness measure is employed as a cost function to guide the fine search for an optimal point spread function (PSF for image deblurring. Experimental results demonstrate a considerably enhanced robustness to image noise and artifacts and ability to select the optimum PSF, producing superior restored images.

  18. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  19. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  20. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  1. Chikungunya: an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Sudeep; D Parashar

    2008-11-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK), a mosquito borne debilitating disease, is caused by CHIK virus, an alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. The sudden onset of very high fever along with rash, and severe arthralgia especially in the small joints of hands and toes are the characteristics of the disease. It was first reported from Tanzania in 1952-53 and spread subsequently to sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and Pacific causing large epidemics. The virus exists in three genotypes, the Asian, West African and East Central South African that are responsible for outbreaks in the respective areas. The first outbreak in Asia was in Bangkok in 1958 followed by other Asian countries. India experienced massive outbreaks of CHIK in the 1960s and early 70s mainly in cities. After a gap of 32 years an explosive outbreak of CHIK devastated the country affecting more than 1.4 million people in 13 states. The epidemic also witnessed many unusual clinico-pathological complications including CHIK associated deaths and mother to child transmission. High morbidity with severe arthralgia persisted for several months made the people mentally and physically weak. This review describes CHIK in general and highlights the various clinico-pathological aspects observed during the recent outbreak.

  2. Design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of the IAEA publications under its Programme on Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and is addressed to administrative and technical authorities and specialists who consider the shallow-ground disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes of short half-lives. The report emphasizes the technological aspects, however it briefly discusses the safety philosophy and regulatory considerations too. The design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of the repositories in shallow ground are considered in some detail, paying special attention to their interrelated aspects. In particular, a review is given of the following aspects: main design and construction considerations in relation to the natural features of the site; design and construction aspects during the repository development process; activities related to operational and post-operational stages of the repository; major steps in repository operation and essential activities in shutdown and operational and post-operational surveillance

  3. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  4. Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses B Z Z Z Z . Aside from being ... or Aedes albopictus ) can spread dengue, chikungunya, or Zika viruses. People become infected with dengue, chikungunya, or Zika ...

  5. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE...

  6. Potential Risk of Dengue and Chikungunya Outbreaks in Northern Italy Based on a Population Model of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frédéric Alexandre; Metz, Markus; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Pugliese, Andrea; Rosà, Roberto; Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The rapid invasion and spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. We used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern Italy to calibrate a population model for Aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the absence of control interventions. The model captured intra-year seasonality and heterogeneity across sites in mosquito abundance, based on local temperature patterns and the estimated site-specific mosquito habitat suitability. A robust negative correlation was found between the latter and local late spring precipitations, indicating a possible washout effect on larval breeding sites. The model predicts a significant risk of chikungunya outbreaks in most sites if a case is imported between the beginning of summer and up to mid-November, with an average outbreak probability between 4.9% and 25%, depending on the site. A lower risk is predicted for dengue, with an average probability between 4.2% and 10.8% for cases imported between mid-July and mid-September. This study shows the importance of an integrated entomological and medical surveillance for the evaluation of arboviral disease risk, which is a precondition for designing cost-effective vector control programs. PMID:27304211

  7. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  8. Cytokines in acute chikungunya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Venugopalan

    Full Text Available Acute chikungunya (CHIKV is predominantly an acute onset of excruciatingly painful, self-limiting musculoskeletal (MSK arbovirus illness and this was further reported by us during the 2006 Indian epidemic [Chopra et al. Epidemiol Infect 2012]. Selected serum cytokines profile in subjects within one month of onset of illness is being presented.Out of 509 clinical CHIKV cases (43% population identified during a rural population survey, 225 subjects consented blood investigations. 132 examined within 30 days of febrile onset are the study cohort. Anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies tested by immunochromatography and indirect immunofluorescence respectively. Interferons (IFN-α, -β and -γ, Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein-10 (CXCL-10/IP-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-13 (IL-13, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, Interleukin-4 (IL-4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 performed by ELISA. Samples collected from neighboring community a year prior to the epidemic used as healthy controls.Seropositivity for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG was 65% and 52% respectively. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-1β showed intense response in early acute phase. Cytokines (particularly TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 was maximum in extended symptomatic phase and remained elevated in recovered subjects. Higher (p<0.05 IFN and IL-4 seen in patients seropositive for anti-CHIKV IgG. Elderly cases (≥65 years showed elevated cytokines (except IFN and anti-CHIKV antibodies near similar to younger subjects. Significant correlations (p<0.05 found between cytokines and clinical features (fatigue, low back ache, myalgia and anti-CHIKV antibodies.An intense cytokine milieu was evident in the early and immediate persistent symptomatic phase and in recovered subjects. Early persistent IgM and lower IgG to anti-CHKV and intense Th2 cytokine phenotype seem to be associated with delay in resolution of MSK symptoms

  9. Cutaneous manifestations in patients suspected of chikungunya disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Soma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : An epidemic of chikungunya disease occurred in India during late 2005 through 2006 affecting nearly 1,400,000 people. Aim : To study the cutaneous manifestations in suspected cases of chikungunya disease. Settings and Design : Patients who attended our outpatient departments from January 2006 to September 2006 were prospectively included if they had symptoms of chikungunya disease according to the ′case definition′ of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Directorate General of Health Services, Government of India. The criteria were an acute illness characterized by the sudden onset of fever and several symptoms such as joint pain, headache, backache, photophobia, and eruption during an epidemic of chikungunya fever in the absence of confirmatory serological tests. Materials and Methods : A total of 115 patients (65 men and 50 women who satisfied the above criteria were enrolled for the study. Results : An erythematous maculopapular rash subsiding without any sequelae in 3-4 days was the most common cutaneous finding in our patients. Genital ulcers distributed predominantly over the scrotum and base of the penile shaft in men and labia majora in women were the second most common manifestation. Other manifestations included tenderness/edema of hands and feet, grouped hyperpigmented macules over the nose and cheeks, fixed drug eruptions, erythema nodosum, erythema multiformae, generalized urticarial eruptions, and flare up of pre-existing psoriasis and lichen planus. Conclusions : To conclude, a plethora of cutaneous manifestations were noted in suspected cases of chikungunya disease. Genital ulcers, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported during the earlier epidemics but have been reported by others during the present one.

  10. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected duri

  11. Antiviral Perspectives for Chikungunya Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Parashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a threat to further expand in the near future. However, there is no vaccine against CHIKV infection licensed for human use, and therapy for CHIKV infection is still mainly limited to supportive care as antiviral agents are yet in different stages of testing or development. In this review we explore the different perspectives for chikungunya treatment and the effectiveness of these treatment regimens and discuss the scope for future directions.

  12. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    DALY was estimated for the first time. In view of re-emergence and spread of this infection in recent times it is warranted for derivation of disability weight for different health states of chikungunya to facilitate realistic estimates of DALYs. Quality epidemiological data from surveillance system to monitor vector-borne and zoonotic diseases would pave way for more realistic estimates of burden. The productivity loss in-terms of income foregone could be minimal as the estimation was made by using the minimum wage fixed by the government although the actual loss is expected to be higher.

  13. A REVIEW ON CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar Birendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV belonging to the Togaviridae family of genus Alphavirus. It is a virus with a single stranded, positive sense RNA, as its genome. It is maintained in a sylvatic and urban cycle involving humans and the mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It has a major health impact on humans as it causes fever, rashes, arthralgia and myalgia. Polyarthralgia is the most important feature of CHIKV infection which primarily affects the small joints of the wrists and fingers along with the large joints like shoulders and knees. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatment regimens available for CHIKV infection. The molecular mechanism underlying the chronic polyarthralgia observed in patients is not well understood. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. In this review we have summarized the CHIKV organization, replication, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and pathogenesis with emphasis on the arthralgia.

  14. Major Design Drivers for LEO Space Surveillance in Europe and Solution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, Holger; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkrad, Heiner

    Europe is preparing for the development of an autonomous system for space situational aware-ness. One important segment of this new system will be dedicated to surveillance and tracking of space objects in Earth orbits. First concept and capability analysis studies have led to a draft system proposal. This proposal foresees, in a first deployment step, a groundbased system consisting of radar sensors and a network of optical telescopes. These sensors will be designed to have the capability of building up and maintaining a catalogue of space objects. A number of related services will be provided, including collision avoidance and the prediction of uncontrolled reentry events. Currently, the user requirements are consolidated, defining the different services, and the related accuracy and timeliness of the derived products. In this consolidation process parameters like the lower diameter limit above which catalogue coverage is to be achieved, the degree of population coverage in various orbital regions and the accuracy of the orbit data maintained in the catalogue are important design drivers for the selection of number and location of the sensors, and the definition of the required sensor performance. Further, the required minimum time for the detection of a manoeuvre, a newly launched object or a fragmentation event, significantly determines the required surveillance performance. In the requirement consolidation process the performance to be specified has to be based on a careful analysis which takes into account accuracy constraints of the services to be provided, the technical feasibility, complexity and costs. User requirements can thus not be defined with-out understanding the consequences they would pose on the system design. This paper will outline the design definition process for the surveillance and tracking segment of the European space situational awareness system. The paper will focus on the low-Earth orbits (LEO). It will present the core user

  15. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment

  16. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.

  17. Chikungunya fever presenting with protracted severe pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Leonichev, Victoria B; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics often present with rash/fever. Those with rash/fever and myalgias/arthralgias are most likely due to chikungunya fever, dengue fever, or Zika virus. In these arthropod viral transmitted infections, the rash may be pruritic. The case presented here is that of chikungunya fever remarkable for the intensity and duration of her pruritis. PMID:27679755

  18. Design and Implementation of an IP-Based Security Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Eke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous loss of lives and properties that may be attributed to criminals in recent times worldwide has become a source of worry to all and sundry. The situation has come to the alarming rate that the authority has sought for the immediate means of checkmating it without delay. Therefore, this work centers on the design and implementation of an Internet Protocol (IPbased security surveillance system. It incorporates remote viewing and storage of live video feeds and also remote motion control of the camera, all monitored with the use of a Personal Computer (PC. All the designs in this paper are software based. Hence, the software applications are developed using Visual C-Sharp (C# programming language to enable the proper monitoring and control of the entire system in which video feeds from the camera are viewed and also recorded on PC. The result obtained showed that with proper implementation, the surveillance system was found to be superb in all its ramifications.

  19. CARRS Surveillance study: design and methods to assess burdens from multiple perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Manisha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs are a growing public health problem, but data on incidence, trends, and costs in developing countries is scarce. Comprehensive and standardised surveillance for non-communicable diseases was recommended at the United Nations High-level meeting in 2011. Aims: To develop a model surveillance system for CMDs and risk factors that could be adopted for continued assessment of burdens from multiple perspectives in South-Asian countries. Methods Design: Hybrid model with two cross-sectional serial surveys three years apart to monitor trend, with a three-year prospective follow-up of the first cohort. Sites: Three urban settings (Chennai and New Delhi in India; Karachi in Pakistan, 4000 participants in each site stratified by gender and age. Sampling methodology: Multi-stage cluster random sampling; followed by within-household participant selection through a combination of Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS and Kish methods. Culturally-appropriate and methodologically-relevant data collection instruments were developed to gather information on CMDs and their risk factors; quality of life, health-care utilisation and costs, along with objective measures of anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. The cohort follow-up is designed as a pilot study to understand the feasibility of estimating incidence of risk factors, disease events, morbidity, and mortality. Results The overall participant response rate in the first cross-sectional survey was 94.1% (Chennai 92.4%, n = 4943; Delhi 95.7%, n = 4425; Karachi 94.3%, n = 4016. 51.8% of the participants were females, 61.6% 60 years. Discussion This surveillance model will generate data on prevalence and trends; help study the complex life-course patterns of CMDs, and provide a platform for developing and testing interventions and tools for prevention and control of CMDs in South-Asia. It will also help understanding the

  20. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented.

  1. Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya , S.K. Pradhan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of chikungunya virus is currently ongoing in many countries in Indian Ocean sinceJanuary 2005. The current outbreak appears to be the most severe and one of the biggest outbreakscaused by this virus. India, where this virus was last reported in 1973, is also amongst affectedcountries. Chikungunya virus has affected millions of the people in Africa and Southeast Asia, sinceit was first reported in 1952 in Tanzania. Even then, natural history of this disease is not fully understood.The intra-outbreak studies, point towards recent changes in the viral genome facilitatingthe rapid spread and enhanced pathogenecity. The available published scientific literature on chikungunyavirus was searched to understand the natural history of this disease, reasons for the currentoutbreak and the causes behind re-emergence of the virus in India.The paucity of the scientific information on various epidemiological aspects of chikungunya virusthreatens off an epidemic as control of spread of virus might be difficult in the absence of appropriateknowledge. There is an immediate need of the research on chikungunya virus, for an effectivevaccine besides strengthening the existing diagnostic laboratory facilities. The current outbreak canalso be taken as a lesson for establishment of a system for continuous surveillance of diseases, considereddisappeared from the countries. The re-emergence and epidemics are unpredictable phenomenabut the impact of such events can be ameliorated by appropriate knowledge and by being in theright state of preparedness

  2. Naturally surveilled space: the design of a male drug rehabilitation center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, A. R.; Aryanti, T.; Rahmanullah, F.

    2016-04-01

    The increase of drug addicts in Indonesia has not been supported by adequate facilities, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite being treated in a rehabilitation center, drug addicts may still use drugs surreptitiously and put themselves in danger. Architectural design may contribute to this either positively or negatively. This article elaborates a therapeutic design of a male rehabilitation center in the borderland of Bandung city, Indonesia. Employing the notion of natural surveillance, the rehabilitation center is designed to allow continual control over attendees without them feeling suppressed. The center design uses the behavioral approach to consider both attendees’ physical and psychological comforts, as well as their security. Building masses are designed in a way that forms an inward orientation and are laid out circularly according to the therapy processes that attendees must undertake. Moreover, rooms are planned differently in response to attendees’ unique conditions and restrictive physical requirements, such as their restriction on lighting and requirement of water for treatment. The landscape uses shady trees and vegetations as natural borders to demarcate the private zone, where attendees live, from the public area, where visitors may enter. The design is intended to provide a model for a responsive drug rehabilitation center that facilitates drug addicts’ recovery.

  3. Characterization of reemerging chikungunya virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Sourisseau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host.

  4. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourisseau, Marion; Schilte, Clémentine; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Trouillet, Céline; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Rudnicka, Dominika; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Roux, Karin Le; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Fsihi, Hafida; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Blanchet, Fabien; Afonso, Philippe V; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ozden, Simona; Gessain, Antoine; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Verhasselt, Bruno; Zamborlini, Alessia; Saïb, Ali; Rey, Felix A; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Desprès, Philippe; Michault, Alain; Albert, Matthew L; Schwartz, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host. PMID:17604450

  5. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  6. Development of field-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darci R; Lee, John S; Jahrling, Jordan; Kulesh, David A; Turell, Michael J; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L

    2009-10-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) and O'nyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.

  7. Chikungunya, climate change, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan

    2014-06-14

    Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease.

  8. Chikungunya virus iridocyclitis in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendradas Padmamalini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis with chikungunya virus infection in the left eye. A 20-year-old female was presented with a past history of fever suggestive of chikungunya with bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis and complicated cataract. She had a tripod dendritic pattern of keratic precipitates by confocal microscopy in the left eye with a stippled pattern of keratic precipitates in both eyes. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in the aqueous humor detected 98 copies/ml of chikungunya virus RNA. The patient underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation in the left eye with a good visual outcome. This is the first report where the presence of chikungunya virus RNA has been associated with a case of bilateral Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis.

  9. Chikungunya: Information for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or heart disease • Deaths are rare The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types ... water from outdoor containers o Support local vector control programs • People at increased risk for severe disease ...

  10. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Mardekian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important for surveillance, outbreak control, and research related to vaccine and drug development. Available diagnostic tests are aimed at detection of the virus, its antigenic components, or the host immune antibody response. In this review, we describe the recent progress and continued challenges related to the diagnosis of DENV and CHIKV infections.

  11. Molecular modeling and docking study to elucidate novel chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the Asian and African countries. Absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against Chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify and develop novel leads for the same. Recently, nsP2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by Alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. Here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the nsP2 protease through homology modeling based on nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Further, the ligands were virtually screened based on various pharmacological, ADME/Tox filters and subjected to docking with the modeled Chikungunya nsP2 protease using AutoDock4.2. The interaction profiling of ligand with the protein was carried out using LigPlot+. The results demonstrated that the ligand with PubChem Id (CID_5808891 possessed highest binding affinity towards Chikungunya nsP2 protease with a good interaction profile with the active site residues. We hereby propose that these compounds could inhibit the nsP2 protease by binding to its active site. Moreover, they may provide structural scaffold for the design of novel leads with better efficacy and specificity for the nsP2 protease.

  12. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  13. Challenges in designing a national surveillance program for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Millie D; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Bernstein, Charles N; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Leleiko, Neal S; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D; Sands, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    This review describes the history of U.S. government funding for surveillance programs in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of IBD in the United States, and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology, and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, in addition to potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the United States. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus on "surveillance of the burden of disease," including (1) natural history of disease and (2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments.

  14. Antiviral Strategies Against Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has evolved from a geographically isolated pathogen to a virus that is widespread in many parts of Africa, Asia and recently also in Central- and South-America. Although CHIKV infections are rarely fatal, the disease can evolve into a chronic stage, which is characterized by persisting polyarthralgia and joint stiffness. This chronic CHIKV infection can severely incapacitate patients for weeks up to several years after the initial infection. Despite the burden of CHIKV infections, no vaccine or antivirals are available yet. The current therapy is therefore only symptomatic and consists of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. Recently several molecules with various viral or host targets have been identified as CHIKV inhibitors. In this chapter, we summarize the current status of the development of antiviral strategies against CHIKV infections. PMID:27233277

  15. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Thiboutot

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes fever disease, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and arthralgia. Indigenous to tropical Africa, recent large outbreaks have been reported in parts of South East Asia and several of its neighboring islands in 2005-07 and in Europe in 2007. Furthermore, positive cases have been confirmed in the United States in travelers returning from known outbreak areas. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment. With the threat of an emerging global pandemic, the peculiar problems associated with the more immediate and seasonal epidemics warrant the development of an effective vaccine. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting these concepts.

  16. Nowcast Predictions for Local Transmission of Chikungunya Virus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  17. Nowcast Predictions for Chikungunya Virus-Infected Travelers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  18. First Report of Aedes aegypti Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-12-01

    During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown. PMID:26416113

  19. Designing serological surveillance programmes to document freedom from disease with special reference to exotic viral diseases of pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, K.D.C.; Mortensen, S.; Olsen, A.M.;

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance programmes based on laboratory screening tests are increasingly used to document freedom from disease in order to facilitate trade, The following aspects must be considered when designing such programmes: diseases to be selected; epidemiology of the diseases; unit of analysis (animal...

  20. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  1. Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Blijleven, Jelle S.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the molecu

  2. Design and implementation of a Space-Time Intelligence System for disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie A.; Kaufmann, Andrew M.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling chronic and infectious diseases entails tracking and describing individuals and their attributes (such as disease status, date of diagnosis, risk factors and so on) as they move and change through space and time. Using Geographic Information Systems, researchers can model, visualize and query spatial data, but their ability to address time has been limited by the lack of temporal referencing in the underlying data structures. In this paper, we discuss issues in designing data structures, indexing, and queries for spatio-temporal data within the context of health surveillance. We describe a space-time object model that treats modeled individuals as a chain of linked observations comprised of an ID, space-time coordinate, and time-referenced attributes. Movement models for these modeled individuals are functions that may be simple (e.g. linear, using vector representation) or more complex. We present several spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and epidemiological queries emergent from the data model. We demonstrate this approach in a representative application, a simulation of the spread of influenza in a hospital ward.

  3. Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Henrik; Cauchemez, Simon; Alera, Maria Theresa; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Lago, Catherine B; Villa, Daisy; Klungthong, Chonticha; Tac-An, Ilya A; Fernandez, Stefan; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G; Nisalak, Ananda; Macareo, Louis R; Levy, Jens W; Cummings, Derek; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-02-15

    Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952-2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012-2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012-2013 were clustered at distances of 350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation.

  4. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  5. Presence of Autoimmune Antibody in Chikungunya Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Maek-a-nantawat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators.

  6. Entomo-epidemiological investigations of chikungunya outbreak in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An outbreak of fever with severe joint pain started in the Palam area of Delhi in August 2010. An entomological and epidemiological investigation of this outbreak was conducted to ascertain the nature and cause of the outbreak. Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate the nature and cause of the outbreak and to contain its further spread. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Palam area of south-west Delhi, situated at a distance of about 20 km from Medical College. It is one of the field practice areas for training of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Department of Community Medicine of Medical College of Delhi. Materials and Methods: All patients attending OPD of Primary Health Center (PHC Palam, complaining of ever with incapacitating joint pain, were screened for chikungunya fever. Of the 750 suspected chikungunya patients, 130 blood samples were randomly drawn amongst these patients. Out of the 130 tested, 97 (70.8% were positive for the IgM antibodies against chikungunya virus. House-to-house survey was conducted in the affected area for more cases and to find out the vector-breeding sites. Statistical Analysis: Frequency distributions were calculated for age and sex. Results: The main breeding sites of the mosquitoes were the desert coolers of houses, water stored in metal and plastic containers, and water collections at construction sites. Aedes mosquito was present in almost all the houses surveyed in the area. Conclusions: It was concluded that the routine campaigns need to be organized regularly within the community highlighting the potential breeding grounds of mosquitoes and the possible control methods. Source reduction strategies like cleaning of desert coolers on weekly basis, emptying of water containers, and close monitoring of construction sites for potential breeding of the vector needs to be done on a regular basis to avoid future outbreaks.

  7. Chikungunya virus infections among travellers returning to Spain, 2008 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Bangert, Mathieu; de Ory, Fernando; Potente, Arantxa; Hernandez, Lourdes; Lasala, Fatima; Herrero, Laura; Molero, Francisca; Negredo, Anabel; Vázquez, Ana; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; de la Fuente, Jesus; Puente, Sabino; Ramírez de Arellano, Eva; Lago, Mar; Martinez, Miguel; Gascón, Joaquim; Norman, Francesca; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Sulleiro, Elena; Pou, Diana; Serre, Nuria; Roblas, Ricardo Fernández; Tenorio, Antonio; Franco, Leticia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first documented autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in the Caribbean island of Saint Martin in 2013, the infection has been reported within the Caribbean region as well as North, Central and South America. The risk of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus becoming established in Spain may be elevated due to the large numbers of travellers returning to Spain from countries affected by the 2013 epidemic in the Caribbean and South America, as well as the existence of the Aedes albopictus vector in certain parts of Spain. We retrospectively analysed the laboratory diagnostic database of the National Centre for Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III (CNM-ISCIII) from 2008 to 2014. During the study period, 264 confirmed cases, of 1,371 suspected cases, were diagnosed at the CNM-ISCIII. In 2014 alone, there were 234 confirmed cases. The highest number of confirmed cases were reported from the Dominican Republic (n = 136), Venezuela (n = 30) and Haiti (n = 11). Six cases were viraemic in areas of Spain where the vector is present. This report highlights the need for integrated active case and vector surveillance in Spain and other parts of Europe where chikungunya virus may be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:27631156

  8. Chikungunya infection in India: results of a prospective hospital based multi-centric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Ray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIKV has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7 days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Karnataka (South; Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS Rajasthan (West, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS New Delhi (North from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36% followed by west (16.28% and north (0.56% India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05. Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05. Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM were detected for more than 60 days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15 revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. CONCLUSIONS: The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate

  9. Connective tissue metabolism in chikungunya patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemula Sarojamma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of Chikungunya virus (CHIK virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIK virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Previous reports have indicated that infection with CHIK virus produces an acute arthritis in human hosts by large area of necrosis and collagenosis or fibrosis. Results We carried out the present study to determine the effect of chikungunya on the collagen and connective tissue metabolism in 75 chikungunya-affected people. First, we screened for mucopolysaccharides in urine by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB test. Appearance of heavy precipitate indicates the presence of higher levels of mucopolysaccharides and later quantified by DMB dye method. The urinary mucopolysaccharide in CHIK patients was 342 ± 45 mg/l compared to healthy controls (45 ± 5.6 mg/l. The collagen building blocks, proline and hydroxyproline were also measured in CHIK patients and observed higher excretion compared to healthy controls. Urinary excretions hydroxyproline was greater than the proline levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CHIK virus infection affects and damage the cartilage and connective metabolism and releases the degraded products from the tissue and responsible for increasing the levels of proline, hydroxyproline and mucopolysaccharides in CHIK affected patients.

  10. Chikungunya in Europe: What’s next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of a febrile epidemic in humans in a coastal island city. This epidemic spread to Indian Ocean islands and India, where it continues and more than 1 million cases are suspected. Rezza and colleagues des...

  11. A generative-oriented model-driven design environment for customizable video surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Nuno; Rodrigues, Pedro; Vale, João; Garcia, Paulo; Cardoso, Paulo; Monteiro, João L.; Cabral, Jorge; Mendes, José A.; Ekpanyapong, Mongkol; Tavares, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    To tackle the growing complexity and huge demand for tailored domestic video surveillance systems along with a high demanding time-to-market expectation, engineers at IVV Automação, LDAa are exploiting video surveillance domain as families of systems that can be developed following a pay-as-you-go fashion rather than developing an ex-nihilo new product. Several and different new functionalities are required for each new product’s hardware platforms (e.g., ranging from mobile phone, PDA to des...

  12. SBSS Demonstrator: A design for efficient demonstration of Space-based Space Surveillance end-to-end capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzmann, Jens; Flohrer, Tim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Wagner, Axel; Silha, Jiri; Willemsen, Philip; Teston, Frederic

    This paper presents the capabilities of a Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) demonstration mission for Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) based on a micro-satellite platform. The results have been produced in the frame of ESA’s "Assessment Study for Space Based Space Surveillance Demonstration Mission" performed by the Airbus Defence and Space consortium. Space Surveillance and Tracking is part of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and covers the detection, tracking and cataloguing of space debris and satellites. Derived SST services comprise a catalogue of these man-made objects, collision warning, detection and characterisation of in-orbit fragmentations, sub-catalogue debris characterisation, etc. The assessment of SBSS in a SST system architecture has shown that both an operational SBSS and also already a well-designed space-based demonstrator can provide substantial performance in terms of surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO objects. Especially the early deployment of a demonstrator, possible by using standard equipment, could boost initial operating capability and create a self-maintained object catalogue. Furthermore, unique statistical information about small-size LEO debris (mm size) can be collected in-situ. Unlike classical technology demonstration missions, the primary goal is the demonstration and optimisation of the functional elements in a complex end-to-end chain (mission planning, observation strategies, data acquisition, processing and fusion, etc.) until the final products can be offered to the users. Also past and current missions by the US (SBV, SBSS) and Canada (Sapphire, NEOSSat) underline the advantages of space-based space surveillance. The presented SBSS system concept takes the ESA SST System Requirements (derived within the ESA SSA Preparatory Program) into account and aims at fulfilling SST core requirements in a stand-alone manner. Additionally, requirments for detection and characterisation of small-sized LEO debris are

  13. FAKTOR SOSIODEMOGRAFI DAN LINGKUNGAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA CHIKUNGUNYA DI KELURAHAN CINERE, KECAMATAN LIMO, KOTA DEPOK 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Djaja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sosiodemographic and environmental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City in 2006. On october 2005, in Depok occured chikungunya outbreaks that attack 200 citizen at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. This study purpose is to know the impact of sosidemographic and enviromental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. Research design is case control study. The number of case group and control group is 118 patient. Factor studied are education, knowlwdge, house density, age, occupation, sex, mobility, anti-mosquito chemical, existance of mosquito-larva, container, and wire netting. The result of the study suggest that there are three variabels that involved in chikungunya outbreaks, namely education (OR=1,9: 1,12-3,23, age (OR= 2,1: 1,22-3,46, and house density (OR=2,2: 1,25-3,80. Multivariat analysis showed that the most dominant factors are house density, and followed by education. Probability of chikungunya outbreaks is 2,1 for low house density and low education

  14. A fatal case of chikungunya virus infection with liver involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, H H; Abdul Rashid, K; Law, W C; Hamizah, A; Chem, Y K; Khairul, A H; Chua, K B

    2010-03-01

    Recovery from chikungunya is previously considered universal and mortality due to the virus is rare and unusual. Findings from recent chikungunya outbreaks occurred in Reunion Island and India have since challenged the conventional view on the benign nature of the illness. Malaysia has experienced at least of 4 outbreaks of chikungunya since 1998. In the present on-going large outbreak due to chikungunya virus of Central/East African genotype, a previous healthy sixty six years gentleman without co-morbidity was noted to have severe systemic infection by the virus and involvement of his liver. He subsequently passed away due to cardiovascular collapse after 5 days of illness.

  15. Domestic and environmental factors of chikungunya-affected families in Thiruvananthapuram (Rural district of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural of Kerala. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural district during November 2007. Materials and Methods : Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers. These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area. The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method. Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%. The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 8.01 (6.06-14.60], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.

  16. Control of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the vectors of dengue and chikungunya, by using pheromone C21 with an insect growth regulator: Results of multicentric trials from 2007-12 in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Nagpal

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The use of C21 attracticide hampered pupal formation, thus inhibiting adult population in the study areas. The study established that C21 attracticide was efficacious in the field conditions and has potential for use in surveillance and management of dengue and chikungunya mosquitoes.

  17. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...

  18. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  19. An imported case of Chikungunya fever from Madagascar: use of the sentinel traveller for detecting emerging arboviral infections in tropical and European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Thierry; Ezzedine, Khaled; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Malvy, Denis

    2009-01-01

    A major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic affected the South-Western Indian Ocean islands in 2005. This major outbreak raised concerns about the possibility of the emergence of CHIKV infections in Europe as an autochthonous CHIKV outbreak occurred in the Ravenna region of Italy during the summer of 2007 and was linked to a viraemic index case originating in Kerala, India. This report highlights the need for surveillance in countries where such emerging infections could be introduced by returning travellers. PMID:19174303

  20. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  1. Emergence of chikungunya in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts, Champassak Province, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, May to September 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viengsavanh Kitthiphong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chikungunya is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, which are widespread in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. However, chikungunya virus (CHIKV had not been detected in the country before outbreaks reported in July 2012. The first outbreaks were detected through health care worker event-based surveillance. Methods: The case definition for the outbreaks was defined as a person with acute onset of fever (> 38 °C and severe arthralgia (joint pain or arthritis from 1 May 2012 in Champassak Province. Rapid response teams conducted active case finding, performed an environmental assessment including an entomological survey and implemented control measures. Descriptive analysis was undertaken in Microsoft Excel. Results: There were 197 cases (attack rate 3.4% of suspected chikungunya reported from 10 villages in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts of Champassak Province. All age groups (age range: seven months–74 years were affected with slightly more female (56% than male cases. Thirty-one per cent (16 of 52 of serum samples tested positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction. The environmental assessment found poor water storage practices and high entomological indices. Discussion: These outbreaks show the effectiveness of health care worker event-based surveillance and the importance of sharing of information across borders for detecting emerging diseases. Public health education is an important measure to prevent epidemics of chikungunya. Information about chikungunya should be supplied to health care workers in the region so they are alert to the potential spread and are able to implement control measures for this disease.

  2. Design of object surveillance system based on enhanced fish-eye lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Wu; Kuntao Yang; Qiaolian Xiang; Nanyang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the object surveillance system based on the enhanced fish-eye lens and the high speed digital signal processor (DSP). The improved fish-eye lens images an ellipse picture on the charge-coupled device (CCD) surface, which increases both the utilization rate of the 4:3 rectangular CCD and the imaging resolution, and remains the view angle of 183°. The algorithm of auto-adapted renewal background subtraction (ARBS) is also explored to extract the object from the monitoring image. The experimental result shows that the ARBS algorithm has high anti-jamming ability and high resolution, leading to excellent object detecting ability from the enhanced elliptical fish-eye image under varies en-vironments. This system has potential applications in different security monitoring fields due to its wide monitoring space, simple structure, working stability, and reliability.

  3. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  4. Exploring pig trade patterns to inform the design of risk-based disease surveillance and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, C; Relun, A; Wall, B; Morris, A; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the patterns of animal contact networks provides essential information for the design of risk-based animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This study characterises pig movements throughout England and Wales between 2009 and 2013 with a view to characterising spatial and temporal patterns, network topology and trade communities. Data were extracted from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)'s RADAR (Rapid Analysis and Detection of Animal-related Risks) database, and analysed using descriptive and network approaches. A total of 61,937,855 pigs were moved through 872,493 movements of batches in England and Wales during the 5-year study period. Results show that the network exhibited scale-free and small-world topologies, indicating the potential for diseases to quickly spread within the pig industry. The findings also provide suggestions for how risk-based surveillance strategies could be optimised in the country by taking account of highly connected holdings, geographical regions and time periods with the greatest number of movements and pigs moved, as these are likely to be at higher risk for disease introduction. This study is also the first attempt to identify trade communities in the country, information which could be used to facilitate the pig trade and maintain disease-free status across the country in the event of an outbreak. PMID:27357836

  5. Clinical profile of chikungunya patients during the epidemic of 2007 in Kerala, India

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    Krishna Pillai Vijayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of the present Chikungunya pandemic with a mutation in the Chik virus is already established in many parts of the world, including Kerala. Kerala was one of the worst-affected states of India in the Chikungunya epidemic of 2006-2007. It is important to discuss the clinical features of patients affected by Chikungunya fever in the context of this change in the epidemiology of the disease. Aim: This study tries to analyze the clinical picture of the Chikungunya patients in Kerala during the epidemic of 2007. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in five of the most affected districts in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect the information. Ten clusters each were selected from all the five districts, and the size of the clusters were 18 houses each. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and symptoms was the major case-finding strategy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 3623 residents in the surveyed households, 1913 (52.8% had Chikungunya clinically. Most of the affected were in the adult age group (73.4%. Swelling of the joints was seen in 69.9% of the patients, followed by headache (64.1% and itching (50.3%. The knee joint was the most common joint affected (52%. The number of patients with persistence of any of the symptoms even after 1 month of illness was 1388 (72.6%. Taking bed rest till the relief of joint pain was found to be a protective factor for the persistence of the symptoms. Recurrence of symptoms with a period of disease-free interval was complained by 669 (35.0% people. Older age (>40 years, a presentation of high-grade fever with shivering, involvement of the small joints of the hand, presence of rashes or joint swelling during the first week of fever and fever lasting for more than 1 week were the significant risk factors for recurrence of symptoms predicted by a

  6. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  7. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  8. Characterization of chikungunya virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitchakarn Noranate

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is becoming a global concern due to the increasing number of outbreaks throughout the world and the absence of any CHIKV-specific vaccine or treatment. Virus-like particles (VLPs are multistructured proteins that mimic the organization and conformation of native viruses but lack the viral genome. They are noninfectious and potentially safer vaccine candidates. Recent studies demonstrated that the yield of CHIKV VLPs varies depending on the strains, despite the 95% amino acid similarity of the strains. This might be due to the codon usage, since protein expression is differently controlled by different organisms. We optimized the region encoding CHIKV structural proteins, C-E3-E2-6k-E1, inserted it into a mammalian expression vector, and used the resulting construct to transfect 293 cells. We detected 50-kDa proteins corresponding to E1 and/or E2 in the cell lysate and the supernatant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical particles with a 50- to 60-nm diameter in the supernatant that resembled the native CHIKV virions. The buoyant density of the VLPs was 1.23 g/mL, and the yield was 20 µg purified VLPs per 108 cells. The VLPs aggregated when mixed with convalescent sera from chikungunya patients, indicating that their antigenicity is similar to that of native CHIKV. Antibodies elicited with the VLPs were capable of detecting native CHIKV, demonstrating that the VLPs retain immunogenicity similar to that of the native virion. These results indicated that CHIKV VLPs are morphologically, antigenically, and immunologically similar to the native CHIKV, suggesting that they have potential for use in chikungunya vaccines.

  9. Reduced Incidence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Communities with Ongoing Aedes Aegypti Mosquito Trap Intervention Studies - Salinas and Guayama, Puerto Rico, November 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Olga D; Major, Chelsea; Acevedo, Veronica; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Waterman, Stephen; Barrera, Roberto; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-01-01

    Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus, as well as dengue and Zika viruses, and bite most often during the day.* Infectious mosquito bites frequently occur in and around homes (1,2). Caribbean countries first reported local transmission of chikungunya virus in December 2013, and soon after, chikungunya virus spread throughout the Americas (3). Puerto Rico reported its first laboratory-positive chikungunya case in May 2014 (4), and subsequently identified approximately 29,000 suspected cases throughout the island by the end of 2015.(†) Because conventional vector control approaches often fail to result in effective and sustainable prevention of infection with viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes (5), and to improve surveillance of mosquito population densities, CDC developed an Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) (6) to attract and capture the female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for transmission of infectious agents to humans (Figure). The AGO trap is a simple, low-cost device that requires no use of pesticides and no servicing for an extended period of time (6). PMID:27171600

  10. How great is the threat of chikungunya virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, chikungunya virus has emerged from an obscure arbovirus that caused limited outbreaks of disease in Africa and Asia to the cause of a pandemic affecting millions of people and spanning five continents. Two separate chikungunya virus genotypes have been responsible for outbreaks during this period, including strains adapted to transmission in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Further spread of this virus into new regions of the Western Hemisphere is predicted during the present rainy season in the tropics, and recurrent viral introductions and disease outbreaks, as occurred in Réunion in 2010, should be expected. Chikungunya virus no longer simply threatens; it has arrived as a significant, global pathogen.

  11. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  12. [Chikungunya on Reunion Island: chronicle of an epidemic foretold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, Fabrice; Borgherini, Giannandrea; Staikowsky, Frédéric; Arvin-Berod, Claude; Poubeau, Patrice

    2006-04-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by a mosquito of the genus Aedes. It is currently epidemic on Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean. It is essentially characterized by an influenza syndrome but associated with polyarthralgia and an eruption. The disabling and chronic nature of the arthralgia is the most remarkable clinical aspect of chikungunya infection. Severe and unusual forms have appeared, not previously described in the literature. These forms must be studied to determine whether there is a direct relation between the chikungunya virus and the severity factors. Treatment is solely symptomatic, combining analgesic and/or antiinflammatory agents. There is no vaccine. The epidemic is not limited to Reunion: cases of chikungunya have also been reported in neighboring islands (Maurice, Seychelles, and Madagascar). Travelers planning to visit the region should be counseled. PMID:16614609

  13. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  14. Chikungunya virus, epidemiology, clinics and phylogenesis:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra Lo Presti; Alessia Lai; Eleonora Cella; Gianguglielmo Zehender; Massimo Ciccozzi

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash.Chikungunya virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes;Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin, disseminates to liver, muscle, joints, lymphoid tissue and brain, presumably through the blood.Phylogenetic studies showed that the IndianOcean and theIndian subcontinent epidemics were caused by two different introductions of distinct strains ofEast/Central/SouthAfrican genotype ofCHIKV.The paraphyletic grouping ofAfricanCHIK viruses supports the historical evidence that the virus was introduced into Asia fromAfrica.Phylogenetic analysis dividedChikungunya virus isolates into three distinct genotypes based on geographical origins: thefirst, theWestAfrica genotype, consisted of isolates fromSenegal andNigeria; the second contained strains fromEast/Central/SouthAfrican genotype, while the third contained solelyAsian.The most recent common ancestor for the recent epidemic, which ravagedIndianOcean islands andIndian subcontinent in2004–2007, was found to date in2002.Asian lineage dated about1952 and exhibits similarspread patterns of the recentIndian Ocean outbreak lineage, with successive epidemics detected along an eastward path.Asian group splitted into two clades: anIndian lineage and a south east lineage.Outbreaks ofChikungunya virus fever inAsia have not been associated necessarily with outbreaks inAfrica.Phylogenetic tools can reconstruct geographic spread ofChikungunya virus during the epidemics wave.The good management of patients with acuteChikungunya virus infection is essential for public health in susceptible areas with currentAedes spp activity.

  15. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Loon, S; Buskens, E; van Essen, G A; de Bakker, D; Tacken, M A J B; van Hout, B A; Grobbee, D E; Verheij, Th J M

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media

  16. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E.; Loon, S. van; Buskens, E.; Essen, G.A. van; Bakker, D. de; Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Hout, B.A. van; Grobbee, D.E.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media

  17. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...

  18. Chikungunya: epidemiology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle R. Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook.

  19. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hak, E; Loon, S.; Buskens, E; van Essen, G. A.; Bakker, D.; Tacken, M.A.J.B.; van Hout, B.A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media, acute respiratory disease (ARD), heart failure, myocardial infarction, depression or diabetes dysregulation. Per case four controls are sampled, frequency matched on age and high-risk co-morbidit...

  20. Chikungunya virus and chikungunya fever%基孔肯雅病毒与基孔肯雅热

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 陈薇

    2016-01-01

    基孔肯雅热(chikungunya fever)是由基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya virus)引起的一种蚊媒传染病,感染率高,可引起持续的关节症状。近几年来,基孔肯雅热暴发次数增加,流行范围不断扩大,全球范围内每年可导致100万人感染。同时,基孔肯雅病毒中某些基因突变使其可有效通过白纹伊蚊传播,不仅对热带和亚热带地区,还对白纹伊蚊广泛存在的温带地区的民众构成了潜在威胁。%Chikungunya fever is a mosquito‐borne infectious disease caused by chikungunya virus ,with high infection rate and persistent joint pain . In recent years , outbreak of chikungunya fever increased with expanding epidemic scope ,leading to one million infected cases each year worldwide .Meanwhile ,some chikungunya virus genotypes have gained some mutations which result in more effectively spread by Aedes albopictus .So it poses a potential threat to the residents not only in tropical and subtropical regions ,but also in temperate regions with Aedes albopictus .

  1. Design and Evaluation of Novel Textile Wearable Systems for the Surveillance of Vital Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel G. Trindade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the design, development, and evaluation of T-shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom-designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. The performance of the T-shirt prototype is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artefacts, through laboratory tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in a hospital environment using a T-shirt prototype connected to a commercial three-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial six-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The performance of these wearable systems is discussed, and pathways and methods for their optimization are highlighted.

  2. Design and Evaluation of Novel Textile Wearable Systems for the Surveillance of Vital Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Isabel G; Machado da Silva, José; Miguel, Rui; Pereira, Madalena; Lucas, José; Oliveira, Luís; Valentim, Bruno; Barreto, Jorge; Santos Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-24

    This article addresses the design, development, and evaluation of T-shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom-designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. The performance of the T-shirt prototype is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artefacts, through laboratory tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in a hospital environment using a T-shirt prototype connected to a commercial three-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial six-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The performance of these wearable systems is discussed, and pathways and methods for their optimization are highlighted.

  3. Design and Evaluation of Novel Textile Wearable Systems for the Surveillance of Vital Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Isabel G; Machado da Silva, José; Miguel, Rui; Pereira, Madalena; Lucas, José; Oliveira, Luís; Valentim, Bruno; Barreto, Jorge; Santos Silva, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the design, development, and evaluation of T-shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom-designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. The performance of the T-shirt prototype is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artefacts, through laboratory tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in a hospital environment using a T-shirt prototype connected to a commercial three-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial six-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The performance of these wearable systems is discussed, and pathways and methods for their optimization are highlighted. PMID:27669263

  4. Gambaran Perilaku Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara terhadap Demam Chikungunya Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nik Arif Ridhwan Bin Azemi

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is one of spreading disease which is its cases tend to increase day by day. Chikungunya is similar to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, both transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In North Sumatera, first Chikungunya cases appeared on 2005 and till now its already spread to few districts. The aim of this research is to know the knowledge, attitude and practice among the student of the Medical Faculty in the University of North Sumatera about Chikungunya Fever. This research u...

  5. Surveillance of Mosquitoes and Selected Arthropod-Borne Viruses in the Context of Milan EXPO 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Mario; Calzolari, Mattia; Prosperi, Alice; Perulli, Simona; Faccin, Francesca; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Tironi, Marco; Bertoletti, Marco; Defilippo, Francesco; Moreno, Ana; Farioli, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Dottori, Michele; Lelli, Davide; Lavazza, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO) hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy), raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the EXPO area and in the two major regional airports using both Center for Disease Control CO₂ and Biogents Sentinel traps. This surveillance aimed to estimate the presence and densities of putative vectors, and also to support investigations, including the vector species involved and area of diffusion, on the local spread of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) by competent vectors. From 3544 mosquitoes belonging to five different species, 28 pools of Culex spp. and 45 pools of Aedes spp. were screened for the presence of WNV, and for both Chikungunya and flaviviruses, respectively. The entomological surveillance highlighted a low density of potential vectors in the surveyed areas and did not reveal the presence of Chikungunya or Dengue viruses in the local competent vectors inside the EXPO area or in the two airports. In addition, the surveillance reported a low density of Culex spp. mosquitoes, which all tested negative for WNV. PMID:27399756

  6. A comprehensive immunoinformatics and target site study revealed the corner-stone toward Chikungunya virus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Anayet; Khan, Md Arif; Datta, Amit; Mazumder, Md Habibul Hasan; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal

    2015-05-01

    Recent concerning facts of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); a Togaviridae family alphavirus has proved this as a worldwide emerging threat which causes Chikungunya fever and devitalizing arthritis. Despite severe outbreaks and lack of antiviral drug, a mere progress has been made regarding to an epitope-based vaccine designed for CHIKV. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites by using various immunoinformatics and docking simulation tools. Initially, whole proteome of CHIKV was retrieved from database and perused to identify the most immunogenic protein. Structural properties of the selected protein were analyzed. The capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity by T cell and B cell were checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 397 to 405 and the sequence YYYELYPTM were found as the most potential B cell and T cell epitopes respectively. This peptide could interact with as many as 19 HLAs and showed high population coverage ranging from 69.50% to 84.94%. By using in silico docking techniques the epitope was further assessed for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post therapeutic strategy, three dimensional structure was predicted along with validation and verification that resulted in molecular docking study to identify the potential drug binding sites and suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. Finally, pharmacophore study was also performed in quest of seeing potent drug activity. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing and target site prediction against CHIKV opens up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Chikungunya virus research; the results require validation by in vitro and in vivo

  7. Chikungunya Virus Growth and Fluorescent Labeling: Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Immunofluorescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a highly versatile and sensitive assay for detection and titration of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The IFA technique requires virus-infected cells (viral antigen) and antibodies specific to the viral antigens for detection. Suitable antibodies for detection include monoclonal antibodies specific to CHIKV structural and nonstructural proteins, polyclonal antibodies, and convalescent serum samples. Here, the details of virus antigen preparation, detection by IFA method, and applications are described. The described IFA method is potentially useful in a wide range of studies including virus growth kinetics and virus infection mechanism studies. Additionally, the described IFA method can be modified for applications in arbovirus diagnosis, including CHIKV.

  8. A worksite intervention to reduce the cardiovascular risk: proposal of a study design easy to integrate within Italian organization of occupational health surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Marangi, Gianluca; Bontadi, Danilo; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca; Bortolotto, Melania; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchiori, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial amount of knowledge on effectiveness of worksite health promotion (WHP) in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, WHP programs are not systematically applied in Italy. The aim was to design an intervention easy to integrate within the Italian organization of workplace health surveillance. Methods We used the “pretest-posttest design”. Workers were employed in multiple occupations and resident in Veneto region, Italy. Occupational physicians (OPs) perfor...

  9. Plant expression systems, a budding way to confront chikungunya and Zika in developing countries? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Cardona-Ospina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant expression systems could be used as biofactories of heterologous proteins that have the potential to be used with biopharmaceutical aims and vaccine design. This technology is scalable, safe and cost-effective and it has been previously proposed as an option for vaccine and protein pharmaceutical development in developing countries. Here we present a proposal of how plant expression systems could be used to address Zika and chikungunya outbreaks through development of vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits.

  10. 基于WMN的无线视频监控系统的设计%Design of wireless video surveillance system based on WMN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和; 莫金旺; 赵利

    2011-01-01

    结合无线Mesh网络(WMN)的技术特性和网络视频监控的新要求,提出了一种基于WMN的视频监控系统设计方案。监控终端通过摄像机和基于嵌入式Linux平台的视频服务器完成视频采集和压缩,利用WMN进行实时传输,监控中心在Mesh网络的覆盖范围内通过因特网进行视频数据接收,实现无线视频监控。实验测试结果表明,该系统播放流畅、实时性好,在无线视频监控中具有广泛的应用前景。%Combining the characteristics of wireless mesh network (WMN) with the new demands on networks video surveillance, a design scheme of video surveillance system based on WMN is presented. The surveillance terminal gathers and compresses the video flow through the camera and video server based on embedded Linux platform, realizes the real time transmission of the video stream based on WMN. The center carries out receiver of video data and realizes wireless video surveillance in the scope of the wireless coverage of the Mesh network through the Internet. Experiment test results show that the real time communication of video is achieved, and the system has a broad application prospects in wireless video surveillance.

  11. Design of water conservancy irrigation area video surveillance system%水利灌区视频监视系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边玉国; 李积军

    2013-01-01

      随着水利事业的全面推进和电子信息技术、网络技术、图像处理等技术的迅速发展,特别是为了实现酒泉市灌区治理开发和管理现代化的需要,该文以甘肃省金塔县鼎新灌区农业用水总量控制与定额管理为目标,以灌区量水自动监控系统的设计要求为对象,以灌区视频监视系统所达目的为依据,结合和应用当前先进的视频监视技术,提出了鼎新灌区量水自动监控系统中视频监视系统的设计,为灌区视频监视系统的实效设计提供了依据和参考。%With the comprehensively promote of water utilities and rapid development of electronic information technology , network technology , image processing technology , in particular in order to realize the needs of Jiuquan City irrigation district governance development and management of modern .In this paper, Jinta County , Gansu Province took the lead in irrigated water total control and quota management goal and the irrigation district water monitoring system design requirements for the object , and the goal is reached based on the irrigation area video surveillance system , the combined and application of the cur-rent state-of-the-art video surveillance technology , proposed Dingxin irrigation district water automat-ic monitoring the system design of video surveillance systems , to provide the basis and reference for the effectiveness of the irrigation area video surveillance system design .

  12. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase.

  13. [The chikungunya epidemic in the Caribbean: implications for travellers and physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the first autochthonous cases of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were reported on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. The chikungunya virus has since become endemic in the Caribbean due to autochthonous transmission. In the presence of fever and joint symptoms in any traveller returning from the Caribbean, CHIKV should be considered. Although symptoms resemble those of dengue fever, the course of chikungunya is milder. Chikungunya much more commonly causes chronic joint pain. Laboratory tests for the chikungunya virus may give false positive results due to cross reactions with closely related viruses, so taking a full disease and travel history from the patient is necessary in order to interpret these test results correctly. There is no specific treatment for the chikungunya virus. A correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary additional tests and unjustified treatment. The chikungunya virus can be prevented by the use of insect-repelling substances, nets and air-conditioning. PMID:25269640

  14. Interspecies transmission and chikungunya virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Chen, Rubing; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity and economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions and, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, and the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural and temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors and nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses. PMID:26986235

  15. Mathematical modeling of Chikungunya fever control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya fever is a global concern due to the occurrence of large outbreaks, the presence of persistent arthropathy and its rapid expansion throughout various continents. Globalization and climate change have contributed to the expansion of the geographical areas where mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia) remain. It is necessary to improve the techniques of vector control in the presence of large outbreaks in The American Region. We derive measures of disease control, using a mathematical model of mosquito-human interaction, by means of three scenarios: a) a single vector b) two vectors, c) two vectors and human and non-human reservoirs. The basic reproductive number and critical control measures were deduced by using computer algebra with Maple (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Control measures were simulated with parameter values obtained from published data. According to the number of households in high risk areas, the goals of effective vector control to reduce the likelihood of mosquito-human transmission would be established. Besides the two vectors, if presence of other non-human reservoirs were reported, the monthly target of effective elimination of the vector would be approximately double compared to the presence of a single vector. The model shows the need to periodically evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures.

  16. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  17. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

  18. Temperature Tolerance and Inactivation of Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2015-11-01

    In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced to the New World and large outbreaks occurred in the Caribbean islands causing over a million suspected and over 20,000 laboratory-confirmed cases. Serological analysis is an essential component for the diagnosis of CHIKV infection together with virus isolation and detection of viral nucleic acid. Demonstrating virus neutralizing by serum antibodies in a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold standard of all serological diagnostic assays. Prior to the testing, heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 min is required for the inactivation of complement activity and adventitious viruses. The presence of adventitious contaminating viruses may interfere with the results by leading to a higher number of plaques on the monolayers and subsequent false-negative results. This procedure is widely accepted for the inactivation of flaviviruses and alphaviruses. In this study, the thermostability of CHIKV was evaluated. Heat inactivation at 56°C for 30 min was demonstrated to be insufficient for the complete removal of infectious CHIKV virions present in the samples. This thermotolerance of CHIKV could compromise the accuracy of serum tests, and therefore longer treatment for greater than 120 min is recommended.

  19. Evidence for homologous recombination in Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Pablo E; Chouhy, Diego; Bolatti, Elisa M; Perez, Germán R; Stella, Emma J; Giri, Adriana A

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, causes acute fever and joint pain in humans. Recently, endemic CHIKV infection outbreaks have jeopardized public health in wider geographical regions. Here, we analyze the phylogenetic associations of CHIKV and explore the potential recombination events on 152 genomic isolates deposited in GenBank database. The CHIKV genotypes [West African, Asian, East/Central/South African (ECSA)], and a clear division of ECSA clade into three sub-groups (I-II-III), were defined by Bayesian analysis; similar results were obtained using E1 gene sequences. A nucleotide identity-based approach is provided to facilitate CHIKV classification within ECSA clade. Using seven methods to detect recombination, we found a statistically significant event (p-values range: 1.14×10(-7)-4.45×10(-24)) located within the nsP3 coding region. This finding was further confirmed by phylogenetic networks (PHI Test, p=0.004) and phylogenetic tree incongruence analysis. The recombinant strain, KJ679578/India/2011 (ECSA III), derives from viruses of ECSA III and ECSA I. Our study demonstrates that recombination is an additional mechanism of genetic diversity in CHIKV that might assist in the cross-species transmission process.

  20. DENGUE, CHIKUNGUNYA E EBOLA: VIROSES AMBIENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Cristina Ferreira Camello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/sustinere.2014.14122Várias viroses emergentes ou reemergentes podem ser veiculadas por mosquitos. Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, os mesmos que transmitem o vírus da dengue e da febre amarela, podem disseminar o vírus Chikungunya que este ano no Brasil já fez cerca de 1000 casos confirmados. A doença tem parâmetros semelhantes aos da Dengue, e embora a taxa de letalidade seja muito baixa, sequelas podem permanecer no individuo por um ano. Em 2014 a partir de setembro o mundo observou perplexo a ressurgência de um vírus hemorrágico letal, em uma das piores epidemias já ocorridas no continente africano. O vírus Ebola atingiu mais de 6000 pessoas. Estudos no sentido de melhorar as estratégias de contenção da disseminação de vetores e dos vírus devem ser estabelecidas, enquanto aguardamos a produção de vacinas eficazes. O mundo não é imune a uma infecção endêmica, localizada no interior de um continente e não estamos preparados para atender uma demanda deste porte.

  1. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  2. Analysis and Design of Video Surveillance System for the High Speed EMU%高速动车组视频监控系统设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑丰彪; 孙少婧; 曹春伟; 杨君; 张莉

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the technology of video surveillance system for the public station is more and more mature. But the technology has never been applied to the high speed EMU. According to the characters, the running demand of high speed EMU and the technology of communication network, the design proposal of video surveillance system based on the technology LAN for high speed EMU was brought forward. The function, the structure, the network transmission and the general layout of the video surveillance system were investigated in this paper.%目前公共场所的视频监控系统技术已趋于成熟,而高速动车组内还未应用视频监控系统.该文结合现有高速动车组的特点、运行要求及通信网络技术,提出基于局域网的动车组视频监控系统的设计方案,对动车组视频监控系统的功能、系统组成、网络传输、总体布置等方案进行了研究.

  3. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosasih, H.; Mast, Q. de; Widjaja, S.; Sudjana, P.; Antonjaya, U.; Ma'roef, C.; Riswari, S.F.; Porter, K.R.; Burgess, T.H.; Alisjahbana, B.; Ven, A. van der; Williams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a pros

  4. Chikungunya risk assessment for europe: recommendations for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoortere, E.; Coulombier, D.; Boutin, J.P.; Brooker, S.; Valk, de H.; Dieckmann, S.; Fontenille, D.; Gould, E.; Nathan, M.; Nilsson, M.; Schaffner, F.; Sonnenburg, von F.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since March 2005, 255 000 cases of chikungunya fever are estimated to have occurred on the island of Réunion, a French overseas department in the Indian Ocean [1]. An huge increase in estimated cases occurred at the end of December 2005, culminating in an estimated peak incidence of more than 40 000

  5. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  6. Globalization of Chikungunya Virus: Threat to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of the febrile epidemic in a coastal island city. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in tropical Africa and Asia; the fever is rarely fatal but can incapacitate for weeks. Control was delayed,...

  7. Virus Chikungunya in Colombia, a simple matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an RNA alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. The alphaviruses consist of 29 species, including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses among others. CHIKV is transmitted by vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albipictus, which are abundant in the South American tropics.

  8. [Dengue and chikungunya acquired during travel in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aart, C.J. van; Braks, M.A.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Mast, Q. de; Tostmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    - The global incidence of dengue and chikungunya has greatly increased over recent decades, partly due to the increase of geographic distribution of both vectors.- These infections are endemic to the tropics and subtropics, however autochthonous transmission and outbreaks have been described in non-

  9. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  10. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  11. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  12. Influenza surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

  13. Immunogenicity of Escherichia coli expressed envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nagesh K; Priya, Raj; Shrivastava, Ambuj

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging infection, is an arthropod-borne viral disease prevalent in different parts of the world, particularly Africa and South East Asia. Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein is involved in binding to host receptors and it contains specific epitopes that elicit virus neutralizing antibodies. A highly immunogenic, recombinant Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein was produced by bioreactor in Escherichia coli for development of a suitable diagnostic and vaccine candidate. This protein was refolded and further purified to achieve biologically active protein. The biological function of refolded and purified recombinant envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus was confirmed by its ability to generate envelope 2 specific antibodies with high titers in animal models. These findings suggest that recombinant envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus in combination with compatible adjuvant is highly immunogenic. Thus, recombinant envelope 2 protein can be a potential diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate against Chikungunya virus infection.

  14. 基于智能视频监控的安防系统设计%A security system design based on intelligent video surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为民; 胡向臻

    2013-01-01

    针对当前流行的视频监控系统不能智能识别监视目标、不能智能处理突发状况等问题,提出了一种基于智能视频监控的安防系统设计方案.该系统主要由监控端、管理端和服务端三部分组成,利用网络摄像机、红外探测、电子围栏等设备对安防区域实施联合监控:借助数字图像分析技术,实时检测监控场景下的运动目标,并对其定位、识别、行为理解,智能地管控安防区域.文中重点阐述了智能视频监控系统的架构设计及视频智能分析的实现.%A security system design based on intelligent video surveillance is presented against the shortcomings of prevalent video surveillance. This system mainly consists of three parts: monitor terminal, management and server. It works by monitoring the implementation of the security area through the use of network camera, infrared detection, electronic fences and other equipment. With the help of digital image analyzing technique, this system can do real-time detection of moving target, and locate, analyze, comprehend and control the target area. This paper focuses on the design of intelligent video surveillance system and the realization of intelligent video analysis.

  15. Effect of Mosquito Repellent on the Transmission Model of Chikungunya Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Surapol Naowarat; Prasit Thongjaem; Tang, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: In 2008 there was a large outbreak of Chikungunya fever in southern Thailand. Chikungunya fever is an emerging disease which tends to affect rubber plantation and fruit orchard workers more than other occupation. This study we considers the efficacy of using mosquito repellent as a way to prevent and control the spread of Chikungunya fever. The mathematical model of the dynamic of this disease is proposed and analyzed. Approach: A standard dynamical modeling method was appl...

  16. Co-distribution and Co-infection of Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, L.; Liang, S.; Milinovich, G; Soares Magalhaes, RJ; Clements, AC; Hu, W; Brasil, P; Frentiu, FD; Dunning, R.; Yakob, L

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Methods Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in ...

  17. Co-distribution and Co-infection of Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Liang, Shaohong; Milinovich, Gabriel; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Archie C.A. Clements; Hu, Wenbiao; Brasil, Patricia; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Dunning, Rebecca; Yakob, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in the same patient. A...

  18. 基才CC1100的无线视频监控系统设计%Design of wireless video surveillance system based on CC1100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺延周; 佟仕忠; 付贵增; 韩建坤; 卢世坤

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve security surveillance on some occasions, a wireless video surveillance system was designed and implemented with CC1100 wireless transmission module and PTC08 serial camera module. Data acquisition, data compression and serial transmission can be realized by the camera module. And microcontroller was used to carry on the photography control, the data transmission through the wireless transmission module CC1100. The test shows that the system has good performance, and achieves the design requirement.%为了对特定场合进行安全监控,采用CC1100无线传输模块和PTC08串口摄像头模块设计并实现了一种无线视频监控系统。利用摄像头模块对视频进行数据采集、压缩、串口传输。并利用微控制器通过无线传输模块进行拍摄控制、数据传输。经测试表明,该系统具有操作简便、运行稳定的特点,达到了设计要求。

  19. Chikungunya fever: Atypical and lethal cases in the Western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime R.; Leopoldo Códova G.; Castro, Julio S.; Rodríguez, Libsen; Saravia, Víctor; Arvelaez, Joanne; Ríos-Fabra, Antonio; Longhi, María A.; Marcano, Melania

    2014-01-01

    A large epidemic of Chikungunya fever currently affects the Caribbean, Central and South America. Despite a high number of reported cases, little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe four Venezuelan patients with a severe and/or lethal course who exhibit unusual manifestations of the disease. Case 1 describes a 75 year-old man with rapid onset of septic shock and multi-organ failure. Cases 2 and 3 describe two patients with rapid aggressive clinical course who developed shock, severe purpuric lesions and a distinct area large of necrosis in the nasal region. Case 4 depicts a splenectomized woman with shock, generalized purpuric lesions, bullous dermatosis and acronecrosis of an upper limb. Chikungunya fever in the Western hemisphere may also associate with atypical and severe manifestations. Some patients experience a life-threatening, aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and death due to multisystem failure. PMID:26793440

  20. Epidemiological investigations of chikungunya epidemic at Barsi, Maharashtra state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padbidri, V S; Gnaneswar, T T

    1979-01-01

    During the summer of 1973, an epidemic of Chikungunya broke out in Barsi, Sholapur district. Epidemiological investigations carried out during the decline phase revealed that all age groups and both sexes were involved with varying morbidity. The absence of previous immunity was demonstrated by a very high morbidity of 37.53 per cent for the whole town. The clinical picture encountered during the epidemic was quite characteristic of chikungunya. Besides gingivitis and epistaxis there were no frank haemorrhagic episodes. Reports about the presence of demonstrable rash varied. Except for one possible case, there was no mortality as a result of the epidemic. Results of the search for the index case are also described.

  1. The green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate inhibits chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; von Rhein, Christine; Kümmerer, Beate M; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions, including Europe and the United States of America and might cause new, large outbreaks there. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has, among other beneficial properties, antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined if EGCG has antiviral activity against CHIKV. EGCG inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro, blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV attachment to target cells. Thus EGCG might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs.

  2. Chikungunya Fever: Case Report in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Harter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  3. Chikungunya: unos meses después del ataque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In May of 2014, the editorial of the MVZ Cordoba magazine announced the warning of the inevitable arrival of the Chikungunya virus to Colombia, especially in the Caribbean region given its climatic conditions of tropical humidity, as well as the presence of the well known competent vector of dengue: Aedes aegypti (1. The abundant population of this mosquito in the Caribbean allowed a quick adaptation of the Chikungunya virus and facilitated its dissemination throughout the entire Atlantic coast. The OPS (Pan-American Health Organization and the Ministry of Health of Colombia knew of its imminent arrival and allocated resources to control the vector and mitigate the epidemiologic impact of this new arbovirus. However, it has been observed that the fumigation campaigns were not systematic and did not even take place in some rural populations of the Atlantic coast.

  4. The First Reported Outbreak of Chikungunya in the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Leora R.; Ellis, Esther M.; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Ellis, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic in the Americas is of significant public health importance due to the lack of effective control and prevention strategies, severe disease morbidity among susceptible populations, and potential for persistent arthralgia and long-term impaired physical functionality. Using surveillance data of suspected CHIKV cases, we describe the first reported outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands. CHIKV incidence was highest among individuals aged 55–64 years (13.1 cases per 1,000 population) and lowest among individuals aged 0–14 years (1.8 cases per 1,000 population). Incidence was higher among women compared to men (6.6 and 5.0 cases per 1,000 population, respectively). More than half of reported laboratory-positive cases experienced fever lasting 2–7 days, chills/rigor, myalgia, anorexia, and headache. No clinical symptoms apart from the suspected case definition of fever ≥ 38°C and arthralgia were significantly associated with being a reported laboratory-positive case. These results contribute to our knowledge of demographic risk factors and clinical manifestations of CHIKV disease and may aid in mitigating future CHIKV outbreaks in the Caribbean. PMID:27402523

  5. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Mardekian, Stacey K.; Roberts, Amity L.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important...

  6. Replication cycle of chikungunya: A re-emerging arbovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Solignat, Maxime; Gay, Bernard; Higgs, Stephen; Briant, Laurence; Devaux, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses (or arthropod-borne viruses), represent a threat for the new century. The 2005–2006 year unprecedented epidemics of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the French Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, followed by several outbreaks in other parts of the world such as India, have attracted the attention of clinicians, scientists, and state authorities about the risks linked to this re-emerging mosquito-borne virus. CHIKV, which belongs to the Alphaviruses genus, was not previously regarded a...

  7. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. ...

  8. Virus Chikungunya in Colombia, a simple matter of time?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco González T.; Salim Mattar V.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an RNA alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. The alphaviruses consist of 29 species, including eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses among others. CHIKV is transmitted by vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albipictus, which are abundant in the South American tropics.CHIKV was first isolated in 1953 in the serum of a patient in Tanzania during an epidemic of dengue. In a recent dendrogram, this isolate appeared with the name of Ross l...

  9. Assessment of flavaglines as potential chikungunya virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Thuaud, Frédéric; Basmadjian, Christine; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Ubol, Sukathida; Désaubry, Laurent; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that recently caused large epidemics in islands in, and countries around, the Indian Ocean. There is currently no specific drug for therapeutic treatment or for use as a prophylactic agent against infection and no commercially available vaccine. Prohibitin has been identified as a receptor protein used by chikungunya virus to enter mammalian cells. Recently, synthetic sulfonyl amidines and flavaglines (FLs), a class of naturally occurring plant compounds with potent anti-cancer and cytoprotective and neuroprotective activities, have been shown to interact directly with prohibitin. This study therefore sought to determine whether three prohibitin ligands (sulfonyl amidine 1 m and the flavaglines FL3 and FL23) were able to inhibit CHIKV infection of mammalian Hek293T/17 cells. All three compounds inhibited infection and reduced virus production when cells were treated before infection but not when added after infection. Pretreatment of cells for only 15 minutes prior to infection followed by washing out of the compound resulted in significant inhibition of entry and virus production. These results suggest that further investigation of prohibitin ligands as potential Chikungunya virus entry inhibitors is warranted.

  10. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom;

    The Danish welfare system is dependent on surveillance practices. Health authorities screen for diseases, tax authorities surveil financial flows, and social services are surveillant to vulnerable families. Such state surveillance is often related to, and opposed to, the privacy of citizens....... However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...

  11. Design of Video and Audio Surveillance System Based on DM642%基于DM642的视频音频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红飞; 宋升金; 许永辉

    2011-01-01

    为实现视频音频数据的实时采集传输,提出了一种基于DM642的视频音频监控系统的设计方案.硬件上,利用DM642丰富的外设资源,完成了视频输入、输出模块,音频输入输出模块和以太网接口模块的设计.软件上,基于DSP/BIOS实时操作系统,实现对视频音频数据的管理和控制,并构建Web服务器,用户可通过浏览器访问系统,实现远程监控.测试结果表明,该系统性能稳定,符合设计要求.%In older to realize real-time acquisition and transmission of video and audio data, a video and audio surveillance system based on DM642 is proposed. In this system, the hardware modules of video input and output interface, audio input and output interface and Ethernet interface were designed by the rich resources of DM642. The software was developed based on DSP/BIOS real-time operating system, which achieved the management and control of video and audio data. The WEB server was also designed in the DSP, which achieved network transmission and remote surveillance. Test results show that the system works stable and meets the needs of design.

  12. Chikungunya triggers an autophagic process which promotes viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya Virus (ChikV surprised by a massive re-emerging outbreak in Indian Ocean in 2006, reaching Europe in 2007 and exhibited exceptional severe physiopathology in infants and elderly patients. In this context, it is important to analyze the innate immune host responses triggered against ChikV. Autophagy has been shown to be an important component of the innate immune response and is involved in host defense elimination of different pathogens. However, the autophagic process was recently observed to be hijacked by virus for their own replication. Here we provide the first evidence that hallmarks of autophagy are specifically found in HEK.293 infected cells and are involved in ChikV replication. Methods To test the capacity of ChikV to mobilize the autophagic machinery, we performed fluorescence microscopy experiments on HEK.GFP.LC3 stable cells, and followed the LC3 distribution during the time course of ChikV infection. To confirm this, we performed electron microscopy on HEK.293 infected cells. To test the effect of ChikV-induced-autophagy on viral replication, we blocked the autophagic process, either by pharmacological (3-MA or genetic inhibition (siRNA against the transcript of Beclin 1, an autophagic protein, and analyzed the percentage of infected cells and the viral RNA load released in the supernatant. Moreover, the effect of induction of autophagy by Rapamycin on viral replication was tested. Results The increasing number of GFP-LC3 positive cells with a punctate staining together with the enhanced number of GFP-LC3 dots per cell showed that ChikV triggered an autophagic process in HEK.293 infected cells. Those results were confirmed by electron microscopy analysis since numerous membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagosomes were observed in infected cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of autophagy, either by biochemical reagent and RNA interference, dramatically decreases ChikV replication

  13. Chikungunya: acute fever, rash and debilitating arthralgias in a returning traveler from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathryn B; Pureza, Vincent; Walker, Patricia F

    2014-01-01

    The following case report details a case of chikungunya fever in a returning traveler from Haiti. The report highlights the clinical presentation and natural history of the disease, and emphasizes that chikungunya has become established in the western hemisphere, with a resultant need for heightened provider awareness.

  14. Diagnosis and management of imported Chikungunya fever in Taiwan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia. PMID:20466336

  15. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  16. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor......’ surveillance of anti-capitalist activists in social media....

  17. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future. PMID:26943997

  18. [Situational panorama of Mexico against the chikungunya virus pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation. PMID:25760749

  19. Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Mayaro virus (MAYV are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae. MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses.

  20. Mayaro and Chikungunya; two alphaviruses with clinical and epidemiological similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1780, Philadelphia suffered an unusual outbreak of hemorrhagic fever, which years later was identified as dengue (1. One hundred years later, in Memphis, 1500 people died from yellow fever, which caused residents to abandoned the city (2. Even though these stories may seem anecdotes, they show how dramatic hemorrhagic arbovirus outbreaks can be. The tropic host arboviruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV, Dengue, and Zika (ZIKV; but there are others, such as Mayaro, Oropuche, and Bussuquara, among others, which have still not been studied in depth by the public health systems of our countries.

  1. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK BASED CONVEYOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Trohák; Máté Kolozsi-Tóth; Péter Rádi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we will introduce an intelligent conveyor surveillance system. We started a research project to design and develop a conveyor surveillance system based on wireless sensor network and GPRS communication. Our system is able to measure temperature on fixed and moving, rotating surfaces and able to detect smoke. We would like to introduce the developed devices and give an application example.

  2. Design of Video Surveillance System Based on Android Platform%基于Android平台的视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏崇毓; 张菲菲

    2012-01-01

    According to the open source feature of Android, this paper introduces the application of Android software platform in designing a video surveillance system, including function requirement and the technology essentials in designing the system based on Android. On that basis, the software programming in a smart phone for accessing a server as a video database on the Internet is implemented using Java language and Eclipse kit, remote playing video data and controlling a PTZ(Pan/TihYZoom)via Internet are realized.%根据Android开源性特点,介绍Android系统软件开发平台在视频监控系统没计中的应用,包括系统的功能需求和Android应用开发过程中的技术要领.在此基础上,利用Java语言和Eclipse开发编辑工具,设计完成基于Android平台的智能手机对网络视频监控系统中特定服务器的访问.实验结果表明,该设计可实现对视频数据的播放和云台的远程网络控制.

  3. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  4. Destructive arthritis in a patient with chikungunya virus infection with persistent specific IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Receveur Marie-Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology of the chronic stage is poorly understood. Case presentation We report the first case of CHIKV infection with chronic associated rheumatism in a patient who developed progressive erosive arthritis with expression of inflammatory mediators and persistence of specific IgM antibodies over 24 months following infection. Conclusions Understanding the specific features of chikungunya virus as well as how the virus interacts with its host are essential for the prevention, treatment or cure of chikungunya disease.

  5. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Suresh, Abidha; Vanamail, Perumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kalianna Gounder; Mathew, Jacob; Jose, Varakilparambil Thomas; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2011-12-01

    India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002). Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019) and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016) years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala. PMID:22241110

  6. EPIDEMIOL O GY OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunasree

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chikungunya fever is a self - limiting viral fever spread by mosquito bite and has become an epidemic. The proportion of cases has increased in Andhra Pradesh. We report a prospective analysis of cases of c hikungunya fever referred from various primary health centers of rural, tribal and semiurban areas of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. AIMS OF STUDY: To analyse the burden of C hikungunya fever in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh . MATERIAL AND METHODS : A prospective descriptive study was under taken between January - 2013 to December - 2014 by testing clinically suspected c hikungunya fever patients attending tertiary care centre in the Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The blood collected from suspected patients was analyzed for CHIK specific IgM antibodies by ELISA method using Nivchik kit. The data was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period the total number of samples screened with clinical suspicion of c hikungunya fever was 127, out of which 23(18.11% were positive for IgM antibodies. The number of seropositive cases referred from rural area was 3 in number and from tribal areas 20. The seasonal distribution of cases was variable. CONCLUSION: Chikungunya fever is self limiting disease . Efforts have to be made through community awareness and early institution of supportive therapy. Vector control measures should be in full swing

  7. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002. Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019 and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016 years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala.

  8. Cytokine levels in patients with chikungunya virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Yong Poovorawan; Somrat Lertmaharit; Norra Wuttirattanakowit

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate cytokine profile in patients with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Methods: Twenty eight pairs of serum samples collected from CHIKV infected patients during the outbreak of chikungunya fever in South Thailand in 2008 were obtained. A multiple cytokine assay for detection of 17 cytokines was performed. Results:In the acute stage of CHIKV infection, the patients had significantly higher levels of interleukin-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha than the control (P<0.001, P=0.023, P=0.015, P<0.001 and P=0.024, respectively). When the disease developed to the recovery stage, the patients had significantly lower levels of interleukin-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein beta than in the acute stage (P<0.001). Conclusions:This study provides additional information that these cytokines could play roles in pathogenesis of CHIKV infection and could be used as disease biomarkers or drug targets.

  9. A study of the 2006 Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. V. Pydiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya epidemic outbreaks have affected more than 1 million people in 2005-2006 in many Indian Ocean islands and in India. Mauritius experienced a major outbreak in February/March 2006 following a minor outbreak in April/May 2005. No cases have been registered on the island since August 2006. The objectives of this study were to understand the timing and development of the 2006-outbreak in Mauritius, to investigate the possibility of a future outbreak, and to propose measures to prevent the recurrence of an epidemic in Mauritius. Mauritius rainfall, temperature and humidity data were analyzed. A door-to-door household census-type survey was carried out in a study locality on the island. A compartmental human-mosquito interaction model was integrated to understand outbreak evolutions in the surveyed locality and in a theoretical locality. It was observed that the onset of the 2006-outbreak in February followed an abnormally high rainfall in the third week of January 2006. 51% of the surveyed population was found to be suspected Chikungunya cases. Computer simulations indicated that a small number of infected humans and mosquitoes existed in the surveyed locality at the outbreak onset. From simulations in the theoretical locality, it was deduced that the level of infectivity in some localities may be below a herd immunity threshold and that the additional percentage of infected inhabitants in a follow-up epidemic would be significantly reduced with the case-reactive control of infected adult mosquitoes.

  10. Effect of Holding Conditions on the Detection of Chikungunya and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Mosquito Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Turell, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging and re-emerging arboviruses continue to be a threat to global public health, and viral surveillance of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control operations. Due to the tropical climate of many of the affected areas, it may be difficult to maintain a cold chain as the samples travel from collection sites to laboratories for testing. We determined how suboptimal holding temperatures affected the ability to detect viruses in pools of mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus individuals were inoculated with chikungunya virus or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus suspensions, respectively, and placed at 26°C for 8 days. One infected mosquito was then added to a vial of 24 negative mosquitoes and held at -80°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22°C, or 35°C for up to 14 days. Mosquito pools were analyzed for both infectious virus by plaque assay and for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). At higher temperatures, the amount of infectious virus decreased rapidly, but viruses in samples held at 4°C or lower remained relatively stable. In contrast, viral RNA was detectable from pools held at all temperatures and holding times by RT-qPCR. Cycle threshold (Ct) values increased as temperatures and holding times increased. These findings suggest that if viral RNA detection is the goal of surveillance efforts, then mosquito pools do not require storage at ≤4°C. This enhances the feasibility of field-based arbovirus surveillance programs in which maintaining a cold chain may not be a possibility. PMID:27105216

  11. [Chikungunya, La Réunion and Mayotte, 2005-2006: an epidemic without a story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006.

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis from the Chikungunya Virus Caribbean Outbreak Reveals Novel Evolutionary Genomic Elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A Stapleford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an alphavirus and member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to understand how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak.We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants and diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe and Martinique, two islands in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak and identified a novel 3' untranslated region (UTR structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells.Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3'UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to understand the evolutionary potential of CHIKV.

  13. [Chikungunya, La Réunion and Mayotte, 2005-2006: an epidemic without a story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006. PMID

  14. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  15. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses.

  16. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  17. Simple clinical and laboratory predictors of Chikungunya versus dengue infections in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue and chikungunya are co-circulating vector-borne diseases with substantial overlap in clinical presentations. It is important to differentiate between them during first presentation as their management, especially for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, is different. This study compares their clinical presentation in Singapore adults to derive predictors to assist doctors in diagnostic decision-making. METHODS: We compared 117 patients with chikungunya infection diagnosed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with 917 dengue RT-PCR-positive adult patients (including 55 with DHF. We compared dengue fever (DF, DHF, and chikungunya infections by evaluating clinical characteristics of dengue and chikungunya; developing classification tools via multivariate logistic regression models and classification trees of disease etiology using clinical and laboratory factors; and assessing the time course of several clinical variables. FINDINGS: At first presentation to hospital, significantly more chikungunya patients had myalgia or arthralgia, and fewer had a sore throat, cough (for DF, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia or tachycardia than DF or DHF patients. From the decision trees, platelets <118 × 10(9/L was the only distinguishing feature for DF versus chikungunya with an overall correct classification of 89%. For DHF versus chikungunya using platelets <100 × 10(9/L and the presence of bleeding, the overall correct classification was 98%. The time course analysis supported platelet count as the key distinguishing variable. INTERPRETATION: There is substantial overlap in clinical presentation between dengue and chikungunya infections, but simple clinical and laboratory variables can predict these infections at presentation for appropriate management.

  18. Congenital and perinatal complications of chikungunya fever: a Latin American experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Torres

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: This study presents the largest number of symptomatic neonates with CHIKF analyzed so far in any region and is the first involving infection with the Asian genotype of CHIKV. Although the clinical manifestations found were similar to those reported previously, the percentage of neurological complications was lower. The CFR was comparatively high. Chikungunya represented a substantial risk for neonates born to symptomatic parturients during the chikungunya outbreak in the Americas Region, with important clinical and public health implications.

  19. BEHAVIOR AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTOR ON CHIKUNGUNYA OUTBREAKS AT SALATIGA CITY IN 2012 = FAKTOR RISIKO PERILAKU DAN LINGKUNGAN RUMAH PADA KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA CHIKUNGUNYA DI KOTA SALATIGA TAHUN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Andriyani Pratamawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available EnglishABSTRACTOn February 9, 2012 date specified chikungunya outbreak in Salatiga. This study aimed to examine behavioral and environmental risk factors associated with the disease, vector, modes of transmission, treatment seeking, as well as ways to prevent chikungunya on people in the hamlet Sinoman and Rekesan during the chikungunya outbreak in 2012 . This type of research is used case-control study. This study was conducted in January through April of 2012. Interview and observations conducted on 134 respondents. There is no relationship between the incidence of chikungunya respondent behavior and the behavior of the respondent is not proven as a risk factor chikungunya. But  events, there is a relationship between the incidence of chikungunya lighting and home lighting proved to be a risk factor for chikungunya incidence and its risk by 2.8 times. In addition to lighting, there is a relationship between the incidence of chikungunya home humidity, although not statistically proven as a risk factor for chikungunya. There was a significant association between the presence of mosquitoes on the clothes hanging in the incidence of chikungunya, in harmony with it has been shown that the presence of mosquitoes at the clothes hanging heightens the risk by 4.19 times causing events are expected to cultivate back chikungunya. People must have eradication of mosquito breeding activity, do not hang clothes secondhand, using a wire gauze on the vent, and the use of anti-mosquito drugs to avoid contact with the mosquitoborne chikungunya .IndonesiaKejadian luar biasa (KLB penyakit chikungunya di Kota Salatiga pada tanggal 9 Februari 2012 Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji faktor risiko perilaku dan lingkungan rumah, yang berkaitan dengan penyakit, vektor, cara penularan, pencarian pengobatan, serta cara pencegahan chikungunya di Dusun Sinoman dan Rekesan ketika KLB Chikungunya tahun 2012. Rancangan penelitian adalah case control. Penelitian ini

  20. Design for Intelligent Surveillance System for Submarine Cable Protection Against Anchors%海底电缆智能防锚损监视系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋亮; 刘玉良; 刘国平; 史令彬; 林晓波

    2012-01-01

    根据系统的需求分析,设计了一种用于海底电缆智能防锚损监视系统;首先给出设计方案并叙述系统工作原理;然后通过DM73021通信套件实现射频信号的接收、解调及解码,得到NMEA-0183HS格式的ASCⅡ信息数据;最后采用LabVIEW完成ASCⅡ信息数据的采集、解码、监视及显示;实际测试表明,该系统响应时间<1s,对有抛锚趋势的船舶能及时向海缆管理部门提出预警,满足系统功能要求.%According to the demands, the Intelligent Surveillance System is designed for Protecting Submarine Cables from Damage Caused by Anchors. First, the project on the design and the working principles of the system are offered. Second, ASCII information data in the format of NMEA - O183HS is acquired by receiving, demodulating and decoding RF signals with DM73021 (a communication kit). Third, the acquisition, decoding, monitoring and presentation of ASCII information data are performed by Labview. Experiments prove that the system can monitor and analyse intelligently the navigation conditions of ships in submarine cable areas against anchors to forewarn relevant departments promptly about the ships with the inclination to cast anchors.

  1. Design and Implementation of an In?Cache Archival Entropy Coder for the Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senecal, J G

    2008-10-01

    The Sonoma sensor, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is an electro-optical (EO) sensor composed of a tiled arrangement of cameras, where each camera sends 20 megabytes (MB) of raw data per frame. Depending on the sensor configuration, each sensor image, in aggregate, can total up to 320 MB. I discuss here the design and implementation of a high-speed entropy coder utilizing the Lead-1 encoding method, intended to quickly and losslessly compress sensor data before it is written to storage. More sophisticated (and slower) compression techniques may be performed off-line. The coder, favoring speed over coding efficiency, is simple in principle and tiny in practice: the amount of allocated memory required by the coder can be as small as 26 bytes. On a 2.7 GHz PowerMac G5 this coder is capable of encoding sensor data at a rate of 163 megabytes per second. The overall compression rate is better than that of BZIP2, GZIP, and a range coder, and the total execution speed is superior.

  2. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  3. Chikungunya viral fitness measures within the vector and subsequent transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V-Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors.

  4. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  5. Inactivation of Chikungunya virus by 1,5 iodonapthyl azide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anuj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod borne alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. CHIKV is a reemerging virus for which there is no safe prophylactic vaccine. A live attenuated strain of CHIKV, CHIK181/25, was previously demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in humans, however, it showed residual virulence causing transient arthralgia. Findings In this study, we demonstrate the complete inactivation of CHIKV181/25 by 1,5 iodonapthyl azide (INA. No cytopathic effect and virus replication was observed in cells infected with the INA-inactivated CHIKV. However, a reduction in the INA-inactivated CHIK virus-antibody binding capacity was observed by western blot analysis. Conclusion INA completely inactivated CHIKV and can further be explored for developing an inactivated-CHIKV vaccine.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Clustering of Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Dominica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine O Nsoesie

    Full Text Available Using geo-referenced case data, we present spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses of the early spread of the 2013-2015 chikungunya virus (CHIKV in Dominica, an island in the Caribbean. Spatial coordinates of the locations of the first 417 reported cases observed between December 15th, 2013 and March 11th, 2014, were captured using the Global Positioning System (GPS. We observed a preponderance of female cases, which has been reported for CHIKV outbreaks in other regions. We also noted statistically significant spatial and spatio-temporal clusters in highly populated areas and observed major clusters prior to implementation of intensive vector control programs suggesting early vector control measures, and education had an impact on the spread of the CHIKV epidemic in Dominica. A dynamical identification of clusters can lead to local assessment of risk and provide opportunities for targeted control efforts for nations experiencing CHIKV outbreaks.

  7. Chikungunya fever: a re-emerging viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, M; Mittal, V; Bhattacharya, D; Rana, Uvs; Lal, S

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak. PMID:18227590

  8. Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.

  9. Chikungunya virus,epidemiology,clinics and phylogenesis:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra; Lo; Presti; Alessia; Lai; Eleonora; Cella; Gianguglielmo; Zehender; Massimo; Ciccozzi

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunva virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunva fever,a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash.Chikungunva virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes:Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin,disseminates to liver,muscle,joints.lymphoid tissue and brain,presumably through the blood.Phylogenetic studies showed that the Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent epidemics were caused by two different introductions of distinct strains of East/Central/South African genotype of CHIKV.The paraphyletic grouping of African CHIK viruses supports the historical evidence that the virus was introduced into Asia from Africa.Phylogenetic analysis divided Chikungunva virus isolates into three distinct genotypes based on geographical origins:the first,the West Africa genotype,consisted of isolates from Senegal and Nigeria;the second contained strains from East/Central/South African genotype,while the third contained solely Asian.The most recent common ancestor for the recent epidemic,which ravaged Indian Ocean islands and Indian subcontinent in 2004- 2007.was found to date in 2002.Asian lineage dated about 1952 and exhibits similar spread patterns of the recent Indian Ocean outbreak lineage,with successive epidemics detected along an eastward path.Asian group splitted into two clades:an Indian lineage and a south east lineage.Outbreaks of Chikungunya virus fever in Asia have not been associated necessarily with outbreaks in Africa.Phylogenetic tools can reconstruct geographic spread of Chikungunva virus during the epidemics wave.The good management of patients with acute Chikungunva virus infection is essential for public health in susceptible areas with current Aedes spp activity.

  10. 基于 H.264的云端视频监控系统设计%Design of cloud video surveillance system based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾博文; 沈永良; 张金富

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于 H.264视频编码算法并采用云服务器实现的视频监控系统设计方案。该方案是视频采集端与监控控制端分离的分布式监控系统。视频采集部分采用三星Exynos4412处理器基于Linux实时操作系统进行软件设计;视频实时编码采用FFmpeg音视频解决方案,对USB摄像头采集的视频基于 H.264编码,选用实时消息传输协议(RTMP)通过网络传输给监控控制端。监控控制端基于云服务器平台设计,云服务器选用流媒体直播服务器,对视频数据进行实时解码、播放与存储。测试结果显示,系统具有良好的实时性,满足了基本的设计需求。%A design method of the video surveillance system based on H.264 and cloud server is proposed . It is a distributed monitoring system which separates the video capture and monitor control into two parts . The software design of video capture part using a central processing unit from Samsung named Exynos4412 is based on the Linux real‐time operating system .The real‐time encoding of video uses FFmpeg solution which encodes the video captured by USB camera based on H.264 and then transmits it by real time messaging protocol through the Internet .The control and monitoring system is based on cloud server , adopting the live streaming server .It has the function of real‐time decoding ,real‐time playing and storage . According to the test results , the system has good real‐time capability and meets the need of design requirement .

  11. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  12. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  13. A study on Chikungunya outbreak of 2009 in Balussery, Kozhikode, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi K. Deepa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by the Chikungunya virus, belonging to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. In Kerala the first Chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2006 affecting 14 districts. The re-emergence of the disease occurred in Kozhikode district in Kerala in May 2009. A survey was undertaken in Panangad village, which was the worst affected location. The aim of the survey was to understand the nature and magnitude of the Chikungunya fever, the clinical signs and symptoms. Methods: A total number of 436 cases were surveyed door to door in 7 different localities in the Panangad village of Balussery of Kozhikode district. The patient history, clinical signs and symptoms of the Chikungunya cases were recorded. The signs and symptoms recorded consisted of fever, chills, arthalgia, eye pain, back pain, headache, edema, rash, oral ulcers, hyperpigmentation, itch, myalgia, sore throat, distaste, photophobia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, hypotension, dermatitis, and dizziness. Results: The major symptoms were fever (100%, arthralgia (81.65%, and myalgia (77.98%. Significant differences were observed in the following symptoms: chills (15.36%, eye pain (7.56%, back pain (30.96%, headache (41.28%, edema (50.68%, rash (29.58%, oral ulcer (14.9%, itch (42.88%, hyperpigmentation (4.58%, sore throat (8.71%, distaste (6.88%, nausea (6.65%, vomiting (12.61%, diarrhea (1.37%, neck pain (0.91%, and dizziness (3.21%. The Chikungunya cases were more severely affected with more or less all of the above mentioned symptoms in the higher age group (>45 years compared to the lower age group (1-30 years. Conclusion: Chikungunya was found to be the major vector born disease in Kerala state. The major clinical symptoms in affected cases were fever, edema, myalgia, and arthralgia. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 59-62

  14. Comparitive evaluation of different systems of medicines and the present scenario of chikungunya in Kerala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip C; Saraswathi R; Krishnan PN; AK Azeem; Raseena; Abdul azeez; Ramya; Jaywin jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify the chikungunya outbreaks in both indoor and outdoor patients in some selected hospitals in our locality and the burden and magnitude of the disease, to compare different system of medicines (allopathic, Ayurvedic, homeopathy etc) and to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacists and other health care professionals in the treatment of chikungunya. Methods:A six-month study was carried out. Detailed history was taken from the case history, personal interview of doctors and suspected cases. Personal data such as name age, sex, location, date of onset of illness, medical history, general/systemic examination features, drugs used (allopathy, Ayurveda, homeopathy, or traditional) for the treatment, etc. were noted down. A simple questionnaire was prepared and distributed to various doctors practicing various systems of medicines. Results:A total of 209 suspected cases were identified from July to December, 2009. People in the age group of 20-40 years were more affected. The study revealed that females were more affected than males. The Grade-III (58.73%) population was more prone to chikungunya than Grade-II (38.75%) and Grade-I (2.87%). It showed that fever, pain in muscles, and sleeping disturbances were the intense symptoms of chikungunya. Myocarditis and arthritis were concomitant diseases which worsened chikungunya symptoms. It also indicated the effective medicine for compliance is nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Conclusions:From our study we found that in some places there is no proper documentation, even though there are proper guidelines framed by the relevant authorities. It can be concluded from the study that all the systems of medicine are equally important for the management of chikungunya. Additional effort in promoting the guidelines at local level and proper documentation helps to achieve the goal of curbing the chikungunya. It is high time to increase our effort and promote these messages at

  15. 基于CMOS图像传感器的视频监视实验系统设计%Design of Video Surveillance System Based on CMOS Image Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 仲元昌; 梁善友; 李彩玲

    2012-01-01

    针对提高视频监视器的性价比问题,提出了基于CMOS图像传感器的视频监视器设计方案,即采用低电压、微功耗、低廉的CMOS图像传感器、视频编码芯片、LCD显示屏,构建了基于CMOS图像传感器的视频监视系统.给出了视频采集模块电路、监视器模块电路的设计原理.该系统能够清晰地显示的被监视的视频图像,性价比较高,可广泛应用于视频监视领域.%Aimed at improving the performance-to-price ratio of video surveillance systems, a video monitor was designed based on the CMOS image sensor using CMOS image sensors, video encoding chips, and LCD display. A video surveillance system was built based on CMOS image sensor. The video capture module circuit and the monitor module circuit design principles were given. The results show that the system can monitor and clearly display video images, with high performance-to-price ratio, and can be widely used in the field of video surveillance.

  16. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in

  17. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e......-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current...

  18. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  19. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  20. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina Armand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP. The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease, by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS. Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of

  1. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  2. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  3. Design and implementation for ATMEGA328-based intelligent car of video surveillance%基于ATMEGA328的视频监控智能车的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈宝鹏; 张喜凤; 卜文锐

    2015-01-01

    With the development of intelligent control technology,intelligent car has been appeared constantly,and widely used in special purpose of military and police,industrial production,daily life and other fields. The characteristics of the Ardui⁃no platform is reviewed. An intelligent car was designed,which is taken ATMEGA328 microcontroller as the core microcon⁃troller,used the car body with four⁃wheel independent drive,adopted the surveillance software of mobile phone with Android, and conducted with video surveillance and remote control by WiFi signal. The designed intelligent car of video surveillance was verified by hardware,and has the utility functions of automatic obstacle avoidance,video surveillance,and wireless remote con⁃trol operation.%随着智能控制技术的发展,各种智能车不断涌现,在军警特种用途、工业生产和日常生活等领域获得了日益广泛的应用。首先回顾了Arduino平台的特性,然后设计了一种以ATMEGA328单片机为核心的微控制器,采用四轮独立驱动的车体,设计并使用安卓手机端的监控软件,通过WiFi信号进行视频监控和远程遥控的智能车。设计的视频监控智能车经硬件验证,具备了自动避障、视频监控、无线遥控操作等实用功能。

  4. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  5. Chikungunya virus and Aedes mosquitoes: saliva is infectious as soon as two days after oral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dubrulle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV. The recent CHIKV outbreaks were caused by a new variant characterized by a mutation in the E1 glycoprotein gene (E1-226V which has favored a better transmissibility by Ae. albopictus. As Ae. albopictus tends to replace Ae. aegypti in many regions, one question remained: is Ae. albopictus as efficient as Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV? METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We infected orally both species with the variant E1-226V and estimated the infection, the viral dissemination, and the transmission rate by real time RT-PCR. Additionally, we used an in vitro assay to determine the amount of virus delivered by mosquitoes in their saliva. We found that Ae. aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus ensured a high replication of the virus which underwent an efficient dissemination as detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 post-infection (pi. Infectious CHIKV particles were delivered by salivary glands from day 2 with a maximum at day 6 pi for Ae. albopictus (10(3.3 PFU and day 7 pi for Ae. aegypti (10(2.5 PFU. CONCLUSIONS: Ae. albopictus is slightly more efficient than Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV. These results will help to design an efficient vector control to limit transmission as soon as the first human cases are diagnosed.

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of Chikungunya Virus Strains Isolated in Mexico: First Detection of Imported and Autochthonous Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna; Fragoso-Fonseca, David Esaú; Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Vázquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Núñez-León, Alma; Torres-Rodríguez, María de la Luz; Torres-Longoria, Belem; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruíz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is responsible for acute polyarthralgia epidemics. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two chikungunya virus strains, InDRE04 and InDRE51, identified in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Chiapas in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the Asian genotype. PMID:25953170

  7. Inflammatory cytokine expression is associated with chikungunya virus resolution and symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson A Kelvin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease.

  8. Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Alyson A.; Banner, David; Silvi, Giuliano; Moro, Maria Luisa; Spataro, Nadir; Gaibani, Paolo; Cavrini, Francesca; Pierro, Anna; Rossini, Giada; Cameron, Mark J.; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F.; Paquette, Stéphane G.; Xu, Luoling; Danesh, Ali; Farooqui, Amber; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kelvin, David J.; Sambri, Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease. PMID:21858242

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  11. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  12. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  13. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  14. Chikungunya Virus Sequences Across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  15. Suramin inhibits chikungunya virus replication through multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Irina C; van Hoolwerff, Marcella; Wolters, Laura A; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Yang, Shih Chi; Tsay, Shwu-Chen; Hwu, Jih Ru; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2015-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe and often persistent arthritis. In recent years, millions of people have been infected with this virus for which registered antivirals are still lacking. Using our recently established in vitro assay, we discovered that the approved anti-parasitic drug suramin inhibits CHIKV RNA synthesis (IC50 of ∼5μM). The compound inhibited replication of various CHIKV isolates in cell culture with an EC50 of ∼80μM (CC50>5mM) and was also active against Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus. In vitro studies hinted that suramin interferes with (re)initiation of RNA synthesis, whereas time-of-addition studies suggested it to also interfere with a post-attachment early step in infection, possibly entry. CHIKV (nsP4) mutants resistant against favipiravir or ribavirin, which target the viral RNA polymerase, did not exhibit cross-resistance to suramin, suggesting a different mode of action. The assessment of the activity of a variety of suramin-related compounds in cell culture and the in vitro assay for RNA synthesis provided more insight into the moieties required for antiviral activity. The antiviral effect of suramin-containing liposomes was also analyzed. Its approved status makes it worthwhile to explore the use of suramin to prevent and/or treat CHIKV infections.

  16. Emergence of chikungunya virus infection in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Mohapatra, Namita; Beuria, Mihir K; Kerketta, Anna S; Sabat, Jyotsna; Kar, Shantanu K; Rao, Epari V; Hazra, Rupensu K; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Nitisheel

    2010-05-01

    From September through October 2006, an unknown disease characterized by acute onset of fever, joint pain with or without swelling, and maculopapular rash along with fatigue was reported from three villages of Cuttack and one village of Kendrapara district of Orissa, India, by the State Health Department. Upon learning this, a team from Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Bhubaneswar, Orissa, conducted an epidemiological investigation in the area. Household survey was carried out and clinical examination of the symptomatic individuals (n = 1289: Kendrapara, 752; Cuttack, 537) undertaken. Based on the recorded chikungunya (CHIK) fever symptoms, a vector-borne viral disease was considered for provisional diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 217 symptomatic individuals; to confirm the diagnosis, sera were tested for anti-CHIK antibody (immunoglobulin M), which revealed 63% (64/101) and 40% (47/116) seropositivity in the samples from Kendrapara and Cuttack district, respectively. The illness was managed with analgesics like paracetamol. No death was recorded due to the illness. Entomological survey in the areas revealed the presence of Aedes mosquitoes: aegypti, albopictus, and vittatus. The per-man-hour density of Aedes vectors ranged from 0.8 to 7.6. High larval indices, house index >17% and Breteau index >70%, also indicated Aedes breeding in the area. The investigation documented circulation of CHIK in Orissa, India, and helped to take preventive steps in the outbreak area, with the suggested vector control measures. PMID:19874187

  17. Identification of chikungunya virus interacting proteins in mammalian cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandar S Paingankar; Vidya A Arankalle

    2014-06-01

    Identification and characterization of virus host interactions is an essential step for the development of novel antiviral strategies. Very few studies have been targeted towards identification of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) interacting host proteins. In current study, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight analysis (MALDI TOF/TOF) were employed for the identification of CHIKV binding proteins in mammalian cells. HSP70 and actin were identified as virus binding proteins in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells, whereas STAT-2 was identified as an additional protein in Vero-E6 cells. Pre-incubation with anti-HSP70 antibody and miRNA silencing of HSP70 significantly reduced the CHIKV production in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells at early time points. These results suggest that CHIKV exploits the housekeeping molecules such as actin, HSP70 and STAT-2 to establish infection in the mammalian cells.

  18. Climate-driven mathematical models to understand the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of a chikungunya outbreak in the presence of widespread asymptomatic infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommar, Carlos J.; Robinson, Marguerite; Lowe, Rachel; Conan, Anne; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    found to be an insufficient mechanism to halt the spread of the disease, which can be readily carried to neighbouring nodes via sub-clinical individuals. Furthermore, the impact of topology structure versus precipitation levels is assessed and precipitation is found to be the dominant factor driving spatio-temporal transmission. Our results highlight the urgent need to establish adequate monitoring and mosquito control programs in vulnerable countries. These models can help to inform public health officials on both the impact and potential spatial expansion of vector-borne diseases through both urban and rural regions under the influence of dynamic climatic conditions. Given the climate sensitivity of vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, it is important to link the monitoring of meteorological conditions to public health surveillance and control.

  19. Using climate information to understand the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of a chikungunya outbreak in the presence of widespread asymptomatic infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommar, C. J.; Lowe, R.; Robinson, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    found to be an insufficient mechanism to halt the spread of the disease, which can be readily carried to neighbouring nodes via sub-clinical individuals. Furthermore, the impact of topology structure versus precipitation levels is assessed and precipitation is found to be the dominant factor driving spatio-temporal transmission. Our results highlight the urgent need to establish adequate monitoring and mosquito control programs in vulnerable countries. These models can help to inform public health officials on both the impact and potential spatial expansion of vector-borne diseases through both urban and rural regions under the influence of dynamic climatic conditions. Given the climate sensitivity of vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, it is important to link the monitoring of meteorological conditions to public health surveillance and control.

  20. Chikungunya Virus Infections Among Patients with Dengue-Like Illness at a Tertiary Care Hospital in the Philippines, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, John Mark; Valderama, Maria Theresa; Lopez, Maria Nila; Chua, Domingo; Latog, Rene; Roque, Vito; Corpuz, June; Klungthong, Chonticha; Rodpradit, Prinyada; Hussem, Kittinun; Poolpanichupatam, Yongyuth; Macareo, Louis; Fernandez, Stefan; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) often co-circulates with dengue virus (DENV). A cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines, to describe the prevalence and characteristics of DENV and CHIKV infections among patients seeking care for dengue-like illness. Acute blood samples from patients ≥ 6 months of age clinically diagnosed with dengue from November 2012 to December 2013 underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect DENV and CHIKV RNA. A total of 118 patients with clinically diagnosed dengue (age range = 1-89 years, mean = 22 years; male-to-female ratio = 1.51) were tested by DENV RT-PCR; 40 (34%) were DENV PCR-positive (age range = 1-45 years, mean = 17 years). All DENV serotypes were detected: 11 (28%) DENV-1, 6 (15%) DENV-2, 6 (15%) DENV-3, and 17 (42%) DENV-4. Of 112 patients clinically diagnosed with dengue and tested by CHIKV RT-PCR, 11 (10%) were CHIKV PCR-positive (age range = 2-47 years, mean = 20.3 years). No coinfections were detected. Presenting signs/symptoms did not differ between DENV- and CHIKV-positive cases. Sequencing of envelope 1 gene from two CHIKV PCR-positive samples showed Asian genotype. This study highlights the potential for misdiagnosis of medically attended CHIKV infections as DENV infection and the difficulty in clinically differentiating dengue and chikungunya based on presenting signs/symptoms alone. This underscores the necessity for diagnostic laboratory tests to distinguish CHIKV infections in the background of actively co-circulating DENV.

  1. Epidemic situation of chikungunya fever in China%我国基孔肯雅热的流行状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 刘起勇

    2011-01-01

    2010年10月,广东省东莞市暴发了我国首起基孔肯雅热社区聚集性疫情,打破了其长期以来以散在输入性病例为特征的流行现状.基孔肯雅热是一种由基孔肯雅病毒引起的急性传染病,伊蚊是其主要传播媒介.而我国大多数地区拥有其主要传播媒介埃及伊蚊和白纹伊蚊,一旦病原体侵入,可能暴发基孔肯雅热疫情.如何控制该疫情,防止疫情的进一步扩散,是摆在我们面前的当务之急.现就基孔肯雅病毒的病原学特征以及基孔肯雅热在我国历年的流行状况做一概述,以便更好地认识基孔肯雅热,为有效地监测和防治提供科学依据.%In October 2010, China's first community-based chikungunya fever (CHIK) outbreak occurred in Dongguan,Guangdong, a deviation from the long-term predominance of sporadic imported cases. CHIK is an acute infectious disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which are widely distributed in China.A CHIK outbreak may occur following the invasion of CHIKV. Hence, it is urgent to formulate control measures to prevent further spread of this disease. This study gives an overview of the pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of CHIK to promote understanding of this disease and improve surveillance, prevention and control programs.

  2. Congenital Chikungunya with Centro-facial Pigmentation and Persistent Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpigmentation over face in a neonate is rare and the differentials for the same are also rare. Congenital chickengunya, fungal and viral infections, drug rash are few differentials. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection manifesting in neonates is very rare. The prevalence of the entity was described only recently. We describe a neonate with hyperpigmentation on day 3 of life with stormy course thereafter. The distinguishing rash on face helped us in clinching the diagnosis of congenital chikungunya and fungal sepsis. Identification of this entity was based on characteristic skin rash and epidemiological background.

  3. A Preliminary Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Transmission of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul; Lonngren, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is a known vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika and the goal of this study is to propose the first mathematical model to describe the dynamic transmission of these three diseases. We present two preliminary models that consist of the SEIR model for the human populations and an SEI model for the vector to describe (a) the single transmission dynamics of dengue, Chikungunya or Zika, and (b) any possible coinfection between two diseases in the same population. In order to do that...

  4. Chikungunya Virus & Chikungunya Fever%基孔肯雅病毒与基孔肯雅热

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵惠训

    2011-01-01

    基孔肯雅热是一种人兽共患病,是由基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya virus,CHIKV)引起,以发热、皮疹、关节疼痛和轻度出血为主要特征的急性传染病.这种病毒病主要分布在非洲、南亚、东南亚热带和亚热带地区.近年来在印度洋地区造成大规模流行,并波及我国南方,疫区在不断扩大.埃及伊蚊和白纹伊蚊是主要传播媒介.通过携带病毒的伊蚊叮咬而传播.在实验室内可通过气溶胶传播,目前尚无直接人传人的报道.多数病人能完全痊愈,但有些病人关节疼痛持续较长时间.

  5. Development and evaluation of baculovirus-expressed Chikungunya virus E1 envelope proteins for serodiagnosis of Chikungunya infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Tan, Li-Kiang; Angela, Chow; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-09-01

    Population-based serosurveillance studies provide critical estimates on community-level immunity and the potential for future outbreaks. Currently, serological assays, such as IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (IIFT) based on the inactivated whole virus are used to determine past Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. However, these commercially available tests have variable sensitivities. To develop and evaluate recombinant based CHIKV-specific IgG antibody capture ELISAs (GAC-ELISAs), baculoviruses carrying wild-type (E1-A226, named WT) or mutant (E1-A226V, named MUT) E1 envelope protein genes of CHIKV were generated. The seroreactivity of recombinant CHIKV WT and MUT envelope proteins were determined using residual blood, collected from CHIKV-confirmed patients. The sensitivities of both recombinant CHIKV envelope proteins were 83.0% as measured by GAC-ELISAs. The specificities of both recombinant proteins were 87.8%. These GAC-ELISAs were also able to detect the persistence of anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies up to 6 months after the disease onset, together with rise in sensitivities with increasing time. These results suggest that the baculovirus purified recombinant CHIKV envelope proteins react with anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies and may be useful in population-based seroprevalence surveys. In addition, these GAC-ELISAs offer good diagnostic value to determine the recent/past CHIKV infection status in non-endemic populations.

  6. PHSkb: A knowledgebase to support notifiable disease surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins Richard S; Groseclose Samuel L; Ma Haobo; Doyle Timothy J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Notifiable disease surveillance in the United States is predominantly a passive process that is often limited by poor timeliness and low sensitivity. Interoperable tools are needed that interact more seamlessly with existing clinical and laboratory data to improve notifiable disease surveillance. Description The Public Health Surveillance Knowledgebase (PHSkb™) is a computer database designed to provide quick, easy access to domain knowledge regarding notifiable diseases a...

  7. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoye, B.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.M.; Klaassen, M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian infl uenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideratio...

  8. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  9. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population. Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5 than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9. The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1 in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7 in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region.

  10. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Guillermina; Ramirez, Stephania; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  11. Evaluation of Commercially Available Chikungunya Virus Immunoglobulin M Detection Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Holloway, Kimberly; de Salazar, P Martinez; Valadere, Anne M; Drebot, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, and the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ≥ 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC and CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% and 98% concordance with CDC and CARPHA results, respectively, and had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA had high performance at CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM and additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased and reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results and limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests and three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits. PMID:26976887

  12. Replication cycle of chikungunya: a re-emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solignat, Maxime; Gay, Bernard; Higgs, Stephen; Briant, Laurence; Devaux, Christian

    2009-10-25

    Arboviruses (or arthropod-borne viruses), represent a threat for the new century. The 2005-2006 year unprecedented epidemics of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the French Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, followed by several outbreaks in other parts of the world such as India, have attracted the attention of clinicians, scientists, and state authorities about the risks linked to this re-emerging mosquito-borne virus. CHIKV, which belongs to the Alphaviruses genus, was not previously regarded as a highly pathogenic arbovirus. However, this opinion was challenged by the death of several CHIKV-infected persons in Reunion Island. The epidemic episode began in December 2005 and four months later the seroprevalence survey report indicated that 236,000 persons, more than 30% of Reunion Island population, had been infected with CHIKV, among which 0.4-0.5% of cases were fatal. Since the epidemic peak, the infection case number has continued to increase to almost 40% of the population, with a total of more than 250 fatalities. Although information available on CHIKV is growing quite rapidly, we are still far from understanding the strategies required for the ecologic success of this virus, virus replication, its interactions with its vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, and its genetic evolution. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge of CHIKV genomic organization, cell tropism, and the virus replication cycle, and evaluate the possibility to predict its future evolution. Such understanding may be applied in order to anticipate future epidemics and reduce the incidence by development and application of, for example, vaccination and antiviral therapy. PMID:19732931

  13. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  14. Cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning to Spain from Haiti or Dominican Republic, April-June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, A; Garcia, C; Aldasoro, E; Vicente, J A; Martínez, M J; Pérez-Molina, J A; Calvo-Cano, A; Franco, L; Parrón, I; Molina, A; Ruiz, M; Álvarez, J; Sánchez-Seco, M P; Gascón, J

    2014-01-01

    Ten cases of chikungunya were diagnosed in Spanish travellers returning from Haiti (n=2), the Dominican Republic (n=7) or from both countries (n=1) between April and June 2014. These cases remind clinicians to consider chikungunya in European travellers presenting with febrile illness and arthralgia, who are returning from the Caribbean region and Central America, particularly from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The presence of Aedes albopictus together with viraemic patients could potentially lead to autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in southern Europe.

  15. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Tiffany F; Díaz-González, Esteban E; Erasmus, Jesse H; Malo-García, Iliana R; Langsjoen, Rose M; Patterson, Edward I; Auguste, Dawn I; Forrester, Naomi L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-11-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  16. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  17. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complica

  18. Dynamics of chikungunya virus cell entry unraveled by single virus tracking in living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornweg, Tabitha E; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda V; Albulescu, Irina C; van Hemert, Martijn J; Smit, Jolanda M

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied before using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which C

  19. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian 'Tiger' mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors. PMID:25491436

  20. A +RNA virus diptych : Chikungunya virus-host interactions and arteriviral programmed ribosomal frameshifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treffers, Emma Elisabeth (Emmely)

    2015-01-01

    In part 1 of the thesis quantitative proteomics was used to determine changes in abundance and phosphorylation status of host proteins during infection with the human pathogen chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Several proteins were identified that may be specifically downregulated during CHIKV infection to

  1. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Metz (Stefan); C. Geertsema (Corinne); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); P. Andrade (Paulina); J.G.M. Heldens; M.M. van Oers (Monique); J.M. Vlak (Just); G.P. Pijlman (Gorben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the proce

  2. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  3. Chikungunya virus infection: report of the first case diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Gomes Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Initially diagnosed in Africa and Asia, the Chikungunya virus has been detected in the last three years in the Caribbean, Italy, France, and the United States of America. Herein, we report the first case for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010.

  4. Effective Chikungunya Virus-like Particle Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Gardner, J.; Geertsema, C.; Le, T.T.; Goh, L.; Vlak, J.M.; Suhrbier, A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLP

  5. Isolation and diagnosis of Chikungunya virus causing outbreaks in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V.M. Naresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever has recently re-emerged in India with a high morbidity. However, the prevalence of chikungunya fever in India has been underreported due to non-availability of specialized kits to confirm the disease in most of the laboratories. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six serum samples were collected from subjects presenting with a short febrile illness from various places in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, between January to October 2009 and were screened for Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV infection. Virus isolation, reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunoglobulin M (IgM rapid strip method were employed for the identification of the causative agent. Results: Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV infection was confirmed in 520 (68.1% patients by RT-PCR. Seventy seven (40.1% patients showed the presence of anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies while 12 (6.3% patients showed the presence of both anti-CHIKV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies respectively. The isolation of CHIKV was successful from five patients. Conclusions: The re-emergence and persistence of CHIKV in Andhra Pradesh suggests the need for continuous monitoring and identification of the pathogen and thereby prevention of the spread of the virus to other parts of the country.

  6. Genomic Assays for Identification of Chikungunya Virus in Blood Donors, Puerto Rico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y; Bres, Vanessa; Yu, Guixia; Krysztof, David; Naccache, Samia N; Lee, Deanna; Pfeil, Jacob; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Stramer, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    A newly developed transcription-mediated amplification assay was used to detect chikungunya virus infection in 3 of 557 asymptomatic donors (0.54%) from Puerto Rico during the 2014-2015 Caribbean epidemic. Viral detection was confirmed by using PCR, microarray, and next-generation sequencing. Molecular clock analysis dated the emergence of the Puerto Rico strains to early 2013.

  7. Development of a Highly Protective Combination Monoclonal Antibody Therapy against Chikungunya Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Pankaj; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Brien, James D.; Edeling, Melissa A.; Gorlatov, Sergey; Johnson, Syd; Lee, Iris; Akahata, Wataru; Nabel, Gary J.; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Smit, Jolanda M.; Fremont, Daved H.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Heise, Mark T.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes global epidemics of a debilitating polyarthritis in humans. As there is a pressing need for the development of therapeutic agents, we screened 230 new mouse anti-CHIKV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for their ability to inhibit

  8. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Geertsema, C.; Martina, Byron E.; Andrade, Paulina; Heldens, J.; Oers, van M.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of en

  9. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  10. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  11. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C.; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G.; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M.; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P.; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  12. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  13. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  14. Impact of chikungunya virus infection on oral health status: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Katti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chikungunya fever outbreak started in December 2005 in India when the country experienced more than 13 lakhs of Chikungunya infected cases. We undertook this study to describe the impact of Chikungunya virus infection on oral health. Materials and Methods: The confirmed seropositive patients were included for the study (N = 97. Oral hygiene index simplified, gingival index, plaque index were recorded. Results: Of the 181 tested, 97 were confirmed seropositive for chikungunya infection. Pain and bleeding gums were seen in 55% of the subjects. Of them, 29.1% had poor oral hygiene, 42.27% had severe gingivitis, and 27.84% had severe plaque deposits. Severe gingivitis was observed in patients with chronic disease, this association was statistically significant (χ2 = 6.417, P = 0.040. Conclusion: Our findings showed that about more than half of the tested patients suffered severe pain and bleeding in the oral cavity thereby causing discomfort in chewing. About 1/3 patients had severe gingivitis and foul breath which caused discomfort in carrying out their day-to-day activities.

  15. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  16. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstrom, J.M. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); McMaster, W.M. [McMaster (W.M.), Heiskell, TN (United States)

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  17. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies. PMID:27294950

  18. Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Blijleven, Jelle S; van Oijen, Antoine M; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV infection. A critical step in the life cycle of CHIKV is fusion of the viral membrane with a host cell membrane. Here, we elucidate this process using ensemble-averaging liposome-virus fusion studies, in which the fusion behaviour of a large virus population is measured, and a newly developed microscopy-based single-particle assay, in which the fusion kinetics of an individual particle can be visualised. The combination of these approaches allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the kinetics, lipid dependency and pH dependency of hemifusion. We found that CHIKV fusion is strictly dependent on low pH, with a threshold of pH 6.2 and optimal fusion efficiency below pH 5.6. At this pH, CHIKV fuses rapidly with target membranes, with typically half of the fusion occurring within 2 s after acidification. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the target membrane were found to strongly enhance the fusion process. By analysing our single-particle data using kinetic models, we were able to deduce that the number of rate-limiting steps occurring before hemifusion equals about three. To explain these data, we propose a mechanistic model in which multiple E1 fusion trimers are involved in initiating the fusion process.

  19. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNAval Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies

  20. Current research and clinical trials for a vaccine against Chikungunya virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Singh,1 Mala Chhabra,1 Veena Mittal,1 Pankaj Sharma,1 Moshahid A Rizvi,2 Lakhvir Singh Chauhan,1 Arvind Rai1 1National Centre for Disease Control, Sham Nath Marg, 2Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India Abstract: Chikungunya infection is a self-limiting Aedes mosquito-borne arboviral disease with variable clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic illness to a very severe and crippling arthralgia. Until recently, Chikungunya was a little known disease that re-emerged in 2005–2006, leading to major outbreaks on the Indian Ocean Islands and in South East Asia, and eventually extending its range to temperate regions. It drew global attention due to its explosive onset, extensive geographic distribution, and high morbidity. Since re-emergence, an estimated one million symptomatic cases with 0.1% fatality per year have been reported globally. A lack of herd immunity, vector control, and globalization and trade are clearly a problem in the spread of this disease. The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has also acquired biologically important mutations during its evolution, increasing its geographic reach. This disease has resulted in a loss of productivity in affected communities. The absence of a vaccine or an effective antiviral therapy makes dealing with this disease challenging for those involved in public health. There is an emergent need for an effective vaccine against CHIKV infection. The candidates that have been tested include attenuated living, nonliving and genetically engineered vaccines. Several of these vaccine candidates are in preclinical and clinical trials. This review outlines the current knowledge about chikungunya infection and vaccine development. Keywords: Chikungunya, outbreaks, epidemics, genotypes, vaccines, therapy

  1. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  2. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Clinical and virological characterization of imported cases of Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Martin; Zöller, Gudrun; Essbauer, Sandra; Tomaso, Herbert; Behrens-Riha, Nicole; Löscher, Thomas; Dobler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    A Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic emerged in the Indian Ocean islands of the Comores, Reunion, Mayotte, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Madagascar in 2005 resulting in the infection of about 250.000 inhabitants and travellers in only one year. Beginning in March 2006 increasing numbers of CHIKV-like febrile illnesses were reported from various parts of India. We investigated 70 consecutive German travellers returning from the affected areas and presenting with arthralgia and/or fever suggestive of CHIKV infection. Eleven patients had serological evidence of CHIKV infection. Real-time RT-PCR for CHIKV was positive in two cases, one who returned from Mauritius and the other who came back from Rajasthan, Northern India. In both cases CHIKV was isolated and sequencing of the entire viral genome was performed. The nucleotide sequence data obtained for both CHIKV strains revealed a high level of identity to CHIKV isolates from the ongoing epidemic. In detail, we found only 18 nucleotide exchanges between the isolates from Mauritius and Rajasthan, resulting in only six amino acid changes (nsP1 T128K, T376M, nsP3 S472N, capsid P23S, V27I and E1-protein A226V). Although the excessive dimension of the 2005/2006 outbreak in the Indian Ocean islands was at least in part accounted to the naïve population affected, our results of the Rajasthan isolate support that the emergence of this CHIKV subtype may rather be a result of a better viral fitness. This has been previously accounted to a A226V change in the E1 protein of the new CHIKV variant when compared to other CHIKV data available. This mutation, supposedly resulting in high-titred viremia in humans and/or an enhanced adaptation to the vector population resulting in increased transmission rates, was also found in our CHIKV isolate from Mauritius. The spread of an African CHIKV to Asia further demonstrates how fast viruses can emerge and establish in places where competent vectors are prevalent.

  4. Induction of cytopathogenicity in human glioblastoma cells by chikungunya virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachy Abraham

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an arthritogenic old-world alphavirus, has been implicated in the central nervous system (CNS infection in infants and elderly patients. Astrocytes are the major immune cells of the brain parenchyma that mediate inflammation. In the present study we found that a local isolate of CHIKV infect and activate U-87 MG cells, a glioblastoma cell line of human astrocyte origin. The infection kinetics were similar in infected U-87 MG cells and the human embryo kidney (HEK293 cells as indicated by immunofluorescence and plaque assays, 24h post-infection (p.i.. In infected U-87 MG cells, apoptosis was detectable from 48h p.i. evidenced by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation and visible cytopathic effects in a dose and time-dependent manner. XBP1 mRNA splicing and eIF2α phosphorylation studies indicated the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in infected cells. In U-87 MG cells stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged light chain-3 (GFP-LC3 protein, CHIKV infection showed increased autophagy response. The infection led to an enhanced expression of the mRNA transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL9 within 24h p.i. Significant up-regulation of the proteins of RIG-I like receptor (RLR pathway, such as RIG-I and TRAF-6, was observed indicating the activation of the cytoplasmic-cellular innate immune response. The overall results show that the U-87 MG cell line is a potential in vitro model for in depth study of these molecular pathways in response to CHIKV infection. The responses in these cells of CNS origin, which are inherently defective in Type I interferon response, could be analogous to that occurring in infants and very old patients who also have a compromised interferon-response. The results also point to the intriguing possibility of using this virus for studies to develop oncolytic virus therapy approaches

  5. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked ......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  6. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  7. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  8. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  9. Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Harry E; Seaton, Brent L; Matud, Jose L; Batterman, Hollis J

    2015-03-01

    Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody and/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers and RNA detection and to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification and CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, and 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers and RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered and 238 deidentified and tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) and 16% with IgG titers of ≥1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, and (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset.

  10. [Chikungunya fever--expanded distribution of a re-emerging tropical infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has been originally distributed in several parts of Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia. The disease is caused by Chikungunya virus, an enveloped, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus of the alphavirus genus (family Togaviridae). In Asia, virus transmission to humans occurs predominantly by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. In rural Africa, other mosquito species are also implicated in virus transmission. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, headache, backache, myalgia, and rash as well as painful and long-lasting arthralgia, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Joint pain frequently persists for two or more months. Treatment strategies are primarily supportive and symptomatic and comprise the continuous application of certain analgetics, i.e., paracetamol (acetaminophen) and several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Although there is no generally recommended specific antiviral therapy, the use of chloroquine, ribavirin and interferon-alpha might be useful. In 2005 and 2006, the largest epidemic of Chikungunya fever ever recorded has been occurred in the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean and in India. The epidemic affected at least 1.3 million cases in India alone. The most affected island was the French territory La Réunion, where approximately one third of the total population (266,000 of 770,000) suffered from the disease. Based on the extent of the epidemic and the busy tourism between India/the islands of the Indian Ocean and Europe, numerous cases have been reported in several European countries since 2005. In 2007, one of these travellers served as "index patient" for the first outbreak of Chikungunya fever in a temperate region. Between July and September 2007, more than 200 cases of infection with Chikungunya virus have been notified in a region of north eastern Italy. The first autochthonic outbreak in Europe has been associated with the presence of A

  11. Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jette

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology. This paper gives a review of how the concepts: monitoring, surveillance, and disease control strategies are defined. Monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS involve measurements of disease occurrence, and the design of the monitoring determines which types of disease occurrence measures can be applied. However, the knowledge of the performance of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and specificity is essential to estimate the true occurrence of the disease. The terms, disease control programme (DCP or disease eradication programme (DEP, are defined, and the steps of DCP/DEP are described to illustrate that they are a process rather than a static MO&SS.

  12. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  13. Design of Wireless Video Surveillance Device Based on 3G%基于3G网络的无线视频监控终端设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春

    2012-01-01

    This terminal is a digital video surveillance system. It includes video or data acquisition, video compression, 3G wireless video transmission, etc. The control terminal is based on TVP5150 and changes the video signals with camera capture analog into digital signal to input to the DSP. By embedding H. 264- into DSP, it compresses the video stream with terminal receives. And it can meet the needs of high precision real-time video surveillance. This terminal integrates 3G and Internet edge, no matter where and when, the customer can quickly access system, remote monitoring and management. The terminal can be started by SMS mode, command machine control, terminal server, timing and alarm triggers. And it can also collect real-time data.%本终端是集视频或数据采集、视频压缩、3G无线视频传输等功能为一体的数字视频监控终端,终端采用TvP=5150视频解码芯片,将摄像机采集的模拟视频信号转换成数字信号输入到DSP中。通过在DSP中植入的H.264算法来压缩终端接收到的视频流,这能够满足高精度实时视频监控的需求。本终端整合了3G网络和Inter—net网络的优势,无论客户身在何处、在何时间,都可以迅速接入系统,随时随地进行远程监控管理。本终端可以通过短信、命令台控制、终端服务器、定时以及报警触发方式启动,同时可以实时采集现场数据。

  14. 移动终端视频监控系统客户端的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Client-Side for Mobile Video Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金刚; 王书振; 黄旻; 陈能锦

    2012-01-01

    随着社会的发展和科技的进步,移动终端视频监控系统在社会生活和工业生产中发挥着越来越重要的作用.通过分析现阶段视频监控用户随时随地查看视频监控画面的实际需求,本文将现有的IP网络与无线网络相结合作为传输网络,以J2ME作为主要的编程,MVC模式作为软件的主要框架,3GP作为主要封装格式封装H.264视频数据,提出了一个移动终端视频监控系统客户端的设计;简要介绍了客户端的系统架构和各模块的功能以及核心功能模块的设计思想.通过对通信指令及视频数据的传输和软件界面设计,实现了用户登录,设备信息添加、修改、删除,PTZ(云台)控制,通道选择,心跳保持(keep alive),操作帮助,监控画面查看等功能,能基本满足普通用户的一般需求.%With the development of society and the progress of technology, mobile video surveillance system plays a more and more important role in social life and industry production. Mobile video surveillance system is consisted of server-side and client-side. The design of client-side is focused on. Through the analysis on the actual demand from current video surveillance user monitoring video screen at anytime and anywhere, by taking the combination of IP network and the wireless network as transmission network, J2ME as the main programming language, the MVC pattern as the main frame of software, the 3GP is used as the main packaging formats to encapsulate H.264 video data, A schematic design of client-side for mobile video surveillance system is proposed. The architecture and module functions are briefly introduced; the design idea of core function modules is also given. Based on the communication instruction, video data transmission, and the software design, the functions involving a user login, adding, modifying, and deleting device information, PTZ control, channel selection, keep alive, operation assistance, viewing monitor screen and

  15. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  16. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS wil

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  18. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  19. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  20. A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Joseph, Rajan; Kamaraj, T; Jambulingam, P

    2008-08-01

    Kerala State in India was gripped by a renewed and widespread outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection during 2007. Here, we report the A226V mutation in the glycoprotein envelope 1 (E1) gene of the virus among isolates collected from the three worst-affected districts of the state during this outbreak. This mutation had already been suggested to be directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity in Aedes albopictus. The badly affected districts in Kerala State during 2007 have abundant rubber plantations, which supported prolific breeding of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in the region and molecular evolution of CHIKV may be contributing factors for the renewed epidemic of chikungunya fever during 2007. PMID:18632966

  1. Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W; Yin, X-X; Lee, B-J; Li, Y-G

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia and severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment and no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient and easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

  2. Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Penny A; Raphael, Anthony P; Yamada, Miko; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Gardner, Joy; Le, Thuy T T; Prow, Natalie A; Dang, Nhung; Schroder, Wayne A; Prow, Tarl W; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-09-22

    Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines.

  3. Monoclonal antibody targeting chikungunya virus envelope 1 protein inhibits virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrinoul, Promsin; Puiprom, Orapim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Miwa; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki

    2014-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute clinical illness characterized by sudden high fever, intense joint pain, and skin rash. Recent outbreaks of chikungunya disease in Africa and Asia are a major public health concern; however, there is currently no effective licensed vaccine or specific treatment. This study reported the development of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb), CK47, which recognizes domain III within the viral envelope 1 protein and inhibited the viral release process, thereby preventing the production of progeny virus. The MAb had no effect on virus entry and replication processes. Thus, CK47 may be a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying CHIKV release and may show potential as a therapeutic agent.

  4. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively. PMID:24879904

  5. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F.; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents. PMID:27177310

  6. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively.

  7. Analysis of imported chikungunya fever cases detected at frontier ports of Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau%广东出入境检验检疫局口岸输入性基孔肯雅热监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹂; 张显光; 张文; 邓荆; 林少佳; 吴惠明; 黄吉城; 戴俊; 潘德观

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析广东出入境检验检疫局口岸检出的输入性基孔肯雅热病例的监测情况,为输入性传染病防控工作提供参考依据.方法 以广东出入境检验检疫局口岸2008-2011年入境人员作为调查对象,对来自基孔肯雅热流行区的发热人员进行流行病学个案调查,判定染疫嫌疑的采集样本送检,对阳性病例资料和检出情况进行分析.结果 11例病例均来自基孔肯雅热流行区;均为输入性病例,其中9例入境时在发病,2例入境后医学观察期间发病;平均年龄40.2岁,以男性中青年为主;体温监测是主要检出手段;未发生二代病例.结论 广东出入境检验检疫局口岸防制基孔肯雅热的措施适当得力,能有效阻止基孔肯雅病毒通过口岸进行传播.%Objective To analyze the imported chikungunya fever cases detected at the frontier ports of Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau and to provide a basis for control of imported infectious diseases.Methods Surveillance was conducted in the entry passengers at the frontier ports of Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau from 2008 to 2011,and epidemiological investigation was carried out in the feverish passengers from the epidemic area of chikungunya fever.The blood samples of suspected cases were collected for laboratory test,and the information of positive cases were analyzed.Results Eleven cases of chikungunya fever,all from the epidemic area of chikungunya fever,were detected; of these imported cases,9 were in the period of disease while passing the frontier ports,and the other 2 were in incubation period and had an onset in the observation period after entry.The mean age of the 11 cases was 40.2 years; most of them were young and middle-aged males.The primary detection method was fever surveillance.There were no secondary cases.Conclusion Control measures against chikungunya fever are properly taken by Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and

  8. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Chipwaza; Joseph P Mugasa; Majige Selemani; Mbaraka Amuri; Fausta Mosha; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests...

  9. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  10. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  11. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L.; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures ...

  12. Nonhuman Primate Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease (CHIKV NHP Model)

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Broeckel; Nicole Haese; Ilhem Messaoudi; Streblow, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunit...

  13. A Re-Examination of the History of Etiologic Confusion between Dengue and Chikungunya.

    OpenAIRE

    Goro Kuno

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the perception of many researchers that the recent invasion of chikungunya (CHIK) in the Western Hemisphere marked the first episode in history, a recent publication reminded them that CHIK had prevailed in the West Indies and southern regions of the United States from 1827-1828 under the guise of "dengue" (DEN), and that many old outbreaks of so-called "dengue" actually represented the CHIK cases erroneously identified as "dengue." In hindsight, this confusion was unavoidable, gi...

  14. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  15. Design of real-time video surveillance system Supporting wireless-network%支持无线网络的实时视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴颖萌

    2012-01-01

    为了解决有线网络视频监控的布线问题和工作人员的移动化监控问题,设计并实现了一种支持IP摄像头、DVR、3G手机作为视频数据采集前端,兼容H.264和MPEG4等编码标准和支持PC和3G手机进行客户端监看的实时视频监控系统,该系统实现视频的采集、压缩、传输、解码、显示、控制、录像、事件通知、电子地图等功能,该系统支持前端采集设备的多流输出和高并发访问,适应了3G手机的带宽,提高了服务器使用效率,达到了利用手机进行移动视频监控的目的。%To solve the wiring problem of wire-network video surveillance and the removable suiveillance problem of worker, a type of real-time video surveillance system that support IP camera/DVR/3G smartphone at the front-end of video data capture and support H.264/MPEG4 as the encoding method and support PC/3G smartphone at the client of video monitoring is designed and imple- mented. The system implements the function of video capture, compression, transmission, decoding, display, control, record, event no- tify, electronic map. The system supports multiple output streams and high concurrent access of the front-end capturing device,adapts to 3G network's bandwidth, improves the server's using efficiency and achieves the desired goal that realizes mobile video surveil- lance by smart phone.

  16. 基于教务信息的教室监控系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of the Classroom Video Surveillance System Based on Educational Administration Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆辉; 牟艳; 高晴; 童年

    2015-01-01

    In order to combine educational administration information with classroom video surveillance together,a design,using mobile terminal to realize classroom video surveillance on the basis of existing educational management and classroom monitoring system,is proposed to perform a specific function of watching video image with mobile devices according to educational administration information.In this thesis,a mobile terminal software based on IOS is developed,and the architecture and hardware platform of the system,the stream media technology,MVC pattern and the development of classroom video surveillance software are introduced.The system greatly satisfies the demand of teaching and management.It has very high practical value because it can not only play high -definition classroom video smoothly and browse detailed educational administration information according to the list of course information with mobile terminal,but also be an electronic examination spot.The test result shows that the system is stable and reliable which has already been applied to Hohai University's Changzhou campus successfully.%为了将教务信息和教室监控相结合,实现在移动终端根据教务信息点播观看教室监控视频,提出了在现有教务管理和教室监控系统基础上利用移动终端完成教室监控的设计方案,并开发了基于 IOS 系统的监控终端软件。介绍了整个系统的总体架构、硬件平台、流媒体传输技术、MVC 设计模式和教室监控终端软件开发。整个系统满足教学和视频监控的功能需求,可以在移动终端根据课程信息列表清晰流畅地播放教室监控视频和浏览详细的教务信息;还可以作为电子考场,实现无人监考,具有很高的实用价值。经过测试,系统运行稳定可靠,并成功应用于河海大学常州校区。

  17. Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in understanding speech, tinnitus and vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus and it was persistent causing significant handicap to him based on self report tinnitus handicap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety and stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression and anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells and may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon and absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD and vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies. PMID:25728940

  18. Effect of Mosquito Repellent on the Transmission Model of Chikungunya Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapol Naowarat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In 2008 there was a large outbreak of Chikungunya fever in southern Thailand. Chikungunya fever is an emerging disease which tends to affect rubber plantation and fruit orchard workers more than other occupation. This study we considers the efficacy of using mosquito repellent as a way to prevent and control the spread of Chikungunya fever. The mathematical model of the dynamic of this disease is proposed and analyzed. Approach: A standard dynamical modeling method was applied for analysis the dynamical model. The stability of the model was determined by using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Results: The conditions for disease free and endemic state are found. To determine the basic reproductive number (R0 which is the threshold parameter, if R00>1, there exist the endemic equilibrium state, which is locally asymptotically stable. Conclusion: It was found that the use of mosquito repellent significantly reduce transmission and infection of this disease which it may be an alternative intervention for communities to prevent and control the disease.

  19. Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal E Carbajo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

  20. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  1. Chikungunya fever in the Emilia Romagna region: what is the public health message?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquitoborne alphavirus indigenous to African countries, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, where it causes endemic and epidemic chikungunya (CHIK fever [1]. Chikungunya infection is transmitted by biting mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes. Since the identification of the virus in the 1950s [2] in Africa, transmission to humans has been usually associated with bites of A. aegypti mosquitoes. In recent outbreaks occurring in the South-eastern islands of the Indian Ocean, transmission has also been associated with A. albopictus, also known as the “tiger mosquito.” This species is indigenous to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Indian Ocean, but has recently spread to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. [3]. Although tropical forests are considered to be their original habitat, A. aegypti and A. albopictus have developed the capacity to exploit artificial environments [4]. Besides the natural habitat consisting of tree holes filled with water and other small natural pools, they are capable of breeding in any artificial habitat with small reservoirs of stagnant water, such as vases, buckets, tires and other containers found around houses in urban and periurban areas.

  2. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Advanced Mobile Surveillance System for Multiple People Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Bandaru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops an efficient people surveillance system capable of tracking multiple people on different terrains. Recorded video on rough terrains is affected by jitters resulting into significant error between the desired and captured video flow. Video stabilization is achieved by calculating the motion and compensational parameters using the LSE analytical solution to minimize the error between present and desired output video captured from an autonomous robot’s camera moving on a rough terrain used for surveillance of unidentified people. This is the first paper to the best of our knowledge which makes use of this method to design mobile wireless robot for human surveillance applications. As the method used is fast then conventional methods, making the proposed system a highly efficient surveillance system as compared to previous systems. The superiority of the method used is demonstrated using different evaluation parameters like RMCD, variability and reliability. The system can be used for surveillance of people under different environmental conditions.

  4. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  5. 一种基于语音识别技术的智能视频监控系统设计%A Design of Intelligent Video Surveillance System Based on Speech Recognition Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大飞; 袁诚; 高勇

    2011-01-01

    针对传统视频监控系统中存在的不足,提出了一种将语音识别技术作为辅助的监控手段,构建具有主动预警、监控画面智能切换等功能的视频监控系统的设计方法;使用倒谱平均减(CMS)的方法抑制了传输设备不同带来的信道畸变对语音识别的影响;使用模型合并重估的方法解决了训练样本数据更新导致的所有数据重新训练的问题.仿真测试表明该系统预警准确、切换智能,对市场上传统视频监控系统的改进具有一定的指导作用.%Aimed at the shortcomings of traditional video surveillance systems, a design of video monitor system was put forward, which uses speech recognition technology as an auxiliary means of monitoring. This system possessed both active early-warning and intelligent switching screen functions at the same time. Furthermore, the CMSCcepstral mean subtraction)was used to curb the impact of channel distortion on speech recognition; and the model combining and revaluation method was used to solve the training problem caused by adding updated data. The test results of experiment demonstrate that the system alarmed accurately and switched intellectually, having great values to the improvement of marketed traditional video surveillance systems.

  6. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  7. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  8. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  9. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...... hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications are rare...

  10. Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Infections Among United States Community Service Volunteers Returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Esposito, Douglas H; Biggs, Holly M; Decenteceo, Michelle; Klevos, Andrew; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kosoy, Olga I; McPherson, Heidi; Sullivan, Carmen; Voorhees, Dayton; Baron, David; Watkins, Jim; Gaul, Linda; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Fischer, Marc; Sharp, Tyler M; Jentes, Emily S

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infection and illnesses and evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, and mosquito exposures and avoidance behaviors and provided serum for CHIKV and DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection and two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, and 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, and 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (∼95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily and mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks and should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas. PMID:26976891

  11. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  12. Investigation of the first Chikungunya fever case in Beijing%北京市首例基孔肯雅热病例流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽丽; 任海林; 李阳桦; 王全意; 刘婷; 杨鹏; 黎新宇; 窦相峰; 王小梅; 何战英; 关增智; 李旭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the source of the first chikungunya fever (CHIKV)case in Beijing.Methods The infection source of the case was analyzed by interviewing the case and other key persons.Furthermore,the vector biology survey data of the city Beijing was used to evaluate the risk of CHIKV prevalence.Results The first CHIKV case of Beijing was infected in India who was an introduced case.The vector biology survey data showed that the aedes albopictus density was low,so the outbreak risk of CHIKV in Beijing has been excluded during the period when the case stayed in Beijing.Conclusion The mosquito density of aedes albopictus has been increasing from 2008 to 2010 in Beijing,thus we should make efforts to promote better vector biology surveillance and take effective measures to prevent the outbreak risk of CHIKV.%目的 调查北京市首例基孔肯雅热( Chikungunya fever,CHIKV)病例的感染来源.方法 通过对患者及其密切接触人员访谈,分析患者的感染来源.结合北京市病媒生物监测数据,分析北京市出现CHIKV流行的风险.结果 北京市首例CHIKV病例为印度境内感染的境外输入性病例.病媒生物监测数据显示,该病例在京期间北京市伊蚊密度较低,北京市不会出现由此病例引发的CHIKV暴发.结论 2008 - 2010年,北京亚优势蚊种—白纹伊蚊的构成比和蚊媒密度逐年增加,北京市应继续做好病媒生物监测,并加强CHIKV防控工作,降低CHIKV暴发的风险.

  13. A prototype radonmeter for seismic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Porfidia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A new 222Rn monitoring prototype has been designed, assembled and tested at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING specifically addressed to seismic surveillance tasks, exploiting environmental monitoring, etc. It operates with an a scintillation technique (photomultiplier + Lucas Cell coupled with a water input system, that lets continuous dehumidified gas flow, stripped from groundwater under monitoring. Several laboratory tests have been carried out to check the stability and versatility of the system; moreover statistical tests have been accomplished on several data sets obtained with an 241Am radioactive standard source, to check stability of the photomultiplier. A customised water flow system has been developed to perform both the highest efficiency and lowest influence of external noise parameters. This new prototype is very cheap and will be integrated within the new multiparametric geochemical monitoring system GMS II, that is currently being developed at ING, specifically designed for geochemical surveillance of seismic events.

  14. Designing the CCD/Transit Instrument II (CTI-II) Data Pipeline for the Near Earth Space Surveillance Initiative (NESSI) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, P.; McGraw, J. T.; CTI-II Computing Collective Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    The University of New Mexico is currently implementing the CCD/Transit Instrument Version II (CTI-II), a 1.8m meridian-pointing telescope, and equipping it with a modern focal plane array and wide-field optics for deployment at McDonald Observatory. The current design of CTI-II is expected to generate over two hundred gigapixels of image data per night of operation from a one degree wide strip of the sky in five bandpasses. These data will feed both realtime and near-realtime analysis pipelines, the design of which is driven by the principle science projects of CTI-II. However, the goals of these analysis systems are common to many sky surveys: precision astrometry, precision photometry, and the ability to facilitate rapid follow-up observations. Given the potential of new optics and detectors coupled with a unique, dedicated observing mode, several key science projects have been chosen as drivers of the ultimate design of CTI-II: Red Star Astrometry -- The data pipeline must accurately and precisely measure stellar positions with respect to existing astrometric standards to well within the inherent systematic optical system errors (Computer Science and Electrical and Computer Engineering Departments at UNM to help address these challenges, engaging both students and faculty in the design and implementation process.

  15. Self-Surveillance Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jerry; Shilton, Katie; Estrin, D; Burke, Jeffrey A; Hansen, Mark,

    2011-01-01

    It has become cliché to observe that new information technologies endanger privacy. Typically, the threat is viewed as coming from Big Brother (the government) or Company Man (the firm). But for a nascent data practice we call “self-surveillance,” the threat may actually come from ourselves. Using various existing and emerging technologies, such as GPS-enabled smartphones, we are beginning to measure ourselves in granular detail – how long we sleep, where we drive, what we breathe, what w...

  16. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  17. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  18. International safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant: containment and surveillance concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts for containment/surveillance for reprocessing plants are described, conceptual designs are developed, and their effectiveness is evaluated. A technical approach to design of containment/surveillance systems is presented, and design considerations are discussed. This is the second in a series of reports. The first described the basis for the study of international safeguards for reprocessing plants. In this second report, only containment/surveillance is discussed. The third report will discuss the integration of concepts for containment/surveillance and material accountancy

  19. Multidisciplinary prospective study of mother-to-child chikungunya virus infections on the island of La Reunion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gérardin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An outbreak of chikungunya virus affected over one-third of the population of La Réunion Island between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, we identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission at the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion level-3 maternity department. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological features and outcomes of all the cases of vertically transmitted chikungunya infections recorded at our institution during this outbreak. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Over 22 mo, 7,504 women delivered 7,629 viable neonates; 678 (9.0% of these parturient women were infected (positive RT-PCR or IgM serology during antepartum, and 61 (0.8% in pre- or intrapartum. With the exception of three early fetal deaths, vertical transmission was exclusively observed in near-term deliveries (median duration of gestation: 38 wk, range 35-40 wk in the context of intrapartum viremia (19 cases of vertical transmission out of 39 women with intrapartum viremia, prevalence rate 0.25%, vertical transmission rate 48.7%. Cesarean section had no protective effect on transmission. All infected neonates were asymptomatic at birth, and median onset of neonatal disease was 4 d (range 3-7 d. Pain, prostration, and fever were present in 100% of cases and thrombocytopenia in 89%. Severe illness was observed in ten cases (52.6% and mainly consisted of encephalopathy (n = 9; 90%. These nine children had pathologic MRI findings (brain swelling, n = 9; cerebral hemorrhages, n = 2, and four evolved towards persistent disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission is frequent in the context of intrapartum maternal viremia, and often leads to severe neonatal infection. Chikungunya represents a substantial risk for neonates born to viremic parturients that should be taken into account by clinicians and public health authorities in the event of a

  20. 基孔肯雅病毒荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%Real-time PCR method for rapid detection of Chikungunya virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇; 白琳; 胡健萍; 姚李四; 魏莲; 杨志红; 王静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for detecting Chikungunya virus(CHIKV) using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Methods With specifically designed primers and a TaqMan probe on the highly conserved sequence of CHIKV through alignment, the sensitivity of the Real - time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was optimized by evaluating different concentrations of primers and probes. Results A specific Real - time PCR method was developed with the sensitivity of 21 copies/μl for CHIKV, a synthetic CHIKV genome DNA as a positive control; Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus, Dengue virus were using to examine the specificity. Conclusion Promising prospects of this assay could be expected for Chikungunya fever prevention and control.%目的 建立一种快速、敏感、特异的实时荧光定量PCR方法,检测基孔肯雅病毒.方法 通过序列比对挑选出基孔肯雅病毒基因组中高度保守的序列,在此序列上设计引物及TaqMan探针,建立实时荧光定量PCR反应体系.结果 经优化的荧光定量PCR方法有较好的灵敏度和特异性,对阳性对照质粒标准品的灵敏度可达21拷贝/μl,通过检测与传播媒介相似的流行性乙型脑炎病毒、黄热病毒、登革热病毒无交叉反应.结论 该方法的建立在基孔肯雅热的疾病防控方面有较好的应用前景.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis and investigation of the first imported Chikungunya fever case in Fujian Province, China%福建省首例输入性基孔肯雅热病例的调查与实验室诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萌; 翁育伟; 叶雯婧; 李锋平; 郑友限; 张拥军; 洪思让; 郑奎城; 严延生; 欧剑鸣

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过实验室诊断及流行病学调查证实福建省首例输入性基孔肯雅热病例.方法 调查病例的流行病学史及临床表现,采用病毒核酸检测、测序等方法进行实验室诊断.结果 该病例临床表现符合基孔肯雅热特征,荧光PCR、RT-PCR和测序均证实为基孔肯雅病毒感染.流行病学调查表明,该病例的感染地点在东南亚一带,与扩增的部分病毒序列比对的结果一致.结论 证实福建省首例输入性基孔肯雅热病例,在流行季节亟需加强对重点人群的监测.%Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that mainly circulating in Southeast Asia and eastern Africa. In this study, to confirm a suspected imported CHIK case in Fujian Province, virus-specific nucleic acid amplification and sequencing were conducted; epidemiological information and clinical features were investigated. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection was identified by real-time RT-PCR, RT-PCR and amplicon sequencing, while the patient's symptoms were in accordance with diagnostic criteria of CHIK. It was indicated by epidemiological data and BLAST analysis of the obtained sequence that the infection was originated from Southeast Asia. Therefore, the first imported CHIK case in Fujian Province was confirmed, extensive surveillance of CHIK should be strengthened.

  2. Impact of postdischarge surveillance on surgical site infection rates for several surgical procedures: results from the nosocomial surveillance network in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C; Snoeren, Ruud L M M; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) registered after hospital discharge with respect to various surgical procedures and to identify the procedures for which postdischarge surveillance (PDS) is most important. DESIGN: Prospective SSI surveillance with voluntary PDS. Recommended methods for PDS in the Dutch national nosocomial surveillance network are addition of a special registration card to the outpatient medical record, on which the surgeon notes clinical sym...

  3. Estimating Chikungunya prevalence in La Réunion Island outbreak by serosurveys: Two methods for two critical times of the epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favier François

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV caused a major two-wave seventeen-month-long outbreak in La Réunion Island in 2005–2006. The aim of this study was to refine clinical estimates provided by a regional surveillance-system using a two-stage serological assessment as gold standard. Methods Two serosurveys were implemented: first, a rapid survey using stored sera of pregnant women, in order to assess the attack rate at the epidemic upsurge (s1, February 2006; n = 888; second, a population-based survey among a random sample of the community, to assess the herd immunity in the post-epidemic era (s2, October 2006; n = 2442. Sera were screened for anti-CHIKV specific antibodies (IgM and IgG in s1, IgG only in s2 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Seroprevalence rates were compared to clinical estimates of attack rates. Results In s1, 18.2% of the pregnant women were tested positive for CHIKV specific antibodies (13.8% for both IgM and IgG, 4.3% for IgM, 0.1% for IgG only which provided a congruent estimate with the 16.5% attack rate calculated from the surveillance-system. In s2, the seroprevalence in community was estimated to 38.2% (95% CI, 35.9 to 40.6%. Extrapolations of seroprevalence rates led to estimate, at 143,000 and at 300,000 (95% CI, 283,000 to 320,000, the number of people infected in s1 and in s2, respectively. In comparison, the surveillance-system estimated at 130,000 and 266,000 the number of people infected for the same periods. Conclusion A rapid serosurvey in pregnant women can be helpful to assess the attack rate when large seroprevalence studies cannot be done. On the other hand, a population-based serosurvey is useful to refine the estimate when clinical diagnosis underestimates it. Our findings give valuable insights to assess the herd immunity along the course of epidemics.

  4. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  5. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus during an outbreak in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Re-emergence of Chikungunya is a major public health problem in the southern states of India. Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate an outbreak of Chikungunya, in June-August 2008 using PCR and determine the prevalent genotypes of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV associated with the outbreak. Materials and Methods: Samples of blood were collected (in heparinized vacutainer tubes from suspected patients of CHIKV infection from both Government Taluk Hospital in Kerala and a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A one-step RT-PCR was carried out on a block thermo-cycler targeting the E2 gene that codes for the viral envelope protein. The amplicons were verified for 305 bp size by standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were purified, sequenced, and compared with other CHIKV strains reported from different geographical regions. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 4. Results: Altogether 118 samples were collected from patients who presented with sudden onset of fever and/or joint pain, myalgia, and headache. CHIKV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 14 patients and all these cases were from Kerala. The positivity correlated with the early stage of the disease as all these patients had fever of less than seven days duration. The study isolates have been allotted the GenBank accession nos. GQ272368-GQ272381. Phylogenetic analysis of recent CHIKV isolates by partial sequencing of E2 region shows that isolates are closely related to strains from neighboring states and the African type. Conclusion: RT-PCR is a useful technique for the early detection of CHIKV infection during outbreaks. Molecular characterization of the strains indicates that majority of the strains have originated from the Central/East African strains of CHIKV.

  6. CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THIS ARBOVIRUS INFECTION? (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa-Díaz Margarita María

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: for Colombia the arrival of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV constitutes a potential problem of public health due to in the country as much in rural as urban areas, the presence of the A. Aegypti mosquito, vector of the infection, the same of the dengue virus, is endemic. Objective: To carry out a thematic review referent to the CHIKV and to the febrile syndrome that it causes. Methods: Descriptive bibliographic review, with search in the databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and Medline; including review articles, case reports and clinical trials. Results: 107 articles were found, from which 78 documents were used for convenience between review, research reports, case reports, bulletins and epidemiological reports. Conclusions: The CHIKV is an Alphavirus with an only serotype described. It is one of the 29 species belong to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family and has two cycles of transmission: Sylvatic or enzootic and urban or epizootic. The incubation period varies between one and twelve days. High fever, cutaneous rash and severe osteoarticular pain are the clinical characteristics that appear in six days, with low lethality and that are difficult to differenciate of other tropical diseases, including Malaria and Dengue. In the majority of the cases, a permanent immunity is acquired. The treatment of the disease is symptomatic and available vaccine does not exist. The sanity authorities must strengthen the programs of vector control to confront this tropical disease. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:317-328. KEYWORDS Chikungunya virus, Chikungunya virus infection, Alphavirus, Alphavirus infections

  7. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaea Richard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR.CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7-90%, 18-78% and 5-53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39-41%, 3-17% and 0-14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector.As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there is no Ae. aegypti.

  8. Estimating drivers of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in its invasion of the americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T Alex; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Grenfell, Bryan T; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that has caused explosive outbreaks in Africa and Asia for decades and invaded the Americas just over a year ago. During this ongoing invasion, it has spread to 45 countries where it has been transmitted autochthonously, infecting nearly 1.3 million people in total. Methods Here, we made use of weekly, country-level case reports to infer relationships between transmission and two putative climatic drivers: temperature and precipitation averaged across each country on a monthly basis. To do so, we used a TSIR model that enabled us to infer a parametric relationship between climatic drivers and transmission potential, and we applied a new method for incorporating a probabilistic description of the serial interval distribution into the TSIR framework. Results We found significant relationships between transmission and linear and quadratic terms for temperature and precipitation and a linear term for log incidence during the previous pathogen generation. The lattermost suggests that case numbers three to four weeks ago are largely predictive of current case numbers. This effect is quite nonlinear at the country level, however, due to an estimated mixing parameter of 0.74. Relationships between transmission and the climatic variables that we estimated were biologically plausible and in line with expectations. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Americas can be correlated successfully with putative climatic drivers, even at the coarse scale of countries and using long-term average climate data. Overall, this provides a preliminary suggestion that successfully forecasting the future trajectory of a Chikungunya outbreak and the receptivity of virgin areas may be possible. Our results also provide tentative estimates of timeframes and areas of greatest risk, and our extension of the TSIR model provides a novel tool for modeling vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:25737803

  9. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  10. A Roadmap for Policy Dialogue and Economic Surveillance in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaihongGao

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the forward-looking framework of policy dialogue and economic surveillance in East Asia, based on analysis of the necessities, constraints and difficulties, together with criteria for effective surveillance. It proposes a roadmap for strengthening the mechanism for surveillance in East Asia, with the emphases on defining different phases, designing possible approaches and identifying the key elements for better surveillance in the region. The study suggests that there should be three phases for forming strong institutionalized regional surveillance. It also discusses possible moves in the second phase with focus on the importance of specifying surveillance coverage and improving statistical infrastructure. The paper points out that the success of establishing a firmly institutionalized surveillance mechanism in East Asia, to a large extent, relies on a common understanding among the countries in the region on the following issues: the necessity of a common monetary regime, the vital importance of statistical infrastructure and the essential elements of political consideration.

  11. [Chikungunya crisis on Reunion Island. Media coverage and conflicting public information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, B

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze media coverage of the health crisis created by the chikungunya epidemic on Reunion Island in 2005/2006. In reaction to nformation provided to the public, the media overstated the sanitary risk. Analysis of the press corpus corresponding to that period reveals an exaggerated account of the epidemic aimed at echoing the genuine distress expressed by victims and their family. Based on the feedback principle, the article suggests a relationship between this situation and information provided to the public about the crisis.

  12. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  13. A Re-Examination of the History of Etiologic Confusion between Dengue and Chikungunya

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the perception of many researchers that the recent invasion of chikungunya (CHIK) in the Western Hemisphere marked the first episode in history, a recent publication reminded them that CHIK had prevailed in the West Indies and southern regions of the United States from 1827–1828 under the guise of “dengue” (DEN), and that many old outbreaks of so-called “dengue” actually represented the CHIK cases erroneously identified as “dengue.” In hindsight, this confusion was unavoidable, gi...

  14. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  15. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  16. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial relationsh

  17. Video surveillance at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark R.; Pollak, Joshua B.; Ralph, Scott; Snorrason, Magnus S.

    2005-05-01

    The interpretation of video imagery is the quintessential goal of computer vision. The ability to group moving pixels into regions and then associate those regions with semantic labels has long been studied by the vision community. In urban nighttime scenarios, the difficulty of this task is simultaneously alleviated and compounded. At night there is typically less movement in the scene, which makes the detection of relevant motion easier. However, the poor quality of the imagery makes it more difficult to interpret actions from these motions. In this paper, we present a system capable of detecting moving objects in outdoor nighttime video. We focus on visible-and-near-infrared (VNIR) cameras, since they offer low cost and very high resolution compared to alternatives such as thermal infrared. We present empirical results demonstrating system performance on a parking lot surveillance scenario. We also compare our results to a thermal infrared sensor viewing the same scene.

  18. Simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus by duplex real-time quantitative PCR%双重荧光定量PCR检测西尼罗病毒和基孔肯雅病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蓓蓓; 卢亦愚; 谢鑫友; 徐昌平; 张钧

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立同时检测西尼罗病毒(WNV)、基孔肯雅病毒(CHIKV)的双重荧光定量PCR法,为临床疑似病例的诊断提供依据.方法 分别针对WNV CAP基因、CHIKV E1基因保守区设计特异性引物和TaqMan探针,建立并优化双重荧光定量PCR反应体系,评价方法的特异性和灵敏度.结果 建立的双重荧光定量PCR可同时检测WNV、CHIKV核酸,标准曲线相关系数(r)分别达0.999、0.998,灵敏度达10 copies/μL,具有良好的特异性.结论 建立了同时检测WNV、CHIKV的双重荧光定量PCR法,但尚需临床进一步验证.%Objective To develop a duplex real-time quantitative PCR assay for simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.Methods Two sets of primers and TaqMan probes were designed based on highly conserved CAP gene region of West Nile virus and E1 gene region of Chikungunya virus,and the reactive condition of duplex real-time PCR was optimized.The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated.Results The duplex real-time quantitative PCR assay showed excellent specificity in simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.The sensitivities of the assay were 10 copies/μL for both the virus,and the correlation coefficient of the quantitative curve were 0.999 and 0.998 respectively.Conclusion The duplex fluorescent quantitative PCR assay developed in this study is sensitive and specific for simultaneous detection of West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.The efficiency of the assay for detecting of clinical samples should be further evaluated.

  19. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  20. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  1. 基于多传感器的光电监视系统设计%Design of Optical Electronic Surveillance System Based on Multi-sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴川

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of growing imaging system sensors,increasingly complex imaging processing,rising image data gained rapidly,system design becomes more difficult,put forward an imaging system based on multi-sensor. Use three CCD to share the same optical path,realizing that obtain the same time images in the same field of view without image registration. Solve the problem of exces-sive wiring process in digital image transmission through Gig network. Because of the different imaging characteristics of different sensor, bilateral filtering technology is applied for the fusion of multi-sensor images. The fusion image quality is better than the band image and this improves the photoelectric monitoring level.%针对成像系统的传感器日益增多、成像过程越来越复杂,获取的图像数据急剧增加,其系统设计难度不断增加的问题,文中提出一种基于多传感器的数字成像系统。采用三个摄像机共用光路,实现无需图像配准即可得到同一视场的同一时刻图像;通过千兆网传输图像,解决了以往数字图像传输过程中连线过多问题;因为不同传感器的成像特点不同,应用一种改进的双边滤波技术对异源图像进行融合,融合图像质量优于各波段图像,进一步提高了光电监视水平。

  2. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  3. Surveillance of items important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides guidance and recommendations on surveillance activities to ensure that structures, systems and components important to safety are available to perform their functions in accordance with design intent and assumptions. Surveillance includes planned activities carried out to verify that the plant is operated within the prescribed operational limits and conditions, and to detect in time any deterioration of structures, systems and components that could result in an unsafe condition. These activities can be classified as: 1) Monitoring plant parameters and system status; 2) Checking and calibrating instrumentation; 3) Testing and inspecting structures, systems and components; 4) Evaluating the results of items 1) and 3). All the activities mentioned above are covered in this Guide. Collectively, such activities are referred to as the surveillance programme. Also covered are requirements and recommendations defining the basis and extent of the surveillance programme, and the administrative and technical aspects of its development and implementation

  4. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  5. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E; Selby, K; Cherpillod, P; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27006779

  6. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohasin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008.

  7. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha V L

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  8. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Man Kwan; Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  9. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya Virus Protects AG129 Mice against Lethal Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van den Doel (Petra); A. Volz (Asisa); J.M. Roose (Jouke M.); V.D. Sewbalaksing (Varsha); G.P. Pijlman (Gorben); I. van Middelkoop (Ingeborg); V. Duiverman (Vincent); E. van de Wetering (Eva); G. Sutter (Gerd); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome ha

  10. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epi

  11. Chikungunya Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Inhibits type I/II Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.; Liu, W.J.; Prow, A.; Geertsema, C.; Ligtenberg, M.; Vanlandingham, D.L.; Schnettler, E.; Vlak, J.M.; Suhrbier, A.; Khromykh, A.A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging human pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. Like that of other alphaviruses, CHIKV replication causes general host shutoff, leading to severe cytopathicity in mammalian cells, and inhibits the ability of infected cells to respond to interferon (IFN). Recent res

  12. Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Domeradzka, N.E.; Baggen, J.; Geertsema, C.; Flipse, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein nsP3 has an essential but unknown role in alphavirus replication and interacts with Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP). Here we describe the first known function of nsP3, to inhibit stress granule assembly by recruiting G3BP into cytoplasmic foci. A con

  13. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  14. A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, L.Y.H.; Kam, Y.W.; Metz, S.W.H.; Hobson-Peters, J.; Prow, N.A.; McCarthy, S.; Smith, D.W.; Pijlman, G.P.; Ng, L.F.P.; Hall, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development and evaluation of

  15. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den P.; Volz, A.; Roose, J.M.; Sewbalaksing, V.D.; Pijlman, G.P.; Middelkoop, van I.; Duiverman, V.; Wetering, van de E.; Sutter, G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Martina, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been docum

  16. Kinetic analysis of mouse brain proteome alterations following chikungunya virus infection before and after appearance of clinical symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fraisier (Christophe); P. Koraka (Penelope); M. Belghazi (Maya); M. Bakli (Mahfoud); S. Granjeaud (Samuel); M. Pophillat (Matthieu); S.M. Lim (Stephanie); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); L. Camoin (Luc); L. Almeras (Lionel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been characterized by an increasing number of severe cases with atypical manifestations including neurological complications. In parallel, the risk map of CHIKV outbreaks has expanded because of improved vector competence. Thes

  17. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  18. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moulin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  19. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin E.; Selby K.; Cherpillod P.; Kaiser L; Boillat-Blanco N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  20. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, E.; Selby, K.; Cherpillod, P.; Kaiser, L; Boillat-Blanco, N.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

  1. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  2. Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mola, Antonia; Peduto, Antonella; La Gatta, Annalisa; Delang, Leen; Pastorino, Boris; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; de Rosa, Mario; Filosa, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne arthrogenic Alphavirus, causes an acute febrile illness in humans, that is, accompanied by severe joint pains. In many cases, the infection leads to persistent arthralgia, which may last for weeks to several years. The re-emergence of this infection in the early 2000s was exemplified by numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere. Since then, the virus is rapidly spreading. Currently, no drugs have been approved or are in development for the treatment of CHIKV, which makes this viral infection particularly interesting for academic medicinal chemistry efforts. Several molecules have already been identified that inhibit CHIKV replication in phenotypic virus-cell-based assays. One of these is arbidol, a molecule that already has been licensed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For structural optimization, a dedicated libraries of 43 indole-based derivatives were evaluated leading to more potent analogues (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities higher than those of the other derivatives, including the lead compound, and with a selective index of inhibition 13.2 and 14.6, respectively, higher than that of ARB (4.6).

  3. Structural analyses at pseudo atomic resolution of Chikungunya virus and antibodies show mechanisms of neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Akahata, Wataru; Holdaway, Heather; Pal, Pankaj; Zhang, Xinzheng; Diamond, Michael S; Nabel, Gary J; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-04-02

    A 5.3 Å resolution, cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) map of Chikungunya virus-like particles (VLPs) has been interpreted using the previously published crystal structure of the Chikungunya E1-E2 glycoprotein heterodimer. The heterodimer structure was divided into domains to obtain a good fit to the cryoEM density. Differences in the T = 4 quasi-equivalent heterodimer components show their adaptation to different environments. The spikes on the icosahedral 3-fold axes and those in general positions are significantly different, possibly representing different phases during initial generation of fusogenic E1 trimers. CryoEM maps of neutralizing Fab fragments complexed with VLPs have been interpreted using the crystal structures of the Fab fragments and the VLP structure. Based on these analyses the CHK-152 antibody was shown to stabilize the viral surface, hindering the exposure of the fusion-loop, likely neutralizing infection by blocking fusion. The CHK-9, m10 and m242 antibodies surround the receptor-attachment site, probably inhibiting infection by blocking cell attachment. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00435.001.

  4. LC-MS²-Based dereplication of Euphorbia extracts with anti-Chikungunya virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Dumontet, Vincent; Neyts, Johan; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc; Paolini, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Recently, phorbol esters from Euphorbiaceae have been shown to elicit potent and selective antiviral activity on the replication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in cell culture. With the objective to found new compounds with anti-CHIKV activities, 45 extracts from various plant parts of 11 Mediterranean Euphorbia and one Mercurialis species were evaluated for selective inhibition of CHIKV replication. All EtOAc extracts, especially those prepared from latex, exhibited significant and selective antiviral activity in a Chikungunya virus-cell-based assay. An LC-MS(2) dereplication method was then developed to investigate whether known diterpenoids with anti-CHIKV activity, such as the potent anti-CHIKV 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and prostratin as well as 24 other commercially available diterpenoids of tigliane-, ingenane-, and daphnane-type for which the anti-CHIKV activity have been established in advance (Nothias-Scaglia et al. 2015), were present in the Euphorbia extracts. Only ingenol-3-mebutate, 13-O-isobutyryl-12-deoxyphorbol-20-acetate, and ingenol-3,20-dibenzoate, all exhibiting weak anti-CHIKV activities, were detected in the EtOAc extracts of Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia segetalis ssp. pinea, and Euphorbia pithyusa ssp. pithyusa. Given the potent anti-CHIKV activities of these Euphorbia extracts, the present study suggested that their antiviral activities are probably due to untargeted diterpenoids.

  5. Dengue, chikungunya … and the missing entity - Zika fever: A new emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Rina; Ray, Sougat; Tilak, V W; Mukherji, Sandip

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a relative newcomer from the flavivirus group that includes dengue, Japanese encepahalitis and yellow fever, is one of the emerging pathogens that is fast transcending geographical boundaries. It is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the same Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which cause dengue and chikungunya. In addition to the vector-mediated transmission of Zika fever, probable human-to-human transmission through exchange of body fluids, including sexual and perinatal transmission and through blood transfusion, makes containment of this new entity more challenging. Moreover, a high index of suspicion by an astute physician is necessary for diagnosis of Zika fever in view of the similarity of symptoms with dengue and chikungunya, especially in areas, where these two diseases are already endemic. Zika, till recently, has had minimal impact, but its true potential is unfolding with increasing detection of congenital malformities, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes in patients with recent history of ZIKV infection, or when mothers get infected with Zika during first or second trimester of pregnancy. The association, however, needs to be established, nonetheless it is important that we keep a close vigil on this emerging vector borne disease - the 'ZIKA' fever. PMID:27257326

  6. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  7. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  8. Novel chikungunya vaccine candidate with an IRES-based attenuation and host range alteration mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Plante

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that has recently caused devastating urban epidemics of severe and sometimes chronic arthralgia. As with most other mosquito-borne viral diseases, control relies on reducing mosquito populations and their contact with people, which has been ineffective in most locations. Therefore, vaccines remain the best strategy to prevent most vector-borne diseases. Ideally, vaccines for diseases of resource-limited countries should combine low cost and single dose efficacy, yet induce rapid and long-lived immunity with negligible risk of serious adverse reactions. To develop such a vaccine to protect against chikungunya fever, we employed a rational attenuation mechanism that also prevents the infection of mosquito vectors. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES from encephalomyocarditis virus replaced the subgenomic promoter in a cDNA CHIKV clone, thus altering the levels and host-specific mechanism of structural protein gene expression. Testing in both normal outbred and interferon response-defective mice indicated that the new vaccine candidate is highly attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious after a single dose. Furthermore, it is incapable of replicating in mosquito cells or infecting mosquitoes in vivo. This IRES-based attenuation platform technology may be useful for the predictable attenuation of any alphavirus.

  9. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H; Ng, Lisa F P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  10. Molecular and Virological Investigation of a Focal Chikungunya Outbreak in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is one of the most important arboviral infections of medical significance. The objective of the present study is to identify and characterize the etiology of a focal febrile arthritis outbreak from Gwalior, northern India, during October-November 2010. A detailed virological (isolation and molecular (end-point RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, and nucleotide sequencing investigation of this outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 52 clinical samples and 15 mosquito pools from the affected region. The investigation revealed the presence of CHIK viral RNA in 29% of clinical samples and 13% mosquito pool by RT-PCR. The quantification of CHIK viral RNA in samples varied from 102.50 to 106.67 copies/mL, as demonstrated through quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, six CHIK viruses were isolated from RT-PCR positive samples. The nucleotide sequences of partial E1 gene of five representative CHIK viruses were deciphered, which revealed that all the viral strains from this outbreak belong to the recently emerging ECS African genotype. Identification of Chikungunya virus ECSA African genotype as the etiology of the present outbreak confirms the continued circulation of the novel genotype, since 2006, in India. The identification of CHIK virus in Aedes aegypti also confirmed it as the major vector in northern India.

  11. Production and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive to Chikungunya envelope E2 glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Anne-Claire; Rubrecht, Laetitia; Navarro-Sanchez, Martha Erika; Maréchal, Valérie; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lapalud, Priscilla; Laune, Daniel; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Desprès, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is an arbovirosis of major impact in public health in Asia and Africa. Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is member of the genus Alphavirus and belongs to the Semliki Forest (SF) antigenic complex. We describe for the first time a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to CHIK envelope E2 glycoprotein. For the screening of E2-specific MAbs, we expressed a recombinant soluble CHIK E2 protein in Drosophila S2 cells. Analyzed by immunological methods, MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 were selected on the basis of their reactivity. Their epitopes are located to the outer surface of CHIK virion. These MAbs have no cross reactivity with related members of SF antigenic complex with the notable exception of Igbo-Ora virus. Anti-CHIK E2 MAbs 3C3, 3E4, and 8A4 should be helpful for studying the biology of CHIK virus and pathogenesis of disease. The combination of 8A4 and 3E4 is suitable for developing a specific antigen-capture ELISA. PMID:17949772

  12. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-03-01

    In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies. PMID:27015222

  13. High rate of subclinical chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Kyu Yoon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ≥6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ≥8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer 50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ≥10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0 protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean.Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, understanding virus transmission, and supporting vaccine development.

  14. Investigation Into an Outbreak of Dengue-like Illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, Revealed a Cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-03-01

    In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

  15. Tools for surveillance system evaluation: Reviewing the need for participatory approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Calba, Clémentine; Grobois, Vladimir; Peyre, Marisa; Hoinville, Linda; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Saegerman, Claude; Goutard, Flavie

    2013-01-01

    While the need for effective animal health surveillance is widely recognised for diseases management, most veterinary services are facing significant budget constraints. There is a real need to develop cost-effective surveillance systems. To ensure quality of these systems, there is a further need to design comprehensive, timely, effective and affordable evaluation frameworks. Depending on epidemiological, sociological and economic factors, animal diseases surveillance systems can be complex,...

  16. Design of Embedded Surveillance Based on S3C2440 and OV9650%基于S3C2440与OV9650的嵌入式监控设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡哲光

    2012-01-01

    Embedded video surveillance features small size, flexibility, high reliability, networking convenience and remote monitoring, which meet the growing needs of security. In this paper, the embedded monitoring system with video capture and encoding has been designed with the hardware platform made up of Samsung's S3C2440 and Omni Vision's the OV9650 image sensor as well as the embedded Linux software platform. What's more, this system is encoded with optimized XVID encoder. All these can ensure high compression ratio and image quality, making it suitable for banks, neighborhood, warehouse and other unattended applications. [Ch,4 fig.2 tab. 10 ref. ]%嵌入式视频监控具有小巧灵活、可靠性高、组网方便、可远程监控等优点,可满足当前社会日益增长的安保需求.文章以三星公司的S3C2440处理器和Omni Vision公司0V9650图像传感器为硬件平台,以嵌入式Linux为软件平台,设计具有视频采集和编码功能的嵌入式监控系统,并采用经过优化后的XVID编码器进行编码,在达到高压缩比的情况下保证图像质量,适合银行、小区门禁、仓库等无人值守场合.

  17. Design of Hardware for CCD Video Surveillance Camera with External Synchronization Function%具有外同步功能的 CCD 视频监控摄像机硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国蓉; 焦旸; 高明; 杜玉军

    2014-01-01

    为了解决目标追踪中不同摄像机间识别目标的差异,在普通摄像机的基础上开发外同步功能。使用专用DSP微处理器CXD3172AR加EEPROM 的驱动方案,利用同步信号发生器和锁相环电路实现外同步功能。设计了信号处理电路,实现清晰的图像输出。实验结果表明,视频监控摄像机输出视频信号稳定,实现外同步功能,图像分辨率达752×528,输出帧率50帧/秒。%In order to solve the problem that the target identified by different cameras was discrepant during the process of tracking ,the external synchronization function is developed based on the common camera .Also ,a program is proposed ,taking CXD3172AR ,a microprocessor specially used in DSP and EEPROM as driver ,then using synchronous signal generator and phase locked loop circuit ,to achieve external synchronization .Meanwhile a signal processing circuit is designed to achieve the output of digital format . T he experimental results show that the video surveillance camera had the features of stable output signal ,external synchronization ,image resolution up to 752 × 528 and output frame rate up to 50 frames/s .

  18. Autonomous soaring and surveillance in wind fields with an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an active role in developing a low-cost, low-altitude autonomous aerial surveillance platform. The success of the applications needs to address the challenge of limited on-board power plant that limits the endurance performance in surveillance mission. This thesis studies the mechanics of soaring flight, observed in nature where birds utilize various wind patterns to stay airborne without flapping their wings, and investigates its application to small UAVs in their surveillance missions. In a proposed integrated framework of soaring and surveillance, a bird-mimicking soaring maneuver extracts energy from surrounding wind environment that improves surveillance performance in terms of flight endurance, while the surveillance task not only covers the target area, but also detects energy sources within the area to allow for potential soaring flight. The interaction of soaring and surveillance further enables novel energy based, coverage optimal path planning. Two soaring and associated surveillance strategies are explored. In a so-called static soaring surveillance, the UAV identifies spatially-distributed thermal updrafts for soaring, while incremental surveillance is achieved through gliding flight to visit concentric expanding regions. A Gaussian-process-regression-based algorithm is developed to achieve computationally-efficient and smooth updraft estimation. In a so-called dynamic soaring surveillance, the UAV performs one cycle of dynamic soaring to harvest energy from the horizontal wind gradient to complete one surveillance task by visiting from one target to the next one. A Dubins-path-based trajectory planning approach is proposed to maximize wind energy extraction and ensure smooth transition between surveillance tasks. Finally, a nonlinear trajectory tracking controller is designed for a full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear UAV dynamics model and extensive simulations are carried to demonstrate the effectiveness of

  19. Diseño del Monitoreo Nacional de Indicadores Nutricionales (MONIN, Perú 2007-2010 Design of the National Surveillance of Nutritional Indicators (MONIN, Peru 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Campos-Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir el diseño y los métodos del monitoreo nacional de indicadores nutricionales (MONIN 2007-2010 conducido por INS/CENAN. Materiales y métodos. El MONIN fue diseñado como una encuesta continua (transversal repetida, por muestreo aleatorio estratificado y multietápico, del universo de niños menores de cinco años y gestantes residentes en el Perú, dividido en cinco estratos geográficos y seis trimestres (semanas permutadas aleatoriamente que fueron 78% del tiempo entre el 19 de noviembre de 2007 y el 2 de abril de 2010. Resultados. La muestra total ha obtenido 3 827 niños en 361 conglomerados terminados. La pérdida ha sido 8,4% en los conglomerados, 1,8% de viviendas, 13,2% de hogares, 4,2% en antropometría, 13,3% en hemoglobina, 21,2% en consumo de alimentos; 55,0% en retinol y 29,9% en yoduria. Conclusiones. El diseño del MONIN es factible y su implementación resulta útil para la estimación de los indicadores de desnutrición infantil.Objectives. To describe the design and methods of the national surveillance of nutritional indicators (MONIN 2007-2010, carried out by INS/CENAN. Materials and methods. MONIN was designed as a continuous (repeated cross-sectional survey, with stratified multi-stage random sampling, considering the universe as all under five children and pregnant women residing in Peru, divided into 5 geographical strata and 6 trimesters (randomly permuted weeks, about 78% of the time between November 19, 2007 and April 2, 2010. Results. The total sample was 3,827 children in 361 completed clusters. The dropout rate was 8.4% in clusters, 1.8% in houses, and 13.2% in households. Dropout was also 4.2, 13.3, 21.2, 55% and 29% in anthropometry, hemoglobin, food intake, retinol and ioduria measurements, respectively. Conclusions. The MONIN design is feasible and useful for the estimation of indicators of childhood malnutrition.

  20. Spent fuel surveillance and monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting on ''Spent Fuel Surveillance and Monitoring Methods'' (27-30 October 1987) has been organized in accordance with recommendations of the International Standing Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management during its second meeting in 1986. The aim of the meeting was to discuss the above questions with emphasis on current design and operation criteria, safety principles and licensing requirements and procedures in order to prevent: inadvertent criticality, undue radiation exposure, unacceptable release of radioactivity as well as control for loss of storage pool water, crud impact, water chemistry, distribution and behaviour of particulates in cooling water, oxidation of intact and failed fuel rods as a function of temperature and burnup; distribution of radiation and temperature through dry cask wall, monitoring of leakages from pools and gas escapes from dry storage facilities, periodical integrity tests of the containment barriers, responsibilities of organizations for the required operation, structure, staff and subordination, etc. The presentations of the Meeting were divided into two sessions: Spent fuel surveillance programmes and practice in Member States (4 papers); Experimental methods developed in support of spent fuel surveillance programmes (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Mathematical model of tumor-immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasa, Khaphetsi Joseph; Ouifki, Rachid; Eladdadi, Amina; Pillis, Lisette de

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel mathematical model involving various immune cell populations and tumor cell populations. The model describes how tumor cells evolve and survive the brief encounter with the immune system mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and the activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The model is composed of ordinary differential equations describing the interactions between these important immune lymphocytes and various tumor cell populations. Based on up-to-date knowledge of immune evasion and rational considerations, the model is designed to illustrate how tumors evade both arms of host immunity (i.e. innate and adaptive immunity). The model predicts that (a) an influx of an external source of NK cells might play a crucial role in enhancing NK-cell immune surveillance; (b) the host immune system alone is not fully effective against progression of tumor cells; (c) the development of immunoresistance by tumor cells is inevitable in tumor immune surveillance. Our model also supports the importance of infiltrating NK cells in tumor immune surveillance, which can be enhanced by NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27317864

  2. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  3. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  4. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  5. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  6. The Effectiveness of IMF Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Biagio Bossone

    2008-01-01

    IMF surveillance of the international monetary and financial system is a global public good. Its effectiveness depends critically on the dynamics that underpin the mechanisms governing the IMF and global finance. These dynamics, in turn, reflect the interests and power of influence of countries (especially the largest), their cooperative attitude and international relations. Assessing the effectiveness of IMF surveillance, therefore, demands a clear understanding of the IMF and global financi...

  7. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  8. Design of web-based platform for real-time surveillance and management on healthcare-associated infection%基于互联网的医院感染信息实时监测与管理网络平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩黎; 韩雪琳; 吴明虎; 贾红; 孙岩松; 黄留玉; 刘运成; 田晓丽; 胡小华; 赵东升; 陈勇; 尉景辉; 吕雪峰; 郑重; 赵静雅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To design a web-based real-time automatic information system platform for the purpose of healthcare-associated infection(HAI) case surveillance and targeted surveillance. Methods System requirement a-nalysis was adopted to compare current web-based HAI surveillance systems and current state of HAI surveillance and management, real-time automatic information system platform design was demonstrated based on the idea of real-time automatic surveillance, hardware and software requirement, and basic function design. Results The framework protocol of real-time automatic information system has been designed and four basic requirements must be met: the platform for massive data storage and processing, the device for data transmission between hospital network and the network outside the hospital, uniform reporting table for HAI surveillance, and information system based on the network outside the hospital, such as the internet. The system had three main functions: data sending automatically, data analysis and sharing, decision supporting and early warning. Conclusion There is a clear idea for the design of web-based real-time automatic surveillance and management of HAI platform, which is very powerful, accurate and reliable. The establishment of this platform will greatly reduce the cost of HAI surveillance and improve the quality of HAI management.%目的 规划与设计基于网络的以实时自动推送形式进行医院感染病例监测和目标性监测的网络信息系统平台.方法 采用系统需求分析方法,对比分析国内外已有的医院感染网络监测系统以及我国现有医院感染监测与管理现状,从实时自动监测理念、网络硬软件需求及基本功能设置等多方面阐明医院感染实时自动监测和管理平台的设计及运行思路.结果 提出医院感染信息的网络实时自动监测管理理念和监测管理平台建设的框架设计方案,其建设的基本条件包括医院内部网与外部

  9. A Framework For An Event Driven Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Kieran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an event driven surveillance system that uses multiple cameras. The purpose of this system is to enable thorough exploration of surveillance events. The system uses a client-server web architecture as this provides scalability for further development of the system infrastructure. The system is designed to be accessed by surveillance operators who can review and comment on events generated by our event detection processing modules. We do not just focus on event detection, but are working towards the optimization of event detection. A multiple camera network system that tracks a moving object (or person and decides if this is an event of interest is also examined. Dynamic switching of the cameras is implemented to aid in human monitoring of the network. The camera displayed in the main view should be the camera with the most interesting activity occurring. Unusual activity is defined as activity occurring that is not of the norm. Normal activity is considered to be everyday repeated activity. Further thought will be given to the extension of this system into a distributed system that would effectively create an event web system. Our contributions are to the development of automated real-time switching of camera views to aid camera operators in the effort of effective video surveillance, and also the detection of events of interest within a surveillance environment, with appropriate alerts and storage of these events. To the best of our knowledge this system provides a novel approach to the technological surveillance paradigm.

  10. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  11. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  12. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  13. The Epidemic Trend and Control Strategies of Chikungunya Fever%基孔肯雅热的流行现况及其防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春芳; 司菡; 陆家海

    2009-01-01

    基孔肯雅热(Chikungunya fever,CHIK)是由基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya virus,CHIKV)引起的一种急性传染病.本文针对基孔肯雅热的病原学、流行现况、诊断方法、防治对策等方面做一综述.

  14. Pressure Transmitter Surveillance Using Quaternion Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J. M.; García-Berrocal, A.; Balbás, M.; Blazquez, J.

    2002-11-01

    Rosemount pressure transmitters are widely used in Nuclear Power Plants. Mandatory surveillance is focused on the ramp response time, which is calculated using noise analysis techniques. But the response time only accounts for the sensing diaphragm degradation. Considering the other components, a technique for early failure detection is developed. It uses simple properties of the quaternion algebra, mainly the non-commutativity of the multiplication rule. Quaternions are built from the transmitter noise signal. The design of a specific quaternion for a given component is based on an electrical analogy of the transmitter physical model.

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Petitdemange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy.We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients.We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV.Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

  16. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras. W

  17. Production of Chikungunya Virus-Like Particles and Subunit Vaccines in Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Stefan W; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is a reemerging human pathogen that causes debilitating arthritic disease in humans. Like dengue and Zika virus, CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in an epidemic urban cycle, and is now rapidly spreading through the Americas since its introduction in the Caribbean in late 2013. There are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs available, and only a few vaccine candidates have passed Phase I human clinical trials. Using recombinant baculovirus expression technology, we have generated CHIKV glycoprotein subunit and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that are amenable to large scale production in insect cells. These vaccines, in particular the VLPs, have shown high immunogenicity and protection against CHIKV infection in different animal models of CHIKV-induced disease. Here, we describe the production, purification, and characterization of these potent CHIKV vaccine candidates. PMID:27233282

  18. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  19. Detection of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes albopictus in Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2012-10-01

    We detected Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection among wild populations of Aedes albopictus female specimens during the CHIKV outbreaks of 2009 and 2006 collected in different localities in Kerala State, India. The envelope 1 gene (E1) sequences of the virus isolate 2009 from the mosquito species showed close genetic relatedness (Kimura 2 Parameter genetic distance=0.0013) to CHIKV-positive isolates from human serum samples from the same area. E1 gene sequences from Ae. albopictus, as well as from human isolates, had the crucial non-synonymous C/T mutation at position 10670, leading to the A226V amino acid change. This natural inclination indicated the role of this mosquito species in the transmission of CHIKV during its recent outbreaks in Kerala State. PMID:22925018

  20. Control of the Transmission of Chikungunya Fever Epidemic Through the use of Adulticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naowarat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Another newly emerging disease, chikungunya fever, has appeared in various places such as the Island of Reunion, Thailand and other India. To control an epidemic of disease once it has been established, the use of adulticide is proposed. Approach: To simulate the effects of different control measurement, a mathematical model incorporating the specific features of this disease has been proposed. Using the standard methods for analyzing the dynamical stability of the system, the role of the efficacy of the adulticide on the basic reproduction number of the disease is studied. Results and Conclusion: It was found that below a particular value of the efficacy which depends on the values of the parameters used in the model, adulticide would not be effective at controlling the epidemic.

  1. Development of Neutralization Assay Using an eGFP Chikungunya Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Lin Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a member of the Alphavirus genus, is an important human emerging/re-emerging pathogen. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against CHIKV infection. Herein, we construct an infectious clone of CHIKV and an eGFP reporter CHIKV (eGFP-CHIKV with an isolated strain (assigned to Asian lineage from CHIKV-infected patients. The eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus allows for direct visualization of viral replication through the levels of eGFP expression. Using a known CHIKV inhibitor, ribavirin, we confirmed that the eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus could be used to identify inhibitors against CHIKV. Importantly, we developed a novel and reliable eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus-based neutralization assay that could be used for rapid screening neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV.

  2. Development of Neutralization Assay Using an eGFP Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Si-Qing; Zhou, Dong-Gen; Xu, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Pan-Tao; Li, Peng-Hui; Ye, Han-Qing; Wei, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, is an important human emerging/re-emerging pathogen. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against CHIKV infection. Herein, we construct an infectious clone of CHIKV and an eGFP reporter CHIKV (eGFP-CHIKV) with an isolated strain (assigned to Asian lineage) from CHIKV-infected patients. The eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus allows for direct visualization of viral replication through the levels of eGFP expression. Using a known CHIKV inhibitor, ribavirin, we confirmed that the eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus could be used to identify inhibitors against CHIKV. Importantly, we developed a novel and reliable eGFP-CHIKV reporter virus-based neutralization assay that could be used for rapid screening neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. PMID:27367716

  3. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for detecting chikungunya virus and dengue virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piyathida Pongsiri; Kesmanee Praianantathavorn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Sunchai Payungporn; Yong Poovorawan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To develop diagnostic test for detection chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Dengue virus (DENV)infection.Methods:We have performed a rapid, accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify and differentiateCHIKV and DENV infection by single-step multiplex real-timeRT-PCR.Results: The assay’s sensitivity was97.65%, specificity was 92.59% and accuracy was95.82% when compared to conventional RT-PCR. Additionally, there was no cross-reaction betweenCHIKV, DENV, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C, hepatitis A or hepatitis E virus.Conclusions:This rapid and reliable assay provides a means for simultaneous early diagnosis ofCHIKV andDENV in a single-step reaction.

  4. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection—From Virus CellBinding to Membrane Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike K. S. van Duijl-Richter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

  5. Phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus among travelers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Costa Conteville

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015. These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus.

  6. Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Kaic, Bernard; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Kucinar, Jasmina; Klobucar, Ana; Medic, Alan; Pahor, Djana; Barac-Juretic, Katija; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2015-06-01

    During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from randomly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) and only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

  7. Effective chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine produced in insect cells.

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    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.

  8. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Hoornweg, Tabitha E; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-07-07

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion and review the molecules and compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry and to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

  9. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  10. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area.

  11. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies. PMID:27427208

  12. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  13. A chikungunya outbreak associated with the vector Aedes albopictus in remote villages of Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Kassa Kassa, Fabrice; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M

    2012-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently caused major urban outbreaks in central African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cameroon, and Gabon. In Gabon, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was shown to be the main CHIKV vector during the 2007 outbreak. This invasive Asian species was first identified in Gabon in early 2007, and was thought to be restricted mainly to coastal provinces where urban epidemic CHIKV foci were recorded. Here we report a CHIKV outbreak in a small cluster of villages isolated in the deep forest of southern Gabon, in which A. albopictus was the main vector. This observation indicates concomitant geographic and ecological spread of CHIKV activity and A. albopictus in remote environments in central Africa, as well as an enhanced risk of propagation of epidemic arboviruses.

  14. Congenital syphilis surveillance

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    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  15. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Rumberia, Cecilia; Michuki, George; Kimotho, James; Ongus, Juliette R; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Island, showed distinct and reproducible large (L2) and small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain and plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines and their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants and S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) and 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity and dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain and its variants clustered closely together with each other and with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to understand the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence and viral transmission in mosquito and mammalian hosts.

  16. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

  17. Genetic analysis of chikungunya viruses imported to mainland China in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has caused large outbreaks worldwide in recent years, especially on the islands of the Indian Ocean and India. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti, which are widespread in China, with an especially high population density in southern China. Analyses of full-length viral sequences revealed the acquisition of a single adaptive mutation providing a selective advantage for the transmission of CHIKV by this species. No outbreaks due to the local transmission of CHIKV have been reported in China, and no cases of importation were detected on mainland China before 2008. We followed the spread of imported CHIKV in southern China and analyzed the genetic character of the detected viruses to evaluate their potential for evolution. Results The importation of CHIKV to mainland China was first detected in 2008. The genomic sequences of four of the imported viruses were identified, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences were clustered in the Indian Ocean group; however, seven amino acid changes were detected in the nonstructural protein-coding region, and five amino acid changes were noted in the structural protein-coding regions. In particular, a novel substitution in E2 was detected (K252Q, which may impact the neurovirulence of CHIKV. The adaptive mutation A226V in E1 was observed in two imported cases of chikungunya disease. Conclusions Laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections among travelers visiting China in 2008 were presented, new mutations in the viral nucleic acids and proteins may represent adaptive mutations for human or mosquito hosts.

  18. Molecular investigations of chikungunya virus during outbreaks in Orissa, Eastern India in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswadeep; Sahu, Abhipsa; Das, Mumani; Patra, Aparna; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2012-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of genus Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The resurgence of CHIKV in different parts of India is a point of major public health concern. In 2010, chikungunya outbreaks with high epidemic magnitude were recorded in coastal areas of Orissa, Eastern India, affecting more than 15,000 people coupled with severe arthralgia and prolonged morbidites. Detailed entomological, serological and molecular investigation of this unprecendented outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 1359 mosquito samples belonging to A. albopictus, A. aegypti, A. vittatus, A. edwardsii and Culex species and 220 patients serum from the affected areas. In this study, CHIKV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were done to detect recent infection of CHIKV in serum samples and adult mosquitoes collected from the affected areas. The high maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) (15.2) in A. albopictus mosquitoes indicated that it was the principal vector involved in transmission of CHIKV in Orissa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak belonged to the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype. Genetic characterization of envelope glycoprotein (E1 and E2) genes revealed that all the CHIKV isolates from Orissa had the E1-A226V mutation that enhances viral dissemination and transmissibility by A. albopictus mosquitoes along with E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations, which play an epistatic role with E1-A226V mutation in adaptation of CHIKV to A. albopictus by increasing its midgut infectivity, thereby favoring its vectorial capacity. Our results showed the involvement of A. albopictus vector in the recent outbreaks in Orissa and circulation of IOL strains of ECSA genotype of CHIKV with E1-A226V, E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations in vectors and patients serum. PMID:22484761

  19. Chikungunya fever among patients with acute febrile illness attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai

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    Lata Baswanna Galate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.

  20. Copy number variation of Chikungunya ECSA virus with disease symptoms among Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Pal, Tithi; Saha, Bibhuti; Mandal, Syamsundar; Tripathi, Anusri

    2014-08-01

    After a gap of three decades, from 2005 onwards, a series of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks occurred worldwide. This study was performed to detect CHIKV infection, its genotype among symptomatic Eastern Indian patients and to analyze any association between the presence of CHIKV genome in patient body with appearance of disease symptoms (n = 199). Plasma-extracted viral RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA and PCR-amplified followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Viral load among CHIKV-positive patients was determined by real time RT-PCR. CHIKV-IgM in sera was detected by ELISA. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of plasma-extracted PCR products was done. CHIKV genome and IgM were detected among 65.3% (n = 130) and 41.2% (n = 82) patients respectively. Joint swelling was significantly associated with CHIKV infection (P-value: 0.0003). CHIKV PCR positive patients were grouped in two categories: Group-I: viral load patients clustered in Group-II. Fever and joint swelling were significantly more prevalent among Group-II patients, whereas rash and diarrhoea among Group-I patients (P-value Patient-isolated CHIKV sequences clustered with CHIKV ECSA genotypes in the phylogenetic tree, with two types of CHIKV strains found to circulate among them-as indicated by their different nucleotide sequences. This is the first study detecting the presence of CHIKV ECSA genotype among Eastern Indian patients. Fever and joint swelling might have appeared first followed by rash, diarrhea during disease progression-as indicated by CHIK viral load in patients. Thus, viral load can be used as unique diagnostic and prognostic marker of Chikungunya disease pathogenesis. PMID:24132555

  1. Transmission potential of chikungunya virus and control measures: the case of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Poletti

    Full Text Available During summer 2007 Italy has experienced an epidemic caused by Chikungunya virus - the first large outbreak documented in a temperate climate country - with approximately 161 laboratory confirmed cases concentrated in two bordering villages in North-Eastern Italy comprising 3,968 inhabitants. The seroprevalence was recently estimated to be 10.2%. In this work we provide estimates of the transmission potential of the virus and we assess the efficacy of the measures undertaken by public health authorities to control the epidemic spread. To such aim, we developed a model describing the temporal dynamics of the competent vector, known as Aedes albopictus, explicitly depending on climatic factors, coupled to an epidemic transmission model describing the spread of the epidemic in both humans and mosquitoes. The cumulative number of notified cases predicted by the model was 185 on average (95% CI 117-278, in good agreement with observed data. The probability of observing a major outbreak after the introduction of an infective human case was estimated to be in the range of 32%-76%. We found that the basic reproduction number was in the range of 1.8-6 but it could have been even larger, depending on the density of mosquitoes, which in turn depends on seasonal meteorological effects, besides other local abiotic factors. These results confirm the increasing risk of tropical vector-borne diseases in temperate climate countries, as a consequence of globalization. However, our results show that an epidemic can be controlled by performing a timely intervention, even if the transmission potential of Chikungunya virus is sensibly high.

  2. Surveillance study for creating the national clinical database relating to ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT of asymptomatic ischemic heart disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J-ACCESS 2 study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. Thus, a surveillance study was conducted as part of studies to create a national database related to electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of ischemic heart disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their prognoses will be followed for 3 years, stratified by patients' clinical background and SPECT findings. A total of 513 patients from 50 institutions were enrolled in this study, 297 of whom were men (age 66.2±0.4 years, mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)) and 261 women (age 67.8±0.5 years). They have a history of retinopathy (25.3%), neuropathy (19.9%), cerebrovascular disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and photocoagulation. Major risk factors for present disease were hypertension (82.3%) and hyperlipidemia (79.7%). In 244 patients (129 men and 115 women), body mass index (BMI) was 25 or more. Fifty-two of them (10.1%) underwent coronary angiography; of these, 26 (50.0%) had no coronary artery lesions with 75% or more stenosis, and only 1 (1.9%) had a left main trunk with 50% or more stenosis. An overwhelming majority of patients (94.3%) underwent SPECT imaging by a 1-day stress-followed-by-rest procedure. Stress procedure was exercise in most (70.8%) patients, followed by dipyridamole infusion in 14.6%, adenosine infusion in 6.6%, and adenosine triphosphate infusion in 5.7%. Endpoint of stress examination was most often fatigue in lower limbs (40.7%), followed by completion of pharmacological stress protocol (28.7%), and achievement of target heart rate (26.3%). The largest number of patients (198, 38.6%) received 99mTc-tetrofosmin at an initial dosage of 200-300 MBq (mean 331±3 MBq) followed by a second dosage of 700-800 MBq (mean 748±8 MBq). Among them, 491 (95.7%) received some kind of therapeutic drug: hypoglycemic drugs were

  3. Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemanee, Atchara; Wikan, Nitwara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tandem mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins by database searching. The methodology can routinely detect several thousand proteins in one analysis. The protocol we describe here has been used with both cells in culture that have been infected with chikungunya virus and specimens from Chikungunya fever patients. This protocol details the process for generating peptides for subsequent mass spectroscopic and bioinformatic analysis. PMID:27233271

  4. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  5. Efficient national surveillance for health-care-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bunnik, B. A. D.; Ciccolini, M.; Gibbons, C. L.; Edwards, G.; Fitzgerald, R.; McAdam, P. R.; Ward, M. J.; Laurenson, I. F.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detecting novel healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) as early as possible is an important public health priority. However, there is currently no evidence base to guide the design of efficient and reliable surveillance systems. Here we address this issue in the context of a novel patho

  6. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite cons

  7. Endoscope disinfection and its pitfalls - requirement for retrograde surveillance cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, A. J.; Been, M. H.; Borgers, R. P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Peters, F. T. M.; Limburg, A. J.; Degener, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and study aims: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to

  8. The Loca Project: Locative media and pervasive surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemment, Drew; Raento, Mika; Humphries, Theo; Evans, John

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of artwork Loca: Set To Discoverable, awarded an Honorary Mention, Prix Ars Electronica 2008. Loca was an artist-led project on grass-roots, pervasive surveillance using mobile phones. The premier full presentation of at ISEA2006 and ZeroOne in August 2006 combined art installation, software engineering, activism, pervasive design, hardware hacking, SMS poetry, sticker art and ambient performance.

  9. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  10. Total Process Surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    analytical redundancy is of significant importance in order to obtain the maximum amount of information as to the state of the plant. A further logical step in this theory is the accommodation of failed or damaged transducers by deriving their measurement information from the available remaining transducers. A system capable of providing a clear and improved picture of the plant's behaviour under a range of normal and off-normal operating conditions would thus be of significant economical and safety benefit. In summary: A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical redundancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. The TOPS system provides a structured and complete means for plant data management under both normal and off-normal operating conditions and thus will significantly assist the operator during severe accident management

  11. Supermarket baker's asthma: how accurate is routine health surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, A; Nightingale, S; Berriman, J; Sharp, C; Welch, J; Newman, T; Cullinan, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Regular health surveillance is commonly recommended for workers exposed to occupational antigens but little is known about how effective it is in identifying cases. Aims: To report one large company's surveillance and compare its findings with those of a standard cross-sectional survey in the same workforce. Methods: A supermarket company with 324 in-store bakeries producing bread from raw ingredients conducted a three-stage health surveillance programme in around 3000 bakery employees. The first stage involved the administration of a simple respiratory questionnaire. If chest symptoms were present a second questionnaire focusing on their work relationship was administered. If positive a blood sample was requested for the measurement of specific IgE to flour and fungal α-amylase. The results were compared to an independent cross-sectional survey of employees in 20 of the company's stores. Results: Two hundred and ninety nine (92%) of the company's bakeries took part in surveillance. The overall employee response for the first stage was 77%; a quarter of those with respiratory symptoms reported that they were work related. Seventy four (61%) of those with work related chest symptoms had a measurement of specific IgE to either flour or fungal α-amylase, of whom 30 (41%) had a positive result. Surveillance estimated that 1% of bakery employees (1% bakers, 2% managers, 0.6% confectioners) had work related symptoms with specific IgE. This compared with 4% (7.5% bakers, 3.3% managers, 0% confectioners) in the cross-sectional survey (n = 166, 93% response). Conclusion: Comparison with a standard cross-sectional survey suggests that routine surveillance can underestimate the workplace burden of disease. The reasons may include technical or resource issues and uncertainties over confidentiality or the perceived consequences of participation. More research needs to be done looking into the design and efficacy of surveillance in occupational asthma. PMID

  12. Advanced digital video surveillance for safeguard and physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Video surveillance is a very crucial component in safeguard and physical protection. Digital technology has revolutionized the surveillance scenario and brought in various new capabilities like better image quality, faster search and retrieval of video images, less storage space for recording, efficient transmission and storage of video, better protection of recorded video images, and easy remote accesses to live and recorded video etc. The basic safeguard requirement for verifiably uninterrupted surveillance has remained largely unchanged since its inception. However, changes to the inspection paradigm to admit automated review and remote monitoring have dramatically increased the demands on safeguard surveillance system. Today's safeguard systems can incorporate intelligent motion detection with very low rate of false alarm and less archiving volume, embedded image processing capability for object behavior and event based indexing, object recognition, efficient querying and report generation etc. It also demands cryptographically authenticating, encrypted, and highly compressed video data for efficient, secure, tamper indicating and transmission. In physical protection, intelligent on robust video motion detection, real time moving object detection and tracking from stationary and moving camera platform, multi-camera cooperative tracking, activity detection and recognition, human motion analysis etc. is going to play a key rote in perimeter security. Incorporation of front and video imagery exploitation tools like automatic number plate recognition, vehicle identification and classification, vehicle undercarriage inspection, face recognition, iris recognition and other biometric tools, gesture recognition etc. makes personnel and vehicle access control robust and foolproof. Innovative digital image enhancement techniques coupled with novel sensor design makes low cost, omni-directional vision capable, all weather, day night surveillance a reality

  13. Host Alternation of Chikungunya Virus Increases Fitness while Restricting Population Diversity and Adaptability to Novel Selective Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, L. L.; Vignuzzi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which RNA arboviruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV), evolve and maintain the ability to infect vertebrate and invertebrate hosts are poorly understood. To understand how host specificity shapes arbovirus populations, we studied CHIKV populations passaged alternately between invertebrate and vertebrate cells (invertebrate ↔ vertebrate) to simulate natural alternation and contrasted the results with those for populations that were artificially released from cycling by p...

  14. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  15. Expression of plasmid-based shRNA against the E1 and nsP1 genes effectively silenced Chikungunya virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and persistent arthralgia in humans. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral against CHIKV infection. Therefore, this study evaluates whether RNA interference which targets at viral genomic level may be a novel antiviral strategy to inhibit the medically important CHIKV infection. METHODS: Plasmid-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA was investigated for its efficacy in inhibiting CHIKV replication. Three shRNAs designed against CHIKV Capsid, E1 and nsP1 genes were transfected to establish stable shRNA-expressing cell clones. Following infection of stable shRNA cells clones with CHIKV at M.O.I. 1, viral plaque assay, Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The in vivo efficacy of shRNA against CHIKV replication was also evaluated in a suckling murine model of CHIKV infection. RESULTS: Cell clones expressing shRNAs against CHIKV E1 and nsP1 genes displayed significant inhibition of infectious CHIKV production, while shRNA Capsid demonstrated a modest inhibitory effect as compared to scrambled shRNA cell clones and non-transfected cell controls. Western blot analysis of CHIKV E2 protein expression and transmission electron microscopy of shRNA E1 and nsP1 cell clones collectively demonstrated similar inhibitory trends against CHIKV replication. shRNA E1 showed non cell-type specific anti-CHIKV effects and broad-spectrum silencing against different geographical strains of CHIKV. Furthermore, shRNA E1 clones did not exert any inhibition against Dengue virus and Sindbis virus replication, thus indicating the high specificity of shRNA against CHIKV replication. Moreover, no shRNA-resistant CHIKV mutant was generated after 50 passages of CHIKV in the stable cell clones. More importantly, strong and sustained anti-CHIKV protection was conferred in suckling mice pre-treated with shRNA E1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these

  16. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  17. 应用含内参的多重实时荧光RT-PCR方法快速检测登革病毒和基孔肯雅病毒%Rapid detection of Dengue virus and Chikungunya virus by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay with an internal control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑夔; 丁国允; 周惠琼; 谢雪妹; 李小波; 师永霞; 苏锦坤; 黄吉城

    2013-01-01

    primers and probes were designed and a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay to detect Dengue virus and Chikungunya virus together with human gene as reference in one tube was established . Then the specificity and sensitivity were verified , and by using the serum samples collected from fever patients , an applied evaluation of the assay was performed . Results demonstrated that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay could detect 10 to 100 copies per reaction for Dengue viral and Chikungunya viral in vitro transcribed RNA . For detection of Dengue virus type I and Chikungunya virus , the sensitivity could reach to minimum of 0 .1 TCID50 /mL and 1 TCID50 /mL, respectively . A specificity of 100% could be observed , with this assay testing on 20 Dengue virus strains , 4 Chikungunya virus strains , 1 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus , 1 strain of West Nile virus , 1 strain of yellow fever virus , 1 strain of Getah virus , and 1 strain of Sindbis virus . Of 189 serum samples from patients with fever were tested by the assay , Dengue virus or Chikungunya virus nucleic acid positive samples could be accurately identified . Furthermore, all serum samples were efficiently amplified by reference primers and hybridized with probes . It's suggested that this study established a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay with high sensitivity , high specificity and using human gene as internal control for detecting Dengue virus and Chikungunya virus . This assay will become an effective tool for rapid differential diagnosis of early stage of Dengue fever or Chikungunya fever. It also could be used for high throughput and rapid screening of mosquito-carried Dengue virus or Chikungunya virus .

  18. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  19. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  20. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  1. Interpretation of the Errors in the Design of HD Video Surveillance System and Case Study%高清视频监控系统设计误区解读及案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钊

    2012-01-01

    高清网络视频监控系统普遍应用在生产管理、安全防范等领域,具有直观、分辨率高等优点。本文讨论高清网络视频监控系统与标清网络视频监控系统造价的对比,以纠正人们对高清网络视频监控系统造价高的误解。%High-definition network video surveillance systems are generally used in production management, ~curity and other fields, with intuitive, high resolution advantage. This article discusses the price comparison between the high-definition network video monitoring system and standard definition network video surveillance system in order to correct the misunderstanding from the users who think that the price of high- definition network v{deo surveillance system is high.

  2. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  3. Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

  4. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  5. Video Surveillance using Distance Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A.

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  6. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  7. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  8. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  9. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

  10. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases. PMID:20084734

  11. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. PMID:26520482

  12. A model of laboratory surveillance for neuro-arbovirosis applied during 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Gaibani, P; Rossini, G; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Sambri, V; Varani, S

    2014-07-01

    Arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential are gaining more attention due to the increased number of cases of autochthonous and imported infections in the human host. Diagnosis of infection caused by these viruses in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases is still underestimated and these infections represent an emerging threat to public health. We describe a model suitable for the laboratory surveillance of neuro-arbovirosis that was applied in the Emilia-Romagna region, north-eastern Italy, during the 2012 summer season. One hundred and twenty cases of suspected neuroinvasive infection were tested for arboviral agents on the basis of clinical and laboratory signs and epidemiological data. The most common virus detected was Toscana virus (TOSV): anti-TOSV specific antibodies or viral components were detected in 28.3% of the cases; 79.4% of the TOSV cases were in the acute phase of infection. No cases resulted in acute phase for West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) or Dengue (DENV) virus infection. Conversely, two patients with a history of staying in a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) endemic area showed a probable TBEV infection. These results emphasize the importance of a complete and 'ready to act' laboratory diagnostic system to be implemented within the larger frame of a regional integrated surveillance system. PMID:24329773

  13. Dengue and other common causes of acute febrile illness in Asia: an active surveillance study in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosario Capeding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (≥ 38 °C for ≥ 2 days in 1,500 healthy children aged 2-14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8; 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants and S. Typhi (in 29.4%. The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8 and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2 by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7 and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2 of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation

  14. Vector control effect in a chikungunya fever epidemic in Dongguan city%东莞市一起基孔肯雅热疫情的媒介控制效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志阶; 张巧利; 钟新光; 汪文腾; 郭汉初; 万锦祥; 张萌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the vector control effect in a chikungunya epidemic in Zhongtang town, Dongguan city. Methods Mosquito breeding places were eliminated and the vectors killed at the epidemic sites. The mosquito density and related indicators were monitored. Results The breteau index (BI) reduced to 6.56 after 3 days of control, and decreased by 94.15% beyond 7 days (from 53.33 to 3.12). On day 7, the house index (HI) decreased by 92.51% (from 41.67 to 3.12) and the container index (CI) by 71.19% (from 14.75 to 4.25). The mosqito-ovitrap index was 0.75% in the first surveillance (on October 26) and reduced to 0 on November 4. Conclusion The vector control measures in Zhongtang town effectively reduced the Aedes density and prevented the spread of chikungunya epidemic.%目的 评价广东省东莞市中堂镇为控制基孔肯雅热疫情所实施的媒介控制措施效果.方法 在疫点及其周围,实施以蚊虫孳生地清除和成蚊消除等为主的媒介控制措施,并密切监测蚊媒密度(布雷图指数、房屋指数、容器指数、诱蚊诱卵指数等)的变化.结果 防控措施实施3d后,疫点布雷图指数下降至6.56;7d后,布雷图指数下降了94.15%(由53.33降至3.12),房屋指数下降了92.51%(由41.67降至3.12),容器指数下降了71.19%(由14.75降至4.25).诱蚊诱卵指数在首次监测(10月26日)中为0.75%,到11月4日降至0.结论 在中堂镇采取的媒介控制措施,有效地控制了当地基孔肯雅热传播媒介伊蚊的密度,对控制基孔肯雅热疫情进一步扩散发挥了重要作用.

  15. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  16. TAPS pressure vessel surveillance - results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SA302B (nickel modified) steel cladded with stainless steel is used as the pressure vessel material for the two 210 MWe boiling water reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. Charpy V-notch impact surveillance specimens representing the pressure vessel belt-line base, weld and the heat affected zone were irradiated at the wall and shroud locations. Some of these specimens were removed after 6.5 effective full power years (EFPY) of reactor operation. The neutron fluences at the locations were 5.31 x 1017 and 4.88 x 1018 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). The surveillance data generated from specimens removed after 6.5 EFPY were evaluated on the basis of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99, Revision 2, and the results had assured the integrity of the vessel beyond the end of design service life (EOL) of 40 years. The recent evaluation of the additional data generated from specimens removed after 13 EFPY has again confirmed the safety of the pressure vessel beyond EOL by an additional 20 EFPY. (author)

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Bisping

    2000-01-27

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection.

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection

  19. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs

  20. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  1. The constitutionality and perfection of residential surveillance system of the designated home:Taking governance modernization as the background%指定居所监视居住制度的合宪性解读与完善--以国家治理现代化为背景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昌; 王超

    2015-01-01

    As a high degree of restriction on citizens’ basic rights of criminal compulsory measures, residential surveillance system of the designated home, although bearing such negative factors in the process of application as low availability, high cost and risk, is still considered by investigation organization as the effective measure of safeguarding criminal investigation. But the above-mentioned problems of residential surveillance over the designated dwelling lead to the fact that its legitimacy has been questioned. And it is not completely constitutionality intervention to clear the unconstitutional causes of the limited behavior without being fully deterrent in the perspective of basic rights and through the review of constitutionality. We must adopt legal method to interpret specifically and normatively the“fuzzy” residential surveillance system of the designated home so that the system can be perfected by improving the legislation technology, that some loopholes such as lack of clarity and inadequate security of the essential content can be detected and reinforced, that causes for breaking against constitutionality can be resisted, and that legitimate constitutional status of surveillance residence can be established.%作为对公民基本权利限制程度较高的刑事强制措施,指定居所监视居住制度在适用过程中虽然存在适用率低、成本高、风险大等不利因素,却仍然被侦查机关视为保障刑事侦查的有效措施。但是因为指定居所监视居住存在的诸多问题,导致其正当性受到质疑。以基本权利保障为视角,通过合宪性审查,明确该限制行为的违宪性事由未被完全阻却,不能称之为完全合宪性干预。必须运用法律解释等方法对“模糊”的指定居所监视居住制度进行规范性解读;通过提高立法技术,完善指定居所监视居住制度,补强明确性及本质内容保障不足之弊端,

  2. Syndromic Approach to Arboviral Diagnostics for Global Travelers as a Basis for Infectious Disease Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie B Cleton

    Full Text Available Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions and can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis and surveillance of neglected arboviral diseases in returning travelers.To map the patients high at risk of missed clinical arboviral infections we compared the quantity of all arboviral diagnostic requests by physicians in the Netherlands, from 2009 through 2013, with a literature-based assessment of the travelers' likely exposure to an arbovirus.2153 patients, with travel and clinical history were evaluated. The diagnostic assay for dengue virus (DENV was the most commonly requested (86%. Of travelers returning from Southeast Asia with symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus (CHIKV, only 55% were tested. For travelers in Europe, arbovirus diagnostics were rarely requested. Over all, diagnostics for most arboviruses were requested only on severe clinical presentation.Travel destination and syndrome were used inconsistently for triage of diagnostics, likely resulting in vast under-diagnosis of arboviral infections of public health significance. This study shows the need for more awareness among physicians and standardization of syndromic diagnostic algorithms.

  3. 3013/9975 Surveillance Program Interim Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; McClard, J.

    2011-06-22

    The K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) requires a surveillance program to monitor the safety performance of 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages stored in KAMS. The SRS surveillance program [Reference 1] outlines activities for field surveillance and laboratory tests that demonstrate the packages meet the functional performance requirements described in the DSA. The SRS program also supports the complexwide Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) [Reference 2] for 3013 containers. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the SRS portion of the surveillance program activities through fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and formally communicate the interpretation of these results by the Surveillance Program Authority (SPA). Surveillance for the initial 3013 container random sampling of the Innocuous bin and the Pressure bin has been completed and there has been no indication of corrosion or significant pressurization. The maximum pressure observed was less than 50 psig, which is well below the design pressure of 699 psig for the 3013 container [Reference 3]. The data collected during surveillance of these bins has been evaluated by the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Working Group and no additional surveillance is necessary for these bins at least through FY13. A decision will be made whether additional surveillance of these bins is needed during future years of storage and as additional containers are generated. Based on the data collected to date, the SPA concludes that 3013 containers in these bins can continue to be safely stored in KAMS. This year, 13 destructive examinations (DE) were performed on random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. To date, DE has been completed for approximately 30% of the random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. In addition, DE has been performed on 6 engineering judgment (EJ) containers, for a total of 17 to date. This includes one container that exceeded the 3013

  4. Evaluation of Chikungunya diagnostic assays: differences in sensitivity of serology assays in two independent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sensitivity and specificity of two in-house MAC-ELISA assays were tested and compared with the performance of commercially-available CTK lateral flow rapid test and EUROIMMUN IFA assays for the detection of anti-Chikungunya virus (CHIKV IgM. Each MAC-ELISA assay used a whole virus-based antigen derived from genetically distinct CHIKV strains involved in two chikungunya disease outbreaks in Singapore (2008; a January outbreak strain with alanine at amino acid residue 226 of the E1 glycoprotein (CHIKV-A226 and a May-to-September outbreak strain that possessed valine at the same residue (CHIKV-226V. We report differences in IgM detection efficacy of different assays between the two outbreaks. The sensitivities of two PCR protocols were also tested. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For sera from January outbreak, the average detection threshold of CTK lateral flow test, MAC-ELISAs and EUROIMMUN IFA assays was 3.75, 4.38 and 4.88 days post fever onset respectively. In contrast, IgM detection using CTK lateral flow test was delayed to more than 7 days after fever onset in the second outbreak sera. However, MAC-ELISA using CHIKV-226V detected IgM in the second outbreak sera 3.96 days after fever onset, which was approximately one day earlier compared to the same assay using CHIKV-A226 (4.86 days. Specificity was 100% for both commercial assays, and 95.6% for the in-house MAC-ELISAs. For sensitivity determination of the PCR protocols, the probe-based real time RT-PCR method was found to be 10 times more sensitive than one based on SYBR Green. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that the two strains of CHIKV using variants A226 and 226V resulted in variation in sensitivities of the assays evaluated. We postulated that the observed difference in antigen efficacy could be due to the amino acid substitution differences in viral E1 and E2 envelope proteins, especially the E1-A226V substitution. This evaluation demonstrates the importance of appraisal of

  5. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  6. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  7. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  8. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  10. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  11. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  12. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  13. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya during a recent epidemic in Calicut, north Kerala, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Najeeba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There was a recent epidemic of chikungunya (CKG in Calicut and other northern districts of Kerala, South India, affecting thousands of people. Aims: To study the cutaneous manifestations of CKG and to have a serological and histopathological correlation. Methods: A total of 162 patients (63 males and 99 females with cutaneous manifestations of CKG were enrolled in the study and serological confirmation was done with capture IgM ELISA for CKG. Skin biopsy was done in all representative cases. Results: Cutaneous manifestations were found more in females. There were 23 children, the youngest being 39 days old. Generalized erythematous macular rash was the most common finding. Vesicles and bullae were also common especially in infants. Localized erythema of the nose and pinnae, erythema and swelling of the pre existing scars and striae and toxic epidermal necrolysis-like lesions sparing mucosae were the other interesting findings. Different types of pigmentation were observed with a striking nose pigmentation in a large number of patients, by looking at which even a retrospective diagnosis of CKG could be made. Hence we suggest this peculiar pigmentation may be called "chik sign". There was flare up of existing dermatoses like psoriasis, lichen planus and unmasking of Hansen′s disease with type 1 reaction. Serological tests were positive in 97%. Some hitherto unreported histopathologic findings like melanophages in the erythematous rashes were observed. Conclusion: A spectrum of cutaneous manifestations of CKG with a wide variety of unusual presentations with confirmed serological and histopathological evidence was encountered.

  16. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy P Ledermann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s. Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.

  17. Viremia in North American Mammals and Birds After Experimental Infection with Chikungunya Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Nemeth, Nicole M; Kohler, Dennis J; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range and evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian and 12 mammalian species representing both domestic and wild animals common to North America. Hamsters and inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV and were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals and a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife and that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats and wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics.

  18. Insilico modeling of Wolbachia and its potentials in combating mosquito borne diseases Chikungunya and Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Guruprasad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito borne diseases are major health burden both in tropical and subtropical regions. The enormous use of insecticides to control mosquitoes causes biomagnification of chemicals in environment and mosquitoes have developed resistance to insecticides. The inefficiency of insecticides to combat mosquitoes prompted researchers to develop efficient alternative methods. Wolbachia endosymbiont is a one of efficient new approach to control mosquitoes. Wolbachia strain invade mosquitoes biology by reducing host lifespan, phenotype and inhibit virus replication. In the present study, insilico modeling and docking of Wolbachia and human pathogens Chikungunya (CHIK and Dengue (DEN virus was done. Docking is the method to find the binding affinity of protein and ligand complex molecules for finding potential inhibitor. Using Hex, we obtained energy total (e-total values in kcal/mol for all docked complex. In the contest of overall analyzing the docking E-total values of docked complexes reveals that WSP-B has show strong binding affinity than WSP-A to both DEN and CHIK. Based on obtained result, we suggest WSP-B has potential inhibitor for both DEN and CHIK virus. Further, biophysical characterization of Wolbachia will help to develop a drug to combat CHIK and DEN viruses.

  19. Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit Chikungunya virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie McFarlane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi, has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways.

  20. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Eric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Hamel, Rodolphe [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Neyret, Aymeric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Ekchariyawat, Peeraya [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Molès, Jean-Pierre [INSERM U1058, UM1, CHU Montpellier (France); Simmons, Graham [Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Chazal, Nathalie [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Desprès, Philippe [Unité Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); and others

    2015-02-15

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV.