WorldWideScience

Sample records for chicks fed irradiated

  1. chicks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broilers chicks fed on graded levels of penicillin supplemented diets. METHODOLOGY. One hundred (100), Anak broiler chicks procured from a reputable commercial hatchery at day old were used for the experiment. They were brooded up to the fourth week in a electrically heated deep litter house and fed on a proprietary ...

  2. Weight Gain Of Broiler Chicks Fed A Maize-Soya bean Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substituting synthetic methionine with sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite in a maize-soyabean diet fed to broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty (240) unsexed Hubbard day old broiler chicks were fed iso-caloric and iso-trogenous maize-soyabean ...

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of starter broiler chicks fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) one week old unsexed Cobb starter broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five experimental treatment diets of 24 birds each in a completely randomize design. The birds were divided into three replicates of 8 birds each, and were offered experimental diets contained 0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and ...

  4. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicks Fed Soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematology and serum biochemical responses of broiler chicks to soybean subjected to varying toasting periods were assessed using ninety 4-week old broilers. In the 28-days trial, broilers were assigned to soybean subjected to five toasting times of 0 minutes as control, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes as treatment 1, 2, 3, 4 and ...

  5. Performance efficiency of broiler chicks fed diets with different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dressing percentage and cut–up yield percentage (P<0.05) together with organoleptic test score of the birds. Palm oil and tannia tuber meal diets tended to give better performances among the experimental chicks than the corn based diet, being the control. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research Vol.

  6. Serum and liver lipids in rats and chicks fed with diets containing different oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoli, Ana M; Roehrig, Cíntia; Rotta, Liane N; Kruger, Adriane H; Souza, Karine B; Kessler, Alexandre M; Renz, Sandro V; Brusque, Ana M; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S

    2003-09-01

    Because dietary fat composition is determinant for serum cholesterol level, which is related to cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the effects of diets containing saturated (coconut oil) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (soybean oil) supplemented or not with dietary cholesterol on serum and liver lipid composition in two animal species. Male Wistar rats (21 d old) were assigned to one of seven groups and fed with commercial diet or diets containing 5% or 20% soybean oil or 20% coconut oil with or without 1% cholesterol. Chicks were assigned to one of four groups and fed with diets containing 15% soybean oil or 15% coconut oil with or without 1% cholesterol. In rats, the accumulations of hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerols were higher in the group fed 20% soybean oil and 1% cholesterol than in the group fed 20% coconut fat and 1% cholesterol. The highest serum levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerols were observed in the group fed coconut oil and cholesterol, compared with the group fed soybean oil and cholesterol. Triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol serum levels increased with diet containing coconut oil and cholesterol. In chicks, the highest hepatic cholesterol accumulation occurred in the group fed 15% coconut fat and 1% cholesterol. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased with diet containing coconut oil and cholesterol, although none of these diets modified serum triacylglycerol levels. The type of experimental animal model and the diet composition influence lipid metabolism.

  7. Faecal microbiota of domestic cats fed raw whole chicks v. an extruded chicken-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Dowd, S E; Swanson, K S

    2014-01-01

    Extruded cat foods differ greatly in macronutrient distribution compared with wild-type diets (i.e. small mammals, reptiles, birds and insects). Based on the literature, this variability likely impacts faecal microbial populations. A completely randomised design was utilised to test the impacts of two dietary treatments on faecal microbial populations: (1) chicken-based extruded diet (EXT; n 3 cats) and (2) raw 1-3-d-old chicks (CHI; n 5 cats). Cats were adapted to diets for 10 d. Bacterial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and amplicons of the 16S rRNA V4-V6 region were generated and analysed by 454 pyrosequencing. Faeces of cats fed CHI had greater (P diet may impact the functional capacities of the microbiota and its interaction with the host. Further research is warranted to determine the impacts of these shifts on long-term health of domestic cats.

  8. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocyst vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B; Barfield, Ruth C

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, 1-day-old chicks were immunized with oocysts of Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 0-500 Gy. The litter oocyst counts at 7 days postimmunization, and the effect on weight gain following a challenge infection, decreased with an optimum dose between 150-200 Gy. Based on this finding, broiler chicks were immunized with a mixture of E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E tenella that had been exposed to 150 or 200 Gy. This resulted in more than a 100-fold reduction in litter oocyst counts and significant protection from a challenge infection, as measured by improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Immunization of birds with oocysts receiving 200 Gy was less effective in providing protection from a challenge infection. An additional formulation of vaccines containing two different oocyst doses of the three species that had been irradiated with 150 Gy were evaluated in their ability to attenuate oocyst output and convey protection to challenge. Results were similar with both high and low numbers of irradiated oocysts. Immunized chicks shed less oocysts at 7 days postimmunization and were protected from negative effects of challenge infection as measured by FCR, changes in weight gain, lesion scores, and measurement of body composition. However, the level of protection was somewhat less than that achieved by immunization with nonirradiated oocysts. The overall conclusion is that an irradiated oocyst vaccine developed in this study can effectively protect chicks that are raised on litter from challenge infection with multiple species of Eimeria, comparable to vaccines with virulent or precocious strains.

  9. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  10. [Design of a thermic detection system applied to chick embryonated eggs irradiated with infrared rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R; Plivelic, T; Samar, M E; Benavídez, E

    1996-01-01

    Infrared radiations are widely used in medical therapeutics. It has been argued that the doses and the periods of time employed in experimental animals are higher than those used in clinic. Thus, we considered of interest to analyse aspects of dosimetry and thermic effects of infrared rays with current methods in medical practice, using the in ovo chick embryo as a model of easy control. To this end we designed a system to measure temperatures and their acquisitions and software for its handling. The system consists of: a) thermic points: thermocuples or termistores adaptable to the experimental requirements and calibrated with a greater precision within a range of ten degrees around the incubation temperature; b) acquirer circuit of thermic data (hardware): it generates a time base that varies with the thermic sensor. Software: the PC XT or AT detects changes in the time base by means of a programs' in a Turbo Pascal; c) storage and analysis of data allows, through a menu (expansibles) the scale selection, time of program data to be acquired, storage and recovery of the diskette information and graphic impression; d) chick's embryonated eggs. This system allows to measure temperature distribution in small physical spaces with little disturbance of the system to be measured in irradiated bodies, to analyse variations of the temperatures in time and to secure a greater confidence and automatism to obtain the required data.

  11. Delayed feeding after hatch caused compensatory increases in blood glucose concentration in fed chicks from low but not high body weight lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Sumners, Lindsay H; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Zhang, Wei; Cline, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This experiment used 2 lines of chickens that have been selected 54 generations for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) 8-wk BW from the same founder population, sublines (HWR and LWR) in which selection was relaxed in generation 43 in the selected lines, and crosses (HL and LH) made from generation 54 of HWS and LWS. For 8-wk BW, the difference between lines LWS and HWS in generation 54 was approximately 10-fold, whereas for the relaxed contemporary lines they were approximately 7-fold. Three trials were designed to measure developmental, nutritional, and genetic aspects of blood glucose homeostasis during the first 2 wk posthatch. In trial 1, we measured BW, whole blood glucose (BG), and weights (relative to BW) of liver, pancreas, and yolk sac of chicks fed from day of hatch to d 15. In trial 2, we compared those traits in chicks feed-delayed 72 h posthatch and in chicks without feed delay. In trial 3, we evaluated the effect of a 16-h fast on BW and BG on d 3, 8, and 15. There were higher levels of BG in HWS than LWS, and males than females in the fed state. Delayed access to feed for 72 h after hatch was associated with a dramatic reduction in BG. Feeding triggered a compensatory response whereby LWS displayed greater BG but smaller pancreases (% BW; d 15), compared with the controls. There were maternal effects for BW in both fed and fasted states and the reciprocal crosses exhibited heterosis for BG in the fasted state. These results show that chickens selected for high or low BW differ in BG regulation during the early posthatch period.

  12. Copper in organic proteinate or inorganic sulfate form is equally bioavailable for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songbai; Lu, Lin; Li, Sufen; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Runlian; Luo, Xugang

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of organic copper (Cu) proteinate relative to inorganic Cu sulfate for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 320 day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of five treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of added Cu (125 or 250 mg Cu/kg) and two Cu sources (Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate) plus a control with no added Cu for an experimental phase of 42 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were collected at both 21 and 42 days of age, and bile samples were also obtained at 42 days of age for Cu analyses. The Cu concentrations in liver and bile increased linearly (P 0.17) linear regression relationships were observed between plasma Cu concentrations on days 21 and 42 or log10 liver Cu concentration on day 21 and daily analyzed Cu intake. Therefore, based on the slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of log10 liver and bile Cu concentrations with daily analyzed Cu intake on day 42, when Cu sulfate was set as 100%, the estimated relative bioavailability values of Cu proteinate were 78.8% for log10 liver Cu concentration and 79.3% for log10 bile Cu concentration, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.08) difference in bioavailability between Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate for broilers chicks in this experiment.

  13. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Digestion of dry matter and amino acids and energy utilization by chicks fed molded corn containing mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T S; Johnson, Z B; Kirby, L K; Beasley, J N

    1982-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of chicks to digest dry matter and amino acids and to utilize the energy from uncontaminated corn and contaminated corn containing mycotoxins. The contaminated corn contained either aflatoxin from natural molding, citrinin by artificially molding with a Penicillum spp., or ochratoxin by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus. Compared to uncontaminated corn, none of the criteria measured was affected in corn contaminated with aflatoxin. Dry matter digestibility, amino acid digestibility, and energy utilization were reduced (P less than .05) when corn was artificially molded with the Pencillium spp. and with A. ochraceus.

  15. Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L

    2013-02-01

    Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P < 0.05) but not Mn and Cu content of the yolk and albumen blend. At E14, the ISO and on-top treatments had a trend to increase tibia calcification at the rates of 1.6 and 1%, respectively (P < 0.1). The E18 ISO and on-top treatments had 2% thicker tibia compared with the control, regardless of hen age (P < 0.05). Also, at E18, calcification of tibia and femur was higher from hens fed the on-top treatment (P < 0.05). The chicks from the ISO and on-top groups had increased tibia moment of inertia (P < 0.01) at day of hatch. Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters.

  16. Effects of multi-carbohydrase and phytase on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and apparent metabolizable energy in canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Dadalt, J C; Kiarie, E; Trindade Neto, M A

    2017-09-01

    Two assays were conducted to evaluate nutritive value of canola meal (CM) fed to broiler chicks without or with a multi-carbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 30,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet). Assay 1 determined apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and metabolizable energy (AME) by the difference method. Assay 2 determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by the index method. Two reference diets (RD) - an 85% corn based and a 5% casein-cornstarch diet fortified with vitamins and minerals - were made for assays 1 and 2, respectively. For each assay, the test diets were made by mixing RD and CM 7:3 wt/wt basis and fed without or with MC or Phy or combination. A total of 245 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) was allocated to 5 treatments to give 7 replicates (7 birds/cage). The birds were fed a commercial diet from day zero to 10 followed by assay 1 fed from d 11 to 18 and assay 2 fed from d 19 to 21. Excreta samples were collected on d 15 to18, and all birds were slaughtered on d 21 for ileal digesta. There was an interaction (P  0.05) between MC and Phy on AMEn; however, MC and Phy individually improved AMEn retention. Enzymes interacted (P < 0.05) on SID of Arg, His, Leu, Met, Thr, Ala, Asp, Gln, and Gly. In this context, feeding a combination of MC and Phy resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, His, Met, and Thr relative to single activity or control. Both enzymes improved (P < 0.05) SID of Lys independently. The combination of carbohydrase and Phy may be an effective strategy to improve amino acid utilization in CM for poultry. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMOS Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. With the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. Twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: T1 (control diet with 2950 kcal ME/kg-1, and T2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal ME/kg-1. Infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. One bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. Average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body. Mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. Total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. The results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. This finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. The infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.

  18. Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. on Biochemical Parameters and Immunity of Broiler Chicks Fed Aflatoxin B1 after Three Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Amiri Dumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.

  19. Blood Parameters, Digestive Organ Size and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks Fed Sorghum as Partial Substitute of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GHEORGHE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary white sorghum (WS, as partial substitute of corn on blood parameters, digestive organ size and intestinal microflora of broilers at 35 d. Cobb 500 broilers (n=400, assigned to 2 groups, were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal control diets (C or corn-WS-soybean meal diets (WS, where corn was partially replaced (50% with WS. At 35 d, sixteen broilers per group were selected for blood sampling, gastrointestinal (GIT measurements, digesta pH and ileum microflora analysis. There was no effect (P>0.05 of the dietary WS inclusion on blood biochemistry parameters, GIT development and digesta pH of broilers. In our study, dietary WS significantly reduced the ileal population of Enterobacteriaceae (-1.38%; P<0.0001 and E. coli (-1.16%; P=0.020, and increased the Lactobacillus spp. (+1.07%; P=0.014 compared with the C diet. In conclusion, feeding white sorghum, as partial substitute of corn in broiler diets, did not affect blood parameters, digestive organ size and digesta pH, that support the obtained performance. In addition, sorghum had a positive effect of the ileal microflora increasing the beneficial bacterial Lactobacillus spp.

  20. Pre-fledging energy requirements of the nocturnally fed semi-precocial chicks of the Spotted Thick-knee (Burhinus capensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjorve, K. M. C.; Underhill, L. G.; Visser, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of pre-fledging growth and energetics in precocial ( self-feeding) shorebird species have shown that chicks expend large amounts of energy on thermoregulation and activity. We investigated the pre-fledging growth and energetics of Spotted Thick- knee ( Burhinus capensis) chicks, which are

  1. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  2. Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination

  3. Interaction of vanadium and phosphorus in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C H

    1994-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of dietary vanadium on chicks fed phosphorus deficient and control diets. Vanadium at 50 mg/kg of diet decreased growth of both control and deficient chicks. The high mortality among the phosphorus deficient chicks was significantly alleviated by the presence of vanadium. The increased relative ventricular weights found among the deficient chicks was also alleviated by the presence of dietary vanadium. Vanadium fed at 10 or 20 mg/kg diet did not reduce growth rate but significantly reduced mortality among chicks fed the deficient diet and decreased the relative ventricle weights. Time course studies revealed that chicks are hatched with high relative ventricular weights (.83% of body wt) and remain at that level among chicks fed the phosphorus deficient diet. The addition of vanadium or phosphate to the diet resulted in a progressive decrease in relative ventricular weights. The inclusion of vanadium in the diet resulted in increased serum phosphorus levels among the deficient chicks that may be related to the decrease in mortality and relative ventricle weights.

  4. Performance of Broiler Chicks fed Cottonseed and Soybean Meal Based Diets and Determination of the Optimum Supplemental Lysine in Starts Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    goulam reza zabuli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the optimal level of supplemental lysine in a corn-soybean mealcottonseed meal starter diet. Three hundred and sixty day-old male chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design (15 birds per each pen. A basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1994 recommendations except for lysine. Graded levels of supplemental lysine (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of diet were added to the basal diet at the expense of corn starch. At 14d of age, performance and carcass attributes including body weight gain (BGW, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed intake (FI, breast meat yield (BMY, and thigh yield (TY were assessed. The results showed that lysine supplementation significantly improved BGW, FCR, FI, BMY, and TY. To determine the optimum level of supplemental lysine, modeling approach was applied and inflection point in spline models was considered as an optimum point. Using linear broken-line model, inflection points for BWG, FC, BMY, TY were 0.24, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.22% of diet, respectively. These values in quadratic broken-line model were 0.39, 0.15, 0.52, and 0.33% of diet, respectively. In conclusion, the usage of cottonseed meal in starting broiler chicks may increase the needed supplemental lysine in the diet due to low amino acid digestibility of cottonseed meal. Although the optimum level of supplemental lysine depends on response criteria and statistical model, required supplemental lysine for BMY was higher than others.

  5. Evaluation of blood chemical, lipids profile and immune response on broiler chicks fed with milk thistle (Silybum mari- anum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. seeds in south-eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari Nik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of milk thistle seeds (MTS and thyme seeds (TS on blood chemical, lipid profile and immune response in broiler chicks. In this study, 160 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308 were allocated to four treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The treatment groups were (A basal control diet, (B basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of MTS, (C basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of TS and (D basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of MTS and 0.2 g/kg of TS. Birds fed the (D supplemented treatment (MTS plus TS had the greatest levels of total protein, 4.26±0.27 g/L; albumin, 2.21±0.02 g/L; globulin 2.28±0.23 g/L; and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity, 152.18±4.46 U/L than the control birds [group (A] (P<0.05. MTS alone or in combination with TS reduced the cholesterol in the serum of the broilers (P<0.05, and this effect was more pronounced for the (C treatment (TS alone (P<0.05. Treatment consumption with MTS plus TS [group (D] significantly increased the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 90.32±2.28 mmol/L, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, 10.44±0.07 mmol/L, and triglyceride concentrations, 60.75±2.65 mmol/L, were decreased compared to control (P<0.05. However, none of the immunity parameters and liver enzymes differed significantly in MTS or TS groups. The present research indicated that supplements of MTS and TS have a protective influence on the lipids profile, total protein, globulin, albumin and AST levels in broiler chicks.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  7. The growth response of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) chicks fed on diets with three different dietary protein and amino acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, P D; Sharifi, A R; Brand, T S; Hoffman, L C

    2014-01-01

    1. Feeding costs are the largest expense in an ostrich production system, and protein is one of the more expensive components of the diet. This study evaluated the growth response of ostrich chicks on diets containing different concentrations of protein (amino acids). The diets were formulated to contain three concentrations of protein (one diet with 20% less protein than the conventional concentration, L; one diet with the conventional concentration of protein, M and one diet with 20% more protein than the conventional concentration, H) for each of the phase diets. The phase diets were pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher. 2. This study includes the analysis of ostrich body weight (BW) by modelling growth with linear polynomial and non-linear functions for all the data not separated for treatments. In total, 3378 BW recordings of 90 animals were collected weekly from hatch (d 0) to 287 d (41 weeks) of age. 3. Seven non-linear growth models and three linear polynomial models were fitted to the data. The growth functions were compared by using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). For the non-linear models, the Bridges and Janoschek models had the lowest AIC values for the H treatment, while the Richards curve had the lowest value for M and the von Bertalanffy for the L treatment. 4. For the linear polynomial models, the linear polynomial of the third degree had the lowest AIC values for all three treatments, thus making it the most suitable model for the data; therefore, the predictions of this model were used to interpret the growth data. Significant differences were found between treatments for growth data. 5. The results from this study can aid in describing the growth of ostriches subjected to optimum feeding conditions. This information can also be used in research when modelling the nutrient requirements of growing birds.

  8. Response surface and neural network models for performance of broiler chicks fed diets varying in digestible protein and critical amino acids from 11 to 17 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H; Golian, A

    2011-09-01

    Central composite design (CCD; 5 levels and 4 factors), response surface methodology (RSM), and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used to evaluate the response of broiler chicks [ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR)] to dietary standardized ileal digestible protein (dP), lysine (dLys), total sulfur amino acids (dTSAA), and threonine (dThr). A total of 84 battery brooder units of 5 birds each were assigned to 28 diets of CCD containing 5 levels of dP (18-22%), dLys (1.06-1.30%), dTSAA (0.81-1.01%), and dThr (0.66-0.86%) from 11 to 17 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with the quadratic and artificial neural network models. A ridge analysis (for RSM models) and a genetic algorithm (for ANN-GA models) were used to compute the optimal response for ADG and FCR. For both ADG and FCR, the goodness of fit in terms of R(2) and MS error corresponding to ANN-GA and RSM models showed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction for ANN models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.99; FCR model: R(2) = 0.97) compared with RSM models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.70; FCR model: R(2) = 0.71). The ridge maximum analysis on ADG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum ADG may be obtained with 18.5, 1.10, 0.89, and 0.73% dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be obtained with 19.44, 1.18, 0.90, and 0.75% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The optimization results of ANN-GA models showed the maximum ADG may be achieved with 19.93, 1.06, 0.90, and 0.76% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be achieved with 18.63, 1.26, 0.84, and 0.69% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The results of this study revealed that the platform of CCD (for conducting growth trials with minimum treatments), RSM model, and ANN-GA (for experimental data modeling and optimization) may be used to describe the relationship between dietary nutrient concentrations and broiler

  9. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  10. Dietary macronutrient composition affects hypothalamic appetite regulation in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConn, Betty R; Matias, Justin; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of high-protein and high-fat diets, and fasting and refeeding, on appetite regulation in chicks. Day of hatch chicks were fed one of four diets: basal, high protein (25% crude protein), and 15 and 30% high fat (15 and 30% metabolizable energy derived from soybean oil, respectively), and assigned to one of three treatments at 4 days: (1) access to feed, (2) 3 hours of fasting, or (3) fasting followed by 1 hour of refeeding. The hypothalamus was collected, total RNA isolated, and mRNA abundance measured. Food intake was reduced in chicks fed the high-protein and high-fat diets. Agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors 1, 2, and 5, melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3R and 4R, respectively), mesotocin, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF receptor sub-type 2 (CRFR2) mRNAs were greatest in chicks that consumed the basal diet. Refeeding was associated with increased MC3R mRNA in the high-protein diet group. CRFR2 mRNA was increased by fasting and refeeding in chicks that consumed the high-protein diet. Food intake and hypothalamic gene expression of some important appetite-associated factors were reduced in chicks fed the high-protein or high-fat diets. Fasting and refeeding accentuated several differences and results suggest that the CRF and melanocortin pathways are involved.

  11. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  12. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Hashem; Mohamed H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic), inulin (prebiotic) and both (synbiotics), when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old). The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets...

  13. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilvanan Sujatha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. Results: This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05 reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05 taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05 was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05 increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Conclusion: Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut.

  14. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  15. The effects of various organic acids on phytate phosphorus utilization in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz-Livingston, K A; Parsons, C M; Jungk, R A

    2005-09-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that citric acid improves phytate P utilization in chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if other organic acids also are effective, with an emphasis on gluconic acid. Four experiments were conducted in which 4 replicate groups of 5 crossbred chicks (New Hampshire x Columbian) were fed a P-deficient diet (0.16% nonphyate P) from 8 to 22 d of age. In Experiment 1, chick weight gain and tibia ash were significantly increased (P Alimet). In experiment 2, tibia ash was significantly increased (P Alimet, and citric acid, but not fumaric acid or EDTA, improved phytate P utilization in chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet.

  16. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Desempenho, eficiência de utilização dos nutrientes e estrutura do trato digestório de pintos de corte alimentados na fase pré-inicial com rações de diferentes formas físicas Performance, efficiency of nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal structures of broiler chick fed in prestarter phase with ratios with different physical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2008-01-01

    the physical form of the diet. The highest N digestibility was observed in birds fed pellet diet, while crumbled diet showed the highest digestibility of EE. The metabolizable energy determined for mashed diet was lower than those determined for the other physical forms of the diet. Birds fed mashed diet had the lowest feed intake and body weight gain and the worse feed conversion. These birds also showed lower intake of energy and less protein, fat and energy retention in the body. They used a higher proportion of the energy consumed for heat production. Pre-starter diets prepared as pellets or crumbles allow better nutrient utilization and improve chick performance.

  18. Maternally-derived antibody to fibroblast growth factor-23 reduced dietary phosphate requirements in growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Burgess, Kimberly S; Jarmes, Taylor R; Piccione, Michelle L; Cook, Mark E

    2012-04-13

    Phosphate in manure of monogastric animals pollutes the environment if improperly applied to soil. Strategies that reduce phosphate inputs into animal production systems reduce environmental pollution. Using a novel vaccine to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), we induced neutralizing antibodies that reduced the phosphate requirement of growing chickens. Breeding hens were injected with a FGF-23 peptide (AFLPGMNP) conjugate. Antibody was passively transferred from hen to chick and chick response to deficient dietary phosphate intake was determined. Chicks without passive anti-FGF-23 antibody had a 43% and 21% reduction in blood phosphate and bone ash, respectively, when fed a phosphate deficient diet and compared to chicks fed a phosphate replete diet (P0.05). Neutralization of FGF-23 offers a new approach to reduce phosphate requirements of farmed animals and may provide a new means to reduce phosphate pollution related to animal farming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential use of protexin probiotic and black pepper powder on Cobb 500 broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Rahimian; Mostafa Faghani; Sayed Masoud Davoodi; Ali Rafiee; Abbas Davoodpoor; Mohammad Hossein Ghorban Nezhad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of protexin, black pepper powder on performance of broiler chicks 160 one day male broiler chicks were divided into 4 groups of 10 birds each and assigned to 4 treatment diets. Chicks were fed by basal diet as control with or without 0.2 % protexin probiotic or black pepper fine powder respectively. Feed intake (FI), body weight (BW) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was measured in each period of aviculture. At the end of trial 2 birds from each group were slaughtered an...

  20. Chicks like consonant music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments.

  1. Effect of zinc imprinting and replacing inorganic zinc with organic zinc on early performance of broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, J.; Ao, T.; Paul, M.; Macalintal, L.; Pescatore, A.; Cantor, A.; Ford, M.; Dawson, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a zinc (Zn) deficient diet to broiler chicks for 96 h post-hatch followed by feeding diets with different Zn sources and supplemental levels (5 to 21 d) on the growth performance, tissue, and excreta Zn content. At the start of the study, four hundred 20-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn soybean meal based diet containing 25 mg of Zn/kg (imprinting diet, ID). The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn/kg from Zn oxide (ZnO) (non-imprinting diet, NID). Both groups were fed these diets for 96 h. At d 5, chicks from each group were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments consisting of the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 8 or 40 mg/kg Zn as ZnO or Zn proteinate. Main effects of post-hatch Zn ID were observed on feed intake and G:F. ID decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and improved (P < 0.05) the gain to feed ratio (G:F) of 14 and 21 d old chicks compared to G:F of chicks fed NID. Additionally, G:F for 14 and 21 d was improved (P < 0.05) by interaction of Zn source × level. Furthermore, at d 21 chicks fed the ID had a lower (P < 0.05) Zn content in the tibia ash and excreta, and a higher (P < 0.05) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared to chicks fed NID. These results suggest that Zn imprinting can affect body Zn stores and early performance. PMID:27664197

  2. Timing of fledging is influenced by glucocorticoid physiology in Laysan Albatross chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, R S; Breuner, C W

    2010-07-01

    Fledging is a major life transition for birds, when juveniles move from the safety of a nest into an environment where they must find food and avoid predators. The timing of fledging within a season can have significant effects on future survival and breeding success. Proximate triggers of fledging are unknown: though wing development is likely a primary factor, other physiological changes, such as elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT), may affect fledging behavior. Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks have an extended post-hatching period during which they reach 150% of adult mass. However, approaching fledging, chicks fast for days to weeks and lose mass while still putting energy into feather growth. We evaluated chick morphology and physiology to elucidate proximate triggers of fledging. As in some other species, CORT increased as chicks fasted and lost body mass. At the same time, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) declined, thus amplifying free CORT prior to fledging. Once chicks reached a morphological threshold, free CORT levels predicted how long they stayed at the colony: chicks with higher free CORT fledged sooner. To perturb the relationship between body condition, endocrine physiology, and fledging behavior, we supplementally fed chicks for the month before fledging. Fed birds had a slower decrease in body mass, slower decrease in CBG, slower increase in free CORT, and stayed at the colony longer after reaching a morphological threshold. Our study suggests that as chicks lose mass, free CORT acts as a signal of energetic or nutritional state to adjust the timing of fledging. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  4. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  5. Intestinal growth and function of broiler chicks fed sorghum based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Margret Rukuni

    such as reduced body weight gain and feed efficiency (Douglas et al., 1990; Elkin et al., 1990) and has been attributed to the ability of tannins to bind, coagulate and precipitate protein (Butler et al., 1986) including digestive enzymes through hydrophobic and other interactions (Hagerman et al., 1981), thereby reducing.

  6. Growth performance of broiler chicks fed Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control, the animals placed on the fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet had significant increase in their feed intake, feed conversion ratio and body weight gain when compared with those on the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet. Thirty-three percent (33%) mortality ...

  7. Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part of the soaked seeds were sun-dried and milled. The remaining part were cooked, sun-dried and milled. The second batch was cracked, soaked in water for 48 hours and cooked before sun drying and milling. Both meals were analyzed for their proximate composition and included in broiler starter diets at 20% dietary ...

  8. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    For this study, threonine (Thr) deficiency was hypothesized to exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdrawal and coccidiosis infection because of its high obligatory requirement of the gut. Two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d of a...

  9. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential use of protexin probiotic and black pepper powder on Cobb 500 broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Rahimian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of protexin, black pepper powder on performance of broiler chicks 160 one day male broiler chicks were divided into 4 groups of 10 birds each and assigned to 4 treatment diets. Chicks were fed by basal diet as control with or without 0.2 % protexin probiotic or black pepper fine powder respectively. Feed intake (FI, body weight (BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR was measured in each period of aviculture. At the end of trial 2 birds from each group were slaughtered and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Blood serum triglyceride, high and low density lipoproteins also were determined. At 42 days old antibody titer against Newcastle Vaccine was estimated. Intestinal microbial populations for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus were performed. The results showed that body weights and feed conversion ratios were improved significantly (p<0.05. As data reveled in this study, using of protexin and black pepper increased carcass yield compared to the control. Data showed those serum blood biochemical were changed significantly by using protexin and black pepper (p<0.05. Also E-Coli colonies were decreased and lactobacilli microbial population had significan tly (p<0.05 increased in chicks were fed by protexin and black pepper powder. It seems that inclusion of protexin and black pepper powder had good effects on performance, some blood biochemical values, and immunity parameters and microbial population in experimental Cobb 500 broiler chicks.

  11. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The importance of endogenous nutrition of chicks from divergent strains for growing tested by deutectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gonzales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of yolk sac removal (deutectomy upon performance of chicks from three divergent strains were tested to evaluate the importance of endogenous nutrition on the post-hatch phase. Chicks from three different strains (Hy-Line W98, Cobb 500, and JA57 were submitted to a surgery procedure after hatching. Half of them had the residual yolk removed, and the other constituted a sham-deutectomized group. After operation, chicks were designated to a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 strains x 2 presence/absence of yolk sac, in a total of six experimental groups and ten replications of two to four birds. During 14 experimental days all birds were fed ad libitum a 21% CP and 3050 kcal/kg EM mash diet. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and Tukey's test (p<0.05. Relative yolk sac weights were similar among chicks from different breeders, averaging 11.7% to 13.5%. Comparing to sham-operated, deuctetomized chicks had lower weight gain at 7 and 14d, indicating that endogenous nutrition, via yolk sac, is very important to galliform birds whatever their strain. Hy-line deutectomized chicks gained 40% less body weight at the 7th day as compared to their sham counterparts. Analysis of the same criterion to Cobb and JA57 groups revealed a decrease of 16.1% and 10.8%, respectively, on weight gain efficiency. At the 14th rearing day, Hy-Line chicks had the lowest weight gain, followed by JA57s' and Cobbs'. The results suggested that chicks selected for fast growth are less dependent on endogenous nutrition, responding better when exogenous nutrition is associated to yolk assimilation.

  14. Fatty acids composition of broiler chickens fed diets with probiotics and malic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the influence of probiotics and vinegar on fatty acid profile in broiler chickens. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. No significant different of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids between the treatments was observed.

  15. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p0.05.

  16. Desempenho, digestibilidade, composição corporal e morfologia intestinal de pintos de corte recebendo dietas contendo levedura de cana-de-açúcar = Performance, digestibility, body composition and gut morphology of broiler chicks fed diets containing yeast cane sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia da Costa Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a digestibilidade das dietas, a retenção corporal de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal de pintos de corte de 1 a 8 dias de idade, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de levedura de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se 300 pintos de corte, com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de 0; 1,25; 2,5; 3,75 e 5,0% de inclusão de levedura. Não houve efeito da levedura sobre o desempenho zootécnico. Houve redução no coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, na energia metabolizável aparente e a aparente corrigida com os níveis crescentes. O nível de 2,09% promoveu menor retenção corporal de proteína bruta, enquanto a retenção de gordura foi linear crescente. A altura de vilos e relação vilo:cripta do jejuno aumentou linearmente, a profundidade das criptas do íleo apresentaram menorprofundidade no nível de 2,40% de levedura. A inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar até 5% em dietas de pintos na fase pré-inicial não afeta o desempenho zootécnico, proporciona melhor desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal; entretanto, reduz a energia metabolizável das dietas e aumenta a retenção de gordura corporal.The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility of diets, body retention of nutrients and the development of intestinalmucosa of post hatching broilers, of one up to eight day old, fed diets containing different levels of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was used 300 one day old chicks in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% inclusion of yeast. No effect of yeast on performance. There was a reduction in the coefficients of apparent metabolizable of gross energy, apparent

  17. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  18. Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, A; Guo, K; Tassone, S; Gasco, L; Hernandez, E; Denti, R; Zoccarato, I

    2008-03-01

    Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding.

  19. Variations in growth of roseate tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    We measured growth parameters of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at two contrasting colonies: Bird Island, Massachusetts, and Falkner Island, Connecticut, from 1987 through 1990. Differences in growth parameters among individual chicks are used to explore differences in parental performance, whereas differences in average growth parameters among colonies and years are used to explore differences in average environmental conditions. Chicks were marked at hatching and weighed at one- or two-day intervals. For each chick that survived to fledging, we calculated two measures of growth: linear growth rate and asymptotic mass. There were no significant differences between growth parameters of first-hatched chicks in broods of one and two. Both measures of growth were significantly lower and more variable for second-hatched chicks than for first-hatched chicks. Both measures were significantly positively related to egg mass and negatively related to hatch date. After controlling for these variables, differences between colonies and among years were relatively small and inconsistent. Mean survival of second-hatched chicks was positively correlated with the mean growth rate of survivors across colonies and years. These findings are consistent with a general hypothesis that growth of chicks reflects individual parental performance and parental quality.

  20. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  1. Effect of Different Levels of Molasses Fed Through Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses fed through drinking water on growth and economic performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and sixty unsexed day old chicks of Anak strain were used. They were divided into four treatment groups with each group having four replicates of ten birds per ...

  2. Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...

  3. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  4. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  5. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hashem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic, inulin (prebiotic and both (synbiotics, when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old. The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets (additional aflatoxins, protexin, inulin and symbiotic. The birds were weighed and sacrificed at the age of 21 days. Compared to the controls, aflatoxins alone significantly (p<0.05 decreased body weight gain in one group. No difference in body weight gain was found in three groups, indicating apparent protection against the deleterious effects caused by aflatoxins. The weight gain of chicks fed on the diet containing synbiotics alone or synbiotics and aflatoxins was significantly (p<0.05 greater than that of chicks on a diet containing the other treatments. The birds the second group showed significant (p<0.05 reduction in the haematological parameters in comparison with the controls. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable (p<0.05 increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, uric acid and creatinine levels, with a reduction in the serum total proteins, albumin and globulins. The addition of protexin, inulin, or both, diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxins. Finally, it was concluded that the protexin, inulin and synergism of both are effective in the amelioration of the toxic effects of aflatoxins that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg diet. Synbiotics (protexin and inulin are more effective than the protexin and the inulin alone which are variable in the alleviation of toxic effects caused by aflatoxins.

  6. EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER TROPICAL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM on nutrient intake and weight gain (WG were evaluated. Forty unsexed Rhode Island Red chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The control diet (T1 (MSLM 0%, the experimental diets contained MSML at a rate of 2% (T2, 4% (T3, and 6% (T4 of the diets (as fed basis to replace 3%, 5.9% and 8.8% of the crude protein (CP of the control diet. Daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MSLM diets were higher (p

  7. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2] or soy protein concentrate (SPC for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p0.05 by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control, 57.7 (BF-SBM, 58.5 (YBF-SBM, 52.0 (LF-SBM 1, 56.7 (LF-SBM 2, and 53.3 g/d (SPC, respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001 than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01 feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0.001 lactic acid bacteria, but lowered Coli-form bacteria in cecal contents compared with those fed the control diet. The number of Bacillus spp. was higher (p<0.001 in all

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  9. Memory: proline induces retrograde amnesia in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkin, A; Eckardt, M J; Gerbrandt, L K

    1976-07-16

    Intracerebral injection of L-proline, 1 minute after one-trial avoidance training of chicks, impaired memory 24 hours later. Chicks injected with proline 1 or 4 hours after training and controls injected with L-isoleucine at intervals after training, showed no impairment of memory 24 hours after training. The retrograde impairment of long-term memory induced by proline occurred without the convulsions or electrographic events usually associated with retrograde amnesic treatments.

  10. Growth curves and their implications in hand-fed Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzinger C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Petzinger,1,2 J Jill Heatley,3 John E Bauer1,2 1Comparative Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Intercollegiate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, 3Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011. This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds. Keywords

  11. 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid is a naturally occurring methionine precursor in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibner, J J; Durley, R C; Kostelc, J G; Ivey, F J

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these experiments was to determine the origin of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) detected in the liver and excreta of chicks that had never been fed Alimet (an 88% aqueous solution of HMB) or MHA (an 86% calcium salt of HMB). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to identify HMB in these birds. A normal biochemical pathway of 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) is proposed as the source of naturally occurring HMB. Studies of conversion of [methyl-14C]MTA to L-methionine by chick liver enzymesØe showed that radiolabeled HMB and 2-oxo-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (keto-methionine) were synthesized during the reaction. Specific radioactivities of labeled HMB and keto-methionine showed that HMB is not synthesized from keto-methionine. Fractionation studies indicated that radiolabeled HMB formed from [14C]MTA could be used in the synthesis of L-methionine in the presence of peroxisomes and/or mitochondrial enzymes. In this way, HMB synthesized from MTA by chick liver enzymes functions as a precursor of L-methionine and as an intermediate in a naturally occurring pathway for the synthesis of L-methionine in the chick.

  12. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  13. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  14. Influence of fasting status on the effects of coconut oil on chick plasma and lipoprotein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fuentes, E; Gil-Villarino, A; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    2003-06-01

    For a better understanding of the hyperlipidemic function of saturated fat, we have studied the effects of diet supplementation with 10-20% coconut oil on the chick plasma and lipoprotein composition under postprandial and starvation conditions. A significant hypercholesterolemia was found in chicks fed the standard diet after 12 h of food deprivation. In these conditions, LDL-cholesterol also increased, whereas triglyceride levels were reduced in HDL, VLDL and chylomicron fractions. Coconut oil induced a significant hypercholesterolemia under both conditions, also increasing the plasma triglyceride content under postprandial conditions, but not after starvation. Coconut oil feeding increased all the chemical components of HDL, especially under postprandial conditions, but did not affect the HDL-triglycerides under food-deprivation conditions. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in LDL increased after coconut oil supplementation to the diet. Differences were more pronounced under postprandial conditions. Changes in VLDL and chylomicron composition were less evident.

  15. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1) faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  16. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hyang Ohh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASX is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD, BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group. The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05. ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.

  17. The effects of Grobiotic-P on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities, and cecal microbial populations in young chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, P; Parsons, C M

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic-P (GB), a prebiotic-type product that contains dairy and yeast fractions and dried fermentation extracts, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility at 4 and 21 d of age and cecal populations of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens at 21 d of age. Two experiments were conducted using male New Hampshire x Columbian chicks. The first experiment evaluated GB at 2, 4, and 6% in a corn-soybean meal diet and compared these dietary treatments to a diet containing no GB (negative control) and a diet containing an antibiotic growth promoter (positive control), bacitracin methylene disalicylate. The second experiment used semi-purified dextrose-casein and dextrose-isolated soy protein diets to examine the effects of a 5% GB addition. In the first experiment, supplementing GB at 2, 4, and 6% in a corn-soybean meal diet had no effect on weight gain (P > 0.05). Feed efficiency and ME(n) were decreased (P supplemented to chicks fed a dextrose-casein diet, and the cecal populations of E. coli and C. perfringens were reduced (P supplemented to chicks fed a dextrose-isolated soy protein diet. The results of this study indicate that feeding GB to chicks may promote the growth of beneficial bifidobacteria while reducing the growth of E. coli and C. perfringens in the ceca.

  18. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  19. Management of vaccine-induced infectious bursal disease in chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred two-week old cockerel chicks and forty two-week old turkey poults were each admlnistered two doses of IBD vaccine of chick embryo cell culture origin. This produced clinical infectious bursal disease in the cockerel chicks but the turkey poults did not suffer clinical infection. Administration of an antibiotic- ...

  20. Control temperature of young chicks to reduce mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Kuijpers, M.

    2002-01-01

    Individual chicks may have different environmental temperature demands. The trick is to provide every chick with the right body temperature. By measuring individual chick temperatures, hatchery staff and broiler growers or layer producers are better able to provide the right environmental

  1. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, P G; Colombo, V E; Gerber, F; Howell, D S; Weiser, H

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that deficiency of vitamin B6 would produce morphological characteristics of osteochondral lathyrism. To accomplish this goal, morphological characteristics of chick cartilage in which lathyrism was produced by two separate dietary regimens was compared to morphological changes encountered in vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin B6 deficiency should reduce activity of lysyloxidase needed for producing intermolecular cross-links. The question to be addressed was: would this latter deficiency impair collagen morphological features and secondarily other structures indirectly by reducing collagen molecular assembly? Failure of cross-linking of collagen in the positive controls was related to a lack of functional aldehyde cross-link intermediates which are blocked by homocysteine and aminoacetonitrile. Day-old-male Lohmann chicks were fed adequate (6 mg/kg) or vitamin B6-deficient diets. Cross-link defects were induced by homocysteine-rich diets (0.6% w/w) or a diet containing aminoacetonitrile (0.1% w/w). Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age and Ossa tarsalia articular cartilage specimens, as well as the proximal end of tarsometatarsus were dissected from the tibial metatarsal joint, a major weight-bearing site. Light microscopic observations revealed reduction of subarticular trabecular bone formation, concurrent with overexpansion of the hypertrophic cell zone. Ultrastructural electron microscopy observation of articular fibro-cartilage indicated significant thickening of collagen fibers in vitamin B6 deficient birds, as well as the positive controls in comparison to that of cage-matched control birds. It was concluded that vitamin B6 deficient cross-linking may be responsible for the observed delay in bone development and aforementioned cartilage histological alterations.

  2. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  3. Desempenho, digestibilidade, composição corporal e morfologia intestinal de pintos de corte recebendo dietas contendo levedura de cana-de-açúcar - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10787 Performance, digestibility, body composition and gut morphology of broiler chicks fed diets containing yeast cane sugar - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10787

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Cássia Ramos da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a digestibilidade das dietas, a retenção corporal de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal de pintos de corte de 1 a 8 dias de idade, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de levedura de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se 300 pintos de corte, com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de 0; 1,25; 2,5; 3,75 e 5,0% de inclusão de levedura. Não houve efeito da levedura sobre o desempenho zootécnico. Houve redução no coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, na energia metabolizável aparente e a aparente corrigida com os níveis crescentes. O nível de 2,09% promoveu menor retenção corporal de proteína bruta, enquanto a retenção de gordura foi linear crescente. A altura de vilos e relação vilo:cripta do jejuno aumentou linearmente, a profundidade das criptas do íleo apresentaram menor profundidade no nível de 2,40% de levedura. A inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar até 5% em dietas de pintos na fase pré-inicial não afeta o desempenho zootécnico, proporciona melhor desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal; entretanto, reduz a energia metabolizável das dietas e aumenta a retenção de gordura corporal.The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility of diets, body retention of nutrients and the development of intestinal mucosa of post hatching broilers, of one up to eight day old, fed diets containing different levels of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was used 300 one day old chicks in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% inclusion of yeast. No effect of yeast on performance. There was a reduction in the coefficients of apparent metabolizable of gross energy, apparent

  4. Efeito da nicarbazina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de lisina submetidos a estresse por calor Effect of nicarbazin on the performance of broiler chicks fed diets with different lysine levels submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Lopez Donzele

    2001-06-01

    a dual anticoccidial program and a control anticoccidial program where only the monensin was fed to the birds from 1 to 42 d. The diet and the water were ad libitum fed. Birds fed nicarbazin-monenzin showed lower feed intake and average weight gain, and higher feed:gain ratio than those fed control anticoccidial program. The body weights and the carcass and edible cuts yield were reduced by the effect of the nicarbazin. The birds fed diet with nicarbazin showed reduced absolute and relative organs weights as compared to those that did not receive the drug in the diet. The addition of nicarbazin in diets for broilers under heat stress is not feasible.

  5. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Mohamed H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic), inulin (prebiotic) and both (synbiotics), when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old). The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets (additional aflatoxins, protexin, inulin and symbiotic). The birds were weighed and sacrificed at the age of 21 days. Compared to the controls, aflatoxins alone significantly (pprotexin, inulin, or both, diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxins. Finally, it was concluded that the protexin, inulin and synergism of both are effective in the amelioration of the toxic effects of aflatoxins that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg diet. Synbiotics (protexin and inulin) are more effective than the protexin and the inulin alone which are variable in the alleviation of toxic effects caused by aflatoxins.

  6. Chick Noir”: Shopaholic Meets Double Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2014, several articles appeared proclaiming the rise to prominence of a new subgenre of the crime novel: “chick noir,” which included popular books like Gone Girl, The Silent Wife, and Before We Met. However, there was also resistance to the new genre label from critics who viewed it as belittling to women’s writing and to female-focused narratives. Indeed, the separation of female-centred books - whether “chick lit” or “chick noir” - from mainstream fiction remains highly problematic and reflects the persistence of a gendered literary hierarchy. However, as this paper suggests, the label “chick noir” also reflects the fact that in these novels the crime thriller has been revitalized through cross-pollination with the so-called chick lit novel. I contend that chick lit and chick noir are two narrative forms addressing many of the same concerns relating to the modern woman, offering two different responses: humour and horror. Comparing the features of chick noir to those of chick lit and noir crime fiction, I suggest that chick noir may be read as a manifestation of feminist anger and anxiety - responses to the contemporary pressure to be “wonder women.”

  7. Effects of hatching time and hatching system on broiler chick development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.

    2012-01-01

     Key words: hatching time, hatching system, chick physiology, broiler growth, chick quality. Chicks hatch over a time window of 24-36 hours and are only removed from the hatcher when the majority of the chicks have hatched. Especially for the early hatching chicks this leads to delays in the

  8. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of feed-borne pollution with some mycotoxin combinations on broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, A M; Dorra, T M

    1993-01-01

    Broiler chicks were divided into five groups and fed starter mash from the first day after hatching. The first group feed (control) was mycotoxin free, whereas the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin (350 ppb) and aflatoxin B1 (100 ppb) were added to the second group diet, patulin (100 ppb) and aflatoxin B1 (100 ppb) to the third group feed, penicillic acid (850 ppb) and aflatoxin B1 (100 ppb) to the fourth group, and aflatoxins B2a (0.9 ppb) +G2 alpha (25 ppb) +M1 (0.9 ppb) +M2 (1 ppb) to the fifth group. This contaminated feeding lasted for four weeks followed by another four weeks as recovery period during which all groups fed finishing mash without mycotoxins. At the end of the experiment, the chickens of groups two, three, four and five were significantly lower in body weight and feed conversion and reflected higher mortality rates than those of the control group.

  10. A Novel Organic Selenium Compound Exerts Unique Regulation of Selenium Speciation, Selenogenome, and Selenoproteins in Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Sun, Lv-Hui; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Briens, Mickael; Qi, De-Sheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Lei, Xin Gen

    2017-05-01

    Background: A new organic selenium compound, 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (SeO), displayed a greater bioavailability than sodium selenite (SeNa) or seleno-yeast (SeY) in several species.Objective: This study sought to determine the regulation of the speciation of selenium, expression of selenogenome and selenocysteine biosynthesis and degradation-related genes, and production of selenoproteins by the 3 forms of selenium in the tissues of broiler chicks.Methods: Day-old male chicks (n = 6 cages/diet, 6 chicks/cage) were fed a selenium-deficient, corn and soy-based diet [base diet (BD), 0.05 mg Se/kg] or the BD + SeNa, SeY, or SeO at 0.2 mg Se/kg for 6 wk. Plasma, livers, and pectoral and thigh muscles were collected at weeks 3 and 6 to assay for total selenium, selenomethionine, selenocysteine, redox status, and selected genes, proteins, and enzymes.Results: Although both SeY and SeO produced greater concentrations (P selenium (20-172%) and of selenomethionine (≤15-fold) in the liver, pectoral muscle, and thigh than those of SeNa, SeO further raised (P selenium depositions, to induce the early expression of Selenos and Mrsb1 mRNA and TXRND activity, and to enhance the protein production of GPX4, SELENOP, and SELENOU in the tissues of chicks. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  12. Xanthophyll supplementation regulates carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Ji, Jun; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Chang-Kang; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin; Juyuan Biochemical Co., Ltd., GuangZhou, China) on gene expression associated with carotenoid cleavage enzymes (β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, BCMO1; and β-carotene 9', 10'-dioxygenase, BCDO2) and retinoid metabolism (lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) and STRA6) of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with zero (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at d 35 of the trial. Results showed that 40 mg/kg xanthophyll supplementation increased BCDO2 mRNA in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum; LRAT mRNA in the jejunum; and STRA6 mRNA in the liver, while it decreased LRAT mRNA in the liver. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from a zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at zero, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophyll modulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly within one wk after hatching. The maternal effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work one to 2 wk after hatching. Dietary xanthophyll regulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly from 2 wk onward. The xanthophyll regulation of carotenoid and retinoid metabolism also revealed strong tissue specificity. In conclusion, xanthophyll supplementation could modulate carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in different tissues of hens and chicks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Nutritional stress affects corticosterone deposition in feathers of Caspian tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allison G. L.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions affect the adrenocortical function of developing animals, which can have consequences for their fitness. Discovery of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has the potential to broaden the application of endocrine research in ecological and evolutionary studies of wild birds by providing a long-term measure of CORT secretion. Mechanisms of CORT deposition in feathers are not well known and few studies have related feather CORT to circulating plasma CORT during feather growth. Our objective was to experimentally test the validity of using feather CORT as a measure of CORT secretion in developing birds experiencing nutritional stress. Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia chicks were fed ad libitum or restricted (35% less than ad libitum) diets for four weeks. We measured CORT in feathers from these chicks to examine the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and nutritional limitation, circulating plasma CORT, and feather development. We found that feather CORT was higher in controls fed ad libitum than in restricted individuals, despite higher levels of plasma CORT in restricted chicks compared to controls. Feather mass and growth rates were strongly and positively related to feather CORT concentrations in both treatments. This is the first experimental study to show that feather CORT concentrations can be lower in response to nutritional stress, even when plasma CORT concentrations are elevated. Our results indicate that CORT deposition in feathers may be confounded when feather mass and growth rates are compromised by nutritional stress. We conclude that feather CORT can be used for assessing nutritional stress in growing birds, but the direction of response depends on how strongly stress affects feather development.

  14. Assessing sex-related chick provisioning in greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus parents using capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Miguel A; Garrido, Araceli; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Ramírez, José M; Amat, Juan A

    2014-03-01

    In sexually dimorphic species, the parental effort of the smaller sex may be reduced due to competitive exclusion in the feeding areas by the larger sex or physiological constraints. However, to determine gender effects on provisioning patterns, other intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting parental effort should be accounted for. Greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) exhibit sexual size dimorphism. In Fuente de Piedra colony, the lake dries out almost completely during the breeding season and both parents commute between breeding and foraging sites >130 km away during the chick-rearing period. Applying multistate capture-recapture models to daily observations of marked parents, we determined the effects of sex, and their interactions with other intrinsic and extrinsic factors, on the probability of chick desertion and sojourn in the colony and feeding areas. Moreover, using stable isotopes in the secretions that parents produce to feed their chicks, we evaluated sex-specific use of wetlands. The probability of chick attendance (complementary to chick desertion) was >0.98. Chick desertion was independent of parental sex, but decreased with parental age. Females stayed in the feeding areas for shorter periods [mean: 7.5 (95% CI: 6.0-9.4) days] than males [9.2 (7.3-11.8) days]. Isotopic signatures of secretions did not show sex differences in δ(13)C, but males' secretions were enriched in δ(15)N, suggesting they fed on prey of higher trophic levels than females. Both parents spent approximately 1 day in the colony, but females prolonged their mean stay when the lake dried out. Females also allocated more time to foraging in the flooded areas remaining in the colony, likely because they were energetically more stressed than males. The results indicate that sex-specific provisioning behaviour in greater flamingo is related to differential effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Males seem forage less efficiently than females, whereas females' body

  15. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    May 6, 1988 ... city for heat production and maximum cold-induced oxygen consumptions ranged from 2,57 ml O2 g-l h-1 in white-chinned petrel chicks to 4,94 ml O2 ... of petrel chicks to cold stress are less well reported. (Ricklefs, White & Cullen 1980; ... thermoregulatory ability of the chicks. Grey petrels and greatwinged ...

  16. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Byrd, J A; Farnell, M; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Arg, vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, 1-d-old chicks (n = 160) were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative control, CTL-), antibiotic-supplemented diet (positive control, CTL+), antibiotic free-diet plus Arg and VE (AVE), or antibiotic-free diet plus Arg, VE, and MOS (AVM). Birds were orally challenged with 10(6) cfu of a novobiocyn and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain at d 7 (experiment 1) or at d 3 (experiment 2). Heterophil- (HOB) and monocyte- (MOB) oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation (LPR), antibody titers, and Salmonella content in the ceca were measured at several intervals postinfection (PI). In experiment 1, both AVM and AVE decreased HOB compared with the controls 5 and 9 d PI, but increased LPR 9 d PI. In the same experiment, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB than birds fed CTL+ or the AVM diet at 7 d PI, whereas 9 d PI birds fed the AVM diet had the highest MOB. In experiment 2, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB, HOB, and LPR than birds in the other treatments 7 and 14 d PI, except at 7 d PI, when MOB was not different among treatments. Birds fed the AVM diet had the highest IgA antibody titer, and a higher IgM antibody titer than the CTL+ birds. In experiment 1, Salmonella Typhimurium content in the ceca was lower in birds fed the AVM diet compared with birds fed the CTL- diet 3 d PI, but later on (10 and 17 d PI), and in experiment 2 (7, 14, and 21 d PI), Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations were not different among treatments. Thus, Arg and VE improved immune response after a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge in young chicks, and although they did not reduce Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations in the ceca, they may improve bacterial resistance against other pathogens in commercial growing conditions.

  17. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Long

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21 and the grower (day 22 to 42 phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042. The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively. Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030. The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047. Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively. Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021 pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003. There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007 in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004 and quadratic (p = 0.041 responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  18. Modulation of the intestinal environment, innate immune response, and barrier function by dietary threonine and purified fiber during a coccidiosis challenge in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wils-Plotz, E L; Jenkins, M C; Dilger, R N

    2013-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a major contributor to economic losses in the poultry industry due to its detrimental effects on growth performance and nutrient utilization. We hypothesized that the combined effects of supplemental dietary Thr and purified fiber may modulate the intestinal environment and positively affect intestinal immune responses and barrier function in broiler chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. A Thr-deficient basal diet (3.1 g of Thr/kg of diet) was supplemented with 70 g/kg of silica sand (control) or high-methoxy pectin and 1 of 2 concentrations of Thr (1.8 or 5.3 g/kg of diet; 4 diets total), and fed to chicks from hatch to d 16 posthatch. On d 10 posthatch, chicks received 0.5 mL of distilled water or an acute dose of Eimeria maxima (1.5 × 10(3) sporulated oocytes) with 6 replicate pens of 6 chicks per each of 8 treatment combinations (4 diets and 2 inoculation states). Body weight gain, feed intake, and G:F increased (P coccidiosis, Thr supplementation had the greatest effect on intestinal immune response and maintenance of near normal growth in young broiler chicks infected with E. maxima.

  19. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  20. Egg traits, fertility, hatchability and chick survivability of Rhode Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating egg traits, hatchability, fertility, chick hatch weight, and chick survivability of commercial Rhode Island Red (RIR), local, and crossbred chickens. A total of 6752 local chicken eggs were collected to obtain breeding stock and to study egg traits. RIR breeding stock was obtained from raising 250 ...

  1. A condition index for African penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantile regression techniques were used to develop a body condition index for African penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks, based on maximum and minimum growth relative to structural size. This is considered the most appropriate index for comparing the body condition of groups of chicks, varying in size and of ...

  2. Biomarkers and weight changes in broiler chicks ( Gallus domesticus )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomarkers and weight changes in broiler chicks ( Gallus domesticus ) exposed to livestock feed containing residues of phostoxin and actellic pesticides. ... The results of the biochemical analysis of the blood samples of the broilers chicks exposed to sublethal doses of phostoxin and actellic over a 49 day period of exposure ...

  3. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, chicks of grey petrels, great-winged petrels and Salvin's prions attained homeothermy within five days of hatching, but some individuals exhibited well-developed homeothermy within 24 h of hatching. Chicks demonstrated a high capacity for heat production and maximum cold-induced oxygen consumptions ...

  4. AUDITORY LEARNING AND FILIAL IMPRINTING IN THE CHICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; BOLHUIS, JJ

    The present study investigated auditory learning in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) in a filial imprinting situation, using an experimental design employed frequently in laboratory studies of visual imprinting. In Experiment 1, chicks were trained by exposing them to one of two artificial sounds.

  5. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the effect of MDA on vaccination with a very potent vaccine (Avinew® (VG/GA)). Individual variations of chicks in acquiring and maintaining MDA and in their ...

  6. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale,

  7. Sex identification of Nigerian indigenous chicks using Auto-sexing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.

  8. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  9. Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (pAloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (pAloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut.

  11. Activation of chick tendon lysyl oxidase in response to dietary copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R B; Rucker, B R; Mitchell, A E; Cui, C T; Clegg, M; Kosonen, T; Uriu-Adams, J Y; Tchaparian, E H; Fishman, M; Keen, C L

    1999-12-01

    Lysyl oxidase (EC 1.4.3.13), a cuproenzyme, can account for 10-30% of the copper present in connective tissue. Herein, we assess the extent to which tissue copper concentrations and lysyl oxidase activity are related because the functional activity of lysyl oxidase and the copper content of chick tendon are both related to dietary copper intake. Chicks (1-d old) were fed diets (basal copper concentration, 0.4 microg/g diet) to which copper was added from 0 to 16 microg/g diet. Liver and plasma copper levels tended to normalize in chickens that consumed from 1 to 4 microg copper/g of diet, whereas tendon copper concentrations suggested an unusual accumulation of copper in chickens that consumed 16 microg copper/g diet. The molecular weight of lysyl oxidase was also estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS). A novel aspect of these measurements was estimation of protein mass directly from the surface of chick tendons and aortae. Whether copper deficiency (0 added copper) or copper supplementation (16 microg copper/g of diet) caused changes in the molecular weight of protein(s) in tendon corresponding to lysyl oxidase was addressed. The average molecular weight of the peak corresponding to lysyl oxidase in tendon and aorta from copper-deficient birds was 28,386 Da +/- 86, whereas the average molecular weight of corresponding protein in tendon from copper-supplemented birds was 28,639 Da +/- 122. We propose that the shift in molecular weight is due in part to copper binding and the formation of lysyl tyrosyl quinone, the cofactor at the active site of lysyl oxidase.

  12. Protein requirement of fast- and slow-growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, T R; Njuru, D M

    1990-12-01

    1. Responses of male broiler chicks and male chicks of an egg-laying stock to dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations ranging from 167 to 251 g/kg (metabolisable energy content 13 MJ/kg) were compared from 0 to 21 d of age, using 20 groups of 9 or 10 chicks (5 diets x 2 stocks x 2 replicates). 2. Average growth rate in the broilers was three times that of the layer chicks. The broilers needed at least 251 g CP/kg to maximise their liveweight gain but the layer chicks needed only about 188 g CP/kg. 3. The broiler chicks ate less than twice as much food as the layers and their maximum gain/food ratio was 0.6 compared with 0.4 for the layer chicks. These maximum efficiencies of conversion of food to liveweight were achieved in both cases with a diet containing 230 g CP/kg. 4. The efficiency of protein utilisation (above maintenance) was the same in fast- and slow-growing genotypes (about 0.47 g protein gain/g protein consumed). 5. Carcase analysis at 3 weeks of age showed that the broilers had deposited more fat than the layers and that protein content of the diet had markedly influenced fat deposition in both stocks. Fat in the whole body increased from 29 to 87 g/kg in the layer chicks and from 81 to 123 g/kg in the broilers as dietary protein was reduced from 251 to 167 g/kg. 6. The optimum protein to energy ratio of a chick starter diet will depend on the growth potential of the stock, as well as the cost of ingredients and the value of fatter or leaner carcases.

  13. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM THREONINE REQUIREMENTS OF JAPANESE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix japonica CHICKS REARED UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Threonine, like most amino acids, is traditionally noted for its role in protein synthesis. However, dietary threonine concentration required for the maximum performance of Japanese quails is yet to be determined, therefore, a study was conducted to determine the optimum threonine requirement of Japanese quail chicks in the tropical environment. A total of four hundred and fifty, two weeks old quail chicks (mixed sexes were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0.67, 0.81, 0.95, 1.08 and 1.22 % total threonine and replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in average weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion ratio and age at first lay of quails fed the dietary treatments. Weight of first egg laid was significantly (P0.05 similar for all treatments. There were significant differences (P0.05. It was concluded that the performance of birds were not influenced by the dietary treatments up to the highest dietary level of threonine studied (1.22%. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum dietary level of threonine may be above 1.22 %. Further studies will be necessary to establish higher doses of dietary threonine requirement of Japanese quails reared under tropical climatic environment.

  14. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Yris, M-A Richard

    2011-09-01

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development.

  15. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  16. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  17. Effect of atrophy and contractions on myogenin mRNA concentration in chick and rat myoblast omega muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J. M.; Denney, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The skeletal rat myoblast omega (RMo) cell line forms myotubes that exhibit spontaneous contractions under appropriate conditions in culture. We examined if the RMo cells would provide a model for studying atrophy and muscle contraction. To better understand how to obtain contractile cultures, we examined levels of contraction under different growing conditions. The proliferation medium and density of plating affected the subsequent proportion of spontaneously contracting myotubes. Using a ribonuclease protection assay, we found that exponentially growing RMo myoblasts contained no detectable myogenin or herculin mRNA, while differentiating myoblasts contained high levels of myogenin mRNA but no herculin mRNA. There was no increase in myogenin mRNA concentration in either primary chick or RMo myotubes whose contractions were inhibited by depolarizing concentrations of potassium (K+). Thus, altered myogenin mRNA concentrations are not involved in atrophy of chick myotubes. Depolarizing concentrations of potassium inhibited spontaneous contractions in both RMo cultures and primary chick myotube cultures. However, we found that the myosin concentration of 6-d-old contracting RMo cells fed medium plus AraC was 11 +/- 3 micrograms myosin/microgram DNA, not significantly different from 12 +/- 4 micrograms myosin/microgram DNA (n = 3), the myosin concentration of noncontracting RMo cells (treated with 12 mM K+ for 6 d). Resolving how RMo cells maintained their myosin content when contraction is inhibited may be important for understanding atrophy.

  18. TOXICO-PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FORMALIN (37% FORMALDEHYDE FEEDING IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Babar, M. Z. Khan, Shabbir Ahmad1, A. Khan, H. A. Bachaya and M. I. Anwar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred day-old broiler chicks kept in five equal groups (A-E were given formalin (37% formaldehyde} at dose levels of 20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 0 ml/kg feed for 7 weeks. Body weight and feed intake of the birds fed 2.5 ml formalin/kg feed was non-significantly different from control whereas higher formalin levels groups had significantly lower values. Formalin at 2.5 and 5.0 ml/kg feed level did not produce clinical signs in the birds but Higher doses of formalin resulted in depression, somnolence and a staggering gait. Necrotic and ulcerative areas on the mucosa of crop, proventriculus and petechial hemorrhages were observed on the mucosa of small intestine. Liver and kidneys did not show any specific microscopic changes. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of formalin appeared to lie between 2.5 and 5 ml/ kg feed.

  19. Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei

    2014-11-19

    To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.

  20. Efficacy of feeding glucosinolate-extracted crambe meal to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, P; Jeffrey, E; Wallig, M; Tumbleson, M; Parsons, C; Johnson, L; Reuber, M

    1994-10-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products (nitriles) have long been implicated as toxic factors when feeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) meals and crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meals to poultry. Accordingly, various methods have been developed to remove these compounds from the meals to enhance their value as feed supplements. Glucosinolates and nitriles were extracted from commercially processed, defatted crambe meal by washing with water or various solvent-water mixtures: 50% isopropanol, 50% acetone, or 50% ethanol. In addition, crambe seed was extruded and extracted in the laboratory with isopropanol or hexane. Water washing of commercially defatted meal proved to be the most effective method of extraction, removing 95% of the glucosinolates and nitriles. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 10% of the diet for 14 d. Weight gain decreased (P glucosinolate content. Feed intake also decreased (P glucosinolate or nitrile intake. A relationship (P glucosinolate intake. No correlation was found between feed intake and meal glucosinolate or nitrile concentrations.

  1. Effect of refuge supplement on Audouin's gull chick survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prieto

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main threats to Audouin´s gull (Larus audouinii at Chafarinas Islands is predation on eggs and chicks by the yellow-legged gull (Larus cachinnans. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons we tested the effects of supplementary refuge availability on chick survival. Well before the laying period, nine adjacent enclosures were erected inside Audouin´s gull´s breeding grounds and some of them were supplied with artificial refuges. Our results showed significantly greater chick survival in the enclosures with artificial refuges than in control ones. In 2000, an overall lower breeding success of Audouin´s gull and a dilution of the refuge effect were observed. These results were probably related to food-shortage that year. We suggest that, along with other factors, an increase in refuge availability may significantly enhance Audouin´s gull chick survival.

  2. Declawing ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) to minimize skin damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anel

    Scientific research to address this issue is lacking. ... declawing of ostriches could result in chronic pain, loss of locomotive ability and ..... order to determine a standard method that is effective, practical and causes the least distress to chicks.

  3. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  4. Maternal effects and beta-carotene assimilation in Canary chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvez, Aurélie; Amy, Mathieu; Chastel, Olivier; Leboucher, Gérard

    2009-03-02

    Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the red, orange and yellow coloration of plants and animals. They may be beneficial in two ways; they have a powerful antioxidant activity, and they can behave as an immunostimulant. Animals however cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, they must obtain them through their diet. In our experiments on Canaries, we investigated how mothers transfer their dietary carotenoid-related benefits to their offspring; either through the egg, or through the diet (during chicks' feeding). Female Canaries were allowed to access beta-carotene enriched food during egg formation and/or chicks' feeding. We sorted the chicks into four groups using the period when they assimilated the beta-carotene as a variable. The four groups were: (i) before hatching (from yolk), (ii) after hatching (from maternal feeding), (iii) before and after hatching, or (iv) never. Colorimetry and HPLC analysis from sub-samples of yolks confirmed the maternal transfer of dietary carotenoids to the yolk. Our results show that benefits from maternal dietary carotenoids are transferred to the chicks, but according to the period when they are assimilated by the chicks, the physiological effects are different. It was found that the chicks' growth was enhanced when carotenoids were assimilated both before and after hatching. However an increase in cellular immunity efficiency only occurs when the assimilation takes place after hatching.

  5. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  6. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-28

    A brief article examines the controversy over food irradiation regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated food, its microbiological safety, loss of vitamins and changes in flavour. The benefits of food irradiation are also outlined including the destruction of certain food-borne pathogens and the prolongation of the shelf-life of food by killing pests and delaying the deterioration process.

  7. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  8. Synthesis and intracellular localization of chick acid alpha-glucosidase in chick erythrocyte-human fibroblast heterokaryons. A model system for the study of lysosomal enzyme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, H J; Reuser, A J; van der Veer, E

    1986-02-01

    The synthesis and localization of chick acid alpha-glucosidase has been studied in chick erythrocyte-human fibroblast heterokaryons. Monospecific antibodies raised against purified chick liver acid alpha-glucosidase were used. It was found that the acid alpha-glucosidase in the heterokaryons is of chick origin, and is localized in the same lysosomes as the human lysosomal enzymes. It is concluded that chick erythrocyte-human fibroblast heterokaryons provide a useful model system for the study of lysosomal enzyme synthesis and routing.

  9. Spontaneous generalization of abstract multimodal patterns in young domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Elisabetta; Spierings, Michelle J; Caffini, Matteo; Ten Cate, Carel; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    From the early stages of life, learning the regularities associated with specific objects is crucial for making sense of experiences. Through filial imprinting, young precocial birds quickly learn the features of their social partners by mere exposure. It is not clear though to what extent chicks can extract abstract patterns of the visual and acoustic stimuli present in the imprinting object, and how they combine them. To investigate this issue, we exposed chicks (Gallus gallus) to three days of visual and acoustic imprinting, using either patterns with two identical items or patterns with two different items, presented visually, acoustically or in both modalities. Next, chicks were given a choice between the familiar and the unfamiliar pattern, present in either the multimodal, visual or acoustic modality. The responses to the novel stimuli were affected by their imprinting experience, and the effect was stronger for chicks imprinted with multimodal patterns than for the other groups. Interestingly, males and females adopted a different strategy, with males more attracted by unfamiliar patterns and females more attracted by familiar patterns. Our data show that chicks can generalize abstract patterns by mere exposure through filial imprinting and that multimodal stimulation is more effective than unimodal stimulation for pattern learning.

  10. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

    1999-01-01

    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  12. Some "Scientific" Observations on Mother Birds Whose Chicks Can't Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Rara

    1972-01-01

    Presented in allegory form are the reactions of seven mother birds upon discovering that their chicks, although apparently healthy, are not flying (that is, have learning disabilities) at the time considered normal for chicks. (CB)

  13. Memantine improves observational learning in day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Kimbrough, Tiffany N

    2015-06-01

    Evidence of observational learning (social learning) is present in many species. One such task is the one-trial taste-avoidance task, in which Actor chicks peck a bead coated with an aversant substance. Observer chicks learn to avoid beads that are similar in appearance to the one presented to the Actors. It has been firmly established that active learning of the one-trial taste-avoidance task is dependent on a constrained level of glutamate receptor activation. The current study examined the effects of memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on the learning by Observers. Memantine produced an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent response curve; 1.0 mmol/l memantine produced significant improvement. These results demonstrate that memantine influences memory formation for observational learning in the day-old chick and support the hypothesis that memantine can improve memories by altering levels of glutamate during memory formation.

  14. TRIVIAL OR COMMENDABLE?: WOMEN'S WRITING, POPULAR CULTURE, AND CHICK LIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  15. Capacity in the liver of the broiler chick for conversion of supplemental methionine activity to L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibner, J J; Ivey, F J

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the present experiments was to determine whether the levels of supplemental methionine sources currently used in practical diets exceed the capacity of the chick to convert the supplement to L-methionine. Supplemental sources examined included DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio(butanoic acid (DL-HMB, Alimet, or MHA) and DL-methionine (DL-Met). Two approaches were taken: first, the amount of enzyme activity available for conversion of the two supplemental methionine sources was determined using optimum reaction conditions for each and chick liver homogenate as the enzyme source. These experiments showed that total liver enzyme conversion activity was 564 mumol/h for DL-HMB and 529 mumol/h for DL-Met. The total activities for the two sources were not different when measured at saturating substrate concentration. Second, to address the question of whether the enzyme is limiting for either source under practical feeding conditions, birds were fed starter diets supplemented with DL-HMB or DL-Met at .25% of the diet for 3 wk. When hepatic levels of free HMB and methionine were determined, birds fed DL-HMB contained 7.6 nmol HMB/g of liver and 84.7 nmol methionine/g of liver. Birds fed DL-Met had levels of 7.6 nmol HMB/g liver and 80.3 nmol methionine/g liver. These results indicate no accumulation of HMB or DL-Met, which might occur if conversion capacity were saturated. By calculation, a bird consuming 100 g/day of a diet supplemented with .25% activity would need to convert about 70 mumol/h, indicating a sevenfold excess of enzyme in the liver alone.

  16. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  17. Immunization of young chicks using graded dose of wild strain of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Kimbita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Eimeria tenella was isolated and utilized for immunization studies. Its optimal sporulation was attained at room temperature 24-25 °C after 24-48 h. Two groups of chicks were immunized by dosing a graded dose of five oocysts/chick/day for 6 days followed by 50 oocysts/chick/day for 7 days. A third group was not immunized and served as a negative control. Immunized chicks gained mass at the same rate as unimmunized ones, but when challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick, mass gains declined in the unimmunized group. The growth rate of immunized chicks was not affected by challenge (P > 0.05. Upon challenge, unimmunized chicks produced significantly more oocysts than immunized chicks (P < 0.005. Immunized chicks withstood a challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick without developing any clinical signs whereas the unimmunized chicks developed typical clinical signs of coccidiosis. Unimmunized chicks had significantly more severe lesions in the caecum than any other group (P > 0.005 and also produced significantly more oocysts than any other group (P > 0.005.

  18. Effects of a combined hatching and brooding system on hatchability, chick weight, and mortality in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2009-01-01

    Chicks hatch over a time window of approximately 36 to 48 h and are removed from the hatchers only when the majority of the chicks has hatched. Consequently, chicks are exposed to prolonged posthatch holding periods and delays in feed and water access, leading to dehydration and impaired posthatch

  19. LPLRFamide causes anorexigenic effects in broiler chicks and Bobwhite quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Mark A; Layne, Jessica E; Calchary, Wendy A; Sheehy, Robert R; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-15

    Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0-15.0 nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and measured their food intake. The threshold of anorexigenic response was 7.0 nmol in Cobb-500 chicks and the effect had diminished by 30 min post-injection. In Bobwhite quail all doses of LPLRFamide tested caused anorexia that remained throughout the 60 min observation period. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted and Cobb-500 chicks had increased food pecks early in the observation period and spent a greater amount of time in deep rest. Although food pecks were increased pecking efficiency was decreased. In Bobwhite quail, feeding pecks and the number of jumps were reduced after LPLRFamide treatment. We judged that these behaviors in both species were likely not competitive with ingestion and thus did not secondarily contribute to anorexia. These results demonstrate that LPLRFamide is associated with satiety-related processes in Cobb-500 chicks and Bobwhite quail, while threshold of responses are different.

  20. IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BROILER CHICKS TO LOCAL IBD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vaccine was administered using different routes; intramuscular, subcutaneous and oral. 10- day old broiler was randomly sampled from a group of 40 for the presence of IBD antibodies using qualitative and quantitative agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). The maternal antibodies in the chicks were variable, low and ...

  1. variances for reproduction, egg weight and chick weight in ostriches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Peer-reviewed paper: Joint South African Society for Animal Science/Grassland Society of Southern Africa Congress. 19. Reproduction traits were generally positively related to egg and chick weight on a genetic level (Table. 2), although only the correlations involving egg weight were significant. These results accords with ...

  2. Mortalities of jackass demersus chicks caused by trematode wonns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In jate June and early July 1981 jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks suddenly started dying in large numbers at. St Croix Island (330 48/5 25°46't) in Algoa Bay, South. Africa. Mortalities occurred mostly in the age group 60 - 80 days. As breeding at the island tends to be synchronized. (Randall & Randall 1982) ...

  3. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in

  4. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FA YOUMI CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Abdul Rashid Anjum.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 480 day-old Fayoumi chicks were randomly selected and divided into four groups of 120 chicks each. The chicks in each group were further sub divided into 3 replicates giving 40 chicks to each replicate. The treatments included feed supplementation with TM-200, Tylan Premix and Reotin F upto 5th week of age during winter (Phase I and summer (Phase 11. The average body weight gain during Phase 1 (November-December was significantly (P< 0.05 increased in all supplemented groups whereas highest weight gain was obtained consequent to supplementation with Tylan Premix. The average feed consumption and mol1ality was significantly higher (P<0.05 in non supplemented control group. During -Phase II (May-June average body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05 in supplemented group as compared with control group. There was no significant difference in average feed consumption and mortality among all the four groups. The study provided evidence that the supplementation of feed with dietary antibiotics particularly with Tylan Premix was efficacious during winter season but these effects were reduced under spell of summer season irrespective of nature of antibiotics.

  5. Short communication Responses of Black Neck ostrich chicks to L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ali

    The objective was to determine the growth responses of Black Neck ostrich chicks to different dietary ... L-carnitine, though the use of animal by-products in animal feeds has become controversial. ... cholecalciferol, 3 000 000 IU; vitamin E (dl-alphatocopherol acetate), 40 000 IU; vitamin K3, 3000 mg; vitamin B1, 3000 mg;.

  6. Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    negative impact of severe feed and water deprivation on the birds' performance was substantially decreased, ... During this deprivation period, chicks may lose weight at an ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African Journal of Animal ...

  7. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  8. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    1998-01-01

    1. We tested for costs of chick rearing in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) by removing entire clutches from 149 of 405 randomly selected nests, in which one or both mates was colour-banded. After the manipulation, we monitored adult nest attendance and body condition at unmanipulated and manipulated nests, and measured the survival and fecundity of these adults the following year.2. Late in the chick-rearing period, adults from unmanipulated nests (i.e. with chicks) went on significantly longer foraging trips, and were significantly lighter for their size, than adults from manipulated nests (i.e. without chicks).3. Adults from unmanipulated nests also survived to the following nesting season at a significantly lower rate than those from the manipulated nests (0·898 vs. 0·953), suggesting that attempting to raise chicks can reduce life expectancy by 55%.4. There was a tendency for adults from nests that were unmanipulated in year one to have lower reproductive success in year two, primarily because of reduced fledging success, and a higher incidence of non-breeding.5. These findings suggest that mass loss in kittiwakes during chick rearing may not be adaptive. Raising chicks can lead to reproductive costs, and the causal mechanism appears to be a reduction in body condition.6. We compare our results with previous brood (or clutch) size manipulation experiments that have measured adult body condition, survival and/or future fecundity. Although the empirical evidence suggests that long-lived species are more likely to experience survival costs than short-lived species, we believe the opposite may be true. We suggest that shifting the experimental protocol of cost of reproduction studies from brood enlargements (an approach taken in most prior studies) to brood reductions will provide more accurate quantifications of naturally occurring costs.7. The cost of reproduction is one mechanism proposed to explain the reduced survival rates reported

  9. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  10. Irradiation subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  11. Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

  12. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  13. Coconut oil affects lipoprotein composition and structure of neonatal chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M; Hortal, J H; García-Fuentes, E; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    1996-04-01

    Supplementation of 10 or 20% coconut oil in the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in neonatal chicks. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration significantly increased after the addition of 20% coconut oil for 2 weeks. These results show that newborn chicks are more sensitive to saturated fatty acids from coconut oil than adult animals. The effects of this saturated fat on lipoprotein composition were studied for the first 1-2 weeks of neonatal chick life. Coconut oil supplementation in the diet (20%) for 2 weeks increased cholesterol concentration in all the lipoprotein fractions, while 10% coconut oil only increased cholesterol in low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins, an increase that was significant after 1 week of treatment. Similar results were obtained for triacylglycerol concentration after 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in phospholipid and total protein levels were less profound. Coconut oil decreased low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fluidity, measured as total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Changes in esterified cholesterol/phospholipid and triacylglycerol/phospholipid ratios suggest that coconut oil affects the distribution of lipid components in the core of very-low-density particles. Likewise, the esterified cholesterol/triacylglycerol ratio was clearly increased in the low-density, and especially in the very-low-density, fraction after the first week of coconut oil feeding. Our results show that neonatal chick provides a suitable model in which to study the role of very-low-density lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the rapid response to saturated fatty acids with 12-14 carbons.

  14. ICV melatonin reduces acute stress responses in neonatal chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shin; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Choi, Yang-Ho; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2005-12-07

    Melatonin is involved in a variety of biological functions including sleep and stress. Our previous study indicated that neonatal layer chicks were more susceptible to stress than broilers. However, it is not clear whether differences exist in melatonin concentrations between both types of chickens, nor is it known whether melatonin is directly involved in stress in neonatal chickens. In the present study we first compared melatonin concentrations in brain tissues (pineal gland, brain stem, telencephalon, and optic lobe) between neonatal broiler and layer chicks raised under either 12 h light:12 h dark cycle (lights on at 07:00 h) or continuous illumination. Although melatonin concentrations were much higher in broilers than layers at night under the alternative light-dark cycle, these differences disappeared under the 24 h illumination. We thus chose neonatal layers for a test system. We then investigated if intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melatonin modulated plasma corticosterone concentrations under continuous illumination. Neonatal layer chicks housed in groups were ICV injected (1) with melatonin (0, 0.116 and 1.16 microg) or with nothing as an intact control followed by isolation in an open-field environment for 10 min; and (2) were given one of the followings treatments: nothing (intact control), control (0 microg), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) (0.01 microg), melatonin (1.16 microg), or CRF (0.01 microg) + melatonin (1.16 microg). Ten minutes thereafter blood was collected via heart puncture to determine plasma corticosterone content. Isolation resulted in a significant increase in corticosterone concentration, and both doses of ICV melatonin completely suppressed this increase (P<0.01). CRF injection resulted in a strong increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations (P<0.01). Co-injection with melatonin attenuated the CRF-induced corticosterone elevation in plasma (P<0.01). Our findings provide direct evidence that melatonin modulates

  15. Neural tube closure in the chick embryo is multiphasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Straaten, H W; Janssen, H C; Peeters, M C; Copp, A J; Hekking, J W

    1996-11-01

    Progression of neurulation in the chick embryo has not been well documented. To provide a detailed description, chick embryos were stained in ovo after the least manipulation possible to avoid distortion of the neural plate and folds. This allowed a morphological and morphometric description of the process of neurulation in relatively undisturbed chick embryos. Neurulation comprises several specific phases with distinct closure patterns and closure rates. The first closure event occurs, de novo, in the future mesencephalon at the 4-6 somite stage (sst 4-6). Soon afterwards, at sst 6-7, de novo closure is seen at the rhombocervical level in the form of multisite contacts of the neural folds. These contacts occur in register with the somites, suggesting that the somites may play a role in forcing elevation and apposition of the neural folds. The mesencephalic] and rhombocervical closure events define an intervening rhombencephalic neuropore, which is present for a brief period before it closes. The remaining pear-shaped posterior neuropore (PNP) narrows and displaces caudally, but its length remains constant in embryos with seven to ten somites, indicating that the caudal extension of the rhombocervical closure point and elongation of the caudal neural plate are keeping pace with each other. From sst 10 onward, the tapered cranial portion of the PNP closes fast in a zipper-like manner, and, subsequently, the wide caudal portion of the PNP closes rapidly as a result of the parallel alignment of its folds, with numerous button-like temporary contact points. A role for convergent extension in this closure event is suggested. The final remnant of the PNP closes at sst 18. Thus, as in mammals, chick neurulation involves multisite closure and probably results form several different development mechanisms at varying levels of the body axis.

  16. The mechanism of chondrogenesis inhibition by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Yeol; Lim, Young Bin; Lee, Yoon Ae; Sonn, Jong Kyung [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Il [Taegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of chondrogenic differentiation by X-irradiation. Cultures of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells were exposed to various dose of X-ray and chondrogenesis was examined. X-irradiation inhibited accumulation of proteoglycan based on the observation of alcian blue staining and expression of chondorcyte specific-type II collagen. X-irradiation also inhibited expression of protein kinase Ca while expression of PKC{lambda}({iota}, {epsilon} was not altered. Expression of Erk-1 was not changed by X-irradiation but phosphorylation of Erk-1 was increased. In addition, inhibition of Erk-1 phosphorylation by PD98059 overcame inhibitory effect of X-irradiation on the chondrogenic differentiation. PNA staining data showed that X-irradiation inhibited cellular aggregation. Taken together, these results suggest that X-irradiation inhibits chondrogenic differentiation by inhibiting cellular aggregation and suppressing expression of PKCa and promoting phosphorylation of Erk-1. In addition to above pathway, our results also suggest that X-irradiation may exerts its inhibitory effect by another signaling pathways.

  17. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  18. Food preferences of cockatiel chicks ( Nymphicus hollandicus in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Naves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to improve the management and maintenance of the quality of life of captive wild birds, this study aimed to assess the food preferences of cockatiel chicks (Nymphicus hollandicus kept in captivity. Thirty-two cockatiel chicks, three to 12 months of age, were kept in a galvanized, wire-netted vivarium with six ceramic feeders, two for an extruded diet, two for a dry-mashed diet and two for a seed mixture. Both extruded and dry-mashed food are commercial psittacine diets. Three round ceramic pots were used to provide water. The birds were exposed to 12 hours of artificial light (40 W incandescent lamps during the experimental period of 27 days. The birds were observed by video filming, daily, through an ad libitum observation technique. The food consumption was 3.34±0.42g/bird/day of extruded feed, 1.58±0.44g/bird/day of dry-mashed diet and 3.73±0.10g/bird/day of seed mixture. In conclusion, the cockatiel chicks preferred the seed mixture and the extruded food over the dry-mashed diet.

  19. Organic trace mineral levels in the first 96-h post-hatch impact growth performance and intestinal gene expression in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K M; Samuel, R S; Graugnard, T Ao; Xiao, R; Cantor, A H; Pescatore, A J

    2013-12-01

    Alterations in nutrient intake in the avian neonatal posthatch period can impact development, performance, and metabolism in adulthood. Very little is known about how mineral levels during the post-hatch period affect or “program” gene expression patterns later in life. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of post-hatch (0 to 96 h) dietary mineral supplementation on performance, tissue mineral content, and intestinal gene expression profiles in 21-day-old broiler chicks. One-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups consisting of N (organic Zn, Cu, and Mn provided at 100 % of recommendations (National Research Council 1994)) and/or L (organic Zn, Cu, and Mn provided at 20 % of recommendations (National Research Council 1994)) diets fed in two intervals (days 1–4, days 5–21) as follows: (1)N–Lor (2)L–L. Performance parameters did not differ between treatments except that body weight gain was greater (P < 0.05) in L–L birds than N–L birds over the experimental period. Bone mineral content was similar for both treatments at day 21. Intestinal gene expression profiling was examined using the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken genome array. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed differences in gene expression profiles between N and L treatments at day 5. At day 21, profiles were unique between N–L and L–L, suggesting that the diet fed until day 4 had an impact on gene expression patterns at day 21 even when birds were fed the same diets day 5–day 21. In this study, we demonstrated that diets fed for the 96 h post-hatch had long-term effects on gene expression, providing unique information as to why post-hatch diets are so important for the longterm bird health and productivity.

  20. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  1. Single intramuscular dose toxicokinetics of manganese in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Al-Zubaidy

    Full Text Available Aim: Manganese (Mn produces neurobehavioral toxicity in various animal species including the young chicks. The present study examines toxicokinetics of Mn in 7-10-day old chicks after an intramuscular injection at 20 mg/kg. Materials and Methods: Samples of the blood, whole brain, liver and kidney were obtained from chicks (5/each time period at 0 time (base-line and then at times between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of Mn in the plasma and tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Toxicokinetic parameters of Mn were calculated from the mean metal concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of Mn significantly increased the metal levels in the plasma, whole brain, liver and kidney of the chicks when compared to respective base-line control values at times 0.17 to 4 h after the injection (with the exception at 2 and 4 h in the brain. The highest concentration of Mn in the plasma and the whole brain appeared one h after the injection, whereas those of the liver and kidney appeared 4 h post-injection. The concentrations of Mn in the plasma ranged between 0.43 to 1.2 μg/ml within 0.17 to 4 h. Those of the whole brain, liver and kidney were 0.11– 0.46, 6.3–15 and 5.3–22.9 μg/g, respectively. The elimination half-life of Mn was 3.02 h with steady state volume of distribution 24.34 L/kg and total body clearances of 4.78 L/h/kg. The mean residence time of Mn was 5.09 h and its area under the plasma concentration-time curve (0- was 4.18 μg.h/ml. The elimination half-life of Mn from the brain was 3.12 h with an elimination rate constant of 0.22 h-1. Conclusion: The data suggest that Mn is well absorbed and rapidly distributed after an intramuscular administration in chicks and further support the reported neurobehavioral toxic effects of the metal which are observed within one h after treatment. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 560-564

  2. Myopia progression control lens reverses induced myopia in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Elizabeth L; Yakobchuk-Stanger, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether lens induced myopia in chicks can be reversed or reduced by wearing myopia progression control lenses of the same nominal (central) power but different peripheral designs. Newly hatched chicks wore -10D Conventional lenses unilaterally for 7 days. The myopic chicks were then randomly divided into three groups: one fitted with Type 1 myopia progression control lenses, the second with Type 2 myopia progression control lenses and the third continued to wear Conventional lenses for seven more days. All lenses had -10D central power, but Type 1 and Type 2 lenses had differing peripheral designs; +2.75D and +1.32D power rise at pupil edge, respectively. Axial length and refractive error were measured on Days 0, 7 and 14. Analyses were performed on the mean differences between treated and untreated eyes. Refractive error and axial length differences between treated and untreated eyes were insignificant on Day 0. On Day 7 treated eyes were longer (T1; 0.44 ± 0.07 mm, T2; 0.27 ± 0.06 mm, C; 0.40 ± 0.06 mm) and more myopic (T1; -9.61 ± 0.52D, T2; -9.57 ± 0.61D, C; -9.50 ± 0.58D) than untreated eyes with no significant differences between treatment groups. On Day 14 myopia was reversed (+2.91 ± 1.08D), reduced (-3.83 ± 0.94D) or insignificantly increased (-11.89 ± 0.79D) in treated eyes of Type 1, Type 2 and Conventional treated chicks respectively. Relative changes in axial lengths (T1; -0.13 ± 0.09 mm, T2; 0.36 ± 0.09 mm, C; 0.56 ± 0.05 mm) were consistent with changes in refraction. Refractive error differences were significant for all group comparisons (p Myopia progression control lens designs can reverse lens-induced myopia in chicks. The effect is primarily due to axial length changes. Different lens designs produce different effects indicating that lens design is important in modifying refractive error. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  3. Toxico-pathological effects of in ovo inoculation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chick embryos and subsequently in hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz; Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the toxico-pathological effects of in ovo inoculation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken embryos and subsequently in the hatching chicks. Nine hundred fertile white leghorn (WL) layer breeder eggs were divided into eight groups (A-H). Group A was maintained as untreated control, whereas group B was kept as sham control (10 µL of 0.1 M NaHCO(3) solution). Before incubation, groups C, D, E, F, G, and H were injected with 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 µg OTA/egg, respectively. At 53 hrs of incubation, crown to rump length, optic cups, and eye lens diameters were significantly (p ≤ .05) lower, whereas neural tube closure defects were higher in the OTA-treated embryos. Teratogenic defects (studied at day 9 of incubation) and embryonic mortalities were higher in the groups administered high doses of OTA. A significant increase was noted in the serum concentration of ALT, urea, and creatinine, along with higher weights of liver and kidney, in chicks hatched from OTA-contaminated eggs. These findings suggested that there are teratogenic and substantive toxicological risks in the developing chicken embryos and hatched chicks that could be exposed to OTA in ovo.

  4. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  5. Solar pv fed stand-alone excitation system of a synchronous machine for reactive power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N.; Jain, Siddhartha; Jyotheeswara Reddy, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a stand-alone solar energy conversion system based on synchronous machine working as a synchronous condenser in overexcited state. The proposed model consists of a Synchronous Condenser, a DC/DC boost converter whose output is fed to the field of the SC. The boost converter is supplied by the modelled solar panel and a day time variable irradiance is fed to the panel during the simulation time. The model also has one alternate source of rechargeable batteries for the time when irradiance falls below a threshold value. Also the excess power produced when there is ample irradiance is divided in two parts and one is fed to the boost converter while other is utilized to recharge the batteries. A simulation is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the obtained results show the utility of such modelling for supplying reactive power is feasible.

  6. Photodynamic damage to cartilage and synovial tissue grafted on a chick's chorioallantoic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.; Nahir, A. M.; Kimel, Sol

    1997-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovial joints causing pain deformities and disability. The highly vascular inflamed synovium has aggressive and destructive characteristics, it invades, erodes and gradually destroys cartilage and underlying bone. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to investigate the vitality of synovium and cartilage implanted on the CAM. Synovium, obtained from human patients, was grafted onto the CAM; gross microscopy and histology proved its vitality 7 days post grafting. Cartilage obtained from rabbit knee joint was also maintained on the CAM for 7 days. Its vitality was demonstrated by histology and by measuring metabolic and enzymatic activity of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) as well as the collagen and proteoglycans content. Selective PDT was performed using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4), a hydrophilic compound, soluble in biological solutions, as a photosensitizer. After irradiation with a diode laser (lambda equals 670 nm, 10 mW) damage was observed in vascularized synovium grafts, whereas avascular cartilage remained intact.

  7. The Fed's Year of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  8. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Characteristics in the Embryonic Chick Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Jesper

    This ph.d. thesis contains the mathematical modeling of fluid dynamical phenomena in the tubular embryonic chick heart at HH-stages 10, 12, 14, and 16. The models are constructed by application of energy bond technique and involve the elasticity of heart walls with elliptic cross-section, Womersley...... the models are not conclusive on this point. In addition the Liebau effect is investigated in a simpler system containing two elastic tubes joined to form a liquid filled ring, with a compression pump at an asymmetric location. Through comparison to other reports the system validates model construction...

  10. Prenatal androgen exposure modulates cellular and humoral immune function of black-headed gull chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Wendt; Groothuis, TGG; Kasprzik, A; Dijkstra, C; Alatalo, RV; Siitari, H

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain considerable amounts of maternal yolk androgens, which have been shown to beneficially influence the physiology and behaviour of the chick. As androgens may suppress immune functions, they may also entail costs for the chick. This is particularly relevant for colonial species,

  11. Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

    2011-03-22

    The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Incubator Type on Hatchability and Chick Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were collected daily for viability test before setting and hatching in two different types of incubators; electric cabinet and kerosene incubators. Both were maintained at a temperature of 40°C and 25% relative humidity. Hatched chicks were monitored for the first six weeks of life to determine chick survival. Data obtained ...

  13. Effects of Dietary Palm Oil on the Performance of Broiler Chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to assess the effect of replacing maize with palm oil at 0, 2, 4 and 6% inclusion levels, on the performance of broiler chicks. One, hundred and forty-four day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were weighed and randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Each treatment group of 36 birds was ...

  14. EFFECTS OF PRIMARY IMPRINTING ON THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY FILIAL ATTACHMENTS IN THE CHICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVOS, GJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the

  15. Short communication: hippocampal neuronal activity and imprinting in the behaving domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G

    1998-08-01

    The hippocampus of the chick projects to the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) which stores information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. We have investigated whether the response properties of hippocampal neurons are similar to those of IMHV neurons. Chicks were imprinted by exposure, one group (n = 7) to a rotating red box (RB), the other (n = 5) to a rotating blue cylinder (BC). Four chicks were untrained. The following day, when the chicks were approximately 48 h old, neuronal activity was recorded in the left hippocampus. The proportion of neurons responding to the RB and that to the BC in untrained chicks were compared with the proportions in trained birds. (i) In RB-trained chicks both the proportion responding to the RB and that to the BC were significantly increased. (ii) In BC-trained chicks no significant effect on these proportions was found. Of the responsive neurons some were colour (red or blue) sensitive and others were shape (box or cylinder) sensitive; the proportions so responsive were not influenced by training condition. Certain neurons responded significantly differently when a stimulus was 0.5 m or 2 m from the chick (35%; d-sensitive); very few neurons were equivalently responsive to a stimulus at both distances (3%; d-invariant). These proportions were not significantly affected by training condition. Hippocampal responses are compared with those in the left IMHV. It is concluded that IMHV responses do not passively reflect those of hippocampal neurons.

  16. Diet of chicks of Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis in the lower Soummam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet of chicks of Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria. Rachida Gherbi-Salmi, Salaheddine Doumandji, Claire Voisin. Abstract. The diet of Cattle Egret chicks in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria, was investigated in 1998 and 2006, when 145 and 23 regurgitates were collected, respectively.

  17. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are

  18. Foraging behavior and physiological changes in precocial quail chicks in response to low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, KL; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degreesC and one group to 24 degreesC during foraging throughout

  19. Gene expressions and metabolomic research on the effects of polyphenols from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume on heat-stressed broilers chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y; Dong, S; Zhao, X; Guo, K J; Gasco, Laura; Zoccarato, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    To study the effects of polyphenolic extract from involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume ( PICB: ), a novel approach using gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction ( REAL-TIME PCR: ) coupled with metabolomic profiling technique was established to explain the mechanism of PICB on heat-stressed broiler chicks. Four thousand 28-day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 5 groups (4 replicates / group, 20 chicks / replicate), in which group 1 was normal control group fed with basic ration; groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were fed with the basic ration with a supplementation of 0.2% Vitamin C ( VC: ), or 0.2%, 0.3%, or 0.4% of PICB respectively. After 1 wk of adaptation, heat stress was applied for 7 consecutive days. On d 3 and d 7 of heat stress, the chicks were sacrificed and sampled. The mRNA expression of heat stress protein 70 (HSP70), glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-PX: ), ornithine decarboxylase ( ODC: ), epidermal growth factor ( EGF: ) and epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR: ) were detected by real-time PCR using samples from jejunum mucosa. The serum and jejunum mucosa metabolomic profiles of PICB group showing best antioxidative effects and control group at d 3 were studied using the method of the gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry ( GT-TOF-MS: ), followed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Potential biomarkers were found using Student's t-test. The results showed mRNA expressions of HSP70, GSH-Px, ODC, EGF, and EGFR were altered by the supplementation of PICB. PICB exhibited antioxidative and growth promoting effects, and 0.3% PICB supplementation level exhibited the best. Three metabolites in the serum and 5 in the jejunum mucosa were identified as potential biomarkers. They were considered to be in accordance with antioxidative and growth promoting effects of PICB, which involved in the energy metabolism (sorbitol, palmitic acid), carbohydrate metabolism, amino

  20. The effect of an ethanol extract of catnip (Nepeta cataria) on the behavior of the young chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, C J; Hunter, P S

    1979-02-15

    The alcohol extract of catnip has a biphasic effect on the behavior of young chicks. Low and moderate dose levels (25--1800 mg/kg) cause increasing numbers of chicks to sleep, while high dose levels (i.e. above 2 g/kg) cause a decreasing number of chicks to sleep.

  1. Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

  2. Effect of irradiation on the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in tissues of mice and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, J.P.; Brake, R.J.; Murrell, K.D.; Fayer, R.

    1986-03-01

    Muscles from tongue, heart, and limbs of 14 pigs inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were irradiated with 10, 20, 25, and 30 krad of gamma (cesium-137 and cobalt-60) irradiation. Viability of T gondii cysts was assayed by feeding porcine muscles to T gondii-free cats and/or by inoculation of sediment from acid-pepsin digested porcine muscle into mice. Cats fed 500-g samples of muscles irradiated with up to 20 krad shed T gondii oocysts. Cats fed muscles irradiated with 25 or 30 krad did not shed oocysts. Mice were inoculated with 8 isolates of T gondii, and tissue cysts in their brains irradiated with up to 40 krad were infective to mice; however, there was a 10,000-fold reduction in the viability of organisms in tissue cysts irradiated with 40 krad, compared with that in nonirradiated cysts. At 50 krad of gamma irradiation, there were no detectable infective organisms in infected mouse brains.

  3. A new method to transfect the hypoblast of the chick embryo reveals conservation of the regulation of an Otx2 enhancer between mouse and chick extraembryonic endoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinquin Olivier

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE and the chick hypoblast are thought to have homologous roles in the early stages of neural induction and primitive streak formation. In mouse, many regulatory elements directing gene expression to the AVE have been identified. However, there is no technique to introduce DNA into the chick hypoblast that would enable a comparison of their activity and this has hampered a direct comparison of the regulation of gene expression in the mouse and chick extraembryonic endoderm. Results Here we describe a new method to introduce DNA into the chick hypoblast, using lipofectamine-mediated transfection. We show that the hypoblast can be easily transfected and that it starts to express a luciferase reporter within 2 hours of transfection. The validity of technique is tested by following the movement and fate of hypoblast cells, which reveals their translocation to the anterior germinal crescent. We then introduce a vector containing GFP driven by the mouse VEcis-Otx2 enhancer (which directs gene expression to the mouse AVE and we detect activity in the hypoblast. Conclusion The new technique for delivering expression constructs to the chick hypoblast will enable studies on gene activity and regulation to be performed in this tissue, which has proved difficult to transfect by electroporation. Our findings also reveal that regulatory elements that direct gene expression to the mouse AVE are active in chick hypoblast, supporting the idea that these two tissues have homologous functions.

  4. Toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on some biochemical variables in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Salih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the acute and sub acute toxicity of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism ofchicks which included determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and albuminlevels in serum of chicks. The biochemical changes induced by giving ciprofloxacin as a single dose (200 and 400 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally included significant increases of cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein levels inserum, whereas albumin level significantly decreased, and there was no significant changes in high density lipoprotein levelsas compared with control group. Repeated treatment with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg. body weight intra peritoneal for 14 dayscaused significant increase in cholesterol level, albumin level significantly decreased as compared with control group, whereasit did not change significantly high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, repeated treatment of ciprofloxacin also showedsignificant decrease of the body weights of the chicks as compared with control group. The results suggest that there are toxiceffects of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism as seen through changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and low densitylipoprotein level.

  5. Efficiency of Tribulus terrestris L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on performance and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Fekri Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of Tribulus terrestris L. (puncture vine as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 1 92 one-day-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allocated to four treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 12 birds. The following treatments were applied: basal diet (control, control+4.5 mg flavophospholipol/kg, or control+1 or 5 g puncture vine powder/kg. Vaccines against newcastle, influenza disease, and sheep red blood cells were administered to immunological stimuli. Results: Daily feed intake, internal organ weights, and carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary treatments except for carcass yield that increased in broilers fed diet supplemented with 1 g puncture vine powder/kg at 42nd day. Broilers receiving 1 g puncture vine/kg tended to have a lower feed conversion ratio compared to other groups during starter, finisher and entire experimental period (P>0.05. Broilers receiving 1 or 5 g puncture vine/kg had higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus compared to other groups (P<0.05. Broilers receiving 1 g puncture vine/kg had the highest antibody titer against avian influenza virus and sheep red blood cells at 28 and 31 days of age, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the overall results of the current study showed that puncture vine powder seems to have the potential to positively influence growth performance and immune responses of broiler chicks.

  6. Dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chicks subjected to delayed placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, I; Shakeri, M; Soleimani, A F

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) + glutamic acid (Glu) supplementation on growth performance and physiological stress response in broiler chickens subjected to 24 h delay in placement. Equal number of day-old broiler chicks were assigned to either immediate placement or with 24 h delay in placement with no access to feed and water. Chicks from each placement group were fed either standard starter diet (control) or standard starter diet +1% AminoGut (AG; mixture of 10% Gln and 10% Glu) from 1 to 21 d. Blood and duodenal samples were collected at 21 d for analysis of serum levels of ceruloplasmin (CER), ovotransferin (OVT) and α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), duodenal heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, and villi length and crypt depth. Results showed that delayed placement for 24 h was detrimental to weight gain during the starter phase (1 to 21 d) but not thereafter. AG supplementation was not able to eliminate that reduction in weight gain and feed intake during the starter stage. However, the observed enhancement in villi length and crypt depth at d 21 resulted in improvement of FCR and weight gain during the finisher stage (22 to 42 d) and consequently the overall period (1 to 42 d). Broiler chickens supplemented with AG also showed lower mortality rate, and higher AGP, OVT, CER, and HSP 70 expression compared to their control counterparts. Based on AGP, OVT, CER, and HSP 70 expression, there is no indication that delayed placement was physiologically stressful to the broiler chickens at 21 d of age. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  8. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy J. Hallman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths. Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy.

  9. Ameliorative effect of mycofix plus 3.0 in reducing intensity of Eimeria tenella infection during aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shareef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty male broiler chicks were fed at one day of age aflatoxin (AF at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg alone, or with groups injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts (40000 at 14 days of age. Adsorbent (Mycofix® plus 3.0 was incorporated at a rate of 0.25% in the above mentioned groups from one day of age till the end of the experiment. The study was conducted to reveal the effect of a aforementioned different diets and treatments on live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters (total red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, biochemical profile of serum (alkaline phosphatase and β-carotin, liver weights, bursal and thymus indexes, caecal lesion scores and mortalities. The results indicated that AF was responsible for a significant (P<0.05 reduction. in body weigh gain (BWG, feed consumption, and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Afllatoxin was also responsible for reduction in blood parameters, β-Carotin, bursal and thymus indexes. While relative liver weight and alkaline phosphatase level were significantly (P<0.05 increased. Groups that fed AF at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg feed and exposed to sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella show a high significant (P<0.05 reduction in BWG, feed consumption and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Aflatoxin was also responsible for significant blood parameter, β-carotin, and also a significant (P<0.05 increase in caecal lesion scores, mortality, alkaline phosphatase level and relative liver weight, while they showed significant (P<0.05 decrease in bursal and thymus indexes in comparison with injected groups with E-tenella sporulated oocysts alone. The study approved that the groups maintained on mycofix plus 3.0 (0.25% and contaminated with aflatoxin 3.5 mg/kg, revealed a positive noticeable effects in amelioration on BWG, feed consumption and feed conversion, blood parameter, β-carotin, alkaline phosphatase level, relative liver weight, bursal and

  10. Improving the lipid nutritive value of poultry meat through the incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, P I P; Prates, J A M; Crespo, J P; Crespo, D G; Mourão, J L; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Chaveiro-Soares, M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A

    2008-08-01

    Dehydrated forages are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds (vitamin E homologs and beta-carotene). The effects of including a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in a typical diet for broiler chicken, on performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition were evaluated. One hundred sixty 1-d-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) were housed in 20 battery brooders. During the 28-d growth period, the animals were fed ad libitum with a typical maize-soybean high-energy feed having access or not to a dehydrated leguminous-based forage provided in a separate feeder. The results revealed that dehydrated forage intake (which was 11.1% of the total intake) had no impact in broiler performance (P > 0.05). The capacity of ingested forage to modulate broiler meat fatty acid profile and the meat content in total cholesterol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and beta-carotene was investigated in broiler chicks slaughtered at d 28. Dehydrated forage consumption had no effect on the lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds and cholesterol contents of broiler meat but had a significant effect on meat fatty acid profile. Although forage intake did not affect the linoleic acid and ALA contents in poultry meat, the levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic (P = 0.004), docosapentaenoic (P = 0.010), and docosahexaenoic (P = 0.007)] in breast meat were significantly higher in animals consuming leguminous biomass, which suggest a higher conversion of ALA into its derivatives in these birds. Overall, the data confirms that incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks results in more favorable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 nutritional ratios for animals slaughtered at earlier stages of grow.

  11. Growth and its relationship to fledging success of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjørve, Kathleen M C; Underhill, Leslie G

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the growth of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks on Robben Island, South Africa, over three austral summers, 2001-2004. Using a robust regression analysis to determine the growth parameters of chicks of known and unknown age we found that oystercatchers from our study population had a Gompertz growth rate coefficient that was 2% less than predicted for body mass based on the equation for waders. Leg growth lagged initially, then increased and slowed again as the chicks became older, whereas wing growth was slow initially but increased with age. Chicks with small growth rate coefficients for body mass exhibited retarded growth of all body measures except wing length. This enabled these chicks to fledge in a shorter period of time than their slow growth would otherwise allow. The growth rate of body mass was observed to vary greatly between chicks. Fast-growing African black oystercatchers had a shorter pre-fledging period; were larger at fledging and were more likely to fledge successfully. African black oystercatchers display sibling rivalry, and once a dominance relationship is established, the larger chick remains so during the pre-fledging period. Larger siblings fledged earlier and at a heavier mass than the smaller siblings and this may improve their chances of survival. Neither hatching date nor brood size influenced the growth rate coefficients.

  12. Application of the filial imprinting phenomenon to broiler chicks at a commercial farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaryahu, G; Snapir, N; Robinzon, B

    1987-09-01

    Ten thousand broiler chicks on commercial farms in Israel were imprinted to blue and red plastic boxes (20 x 20 x 40 cm) containing loud speakers (8 omega, 12 W) equipped with a tape recorder, in which a classical music cassette had been placed. Upon reaching 3 wk of age, an attempt was made to move these chicks from the training area (A) to a new area (B) using the imprinting objects. This experiment was repeated four times: May, August and November of 1985, and in January 1986. During the warm months of May and August 30 to 60% of the experimental chicks followed the imprinting objects toward Area B. During the cold months and in all four repetitions with the controls, less than 5% of the flocks moved from Area A to Area B. Winter chicks may have been imprinted on brooder heaters. In all repetitions, most of the imprinted chicks distributed themselves equally over Area B 1 h after the doors between Areas B and A were closed. Controls, however, crowded around the door between Areas A and B resulting in the death of many chicks by asphyxiation. This study has shown that thousands of heavy strain chicks can be easily attached to an imprinting stimulus and it may be possible to apply this phenomenon for commercial purposes.

  13. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  14. Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on long-term memory formation in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venugopal; Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2007-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by craniofacial malformations, and physical and mental retardation. It is significant that even children with history of gestational ethanol exposure but relatively unaffected overall IQ performance, often exhibit learning difficulties and behavioral problems, suggestive of impaired memory formation. Hence, the specific aim of this study was to examine memory formation in chicks exposed to ethanol during early gestation toward the understanding of neurobehavioral disturbances in FAS. Chicks were exposed to alcohol on gestational days 1-3 by injection of ethanol into the airspace of freshly fertilized eggs. The effects of prenatal ethanol on physical growth and development, and memory formation were studied. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm in 1-day-old chicks was used to study memory formation in these chicks. It was observed that chick embryos exposed to 10% ethanol on gestational days 1-3 had significant reduction in all body parameters when compared with appropriate controls. Further, ethanol-exposed chick embryos had significantly impaired (Pmemory (LTM) formation after training, though short-term or intermediate-term memory formation was unimpaired. Thus, the findings of the current study demonstrate the detrimental effects of ethanol exposure during early pregnancy on developing chick embryos in general and on memory formation in particular. Hence, it is suggested that impairment in LTM could be a fundamental mechanism for learning disorders and neurobehavioral abnormalities observed in FAS.

  15. Effect of extrusion processing of soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2016-12-01

    The present experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of extrusion of inadequately processed soybean meal (SBM) on amino acid (AA) digestibility and performance of broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 180 day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 6 pen replicates (15 chicks each) of 2 dietary treatments; diets based on SBM or extruded SBM (ESBM) as the main protein sources. Based on the results of Exp. 1 and AA digestibility assay, Exp. 2 was designed using 216 day-old Ross broiler chicks (6 replicates of 18 chicks each), in which dietary SBM content was replaced by 86% using ESBM. This replacement caused about a 9% decrease in dietary crude protein (CP) level. Results showed that coefficients of CP and AA digestibility were greater (P broiler chicks. Using ESBM, one can reduce dietary CP level by about 9% without any detrimental effect on performance parameters of broiler chicks. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-02-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull.

  18. Have You Met Miss Jones? : Identity Construction of a Chick Lit Heroine

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Towe

    2009-01-01

    Take a random woman in her mid-twenties, with a crazy mother, a lousy job and no sex life, add some insecurity and a lot of alcohol and wrap her up in pink, and congratulations, you have just created your own chick lit heroine.The question is whether a chick lit heroine is this simplistic, or if she carries an important message to the readers. The most important traits in a chick lit novel are the complicated mother-daughter relationship, the career and the love life.Thus, this essay will out...

  19. Bilateral neuro-retinitis following chick embryo cell anti-rabies vaccination – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Harminder

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Optic nerve is rarely involved after sheep brain anti-rabies vaccination in the form of retrobulbar neuritis or papillitis. Bilateral neuroretinitis after chick embryo cell antirabies vaccination has not been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 56 year old male who developed bilateral neuro-retinitis following three injections of antirabies vaccine prepared from the chick embryo. Conclusion The chick embryo cell antirabies vaccine can cause bilateral neuroretinits which has not been reported previously.

  20. Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

  1. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  2. Effects of Different Levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum Seed Powder and Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Microbiota, and Immunity in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds.

  3. Effects of Different Levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Seed Powder and Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Microbiota, and Immunity in Broiler Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  4. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  5. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  6. Apoptosis and necrosis occurring in excitotoxic cell death in isolated chick embryo retina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ientile, Riccardo; Macaione, Vincenzo; Teletta, Maria; Pedale, Santa; Torre, Valerio; Macaione, Salvatore

    2001-01-01

    Excitotoxic studies using isolated chick embryo retina indicated that such an in vitro model provides a valid tool to characterize the effect of different agonists for subtypes of glutamate ionotropic receptors...

  7. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johny, Anup Kollanoor; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Charles, Anu Susan; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Darre, Michael J; Khan, Mazhar I; Hoagland, Thomas A; Schreiber, David T; Donoghue, Annie M; Donoghue, Dan J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2009-01-01

    .... We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, generally recognized as safe eight-carbon fatty acid, for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in chicks...

  8. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  9. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  10. Development of two transmitter release components during the critical period for imprinting in the chick IMHV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Shimabayashi, Eiko; Taguchi, Takahisa

    2002-10-01

    Transmitter release at an excitatory synapse has two components, fast synchronous and slow asynchronous transmitter release. Using the whole cell recording technique, we investigated the developmental properties of neurotransmitter release, which is composed of the two components in the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventral (IMHV) of chicks during the critical period for imprinting. Analysis of the paired-pulse responses revealed that the depression of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), driven mainly by fast synchronous release, was frequently observed in P0-1 chicks but not in those at P5-8. The spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) after the paired-pulse stimulation, which were thought to be driven by asynchronous transmitter releases, were observed more frequently in P0-1 chicks than P5-8 chicks. Furthermore, examination of Ca2+ dependency in the evoked EPSCs showed that the amplitudes in P5-8 chicks were more sensitive to reduction of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration than younger chicks. Considering that the Ca2+ dependency of EPSCs is defined by both Ca2+ sensitivity and the proportion of each type of release machineries at the release site, these results indicate that the ratio of fast synchronous to slow asynchronous transmitter release machinery changed during the critical period. These changes may play critical roles in the capacity of the avian brain to consolidate novel experience in the immediate period after hatching.

  11. Acoustic imprinting leads to differential 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in the chick forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, V; Scheich, H

    1983-01-01

    This report describes experiments in which successful acoustic imprinting correlates with differential uptake of D-2-deoxy[14C]glucose in particular forebrain areas that are not considered primarily auditory. Newly hatched guinea chicks (Numida meleagris meleagris) were imprinted by playing 1.8-kHz or 2.5-kHz tone bursts for prolonged periods. Those chicks were considered to be imprinted who approached the imprinting stimulus (emitted from a loudspeaker) and preferred it over a new stimulus in a simultaneous discrimination test. In the 2-deoxy-D-glucose experiment all chicks, imprinted and naive, were exposed to 1.8-kHz tone bursts for 1 hr. As shown by the autoradiographic analysis of the brains, neurons in the 1.8-kHz isofrequency plane of the auditory "cortex" (field L) were activated in all chicks, whether imprinted or not. However, in the most rostral forebrain striking differences were found. Imprinted chicks showed an increased 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in three areas, as compared to naive chicks: (i) the lateral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale, (ii) a medial magnocellular field (medial neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale), and (iii) the most dorsal layers of the hyperstriatum. Based on these findings we conclude that these areas are involved in the processing of auditory stimuli once they have become meaningful by experience. Images PMID:6574519

  12. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P broilers reared under heat stress.

  14. Arsenic Induced Toxicity in Broiler Chicks and Its Amelioration with Ascorbic Acid: Clinical, Hematological and Pathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Sharaf, Ahrar Khan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Iftikhar Hussain, Rao Zahid Abbas, S. T. Gul, Fazal Mahmood and Muhammad Kashif Saleemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the arsenic (As toxicity lesions in birds and to know either Vit C ameliorates these toxic effects or not. One-day-old broilers chicks (n=72 procured from a local hatchery were randomly divided into four equal groups. First group was kept as control and second group was given As (50 mg/kg BW via crop tubing. Third group received in addition to As, Vit C (250 mg/kg BW whereas fourth group received only Vit C. Killing by neck dislocation of randomly selected six birds from each group was carried out on experimental days 0, 16 and 32 for collection of blood and tissues specimens. Arsenic treated birds showed clinical signs of toxicity throughout the experiment than all other groups. These clinical signs included decreased body weight and feed intake, dullness, open mouth breathing, increased thirst, ruffled feathers, pale comb, skin irritation and watery diarrhea which were not significant in any other group. As treated group showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in hematological parameters. Severe gross and histopathological changes were observed in intestines, spleen and lungs of birds fed with As than all other groups. Decreased height of villi of middle portion of small intestines was also observed in As treated birds. Villi height in Vit C treated group increased as compared to control group. It was concluded that As induces severe toxic effects in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially ameliorated by Vit C.

  15. Small intestinal histology, production parameters, and meat quality as influenced by dietary supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Y. Abdullah

    Full Text Available Four hundred day-old male hatchling chicks were obtained from the female line of Lohmman grandparent stock farms and fed rations supplemented with different levels (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% of dried garlic powder. Each treatment consists of 5 pens. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Production parameters measured were body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio. Final body weight and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P>0.05 by garlic supplementation. However, feed consumption was the lowest (P0.05 by garlic supplementation. All meat quality parameters measured were not affected (P>0.05 by garlic powder supplementation (cooking loss percentage, shear force, lightness, redness and yellowness, except for juiciness percentage and pH, which were the lowest (P<0.05 at 1.0% and 0.25%, respectively. As a conclusion, this study shows that garlic at a 0.5% level might be of beneficial effect on intestinal morphymetry parameters, as well as on production parameters.

  16. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Performance of broilers fed with different levels of methionine hydroxy analogue and DL-methionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles HT

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old male Ross chicks were used in an experiment designed to compare two methionine sources, DL-methionine and methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA, and four different levels: 0.41; 0.47; 0.53; 0.59% (starter diet; 0.35; 0.41; 0.47; 0.53% (grower diet; and 0.30; 0.36; 0.42; 0.48% (finisher diet. One thousand two hundred and eighty chicks were housed in 32 experimental floor-pens (40 birds each and fed 8 experimental diets based on corn and soybean meal for 47 days. The effects of methionine sources and levels were evaluated by performance data, carcass and cut yields, feather yield and abdominal fat content. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (2 sources and 4 levels, with 8 treatments and 4 repetitions. Analysis of variance was performed using PROC GLM of SAS©. Data indicated DL-methionine to be more effective in promoting growth than MHA-FA, and weight gain increased numerically in response to increasing levels of methionine in all phases.

  18. Temperature alterations during embryogenesis have a sex-dependent influence on growth properties and muscle metabolism of day-old chicks and 35-day-old broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischek, C; Wimmers, K; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Sharifi, A R

    2017-10-26

    Broiler eggs were either incubated at 37.8°C during the whole incubation period (control), or at higher (38.8°C, group H) and lower temperatures (36.8°C, group L) from embryonic day (ED) 7 up to ED 10 (ED 7 to 10) or from ED 10 up to ED 13 (ED 10 to 13). Before and after this temperature treatment the eggs were incubated at 37.8°C. The day-old chicks were weighted, sexed and fed up to day 35. On days 1 and 35 samples were taken from the breast and leg muscles for analyzing of the mitochondrial respiratory activity (MRA) and from the breast muscles for analysis of the cross-sectional areas (CSA) and the glycogen phosphorylase (GP), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome oxidase (COX) activities. Statistical analysis showed that treatment (control, group H, group L), sex and their interaction, but not the treatment period (ED 7 to 10; ED 10 to 13), significantly influenced the results. Group H chicks had lower (P⩽0.05) body and heart weights but higher (P⩽0.05) liver weights, CSA values, leg MRA as well as PFK, LDH, CS, GP and COX activities compared with the group L chicks. The results of the control chicks differ (P⩽0.05) from those of the group H (body, heart weight, COX), the group L chicks (liver weight, PFK, LDH, CS, GP) or the birds of both other groups (CSA). The group H broiler had higher (P⩽0.05) body and leg weights as well as LDH, CS, COX and GP activities than the group L broilers. The BWs and the LDH and GP results of the control broiler differ (P⩽0.05) from those of both other groups or from the results of the group H (CS) and group L broiler (COX). Female broilers had lower (P⩽0.05) body, breast and leg weights, but higher (P⩽0.05) CSA, LDH, CS and GP activities than the male animals. Analysis of treatment×sex interaction showed that group H hens had higher (P⩽0.05) body and breast weights, LDH and GP activities compared with the group L hens, whereas in the male broiler no

  19. Impact of transportation duration on stress responses in day-old chicks from young and old breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Buyse, Johan; Tuyttens, Frank Andre Maurice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress). No interaction effects of parental age and transportation duration were found (all P>0.10). Chicks from young breeders showed higher CORT levels (P=0.007) and were of higher quality (Tona method, Ptransportation, chicks showed increased CORT (Ptransportation. No evidence was provided that long transportation differently affected the quality or stress responses of chicks from breeder flocks of two ages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Screening of central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for sedative and hypnotic effects using chick models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    The chick has a practical advantage in the screening process in that chicks require only small quantities of drugs. The chick separation stress paradigm has traditionally been recognized as a valid form of anxiolytic screening. Further, chick behavior involving standing motionless with eyes closed or sitting motionless with head drooped is nearly always associated with electrophysiological sleep. When centrally administered, some DNA-encoded L-α-amino acids, as well as some DNA-non-encoded amino acids, such as metabolites of L-α-amino acids, D-amino acid and β-amino acid, have shown sedative and/or hypnotic effects in chicks. The effects of some of these amino acids have subsequently been confirmed in humans. In conclusion, the chick model is convenient and useful for screening central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for hypnosis and sedation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  2. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  3. Method of Electroporation for the Early Chick Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji

    Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.

  4. Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chick mortality (CM is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829 were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903 mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787 of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n=973, respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5% throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r=0.68, P<0.011 with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n=2,829, it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

  5. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  6. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality.

  7. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  8. Differences in the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Inui, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Yu; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Genetic selection results in a higher growth rate and meat yield in broiler chickens than in layer chickens. We herein demonstrated differences in the effects of 24 h of fasting on the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks. The mRNA levels of proteolysis-related genes were analyzed in the pectoralis major muscle of 14-day-old chicks after 0 or 24 h of fasting. The mRNA levels of ubiquitin ligases such as atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) as well as transcription factor forkhead box class O (FOXO) 1 were significantly increased by fasting in broiler and layer chicks, suggesting that the FOXO1-induced ubiquitin-proteasome system, a major proteolytic system in skeletal muscles, was activated by fasting in both chicks. The mRNA levels of atrogin-1 were significantly lower in broiler chicks than in layer chicks after fasting. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly decreased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. The mRNA levels of FOXO3 were significantly increased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. Therefore, the ubiquitin-proteasome system did not appear to have been fully upregulated in broiler chicks. These results suggest that differences in the expression of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation are one of the causes of the high growth rate in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  10. The importance of propolis in alleviating the negative physiological effects of heat stress in quail chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Ibrahim, Rania M; Desoky, Adel A; Safaa, Hosam M; El-Sayed, Osama A; Abass, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the most detrimental confrontations in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing considerable economic losses in poultry production. Propolis, a resinous product of worker honeybees, possesses several biological activities that could be used to alleviate the deleterious effects of high environmental temperature on poultry production. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propolis supplementation to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diets on the production performance, intestinal histomorphology, relative physiological and immunological parameters, and selected gene expression under heat stress conditions. Three hundred one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly distributed into 20 wired-cages. At 28 d of age, the birds were divided into 2 temperature treatment groups; a normal at 24°C (C group) and a heat stress at 35°C (HS group). The birds in each group were further assigned to 2 subgroups; one of them was fed on a basal diet without propolis supplementation (-Pr subgroup) while the other was supplemented with propolis (+Pr subgroup). Production performance including body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. The intestinal histomorphological measurements were also performed for all treatment groups. Relative physiological parameters including body temperature, corticosterone hormone level, malondialdehyde (MDA) and free triiodothyronine hormone (fT3), as well as the relative immunological parameters including the total white blood cells count (TWBC's), heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and lymphocyte proliferation index, were also measured. Furthermore, the mRNA expression for toll like receptor 5 (TLR5), cysteine-aspartic protease-6 (CASP6) and heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) genes was quantified in this study. The quail production performance was significantly (Ppropolis significantly alleviated this negative effect. Moreover, quail of the HS

  11. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  12. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  13. Simultaneous oral administration of Salmonella Infantis and S. Typhimurium in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Onozuka, Daisuke; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar (S.) Infantis has higher basic reproductive rates in chicks compared with other Salmonella serovars, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks (n = 8) were challenged simultaneously with S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium per os. Challenged chicks (Group A) were then housed with non-infected chicks (Group B, n = 4) for 6 days (from 2 to 8 days of age). Group B birds were then housed with other non-infected birds (Group C, n = 4), which were then transferred to cages containing a further group of untreated chicks (Group D, n = 2). A control group consisting of four non-infected chicks was used for comparison. All chickens were humanely sacrificed at 18 days of age, and Salmonella from bowel and liver samples were enumerated. Both serovars were isolated from all groups except the control group. S. Typhimurium was isolated at a greater frequency than S. Infantis from the bowel samples of chicks from Groups B, C and D, while no differences in colonisation rates were observed between the two serovars in liver samples from Groups B, C and D. S. Typhimurium, but not S. Infantis, was immunohistochemically detected in the lamina propria of the cecum and rectum in five birds of Group A. Despite the competitive administration, neither of the two serovars completely excluded the other, and no differences were observed in basic reproductive rates between the two serovars. These findings, together with data from previous studies, suggest that the initial quantitative domination of S. Infantis in chicken flocks may explain why this serovar is predominant in broiler chickens.

  14. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  15. L-Citrulline acts as potential hypothermic agent to afford thermotolerance in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Han, Guofeng; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Yang, Hui; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-10-01

    Recently we demonstrated that L-citrulline (L-Cit) causes hypothermia in chicks. However, the question of how L-Cit mediates hypothermia remained elusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine some possible factors in the process of L-Cit-mediated hypothermia and to confirm whether L-Cit can also afford thermotolerance in young chicks. Chicks were subjected to oral administration of L-Cit along with intraperitoneal injection of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME), to examine the involvement of NO in the process of hypothermia. Food intake and plasma metabolites were also analyzed after oral administration of L-Cit in chicks. To examine thermotolerance, chicks were orally administered with a single dose of L-Cit (15mmol/10ml/kg body weight) or the same dose twice within a short interval of 1h (dual oral administration) before the exposure to high ambient temperature (35 ± 1°C) for 180min. Although the rectal temperature was reduced following administration of L-Cit, L-NAME caused a greater reduction. L-NAME reduced total NO2 and NO3 (NOx) in plasma, which confirmed its inhibitory effect on NO. A single oral administration of L-Cit mediated a persistent state of hypothermia for the 300min of the study without affecting food intake. It was further found that plasma glucose was significantly lower in L-Cit-treated chicks. Dual oral administration of L-Cit, but not a single oral administration, afforded thermotolerance without a significant change in plasma NOx in chicks. In conclusion, our results suggest that L-Cit-mediated hypothermia and thermotolerance may not be involved in NO production. L-Cit-mediated thermotolerance further suggests that L-Cit may serve as an important nutritional supplement that could help in coping with summer heat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of different wheats and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient and energy utilisation in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma González-Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism of broiler chicks fed 8 different wheat samples, supplemented or not with xylanase. Seven-hundred sixty eight male broilers (1-day-old were distributed to 16 experimental treatments (6 replicates per treatment. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement with 8 different wheats and 2 levels of xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg. The predicted apparent metabolisable energy (AME of the wheat samples ranged from 13.0 to 13.9 MJ/kg and all diets were formulated to contain the same amount of wheat. Body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 d, as was jejunal digesta viscosity, and feed conversion ratio (FCR calculated. On day 24, one representative bird per pen was selected to calculate whole body energetics. At 21 d, 3 chicks per replicate were randomly allocated to metabolism cages for energy and nutrient utilisation determinations, and were continued on the experimental diets until 24-d-old. No interactions were observed for any performance response variables, ileal nutrient utilisation or digesta viscosity. Xylanase improved BWG and reduced FCR and digesta viscosity (P < 0.05. Wheat influenced dry matter (DM utilisation and xylanase increased ileal digestible energy (P = 0.04. Xylanase also improved (P < 0.05 DM and nitrogen retention. Apparent metabolisable energy and AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn were subject to an interaction whereby wheats 2 and 6, which returned the lowest AME and AMEn values, responded to xylanase supplementation and the remainder did not. Net energy for production and the efficiency of energy use for production were not influenced by xylanase, but were affected by wheat (P < 0.05. Despite the significant differences between wheats with regards to their nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism in birds, xylanase removed this variance and resulted in more homogeneous performance.

  18. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  19. Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Megan A; Fraser, William R; Irwin, Andrew J; Oliver, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Pygoscelis penguins are experiencing general population declines in their northernmost range whereas there are reported increases in their southernmost range. These changes are coincident with decadal-scale trends in remote sensed observations of sea ice concentrations (SIC) and sea surface temperatures (SST) during the chick-rearing season (austral summer). Using SIC, SST, and bathymetry, we identified separate chick-rearing niche spaces for the three Pygoscelis penguin species and used a maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) to spatially and temporally model suitable chick-rearing habitats in the Southern Ocean. For all Pygoscelis penguin species, the MaxEnt models predict significant changes in the locations of suitable chick-rearing habitats over the period of 1982-2010. In general, chick-rearing habitat suitability at specific colony locations agreed with the corresponding increases or decreases in documented population trends over the same time period. These changes were the most pronounced along the West Antarctic Peninsula where there has been a rapid warming event during at least the last 50 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of rosiglitazone on appetite-associated parameters in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Justin A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Denbow, D Michael; Cline, Mark A

    2017-05-15

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist that increases insulin sensitivity. A documented side effect of this diabetes drug is increased appetite, although the mechanism mediating this response is unknown. To better understand effects on food intake regulation, we evaluated the appetite-associated effects of rosiglitazone in an alternative vertebrate and agriculturally-relevant model, the domesticated chick. Four day-old chicks received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of 0, 5, 10 or 20nmol rosiglitazone and food and water intake were measured. Chicks that received 5 and 10nmol rosiglitazone increased food intake during the 2h observation period, with no effect on water intake. In the next experiment, chicks were ICV-injected with 10nmol rosiglitazone and hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection for total RNA isolation. Real-time PCR was performed to measure mRNA abundance of appetite- and glucose regulation-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA decreased while NPY receptor 1 (NPYr1) mRNA increased in rosiglitazone-injected chicks compared to the controls. Results show that central effects of rosiglitazone on appetite are conserved between birds and mammals, and that increases in food intake might be mediated through NPY and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GABA, taurine and learning: release of amino acids from slices of chick brain following filial imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G; Kendrick, K M

    2001-01-01

    The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a forebrain region in the domestic chick that is a site of information storage for the learning process of imprinting. We enquired whether imprinting is associated with learning-related increases in calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of neurotransmitter amino acids from the IMHV. Chicks were hatched and reared in darkness until 15-30 h after hatching. They then either remained in darkness or were trained for 2 h by exposure to an imprinting stimulus. One hour later, the chicks were given a preference test and a preference score was calculated from the results of this test, as a measure of imprinting. Chicks were killed 2 h after training. Slices from the left and right IMHV of trained and untrained chicks were superfused with Krebs' solution either with or without calcium and the superfusate assayed for arginine, aspartate, citrulline, GABA, glutamate, glycine and taurine using high-performance liquid chromatography. For calcium-containing superfusates from the left IMHV, preference score was significantly correlated with potassium-stimulated release of (i) GABA (r=0.51, 23 d.f., P=0.008) and (ii) taurine (r=0.77, 23 d.f., Pimprinting is associated with increases in releasable pools of GABA and taurine and/or membrane excitability in the left IMHV.

  2. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Sherley

    Full Text Available The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot. Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08 and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10 survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03. Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  3. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  4. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  5. Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Terry L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chick pinealocytes exhibit all the characteristics of a complete circadian system, comprising photoreceptive inputs, molecular clockworks and an easily measured rhythmic output, melatonin biosynthesis. These properties make the in vitro pineal a particularly useful model for exploring circadian control of gene transcription in a pacemaker tissue, as well as regulation of the transcriptome by primary inputs to the clock (both photic and noradrenergic. Results We used microarray analysis to investigate the expression of approximately 8000 genes within cultured pinealocytes subjected to both LD and DD. We report that a reduced subset of genes was rhythmically expressed in vitro compared to those previously published in vivo, and that gene expression rhythms were lower in amplitude, although the functional distribution of the rhythmic transcriptome was largely similar. We also investigated the effects of 6-hour pulses of light or of norepinephrine on gene expression in free-running cultures during both subjective day and night. As expected, both light and norepinephrine inhibited melatonin production; however, the two treatments differentially enhanced or suppressed specific sets of genes in a fashion that was dependent upon time of day. Conclusion Our combined approach of utilizing a temporal, photic and pharmacological microarray experiment allowed us to identify novel genes linking clock input to clock function within the pineal. We identified approximately 30 rhythmic, light-responsive, NE-insensitive genes with no previously known clock function, which may play a role in circadian regulation of the pineal. These are candidates for future functional genomics experiments to elucidate their potential role in circadian physiology. Further, we hypothesize that the pineal circadian transcriptome is reduced but functionally conserved in vitro, and supports an endogenous role for the pineal in regulating local rhythms in metabolism

  6. Effects of current clamp on chick retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, S; Hughes, B A; Steinberg, R H

    1991-06-01

    The basal membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the origin of two components of the electroretinogram, the fast oscillation and the light peak. Both of these responses originate from changes in basal membrane potential (Vba), and both are associated with changes in basal membrane resistance (Rba). In addition, many experimental manipulations that alter Vba also produce apparent changes in Rba. These findings raise the possibility that the basal membrane contains a voltage-sensitive conductance that operates in the physiologic range and is involved causally in light-evoked and other responses. We report the results of current clamp experiments on the isolated retina-RPE-choroid of chick that were designed to test for the presence of such a voltage-sensitive conductance in the basal membrane. Depolarizing Vba by 15 mV with retina-to-choroid current had essentially no effect on either the ratio of membrane resistances (Rap/Rba) or the transtissue resistance (RTotal), indicating no alteration in Rba. In contrast, hyperpolarizing Vba by 15 mV with choroid-to-retina current caused a gradual decrease in RTotal and increase in Rap/Rba. Analysis of accompanying changes in membrane voltages and changes in intracellular c-wave amplitude suggested that the most likely cause of the decrease in RTotal is a decrease in paracellular resistance. Voltage-sensitive conductances of the basal membrane appear to play little or no role in the resistance changes that accompany changes in Vba in the physiologic range. The conductance changes underlying the fast oscillation and light peak probably result from either the modulation of channels by second messengers or changes in intracellular ion concentration.

  7. Supplemental effect of probiotic Bacillus subtilis B2A on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality of growing broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Kim, I H

    2014-08-01

    One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were used to investigate the additive effect during growth of Bacillus subtilis B2A derived from soil samples on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality. Five hundred seventy-six birds (46 ± 0.5 g) were fed 3 different levels of B. subtilis B2A (1.1 × 10(4), 1.0 × 10(5), and 1.0 × 10(6) cfu), in a basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, for 28 d. In the current study, feed intake and feed conversion during 1 to 28 d showed significant improvement as dietary B. subtilis B2A increased from 1.1 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu (linear, P weights of the bursa of Fabricius were significantly increased linearly in B. subtilis B2A-fed groups (P loss was decreased (linear, P < 0.05). Our observations suggest that B. subtilis B2A benefits productivity and reduces Salmonella in broilers. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effect of high concentrations of dietary vitamin E during various age periods on performance, plasma vitamin E and meat stability of broiler chicks at 7 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartov, I; Frigg, M

    1992-05-01

    1. The effect of high concentrations of vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl acetate) fed during various age periods on the performance and the oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid [TBA] values) of the drumstick meat of 7-week-old broiler chicks was determined. The basal diets (for the age periods 0 to 3, 3 to 6 and 6 to 7 weeks) contained 60 g soyabean oil and 24 mg vitamin E/kg. The following five treatments were evaluated: (1) the basal diets from 0 to 7 weeks of age (control); (2) vitamin E, 100 mg/kg diet from 0 to 7 weeks of age; (3) vitamin E, 150 mg/kg diet from 0 to 3 weeks of age; (4) vitamin E, 150 mg/kg diet from 0 to 3 weeks of age and 100 mg/kg diet from 6 to 7 weeks of age; (5) vitamin E, 100 mg/kg diet from 5 to 7 weeks of age. 2. Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by the vitamin E treatments. 3. Plasma alpha-tocopherol (AT) concentrations in treatments 2, 4 and 5 were similar, and markedly higher than those in treatments 1 and 3, while those of treatment 3 were significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than those of treatment 1. Plasma retinol concentrations were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by the vitamin E treatments. 4. TBA values of the meat were very low and not significantly affected by the vitamin E treatments. However, after incubation the TBA values were highly significantly (P less than 0.01) negatively correlated with the amount of vitamin E consumed during the experiment. The stability of meat of birds fed the various combinations of vitamin E (treatments 3, 4 and 5) was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than that of birds which did not receive additional vitamin E (treatment 1), but it was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower than that of birds which received vitamin E continuously (treatment 2). 5. It is concluded that a high concentration of vitamin E fed during 0 to 3 weeks of age may significantly improve AT status of the broiler chick up to 7

  9. Dietary non-phytate phosphorus requirement of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S B; Liao, X D; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Jiang, Y; Luo, X G

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level on growth performance, bone characteristics and phosphorus metabolism-related gene expressions, so as to evaluate the dietary NPP requirement of broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly allocated to one of nine treatments with six replicate cages of 10 birds per cage in a completely randomized design, and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (containing 0.08% of NPP) supplemented with 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, or 0.50% of inorganic phosphorus in the form of CaHPO4·2H2O, respectively. Each diet contained the constant calcium content of about 1.0%. The results showed that daily weight gain, serum inorganic P, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage, middle toe BMC and BMD were affected (P dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P dietary NPP levels increased. The gene expression of type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) in the duodenum was affected (P dietary NPP levels increased. Dietary NPP requirements estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P dietary NPP requirements of broilers, and the dietary NPP requirement is 0.39% for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  11. New strategy to study corneal endothelial cell transplantation: the chick cornea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangioris, Georgios; Chiodini, Florence; Dosso, Andre

    2011-12-01

    To set up a culture assay of chick corneal endothelial cells (CECs) for transplantation into host corneas. Histology sections were performed at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 embryonic days of development of the chick embryo. Visualization of the gross morphology of CECs and of epithelium, stroma, and Descemet membrane was performed. Transplantation of CECs at 18 embryonic days of development into explanted, denuded from endothelial cell, host corneas of the same stage was attempted. The results from the histological sections clearly indicate that after embryonic day 12, the endothelial cells are well differentiated and the proliferation is complete. Transplanted CECs were able to migrate and integrate into the denuded host corneas. This study demonstrated its feasibility using an easy accessible model of chick cornea. With this technique, sufficient CECs may be obtained for biochemical and functional investigations using only nonhatched chickens that are easily accessible and easy to manipulate.

  12. Mom's shadow: structure-from-motion in newly hatched chicks as revealed by an imprinting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2009-03-01

    The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional (2-D) displays was investigated in domestic chicks, focusing on the role of the object's motion. In Experiment 1 newly hatched chicks, imprinted on a three-dimensional (3-D) object, were allowed to choose between the shadows of the familiar object and of an object never seen before. In Experiments 2 and 3 random-dot displays were used to produce the perception of a solid shape only when set in motion. Overall, the results showed that domestic chicks were able to recognize familiar shapes from 2-D motion stimuli. It is likely that similar general mechanisms underlying the perception of structure-from-motion and the extraction of 3-D information are shared by humans and animals. The present data shows that they occur similarly in birds as known for mammals, two separate vertebrate classes; this possibly indicates a common phylogenetic origin of these processes.

  13. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  14. Distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the chick visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Pfeiffer

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The calcium-binding proteins calbindin (CB, calretinin (CR, and parvalbumin (PV have been extensively studied over the last decade since they appear to be important as buffers of intracellular calcium. In the present study we investigated the distribution of these proteins in the chick visual system by means of conventional immunocytochemistry. The results indicated that CB, CR, and PV are widely distributed in retinorecipient areas of the chick brain. In some regions, all three calcium-binding proteins were present at different intensities and often in different neurons such as in the dorsolateral thalamic complex. In other areas, such as the nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis, only CB and CR were detected, whereas PV was absent. These results show that these three calcium-binding proteins are differentially distributed in the visual system of the chick, with varying degrees of co-localization

  15. Intestinal integrity and performance of broiler chickens fed a probiotic, a prebiotic, or an organic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BCS Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the intestinal integrity, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the performance of broiler chickens fed additives alternative to antimicrobials. A total of 1080 male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments with six replicates of 30 birds each. The following treatments were evaluated: basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with an antimicrobial, basal diet supplemented with a probiotic, basal diet supplemented with a prebiotic, basal diet with a symbiotic, and basal diet supplemented with organic acids. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and livability were recorded when broiler chickens were 10, 21, 35, and 42 days old. On day 42, 72 birds were individually weighed and sacrificed. In order to evaluate the morphometrics of the different intestinal wall layers, segments of the small intestine and the cecum were collected from two birds per replicate, and intestinal integrity (SEM was evaluated in the same segments of two birds per treatment. During the starter period (1-21 days old, birds fed the alternative additives presented similar weight gain as those fed the antimicrobial product, but were not different from control birds. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed alternative additives was better than that of the control birds from one to 10 days of age, but not during the remaining rearing period, and was similar to the birds receiving the antimicrobial. The morphometric parameters of the different intestinal wall layers was not influenced by the treatments. During the total rearing period, the evaluated alternative additives did not improve intestinal integrity or broiler performance.

  16. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  17. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Learning-related changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity in the chick forebrain after imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G

    1994-01-01

    The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a part of the chick forebrain that is critical for the learning process of imprinting and may be a site of information storage. Chicks were either trained on an imprinting stimulus or dark-reared. Trained chicks were classified as good or poor learners by their preference score (a measure of the strength of imprinting). A monoclonal antibody against the immediate early gene product Fos was applied to sections through IMHV and other forebrain regions. In the IMHV, significantly more immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or dark-reared chicks. There was a positive correlation between counts of labeled nuclei and preference score that was not attributable to sensory activity per se, locomotor activity during training, or a predisposition to learn well; rather, the results indicated that the change in Fos immunoreactivity in the IMHV was related to learning. In the hyperstriatum accessorium, significantly fewer immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or in dark-reared chicks. In the dorsolateral hippocampal region, more immunopositive nuclei were counted in trained than in dark-reared chicks. No significant effects of training were found in the anterior hyperstriatum ventrale, lobus parolfactorius, neostriatum, medial hippocampal region, or ventrolateral hippocampal region, but counts in this last region were positively correlated with training approach. The results for IMHV implicate Fos or Fos-related proteins in memory processes and pave the way for the identification of the cell types that show the learning-related increase in gene expression. Images PMID:7972076

  19. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  20. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1 and treatment group (T2 were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2 was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g, cumulative feed intake (g and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.

  1. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules R Freitas

    Full Text Available Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells, while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells. BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit.

  2. Heat or gamma irradiation sterilization affects the hypocholesterolemic effect of guar gum in axenic and heteroxenic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Leite, J.I.; Vieira, E.C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Andrieux, C. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France). Unite MBS. Lab. d`Ecologie et de Physiologie du Systeme Digestif

    1994-12-31

    Twenty-two axenic (germ free) or thirty heteroxenic (axenic colonized with human flora) 2.5-3.5 months old female Fisher rats were fed for four weeks either a hypercholesterolemic (hyper) diet or a hyper diet containing 5% guar gum (GG) sterilized by heat or gamma radiation. Axenic s rat fed the irradiated GG diet had had high cholesterolemia than their counterparts fed in autoclave diet (4.50 vs 2.29 mmol/l), whereas the method of sterilization had no effect on plasma cholesterol on axenic hyper or heteroxenic animals fed (7.35 vs 6.51 mg/dl). The levels of hepatic esterified cholesterol were higher in heteroxenic animals fed the irradiated GG diet than in their counterparts fed the autoclave GG diet (5.65 vs 3.57 mmol/g tissue). The composition of volatile fatty acids in the cecal contents of heteroxenic rats was dependent on the method of sterilization regardless of the presence of fiber: the levels of butyrate were 2.88 and 0,85 {mu}mol/g for rats fed the autoclave and irradiated diets, respectively. Gamma radiation abolished the cholesterol-lowering effect of guar gum, whereas sterilization by heat preserved this effect. The hypocholesterolemic effect of guar was reduced by gamma irradiation sterilization and was probably mediated by qualitative changes in the intestinal microflora which interfered with bile acid absorption. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of using different levels of Dill seeds on performance, some blood biochemical and intestinal microbial population in Ross 308 broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Rahimian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Dill “Anethum graveolens” is an annual medical plantin the celery family “Apiaceae”. It is the sole species of the genus “Anethum”.The health advantages of dill seed include its ability to increasedigestive health, as well as providingrelief from insomnia, hiccups, diarrhea, dysentery, menstrual disorders, respiratory disorders, and cancer. This experiment aimed to determine the effects of using different levels of Dill seeds on performance, some blood biochemical parameters and intestinal microbial population in Ross 308 broiler chicks. Experimental: 300 one-day-old male broiler chickswere divided into the four treatments with six replicates and 15 birds each as randomized design. The treatments contained basal diet with no Dill seeds kept as control, and200,400 and 600 gof Dill seedsper each ton of diets respectively. The live bodyweightsgain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birdswere calculated weekly. At the end of the experimentfour male birdsform each replicates were slaughtered and dressing percentage were calculated. In addition, some carcass traits and chick’s visceral partwere weighed separately as percentage of carcass and some organs weight. Results: Data indicated that using Dill seeds increased feed intake (FI in treatments compared to control. Also, body weight (BW (g/d and Pre-slaughter weight (g were higher in groups that were fed by dill seeds compared to the control. Additionally, there were significant differences (p<0.05 for feed conversation ratio (FCR among treatments. Recommended applications/industries: In conclusion, increasing levels of Dill seeds improved performance and some blood biochemical parameters of broilers chicks.

  4. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  5. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  6. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the arctic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Visser, G. Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20 22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher

  7. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix

  8. Energy Expenditure of Free-Ranging Chicks of the Cape Gannet Morus capensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, Rene A.; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Underhill, Les G.

    2015-01-01

    The Cape gannet Morus capensis, a large fish-eating seabird, is endemic to southern Africa. To study the energetics of nestling growth, we used the doubly labeled water technique to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) of nestlings, from hatchings to large partly feathered chicks (n =17) at Malgas

  9. The fate of the grafted quail Mullerian duct in the chick embryonic coelom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, J M; Fallat, M E; Donahoe, P K

    1984-08-01

    Recent morphological analyses of Mullerian duct regression suggested that some ductal cells might survive, in contrast to the previous view that regression was an example of "programmed cell death." The present study was designed to demonstrate survival of Mullerian duct cells after regression, and to map migration into local or distant tissues. Seven or eight-day-old chick embryos received intraabdominal grafts of Mullerian ducts from seven- or eight-day-old quails, creating chick-quail chimeras. Three or four days later the abdomen was serially sectioned and examined histologically using a modified Feulgen stain. Sixty-six of the 230 grafted embryos survived (29%). After sectioning, grafts were found in 34 of the 58 embryos in the body wall, peritoneum or mesenephros, with several adherent to the hosts' Mullerian ducts. Twenty female embryos contained grafts, all of which were developing normally. Fourteen male embryos contained grafts in various stages of regression. Regression was more advanced in mesonephric or body wall grafts while free intraperitoneal grafts showed the least regression. Migration of quail cells was striking when seen in grafts placed in the mesonephros or adherent to the host Mullerian duct. In these, regressing quail cells migrated into and became incorporated in adjacent chick mesenephros. Migration patterns were seen also in non-regressing cells in female hosts, where quail cells "homed" to the host chick Mullerian duct structures.

  10. Expression of CNTF receptor-alpha in chick violet-sensitive cones with unique morphologic properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seydewitz, V.; Rothermel, A.; Fuhrmann, S.; Schneider, A.J.; Grip, W.J. de; Layer, P.G.; Hofmann, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Application of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) can rescue mature photoreceptors from lesion-induced and hereditary degeneration. In the chick retina, expression of the CNTF receptor is present in a subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The present study was undertaken to identify the

  11. Maternal androgens in black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs : Consequences for chick development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, C.M; Eikenaar, C.; Schwabl, H; Groothuis, A.G.G.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mother birds counterbalance the negative effects of hatching asynchrony for later-hatched chicks by increasing the yolk androgen concentrations in consecutive eggs of their clutch. In doing so, they may adaptively tune each offspring’s competitive ability and, thus,

  12. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens. Three hundred and sixty indigenous Venda chicken eggs were collected for a period of a week and selection was done based on the weight of the eggs.

  13. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  14. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Hauten, B.A.M. van; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  15. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  16. (Co)variances for reproduction, egg weight and chick weight in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averaged annual breeding values for egg and chick production in breeding females increased at 1.4 and 2.3% per year, respectively. These results indicate that the genetic improvement of ostriches is feasible, provided that obstacles hampering it are overcome. South African Journal of Animal Science Supp 2 2004: 17-19 ...

  17. Chick quality control: a key to sustainable poultry production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry industry is one of the fastest growing segments in the agricultural sector and undoubtedly, it plays an important role in the Nigerian economy. However, the growth of this profitable sub sector is threatened by a number of factors critical among which is the quality of day-old-chicks supplied to farmers. The quality of ...

  18. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, V.; Plachý, Jiří; Pintérová, D.; Kološtová, K.; Boubelík, Michael; Jiang, P.; Yang, M.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2004), s. 347-352 ISSN 0262-0898 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : chick embryo * Lewis lung carcinoma * metastasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2004

  19. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs) promote angiogenesis in vitro and in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. To examine the in vivo relevance of this observation, we examined in the present study the differentiation potential of h...

  1. Light exposure of chick embryo influences lateralized recall of imprinting memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A N; Rogers, L J

    1999-12-01

    Environmental cues, such as light during the later part of incubation, are known to establish lateralization of some forms of visually guided behaviors in birds. The authors investigated the effect of light on lateralized recall of imprinting memory in chicks. On Day E19 of incubation, one eye was occluded for 24 hr. The other eye received stimulation by light. Chicks were imprinted and then tested for their imprinting preferences after administration of a low dose (500 ng) of glutamate into either hemisphere. Chicks that had the right eye exposed to light during incubation showed recall of the imprinting stimulus after injection of the left hemisphere but not after injection into the right hemisphere. The reverse was found for chicks that had the left eye exposed to light. Hence, the hemisphere ipsilateral to the eye exposed to light before hatching became essential for recall of imprinting memory. The hemisphere used in recall of imprinting memory received indirect visual inputs and was determined by environmental stimulation (asymmetrical light input).

  2. Feeding and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) chicks with unpredictable food access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of unpredictable feeding times on feeding activity and body mass gain in fast growing Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) from 7 to 31 d of age. Quail chicks were subjected to a long day length (18L:6D) with ad libitum food during (1) 17.5 h of the light period, starting

  3. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  4. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  5. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  6. Effect of Administration of Withania somnifera on Some Hematological and Immunological Profile of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mushtaq*, F. R. Durrani, N. Imtiaz, Umer Sadique1, A. Hafeez, S. Akhtar2 and S. Ahmad3

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of broiler chickens based on some hematological and immunological profile, upon inclusion of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera in their drinking water. For this purpose, 240 a-day-old broiler chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into four groups i.e. WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III. Group WST-0 was kept as control, while chicks in group WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were offered in their drinking water with an extract of W. somnifera at 10, 20 and 30g/L for 35 days, starting from day 1 of age. Feed intake and body weight were recorded on regular basis and hematological and immunological profile of the birds was analyzed at the end of experiment. Administration of W. somnifera extract resulted in significantly higher feed intake and body weight of birds in all treated groups. An increase in the values of Hb, PCV and TLC was noted in the treatment groups. A non significant difference was noted in the counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes in all treatment groups as compared to control. Antibodies titers against IB and IBD were significantly higher in all treatment groups as compare to the values shown by the chicks in control group. Findings of this study indicated that administration of W. somnifera extract to broiler chicks improve their feed intake, body weight gain, hematological profile and immunological status.

  7. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. CONCLUSION: The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  8. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Moskát, Csaba; Bán, Miklós; Grim, Tomás; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2009-11-11

    Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  9. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  10. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  11. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  12. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  13. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  14. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Koshiba

    Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  15. Serotonin modifies corticotropin-releasing factor-induced behaviors of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Takagi, Tomo; Koutoku, Tomoyuki; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2004-05-05

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) decreased corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced behaviors in neonatal chicks, and serotonin is one of the possible mechanisms through which GLP-1 affects CRF-induced behaviors. The present experiments were conducted to confirm the effect of serotonin on CRF-induced behaviors. In Experiment 1, chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with either saline, 0.1 microg of CRF, 5.0 microg of serotonin, or 0.1 microg of CRF plus 5.0 microg of serotonin. Injection of CRF caused excitation as evidenced by increased spontaneous activities and distress vocalizations (DVs) compared to the control group. The effect of CRF was attenuated by serotonin since chicks became quiet after given CRF with serotonin. Sleep-like behaviors were observed in the serotonin group. The number of defecations was increased by CRF and decreased by serotonin. Both CRF and serotonin increased plasma corticosterone, and the effect was synergistic. Serotonin dose-dependently decreased locomotor activities of chicks after central administration of 0.1 microg of CRF, 0.1 microg of CRF plus 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 microg of serotonin in Experiment 2. CRF-induced DVs were modified by serotonin. Instead of DVs, tender and low-pitched vocalizations were observed in chicks treated with CRF plus serotonin, the voice frequencies of which were less than 10 kHz. In conclusion, serotonin attenuated the CRF-induced behaviors while stimulating corticosterone release. These results indicate that the role of serotonin is dependent on the behaviors being measured. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  17. The evolution of social orienting: evidence from chicks (Gallus gallus and human newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsola Rosa Salva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Converging evidence from different species indicates that some newborn vertebrates, including humans, have visual predispositions to attend to the head region of animate creatures. It has been claimed that newborn preferences for faces are domain-relevant and similar in different species. One of the most common criticisms of the work supporting domain-relevant face biases in human newborns is that in most studies they already have several hours of visual experience when tested. This issue can be addressed by testing newly hatched face-naïve chicks (Gallus gallus whose preferences can be assessed prior to any other visual experience with faces. METHODS: In the present study, for the first time, we test the prediction that both newly hatched chicks and human newborns will demonstrate similar preferences for face stimuli over spatial frequency matched structured noise. Chicks and babies were tested using identical stimuli for the two species. Chicks underwent a spontaneous preference task, in which they have to approach one of two stimuli simultaneously presented at the ends of a runway. Human newborns participated in a preferential looking task. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a significant preference for orienting toward the face stimulus in both species. Further, human newborns spent more time looking at the face stimulus, and chicks preferentially approached and stood near the face-stimulus. These results confirm the view that widely diverging vertebrates possess similar domain-relevant biases toward faces shortly after hatching or birth and provide a behavioural basis for a comparison with neuroimaging studies using similar stimuli.

  18. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOGENIC RESPONSE OF NON- PATHOGENIC TURKEY ENTERIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN 4- WEEK OLD BABCOCK CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mahboob, M. Zulfiqar, G. Nabi and M. Iqbal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey Enteric Newcastle Disease Virus (TENDV was propagated, passaged and characterized in 9-day old embryonating eggs. The virus had mean death time of about 120hours. The interacerebral pathogencity index (ICPI and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI values were found to be 0.11 and 0.0.0 in day-old and 6-week old chicks, respectively. The embryo infectivity 50 per cent end point (EID50 of the virus was found to be 1010.49 in 9- day old embryonating eggs.One hundred day-old chicks were reared in an isolated room till their maternal antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND became zero. At the age of four weeks, the chicks were divided into two groups A and B and put in separate rooms. Group' A ' was vaccinated orally with TENDV (EID50 107 at the rate of 0.5 ml per chick while group '8' was kept as unvaccinated control. The chicks of both the groups were marked and re-united (put in one room 4 days post-vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titre of each group against TENDV was determined. The results indicated that chicks of group' A' showed the highest Geometric Mean Titre ( GMT of 512, 18 days post vaccination. The chicks of ‘B' group also developed significant HI GMT, 14 days post contact with Vaccinates, which was found to be 137.2. The development of a significant titre in the contact birds suggests that the virus was, extensively excreted from the vaccination chicks and taken up by the contact chicks, due to which they also developed significant level of HI antibodies. Use of this virus for vaccination purposes needs to be investigated.

  20. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  1. Gut complex carbohydrates and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens fed with oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) aqueous extract and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, P; Forte, C; Franciosini, M P; Mercati, F; Casagrande-Proietti, P; Dall'Aglio, C; Acuti, G; Tardella, F M; Trabalza-Marinucci, M

    2017-08-01

    One hundred and seventy one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly divided into three groups fed with different dietary treatments: basal control diet (C); C supplemented (2 g/kg) with an oregano aqueous extract (O); C supplemented (150 mg/kg) with vitamin E (E). Growth performance was evaluated at 21 (T1) and 42 days (T2). On the same days, morphological, histochemical and microbiological analyses were performed. The O group showed the highest (p oregano aqueous extract supplementation seemed to elicit the best response among treatments, enabling better growth performance, enhancing both the quantity and quality of glycoconjugates involved in indirect defence actions and significantly reducing both the coliform and E. coli counts. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye: a summary and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Elizabeth L; Sivak, Jacob G; Callender, Murchison G

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the OPO 1992 Classic Paper: Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye (12: 448-452) and discuss recent findings in refractive development. The classic paper shows that when lightweight plastic goggles with rigid contact lens inserts are applied to the eyes of newly hatched chicks, the eye responds accurately to defocus between -10 and +20 D, although hyperopia develops more rapidly. While the changes largely are due to change in axial length, high levels of hyperopia are associated with corneal flattening. Also, newly hatched chicks are better able to compensate for the induced defocus than chicks that are 9 days old. In addition, astigmatism of 2-6 D can be produced by applying 9 D toric inducing lenses on the day of hatching, and the most myopic meridian coincides with the power meridian of the inducing lens. This astigmatism appears to be primarily due to corneal toricity. Furthermore, the greatest magnitude was produced when the plano meridian of the inducing lens was placed 45° from the line of the palpebral fissure. Since our publication in 1992, it has been shown that similar results can be produced in a variety of species, including; tree shrews, marmosets, monkeys and fish. Considerable effort has been spent in trying to determine what the eye uses, if not the brain, as the signal to the sign of the defocus. Accommodation, chromatic aberration, diurnal variation, astigmatism and higher order monochromatic aberrations have all been considered. Choroidal thinning and thickening play a role in myopia and hyperopia development, respectively, in chicks. High light levels (15,000 lux) increase the rate at which chicks compensate for positive lenses and decrease the compensation rate for negative lenses. However these light levels do not prevent the eye from fully compensating for either type of lens. It has also been shown that brief periods of normal vision prevent the development of form deprivation myopia. Finally, the importance of the

  3. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  4. Factors related to high levels of ostrich chick mortality from hatching to 90 days of age in an intensive rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W.P. Cloete

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich chick mortality was studied in 2522 chicks that were hatched artificially during the 1999/2000 breeding season. High levels of mortality were observed, with 1978 (78.4 % of these chicks dying before 90 days after hatching. Atotal of 46.7 %(1177 of these chicks died before 28 days of age, and a further 30.7 %(801 died between 28 and 90 days post-hatching. Chick mortality to 28 days of age could not be conclusively related to sex, day of external pipping or breeder diet. Mortality rates were higher (P < 0.05 at the beginning and end of the breeding season than in the middle months. Differences in mortality levels of chicks incubated in different incubators could be related to the time of the breeding season during which the incubator was mostly used. The regression of chick mortality to 28 days of age on day-old chick mass followed a 2nd-degree polynomial. Chicks with day-old masses below 762.5 g were particularly at risk of dying before 28 days after hatching. Chicks hatching from eggs where excessive water loss to 35 days of incubation (>18 % was recorded were also at risk of succumbing before 28 days of age. Chick mortality percentages for the period from 28 to 90 days of age exceeded 80 %in chicks weighing an average of 1050 g at 28 days. Mortaliy percentages declined sharply at higher live masses, to between 20 and 30 % in chicks weighing ?1950 g. This 'core' level of mortality remained throughout, even in the heaviest chicks. It was concluded that the high levels of chick mortality could be related to stress in chicks, resulting from an inability to adapt to the rearing environment. The high subsequent mortality percentages of low live mass chicks that survived to 28 days after hatching could probably be attributed to residual setbacks suffered earlier. Abetter understanding of the underlying principles involved in ostrich chick mortality in intensive rearing environments is required for progress in this field, resulting in more

  5. The effects of suboptimal eggshell temperature during incubation on broiler chick quality, live performance, and further processing yield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph, N S; Lourens, A; Moran, Jr, E T

    2006-01-01

    .... Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of low EST at the start of incubation and high EST at the end of incubation on hatchability, chick quality, 6-wk live performance, and breast...

  6. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  7. Detection of rotaviruses and intestinal lesions in broiler chicks from flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Peter; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Elschner, Mandy; Reetz, Jochen; Löhren, Ulrich; Diller, Roland

    2006-09-01

    The intestinal tract and intestinal contents were collected from 34 stunted, 5-to-14-day-old broiler chicks from eight flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in Northern Germany to investigate intestinal lesions and the presence of enteric pathogens with a special focus on rotaviruses (RVs). Seven chicks from a healthy flock were used as controls. Severe villous atrophy was seen in chicks from six flocks with RSS but not in the control flock. Lesions were often "regionally" distributed in the middle-to-distal small intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and seminested RT-PCR were used for detection and characterization of RVs. The PAGE allows discrimination of different RV groups, and the RT-PCR was used to verify the presence of group (gp) A RVs. RVs were detected (by all methods) in 32 of 34 chicks from the flocks with RSS. By TEM (negative staining), RV particles were observed in intestinal contents of 28 chicks from the flocks with RSS. PAGE analysis showed four RV groups: gpA, gpD, gpF, and gpG. Group A RVs were detected in four chicks from two flocks with RSS, without intestinal lesions. GpD RVs were detected in 12 chicks of five flocks with RSS, 10 of them with severe villous atrophy. GpF RVs were confirmed in four chicks from three flocks with RSS and in two birds in the control flock. GpG RVs were verified in two chicks from two flocks with RSS, one with, and one without, intestinal lesions. At present, PCR methods are only available for detection of gpA RVs. Using RT-PCR, gpA RVs were identified in samples from 22 chicks including samples of two chicks from the control flock. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between presence of gpD RV and severe villous atrophy in flocks with RSS. The results suggest that gpD RV plays a major role in the pathogenesis of RSS.

  8. Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Attorney Docket No. 84449 1 INDUCTIVELY SHORTED BICONE FED TAPERED DIPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described...Invention [0003] The invention generally relates to RF antennas and more specifically to bicone and dipole antennas. (2) Description of the Prior Art

  9. Thalidomide Ameliorates Inflammation and Vascular Injury but Aggravates Tubular Damage in the Irradiated Mouse Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharpfenecker, Marion, E-mail: m.scharpfenecker@nki.nl [Division of Biological Stress Response, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Floot, Ben [Division of Biological Stress Response, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Russell, Nicola S. [Division of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stewart, Fiona A. [Division of Biological Stress Response, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: The late side effects of kidney irradiation include vascular damage and fibrosis, which are promoted by an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. We therefore treated kidney-irradiated mice with the anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating drug thalidomide in an attempt to prevent the development of late normal tissue damage and radiation nephropathy in the mouse kidney. Methods and Materials: Kidneys of C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with a single dose of 14 Gy. Starting from week 16 after irradiation, the mice were fed with thalidomide-containing chow (100 mg/kg body weight/day). Gene expression and kidney histology were analyzed at 40 weeks and blood samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40 weeks after irradiation. Results: Thalidomide improved the vascular structure and vessel perfusion after irradiation, associated with a normalization of pericyte coverage. The drug also reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells but could not suppress the development of fibrosis. Irradiation-induced changes in hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen levels were not rescued by thalidomide. Moreover, thalidomide worsened tubular damage after irradiation and also negatively affected basal tubular function. Conclusions: Thalidomide improved the inflammatory and vascular side effects of kidney irradiation but could not reverse tubular toxicity, which probably prevented preservation of kidney function.

  10. Development of neuronal responsiveness in the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale during auditory filial imprinting in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenkötter, M; Braun, K

    2000-03-01

    Chronic electrophysiological recordings of slow field potentials from tone-imprinted chicks show significantly enhanced fast Fourier transform (FFT) power during playback of rhythmic 400-Hz imprinting tone stimuli in the presence of a surrogate mother. The FFT power was already significantly higher during the very first imprinting session, when the chick was exposed to the imprinting tone stimuli in the presence of the surrogate mother compared to spontaneous activity (EEG recordings). During discrimination tests, where individual chicks were exposed to the imprinting tone stimuli in alternation to rhythmic 700-Hz tone stimuli (discrimination tone stimuli), the FFT power was significantly higher during playback of the imprinting tone stimuli than the FFT power during playback of the discrimination tone stimuli. Chicks which were imprinted in the absence of the surrogate mother also show enhanced FFT power in the course of the imprinting sessions; however, in contrast to the first group, they did not show significant differences in the FFT power during playback of either the imprinting or discrimination tone stimuli in the discrimination tests. Our results suggest that the high FFT power of a potential imprinting stimulus or situation, which is expressed in newborn (still naive) chicks, is maintained only when the chicks form an association between the tone stimuli and a positive emotional situation (represented by the surrogate mother). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Who is who? Non-invasive methods to individually sex and mark altricial chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Honarmand, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments require early determination of offspring's sex as well as early marking of newborns for individual recognition. According to animal welfare guidelines, non-invasive techniques should be preferred whenever applicable. In our group, we work on different species of song birds...... applicable in a standard equipped lab and especially suitable for working in the field as no special equipment is required for sampling and storage. Handling of chicks is minimized and marking and sexing techniques are non-invasive thereby supporting the RRR-principle of animal welfare guidelines....... in the lab and in the field, and we successfully apply non-invasive methods to sex and individually mark chicks. This paper presents a comprehensive non-invasive tool-box. Sexing birds prior to the expression of secondary sexual traits requires the collection of DNA-bearing material for PCR. We established...

  13. Animal cognition. Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans' mental number line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Priftis, Konstantinos; Regolin, Lucia

    2015-01-30

    Humans represent numbers along a mental number line (MNL), where smaller values are located on the left and larger on the right. The origin of the MNL and its connections with cultural experience are unclear: Pre-verbal infants and nonhuman species master a variety of numerical abilities, supporting the existence of evolutionary ancient precursor systems. In our experiments, 3-day-old domestic chicks, once familiarized with a target number (5), spontaneously associated a smaller number (2) with the left space and a larger number (8) with the right space. The same number (8), though, was associated with the left space when the target number was 20. Similarly to humans, chicks associate smaller numbers with the left space and larger numbers with the right space. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-12-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of mobile phones on the neural tube development of chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umur, Ahmet Sukru; Yaldiz, Can; Bursali, Adem; Umur, Nurcan; Kara, Burcu; Barutcuoglu, Mustafa; Vatansever, Seda; Selcuki, Deniz; Selcuki, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of radiation of mobile phones on developing neural tissue of chick embryos. There were 4 study groups. All Groups were placed in equal distance, from the mobile phones. Serial sections were taken from each Group to study the neural tube segments. The TUNEL results were statistically significant (p negative in the 48 and 72 hours in the Control Group, had moderate activity in the third Group 3, weak activity in the 48 hour, and was negative in the 72 hour in other groups. Caspase-9 immunoreactivity was weak in Group 1, 2 and 3 at 30 hours and was negative in Group 1 and 4 at 48 and 72 hours. Caspase-9 activity in the third Group was weak in all three stages. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones caused developmental delay in chick embryos in early period. This finding suggests that the use of mobile phones by pregnant women may pose risks.

  16. Evaluation of genotoxicity of a technical grade organophosphate insecticide, Tafethion (ethion), in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunya, S P; Jena, G B

    1994-01-01

    The genotoxicity of a technical grade organophosphate insecticide, Tafethion (ethion), was evaluated in a chick in vivo test system employing the chromosome aberration assay (CA). Chicks in their neonatal life period are particularly susceptible to environmental contaminants due to the high rate of cell proliferation and ongoing process of development. This provides a new methodology to screen the genotoxic effect of environmental pollutants. The chemical was tested for three different doses (20, 15 and 10 mg/kg b.w.), in two routes of administration (i.p. and p.o.), after three different durations of acute exposure (6, 24 and 48 h) as well as chronic exposure (4 mg/kg day for 5 days), for the induction of chromosomal aberrations. Mitomycin C was used as the positive control. In general, the chemical induced higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than the controls, indicating the genotoxic property of the chemical in the tested system.

  17. Biological efficacy of liquid methionine and methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T; Yokota, H; Okumura, J; Tasaki, I

    1984-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine biological efficacies of DL-methionine-Na (Liquimeth) and DL-methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA)-free acid (Alimet) relative to DL-methionine in Single Comb White Leghorn male chicks. A crystalline amino acid mixture devoid of sulfur-containing amino acids was used for the basal diet, and the test substances were added at .1, .2, and .3% levels, equivalent to DL-methionine on a molar basis, in place of cornstarch. By a slope ratio assay using chick growth as a criterion, the relative biological efficacies of DL-MHA-free acid and DL-methionine-Na to DL-methionine were found to be 70 and 113%, respectively, on a molar basis.

  18. Anise seed (Pimpinella anisum L. as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Fekri Yazdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of inclusion of three levels of anise seed (Pimpinella anisum L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old, hatched Ross broilers received a maize-soybean meal basal diet and were allocated randomly in the following five experimental treatments for 6 weeks: basal diet-no additives, basal diet containing 1 g anise/kg diet, basal diet containing 5 g anise/kg diet, basal diet containing 10 g anise/kg diet and basal diet containing flavophospholipol at 4.5 mg/kg diet. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. At Day 28, serum antibody titers against avian influenza virus were measured by the hemagglutination inhibition test. Results: Bodyweight of broilers fed basal diet was higher at 42 d of age than other groups but it was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Broilers receiving basal diet had higher feed intake compared to broilers receiving difference levels of anise seed (P<0.05. The most efficient feed conversion throughout the study was observed in chicks fed diets supplemented with 1 g anise/kg (P<0.05. Most of the carcass characteristics of broilers slaughtered at Day 42 were not influenced by treatments but carcass yield significantly increased (P<0.05 in broilers supplemented with 10 g anise/kg compared to antibiotic group. Antibody titer against avian influenza virus increased in the group treated with 10 g anise/kg diet compared with other groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results suggested that dietary inclusion of 10 g anise/kg can be applied as alternatives to in-feed antibiotics for broiler diets.

  19. Effect of 24 h Fasting on Gene Expression of AMPK, Appetite Regulation Peptides and Lipometabolism Related Factors in the Hypothalamus of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a key part of a kinase-signaling cascade that acts to maintain energy homeostasis. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the possible effects of fasting and refeeding on the gene expression of hypothalamic AMPK, some appetitive regulating peptides and lipid metabolism related enzymes. Seven-day-old male broiler (Arbor Acres chicks were allocated into three equal treatments: fed ad libitum (control; fasted for 24 h; fasted for 24 h and then refed for 24 h. Compared with the control, the hypothalamic gene expression of AMPKα2, AMPKβ1, AMPKβ2, AMPKγ1, Ste20-related adaptor protein β (STRADβ, mouse protein 25α (MO25α and agouti-related peptide (AgRP were increased after fasting for 24 h. No significant difference among treatments was observed in mRNA levels of AMPKα1, AMPKγ2, LKB1 and neuropeptide Y (NPY. However, the expression of MO25β, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, ghrelin, fatty acid synthase (FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1 were significantly decreased. The present results indicated that 24 h fasting altered gene expression of AMPK subunits, appetite regulation peptides and lipometabolism related factors in chick’s hypothalamus; the hypothalamic FAS signaling pathway might be involved in the AMPK regulated energy homeostasis and/or appetite regulation in poultry.

  20. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  1. A hybrid model of uniform design and artificial neural network for the optimization of dietary metabolizable energy, digestible lysine, and methionine in quail chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mehri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A uniform design (UD was used to construct models to explain the growth response of Japanese quails to dietary metabolizable energy (ME, and digestible methionine (dMet and lysine (dLys under tropical condition. In total, 100 floor pens with seven birds each were fed 25 UD different diets containing 25 ME (2808-3092 kcal/kg, dMet (0.31-0.49% of diet, and dLys (0.91-1.39% of diet levels from 7 to 14 d of age. A platform of artificial neural network based on UD (ANN-UD was generated to describe the growth response of the birds to dietary inputs using random search. Artificial neural networks of body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were optimized using random search algorithm. The optimization the ANN-UD results showed that maximum BWG may be achieved with 2995 kcal ME/kg, 0.45% dMet, and 1.18% dLys of diet; and minimum FCR may be obtained with 3000 kcal ME/kg, 0.45% dMet, and 1.17% dLys of diet. The result of this study showed that a ANN and UD hybrid model can be used successfully to optimize the nutritional requirements of quail chicks.

  2. The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrew Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Results Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of somitogenesis, when it slows down. When the chick embryo reaches its final number of somites at stage HH 24-25 there is still some remaining unsegmented PSM in which expression of components of the somitogenesis oscillator is no longer dynamic. Finally, we identify a change in expression of retinoic acid regulating factors in the tail bud at late stages of somitogenesis, such that in the chick embryo there is a pronounced onset of Raldh2 expression while in the mouse embryo the expression of the RA inhibitor Cyp26A1 is downregulated. Conclusions Our results show that the chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. In addition, endogenous retinoic acid is probably also involved in the termination of the process of segmentation, and in tail growth in general.

  3. Gene expression pattern of glucose transporters in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Kawaguchi, Mana; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-07-01

    The gene expression pattern of the glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8, and GLUT12) among pectoralis major and minor, biceps femoris, and sartorius muscles from newly hatched chicks was examined. GLUT1 mRNA level was higher in pectoralis major muscle than in the other muscles. Phosphorylated AKT level was also high in the same muscle, suggesting a relationship between AKT and GLUT1 expression.

  4. Prophylactic supplementation of caprylic acid in feed reduces Salmonella enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Anup Kollanoor; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Charles, Anu Susan; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Darre, Michael J; Khan, Mazhar I; Hoagland, Thomas A; Schreiber, David T; Donoghue, Annie M; Donoghue, Dan J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, generally recognized as safe eight-carbon fatty acid, for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in chicks. One hundred commercial day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups of 20 birds each: CA control (no Salmonella Enteritidis, CA), positive control (Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA), negative control (no Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA), and 0.7 or 1% CA. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. On day 8, birds were inoculated with 5.0 log CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis by crop gavage. Six birds from each group were euthanized on days 1, 7, and 10 after challenge, and Salmonella Enteritidis populations in the cecum, small intestine, cloaca, crop, liver, and spleen were enumerated. The study was replicated three times. CA supplementation at 0.7 and 1% consistently decreased Salmonella Enteritidis populations recovered from the treated birds. Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the tissue samples of CA-treated chicks were significantly lower (P Feed intake and body weight did not differ between the groups. Histological examination revealed no pathological changes in the cecum and liver of CA-supplemented birds. The results suggest that prophylactic CA supplementation through feed can reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in day-old chicks and may be a useful treatment for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens.

  5. Comparison of the cell cytoskeleton in migratory and stationary chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badley, R A; Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the principal cytoskeletal components (actin, tubulin and 10 nm filament protein) have been compared by immunofluorescence microscopy in two populations of chick heart fibroblasts, previously shown to be adapted respectively for rapid, directed migration or adhesion and growth...... bundles. The variety of patients observed in the migratory cells are documented and the possible roles of the different components of the cytoskeleton in cell locomotion are discussed....

  6. Central injection of a synthetic chicken partial leptin peptide does not affect food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wil; Yi, Jiaqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-08-24

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone in mammals that plays an important role in whole body energy balance via its inhibitory effects on food intake mediated through the hypothalamus. Chicken leptin has a low sequence homology to mammalian leptin and its role in appetite regulation is not reported; hence the objective of this study was to determine effects of central injection of chicken leptin on food and water intake and associated behaviors in chicks. Chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with 0 (vehicle), 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 nmol of a synthetic chicken leptin partial peptide and food and water intake were monitored. There were no effects observed and a second experiment was conducted to evaluate food and water intake at higher doses; after injection of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 nmol leptin. Again, there were no effects on food or water intake. In the third experiment, behaviors were analyzed during the first 30 min post-injection of vehicle or 10 nmol leptin. At 5 min post-injection, vehicle-injected chicks spent more time sitting than leptin-injected chicks. A wide dose range was evaluated however, the absence of an effect on food intake or behavior suggests that the chicken leptin peptide that was tested does not mediate effects on appetite in the brain and that chicken leptin likely has a different physiological role in birds than in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Viscoelastic Material Properties of the Myocardium and Cardiac Jelly in the Looping Chick Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Jiang; Varner, Victor D.; Brilli, Lauren L.; Young, Jonathan M.; Taber, Larry A.; Perucchio, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Accurate material properties of developing embryonic tissues are a crucial factor in studies of the mechanics of morphogenesis. In the present work, we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of the looping heart tube in the chick embryo through nonlinear finite element modeling and microindentation experiments. Both hysteresis and ramp-hold experiments were performed on the intact heart and isolated cardiac jelly (extracellular matrix). An inverse computational method was used to d...

  8. Immunohistochemical Demonstration of S-100 Protein in the Chick Non-Nervous Tissues : Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    YASURO, ATOJI; KOUJI, TAKAYANAGI; YOSHITAKA, SUZUKI; Makoto, Sugimura; Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University; Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University

    1990-01-01

    Distribution of S-100 protein in the chick non-nervous tissues was investigated by immunohistochemical method using anti-bovine S-100 protein serum. S-100 protein immunoreactivity was detected in stellate cells of the pituitary gland , insulin cells and somatostatin cells of the pancreatic islet, epithelial cells of the proventriculus, and epithelial cells of the distal and the collecting tubules in the kidney. The Sertoli cells and oocytes also contained S-100 protein. These findings indicat...

  9. Growth of the chick area vasculosa in ovo and in shell-less culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, R; Nelson, J.; Wilson, D J

    1990-01-01

    The rates of growth and cell proliferation of the chick area vasculosa (Days 2-5 of incubation) were examined in windowed eggs and in shell-less culture preparations. For embryos of developmental Stages 15 to 23, the area vasculosa in shell-less cultures was significantly smaller than in corresponding eggs; however there was no significant difference in the radial growth between these groups. The cultivation of embryos in shell-less culture did not affect the normal macroscopic or histologica...

  10. Gene transfer to chicks using lentiviral vectors administered via the embryonic chorioallantoic membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Hen

    Full Text Available The lack of affordable techniques for gene transfer in birds has inhibited the advancement of molecular studies in avian species. Here we demonstrate a new approach for introducing genes into chicken somatic tissues by administration of a lentiviral vector, derived from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chick embryos on embryonic day 11. The FIV-derived vectors carried yellow fluorescent protein (YFP or recombinant alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH genes, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Transgene expression, detected in chicks 2 days after hatch by quantitative real-time PCR, was mostly observed in the liver and spleen. Lower expression levels were also detected in the brain, kidney, heart and breast muscle. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses confirmed transgene expression in chick tissues at the protein level, demonstrating a transduction efficiency of ∼0.46% of liver cells. Integration of the viral vector into the chicken genome was demonstrated using genomic repetitive (CR1-PCR amplification. Viability and stability of the transduced cells was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, immunostaining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA, and detection of transgene expression 51 days post transduction. Our approach led to only 9% drop in hatching efficiency compared to non-injected embryos, and all of the hatched chicks expressed the transgenes. We suggest that the transduction efficiency of FIV vectors combined with the accessibility of the CAM vasculature as a delivery route comprise a new powerful and practical approach for gene delivery into somatic tissues of chickens. Most relevant is the efficient transduction of the liver, which specializes in the production and secretion of proteins, thereby providing an optimal target for prolonged study of secreted hormones and peptides.

  11. Synthesis of type III collagen by fibroblasts from the embryonic chick cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis of collagen types I, II, III, and IV in cells from the embryonic chick cornea was studied using specific antibodies and immunofluorescence. Synthesis of radioactively labeled collagen types I and III was followed by fluorographic detection of cyanogen bromide peptides on polyacrylamide slab gels and by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography followed by disc gel electrophoresis. Type III collagen had been detected previously by indirect immunofluorescence in the corneal epithelial cel...

  12. Developmental changes of Insulin-like growth factors in the liver and muscle of chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Guo, Wei; Pu, Zhenyu; Li, Xueyuan; Lei, Xinyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors ( IGFS: ) are synthesized in tissues and play an important role in embryonic development of avian via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. In the study, mRNA expression of IGFs were detected by real-time PCR in the muscle and liver from d 10 to 20 of chick embryo ( E10: to E20: ). Methylation of IGF1 promoter in the muscle was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR as well as IGF2 promoter in the liver. These results showed that there was obviously IGF1 expression in liver at E19 and E20. The higher IGF1 expression in muscle was found during E15 to E18 with the peak on E17, and then declined. Correspondingly, the lowest methylation level of IGF1 promoter was detectable on the same embryonic d 17. Expression of IGF2 in muscle increased gradually during embryonic growth and showed higher level in the later stages (E17 to E20) when IGF1 expression began to decrease. IGF2 expression in liver reached the first peak on E14, then declined but gradually elevated from E17. IGF2 promoter methylation in liver showed gradual decline on d 12, 15, 17 and 19 of incubation, meanwhile IGF2 expression of liver increased gradually. These results suggested that IGF1 and IGF2 might separately be more important for muscle and liver growth in chick embryonic development. Variation of IGFs expression during the incubation might be concerned with the methylation of gene promoter. The profile of IGFs expression in chick embryonic tissues may be meaningful for understanding organ growth and embryonic development in chick. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. The Teratogenic Effects of Antiepileptic Drug, Topiramate, on the Development of Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantima Roongruangchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-epileptic drugs are known to be the risk of teratogenicity. Topiramate (TPM is a new kind of such drug, for which no research has confirmed the incidence of producing congenital abnormalities. Objective: This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of TPM by using chick embryos as an animal model and the results can be compared to the human embryo of the same stage. Methods: Fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with two concentrations of TPM, which were 10mg, and 20mg, in NSS at a volume of 0.1 ml into the yolk sac at 21 hrs of incubation and repeated injections at 72 hrs at a volume of 0.05 ml. The chick embryos on day 3, 6 and 11 of incubation were sacrificed and all living embryos were processed for total mount and serial section. Results: The mortality rate increased corresponding to the concentrations of TPM, and the embryonic stage. The total mount of day 3 showed major abnormalities of the eye and heart, such as microphthalmia and looser of heart looping. The serial section of day 3 showed opening of the anterior neuropore, ectopia viscerae and multiple malformations of the eye and heart. Day 6 chick embryos showed ectopia cordis and ectopia viscerae. Moreover, there were retardation and abnormalities of several organs such as eye, heart, liver, mesonephros and gonads. Day 11 chick embryos showed ectopia viscerae and several growth retardations, retardation of ossification of both limb bones and skull bones. Conclusion: This study showed that TPM might cause embryonic death, growth retardation and abnormalities of the eye, heart, an opening of the anterior neuropore and ectopia viscerae. This might indicate abnormalities to the baby born from mother with gestational epilepsy who was taking this drug continuously, and it might lead to spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies of the fetus.

  14. Declawing Ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) Chicks to Minimize Skin Damage During Rearing.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chris; Meyer, A.; Cloete, S.W.P.; Van Schalkwyk, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Leather is one of the main products derived from ostrich farming. Current rearing practices lead to a high incidence of skin damage, which decreases the value of ostrich skins. In the emu and poultry industry, declawing is commonly practiced to reduce skin damage and injuries. We consequently investigated declawing of ostrich chicks as a potential management practice to minimize skin lesions that result from claw injuries. A group of 140 day-old ostriches was declawed and a second group of 13...

  15. Novel Two-Step Hierarchical Screening of Mutant Pools Reveals Mutants under Selection in Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Reynolds, M. Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated chicken/egg products are major sources of human salmonellosis, yet the strategies used by Salmonella to colonize chickens are poorly understood. We applied a novel two-step hierarchical procedure to identify new genes important for colonization and persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in chickens. A library of 182 S. Typhimurium mutants each containing a targeted deletion of a group of contiguous genes (for a total of 2,069 genes deleted) was used to identify regions under selection at 1, 3, and 9 days postinfection in chicks. Mutants in 11 regions were under selection at all assayed times (colonization mutants), and mutants in 15 regions were under selection only at day 9 (persistence mutants). We assembled a pool of 92 mutants, each deleted for a single gene, representing nearly all genes in nine regions under selection. Twelve single gene deletion mutants were under selection in this assay, and we confirmed 6 of 9 of these candidate mutants via competitive infections and complementation analysis in chicks. STM0580, STM1295, STM1297, STM3612, STM3615, and STM3734 are needed for Salmonella to colonize and persist in chicks and were not previously associated with this ability. One of these key genes, STM1297 (selD), is required for anaerobic growth and supports the ability to utilize formate under these conditions, suggesting that metabolism of formate is important during infection. We report a hierarchical screening strategy to interrogate large portions of the genome during infection of animals using pools of mutants of low complexity. Using this strategy, we identified six genes not previously known to be needed during infection in chicks, and one of these (STM1297) suggests an important role for formate metabolism during infection. PMID:26857572

  16. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  17. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  18. Integrating technologies for comparing 3D gene expression domains in the developing chick limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Malcolm E; Clelland, Allyson K; Bain, Andrew; Baldock, Richard A; Murphy, Paula; Downie, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll; Davidson, Duncan R; Buckland, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Chick embryos are good models for vertebrate development due to their accessibility and manipulability. Recent large increases in available genomic data from both whole genome sequencing and EST projects provide opportunities for identifying many new developmentally important chicken genes. Traditional methods of documenting when and where specific genes are expressed in embryos using whole amount and section in-situ hybridisation do not readily allow appreciation of 3-dimensional (3D) patterns of expression, but this can be accomplished by the recently developed microscopy technique, Optical Projection Tomography (OPT). Here we show that OPT data on the developing chick wing from different labs can be reliably integrated into a common database, that OPT is efficient in capturing 3D gene expression domains and that such domains can be meaningfully compared. Novel protocols are used to compare 3D expression domains of 7 genes known to be involved in chick wing development. This reveals previously unappreciated relationships and demonstrates the potential, using modern genomic resources, for building a large scale 3D atlas of gene expression. Such an atlas could be extended to include other types of data, such as fate maps, and the approach is also more generally applicable to embryos, organs and tissues.

  19. Alpha-lipoic acid impairs body weight gain of young broiler chicks via modulating peripheral AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufeng; Everaert, Nadia; Song, Zhigang; Decuypere, Eddy; Vermeulen, Daniel; Buyse, Johan

    2017-09-01

    In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was aimed to explore the potential role of hepatic AMPK in the energy homeostasis of broiler chickens. Diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. As a result, α-LA supplementation decreased the relative growth rate of broiler chicks. Hepatic AMPKα2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated by dietary α-LA, in concert with the increased phosphorylated AMPKα protein levels. In addition, hepatic FAS mRNA levels together with the malonyl-CoA to total CoA ester ratio were reduced by α-LA supplementation. Moreover, the hepatic phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels were increased resulting in a markedly decreased hepatic glycogen content. In conclusion, dietary α-LA supplementation decreased the in vivo hepatic glycogenesis and lipogenesis via stimulating hepatic AMPKα mRNA levels and the phosphorylated gene product. The stimulatory effect of α-LA on hepatic AMPK mRNA and pAMPKα protein levels together with our previous observations regarding its inhibitory effect on hypothalamic AMPK may have altered the energy balance and hence impaired body weight gain of broiler chicks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth Retardation Of Chick Embryo Exposed To A Low Dose Of Electromagnetic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Najam; John C, Muthusami; Norrish, Mark; Heming, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the nonionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100% safe.

  1. Possible role of central interleukins on the anorexigenic effect of lipopolysaccharide in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, T; Kodama, T; Yamane, S; Makino, R; Khan, S I; Cline, M A

    2017-06-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to determine if central interleukin-1β (IL1β), interleukin-6 (IL6) and interleukin-8 (IL8) affect feeding behaviour in chicks (Gallus gallus) and examine if central interleukins are related to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia. 2. Intra-abdominal (IA) injection of LPS significantly suppressed feeding behaviour and significantly increased mRNA expression of IL1β and IL8 in the diencephalon when compared to the control group, while IL6 tended to be increased. 3. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 200 ng IL1β significantly decreased food intake at 60 min after the injection while IL6 and IL8 had no effect. 4. IA injection of these ILs (200 ng) had no effect on food intake in chicks. 5. ICV injection of 200 ng IL1β did not affect water intake and plasma corticosterone concentration, suggesting that central IL1β might not be related to the regulation of drinking behaviour and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. 6. The present study demonstrated that central IL1β but not IL6 and IL8 might be related to the inhibition of feeding in chicks.

  2. Gene expression profile in cerebrum in the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Katagiri, Sachiko; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2008-06-15

    In newly hatched chicks, gene expression in the brain has previously been shown to be up-regulated following filial imprinting. By applying cDNA microarrays containing 13,007 expressed sequence tags, we examined the comprehensive gene expression profiling of the intermediate medial mesopallium in the chick cerebrum, which has been shown to play a key role in filial imprinting. We found 52 up-regulated genes and 6 down-regulated genes of at least 2.0-fold changes 3h after the training of filial imprinting, compared to the gene expression of the dark-reared chick brain. The up-regulated genes are known to be involved in a variety of pathways, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, nuclear function, cell metabolism, RNA binding, endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi function, synaptic function, ion channel, and transporter. In contrast, fewer genes were down-regulated in the imprinting, coinciding with the previous data that the total RNA synthesis increased associated with filial imprinting. Our data suggests that the filial imprinting involves the modulation of multiple signaling pathways.

  3. Social predisposition dependent neuronal activity in the intermediate medial mesopallium of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Lorenzi, Elena; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Species from phylogenetically distant animal groups, such as birds and primates including humans, share early experience-independent social predispositions that cause offspring, soon after birth, to attend to and learn about conspecifics. One example of this phenomenon is provided by the behaviour of newly-hatched visually-naïve domestic chicks that preferentially approach a stimulus resembling a conspecific (a stuffed fowl) rather than a less naturalistic object (a scrambled version of the stuffed fowl). However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this behaviour are mostly unknown. Here we analysed chicks' brain activity with immunohistochemical detection of the transcription factor c-Fos. In a spontaneous choice test we confirmed a significant preference for approaching the stuffed fowl over a texture fowl (a fowl that was cut in small pieces attached to the sides of a box in scrambled order). Comparison of brain activation of a subgroup of chicks that approached either one or the other stimulus revealed differential activation in an area relevant for imprinting (IMM, intermediate medial mesopallium), suggesting that a different level of plasticity is associated with approach to naturalistic and artificial stimuli. c-Fos immunoreactive neurons were present also in the intermediate layers of the optic tectum (a plausible candidate for processing early social predispositions) showing a trend similar to the results for the IMM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural imbalance promotes behavior analogous to aesthetic preference in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual images may be judged 'aesthetic' when their positioning appears imbalanced. An apparent imbalance may signify an as yet incomplete action or event requiring more detailed processing. As such it may refer to phylogenetically ancient stimulus-response mechanisms such as those mediating attentional deployment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied preferences for structural balance or imbalance in week-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus, using a conditioning procedure to reinforce pecking at either "aligned" (balanced or "misaligned" (imbalanced training stimuli. A testing phase with novel balanced and imbalanced stimuli established whether chicks would retain their conditioned behavior or revert to chance responding. Whereas those trained on aligned stimuli were equally likely to choose aligned or misaligned stimuli, chicks trained on misaligned stimuli maintained the trained preference. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the idea that the coding of structural imbalance is primary and even overrides classical conditioning. Generalized to the humans, these results suggest aesthetic judgments based upon structural imbalance may be based on evolutionarily ancient mechanisms, which are shared by different vertebrate species.

  5. [A new method for quantitative measurement of the cadmium absorbed by chick embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottofrey, J

    1984-01-01

    We attempted to determine the quantity of cadmium incorporated in hens eggs after immersion in cadmium solutions, and the cadmium concentration measured in embryos. We discussed equipment allowing simultaneous treatment of up to 42 samples, and called it " digestor ". It consisted of two gas-heated sand baths, two stands for cooling down solutions and an evacuation system for toxic vapours. Our method was based on wet mineralisation. It consisted of desintegrating experimental chick embryos in a HNO3/H2O2 mixed solution. After heating and evaporating, the quantity of cadmium in the remnant was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The reliability of such a technique was tested by studying as controls controls 17 days-old chick embryos injected with a known quantity of Cd(NO3). It showed no loss of cadmium. We also compared our procedure with a dry ashing method. The latter showed unacceptable losses and insufficient precision for the problems we wanted to investigate. Our method gave us much more precise results. The equipment we developed has functioned wholly satisfactorily and allowed us to investigate for instance cadmium distribution and concentration in embryonic organs of 17 days-old chicks. It could also be useful for researches concerning other biological samples analyzed for different heavy metals.

  6. Fish oil reduces cholesterol and arachidonic acid levels in plasma and lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M; Amalik, F; Linares, A; García-Peregrín, E

    2000-07-01

    The value of fish oil for prevention and/or treatment of human atherosclerosis has not been fully established. This study shows that replacement of saturated fat in young chick diet with menhaden oil produced a significant reversion of the hypercholesterolemia previously induced by coconut oil feeding. Fish oil also produced a clear decrease of plasma triacylglycerol levels. Coconut oil increased the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, while menhaden oil increased those of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3. Percentages of 20:4 n-6, 18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9 significantly decreased by fish oil addition to the diet. Total cholesterol, phospholipid and protein contents of high and low density lipoproteins increased by coconut oil feeding. When coconut oil was replaced by menhaden oil, total cholesterol was significantly reduced in high, low and very low density lipoproteins. All chemical components of VLDL were decreased by menhaden oil feeding. Our results show a strong hypocholesterolemic effect of menhaden oil when this fat was supplemented to hypercholesterolemic chicks. The clear decrease found in arachidonic acid content of chick plasma and lipoproteins may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil consumption by lowering the production of its derived eicosanoids.

  7. Image Defocus and Altered Retinal Gene Expression in Chick: Clues to the Pathogenesis of Ametropia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Alice M.; Baldwin, Donald A.; Tobias, John W.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Because of the retina's role in refractive development, this study was conducted to analyze the retinal transcriptome in chicks wearing a spectacle lens, a well-established means of inducing refractive errors, to identify gene expression alterations and to develop novel mechanistic hypotheses about refractive development. Methods. One-week-old white Leghorn chicks wore a unilateral spectacle lens of +15 or −15 D for 6 hours or 3 days. With total RNA from the retina/(retinal pigment epithelium, RPE), chicken gene microarrays were used to compare gene expression levels between lens-wearing and contralateral control eyes (n = 6 chicks for each condition). Normalized microarray signal intensities were evaluated by analysis of variance, using a false discovery rate of eye growth patterns are well established, suggesting that different mechanisms govern the initiation and persistence or progression of refractive errors. The gene lists identify promising signaling candidates and regulatory pathways for future study, including a potential role for circadian rhythms in refractive development. PMID:21642623

  8. Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N

    2015-03-01

    How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Time-dependent effects of PCPA on social aggression in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, C P; Shrier, E M; Hill, W L

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the effects of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a serotonin (5-HT) antagonist, on social aggression and brain neurochemistry in young domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus). In Experiment 1, the effects of four different doses of PCPA (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were examined for 3 days after injection. Immediately after PCPA injection, aggressive pecking was low and then increased over the 3-day test period. PCPA significantly decreased 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HT turnover. In addition, the frequency of aggression was negatively correlated with levels of 5-HIAA. In Experiment 2, the time-dependent effects of a single 400-mg/kg dose of PCPA were examined for 5 and 7 days after drug exposure. PCPA-treated chicks observed for 5 days after injection had significantly greater frequencies of aggression 4 days following drug exposure and significantly reduced 5-HT levels when measured on the next day. Similarly, chicks observed for 7 days exhibited significantly elevated aggression 5 days after injection, after which their pecking decreased to control levels on days 6 and 7. Coinciding with this behavioral pattern, 5-HT levels from these PCPA-treated chicks when assessed 7 days after drug exposure were the same as those for control birds. We concluded that PCPA increased social aggression in birds, an effect that diminished as brain 5-HT levels recovered over a 1-week period.

  10. Color generalization across hue and saturation in chicks described by a simple (Bayesian) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Osorio, Daniel C; Baddeley, Roland J

    2016-08-01

    Color conveys important information for birds in tasks such as foraging and mate choice, but in the natural world color signals can vary substantially, so birds may benefit from generalizing responses to perceptually discriminable colors. Studying color generalization is therefore a way to understand how birds take account of suprathreshold stimulus variations in decision making. Former studies on color generalization have focused on hue variation, but natural colors often vary in saturation, which could be an additional, independent source of information. We combine behavioral experiments and statistical modeling to investigate whether color generalization by poultry chicks depends on the chromatic dimension in which colors vary. Chicks were trained to discriminate colors separated by equal distances on a hue or a saturation dimension, in a receptor-based color space. Generalization tests then compared the birds' responses to familiar and novel colors lying on the same chromatic dimension. To characterize generalization we introduce a Bayesian model that extracts a threshold color distance beyond which chicks treat novel colors as significantly different from the rewarded training color. These thresholds were the same for generalization along the hue and saturation dimensions, demonstrating that responses to novel colors depend on similarity and expected variation of color signals but are independent of the chromatic dimension.

  11. Melatonin modulates monochromatic light-induced GHRH expression in the hypothalamus and GH secretion in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-04-01

    To study the mechanism by which monochromatic lights affect the growth of broilers, a total of 192 newly hatched broilers, including the intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) and blue light (BL) using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 weeks. The results showed that the GHRH-ir neurons were distributed in the infundibular nucleus (IN) of the chick hypothalamus. The mRNA and protein levels of GHRH in the hypothalamus and the plasma GH concentrations in the chicks exposed to GL were increased by 6.83-31.36%, 8.71-34.52% and 6.76-9.19% compared to those in the chicks exposed to WL (P=0.022-0.001), RL (P=0.002-0.000) and BL (P=0.290-0.017) in the intact group, respectively. The plasma melatonin concentrations showed a positive correlation with the expression of GHRH (r=0.960) and the plasma GH concentrations (r=0.993) after the various monochromatic light treatments. After pinealectomy, however, these parameters decreased and there were no significant differences between GL and the other monochromatic light treatments. These findings suggest that melatonin plays a critical role in GL illumination-enhanced GHRH expression in the hypothalamus and plasma GH concentrations in young broilers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification, classification, and growth of moa chicks (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from the genus Euryapteryx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Gill, Brian J; Doyle, Anthony; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of growth in extinct organisms is difficult. The general lack of skeletal material from a range of developmental states precludes determination of growth characteristics. For New Zealand's extinct moa we have available to us a selection of rare femora at different developmental stages that have allowed a preliminary determination of the early growth of this giant flightless bird. We use a combination of femora morphometrics, ancient DNA, and isotope analysis to provide information on the identification, classification, and growth of extinct moa from the genus Euryapteryx. Using ancient DNA, we identify a number of moa chick bones for the species Euryapteryx curtus, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Anomalopteryx didiformis, and the first chick bone for Pachyornis geranoides. Isotope analysis shows that ∂15N levels vary between the two known size classes of Euryapteryx, with the larger size class having reduced levels of ∂15N. A growth series for femora of the two size classes of Euryapteryx shows that early femora growth characteristics for both classes are almost identical. Morphometric, isotopic, and radiographic analysis of the smallest Euryapteryx bones suggests that one of these femora is from a freshly hatched moa at a very early stage of development. Using morphometric, isotopic, and ancient DNA analyses have allowed the determination of a number of characteristics of rare moa chick femora. For Euryapteryx the analyses suggest that the smaller sized class II Euryapteryx is identical in size and growth to the extant Darwin's rhea.

  13. Chick eye extract promotes expression of a cholinergic enzyme in sympathetic ganglia in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, L; Teitelman, G; Joh, T H; Reis, D J

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that, in rat, individual sympathetic neurons can express both adrenergic and cholinergic biosynthetic enzymes in culture. Moreover, the levels of these enzymes can be regulated by factors present in their environment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether cultures of chick sympathetic neurons express both adrenergic and cholinergic enzymes, whether both enzymes are expressed in the same neurons, and whether the levels of these enzymes can be influenced by environmental factors. In our system, we tested one such factor found in embryonic eye extract (EEE) which has been shown to specifically increase the activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in cultures of chick parasympathetic neurons Varon et al., Brain Res., 173 (1979) 29-45; Nishi and Berg. J. Neurosci., 1 (1981) 505-513). At various times in vitro, cultures were analyzed using biochemical, immunocytochemical and autoradiographic techniques. We found that only those cultures of sympathetic neurons supplemented with EEE developed detectable levels of ChAT enzyme activity at 2 days, which increased significantly by 14 days in vitro. Supplementation with EEE did not affect the level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Furthermore, irrespective of nutrient medium, all neurons in all cultures contained TH immunoreactivity and possessed a high-affinity amine uptake system as demonstrated by autoradiography. These studies suggest that neurons of chick sympathetic ganglia can be influenced by factors present in EEE to express a cholinergic enzyme and that this enzyme is coexpressed by cells also exhibiting an adrenergic phenotype.

  14. Some Impacts of Solar Irradiance Variation on Terrestrial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stuart D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As chairman of the Special Session addressing the above topic, a brief overview of the problem will be offered, after which 20-minute talks will be given on the determination of solar irradiance variations from space observations (Dr. Judit Pap) and from groundbased measurements of solar magnetic fields (Dr. Harrison Jones). The chairman will then introduce four panel members representing different areas of expertise bearing on the topic. Each panel member will offer a brief 5-minute summary of his views. Panel members are: Chick Keller, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drew Shindell, Goddard Institute for Space Science, Columbia University; Michael Schlesinger, University of Illinois; Sabatino Sofia, Yale University. General Circulation Models of the terrestrial atmosphere, the possible impact on this atmosphere of large percentage changes in the solar EUV over a solar cycle, and the role of strong magnetic field in the solar convection zone on irradiance variation will all be considered in brief summaries. The chairman will conclude the session by facilitating a discussion between the audience, the main speakers, and the panel members.

  15. Enhancement of cell growth rate by light irradiation in the cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2011-10-01

    A yeast, Rhodotorula glutinis, is regarded as a potential microbial oil producer, due to its high lipid content. The flask results of this study indicated that irradiation could increase the growth of R. glutinis compared to that of a batch without irradiation. Further 5-l fermenter results confirmed that irradiation could greatly enhance the cells' growth rate and total lipid productivity. The maximum lipid productivity obtained in the fed-batch operation with 3 LED (light emitting diode) lamps was 0.39 g/l h as compared to 0.34 g/l h in the batch with 3 LED lamps and 0.19 g/l h in the batch without irradiation. Conclusively, the irradiation could significantly increase the cells' growth rate, which, in turn, could be applied to the commercialized production of biodiesel from single cell oils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurophysiological investigations of a recognition memory system for imprinting in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G

    1995-04-01

    The responsiveness of neurons in a region of the chick brain involved in the learning process of imprinting, the right intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (right IMHV), has been investigated in unanaesthetized, trained and untrained chicks. The results demonstrate that neuronal responsiveness in this region reflects a variety of behavioural consequences of imprinting and is markedly altered as a result of the learning process. Groups of chicks (nine in each group) were either dark-reared or trained (imprinted) by exposure to a rotating red box or a rotating blue cylinder. Recordings of single or small groups of neurons were subsequently made from 156 sites in the right IMHV while the 2-day-old chicks were free to move in a running wheel. There was a highly significant increase in the proportion of sites responsive to the stimulus used to train the birds compared to the proportion responsive to that stimulus in dark-reared birds (30 and 9% respectively). These changes were found when either the red box or the blue cylinder was used to train the bird, the changes being similar for both stimuli. There was also a significant increase in the mean magnitude of the change in neuronal activity on stimulus presentation for the training stimulus compared to the same stimulus when not used in the bird's training. No significant effects of the training experience of the chicks were found upon either the magnitude of evoked activity or the proportion of sites responsive to a rotating stuffed jungle fowl or the sound of the maternal call. The presence of the training stimulus was selectively signalled by the response at certain sites. At other sites there was response generalization across stimulus shape or colour. A comparison with results for the left IMHV demonstrates both similarities and differences in neuronal responsiveness between the two regions. In both regions imprinting selectively enhances neuronal responsiveness to the training stimulus. However, for

  17. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  18. Physiological evaluation of air-fed ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nina L; Powell, Jeffrey B; Sinkule, Edward J; Novak, Debra A

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the respiratory and metabolic stresses of air-fed ensembles used by workers in the nuclear, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries during rest, low-, and moderate-intensity treadmill exercise. Fourteen men and six women wore two different air-fed ensembles (AFE-1 and AFE-2) and one two-piece supplied-air respirator (SA) at rest (REST) and while walking for 6min at oxygen consumption (V.O2) rates of 1.0 (LOW) and 2.0 l min(-1) (MOD). Inhaled CO2 (FICO2), inhaled O2 (FIO2), pressure, and temperature were measured continuously breath-by-breath. For both LOW and MOD, FICO2 was significantly lower (P ensembles than SA (P REST, LOW, and MOD. Inhaled gas temperature was significantly lower in SA than in either air-fed ensemble (P ensembles in both men and women, an observation that has implications for the design of emergency escape protocols for air-fed ensemble wearers. Results show that inhaled gas concentrations may reach physiologically stressful levels in air-fed ensembles during moderate-intensity treadmill walking.

  19. Effects of protease, phytase and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial on nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal brush border digestive enzyme activity and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentration in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathi R Murugesan

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of protease and phytase (PP and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial (DFM on dietary energy and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. In the first experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with PP and DFM in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The 4 diets (control (CON, CON + PP, CON + DFM, and CON + PP + DFM were fed from 15-21 days of age. In Experiment 1, significant interaction (P≤0.01 between PP and DFM on the apparent ileal digestibility coefficient for starch, crude protein, and amino acid indicated that both additives increased the digestibility. Both additives increased the nitrogen retention coefficient with a significant interaction (P≤0.01. Although no interaction was observed, significant main effects (P≤0.01 for nitrogen-corrected apparent ME (AMEn for PP or DFM indicated an additive response. In a follow-up experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed the same experimental diets from 1-21 days of age. Activities of ileal brush border maltase, sucrase, and L-alanine aminopeptidase were increased (P≤0.01 by PP addition, while a trend (P = 0.07 for increased sucrase activity was observed in chickens fed DFM, in Experiment 2. The proportion of cecal butyrate was increased (P≤0.01 by DFM addition. Increased nutrient utilization and nitrogen retention appear to involve separate but complementary mechanisms for PP and DFM, however AMEn responses appear to have separate and additive mechanisms.

  20. Outcome Differences between Breast-Fed and Bottle-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sandra K.; And Others

    DiPietro, Larson, and Porges (1987) found behavioral and physiological differences between breast-fed and bottle-fed newborns. It was suggested that breast-feeding is associated with more optimal physiological organization and with increased irritable reactivity early in the neonatal period. The present study investigated whether breast-fed…

  1. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  2. The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2013-04-15

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home.

  3. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  4. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months......A high protein intake results in increased kidney growth and glomerular filtration rate in human adults and young rats. It is unknown whether kidney size in young infants is influenced by increased protein intake in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants. We investigated the effect of formula...... in relative kidney size were temporary, as they did not persist at 18 months of age, when all children received a normal mixed diet. The immediate renal effects of formula feeding should be taken into consideration for recommendations concerning infant feeding. Whether there are any long-term effects of early...

  5. Stream-fed accretion in intermediate polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, C.

    2002-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for stream-fed accretion in intermediate polars. Recent work on the discless system V2400 Oph confirms the pole-flipping model of stream-fed accretion, but this applies only to a minority of the flow. The bulk of the flow is in the form of blobs circling the white dwarf, a state which might have been a precursor to disc formation in other IPs. I also discuss work on the systems with anomalously long spin periods, V1025 Cen and EX Hya. There are arguments both for and against stream-fed accretion in V1025 Cen, and further work is necessary before reaching a conclusion about this system.

  6. Performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of free-range broilers fed wet grain corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of total replacement of dry corn by wet grain corn silage (WGCS in the feed of label broilers older than 28 days of age on performance, mortality, carcass, parts, breast meat and thighs meat yields, and meat quality. A mixed-sex flock of 448 ISA S 757-N (naked-neck ISA JA Label day-old chicks was randomly distributed in to randomized block experimental design with four treatments (T1 - with no WGCS; T2 - WGCS between 28 and 83 days; T3 - WGCS between 42 and 83 days; and T4 - WGCS between 63 and 83 days and four replicates of 28 birds each. Birds were raised under the same management and feeding conditions until 28 days of age, when they started to have free access to paddock with pasture (at least 3m²/bird and to be fed the experimental diets. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the rearing period, which was divided in three stages: starter (1 to 28 days, grower (29 to 63 days, and finisher (64 to 83 days according to the feeding schedule. During the short periods of WGCS use (group T2 during grower stage and T4 during the finisher stage, performance and mortality results were similar as to those of the control group (T1. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the extended use of WGCS (T2 and T3 determined a negative effect on feed conversion ratio. However, the best results of breast meat yield were observed with birds fed WGCS since 28 days (T2. It was concluded that WGCS can replace dry corn grain for short periods during the grower and finisher stages with no impairment of meat quality and yield in slow growth broilers.

  7. Performance of broilers experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and fed diets with addition of lactulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Souza Santana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.

  8. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  9. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  10. Performance of broilers fed diets with different dietary electrolyte balance under summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LMO Borgatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets with different Dietary Electrolyte balances (DEB during the summer season. A total of 1,280 one-day-old Ross sexed chicks were distributed in 32 experimental units according to a randomized block design in a 4x2 factorial arrangement (4 levels and 2 sexes and 4 replicates per treatment (40 birds per replicate. Feed program consisted of 3 phases (1-21, 22-42, 43-49 days of age. Experimental diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and adjusted to 210, 250, 290 and 330 mEq/kg of Na + K - Cl through the addition of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and ammonium chloride. Weekly measurements of body weight gain and feed intake were done, and at 49 days, birds were slaughtered to evaluate the dressing percentage and parts yield. Weight gain during the starter phase increased linearly (p<0.01 as DEB increased. Different DEB levels did not affect feed intake or mortality. Carcass characteristics were not affected by treatments. Dietary electrolytic balance influenced weight gain and feed gain ratio from 1 to 21 days, and best results were observed when diets contained 290 and 330 mEq/kg.

  11. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  12. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  13. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  14. Altered PITX2 and LEF1 gene expression in the cadmium-induced omphalocele in the chick model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takashi; Puri, Prem; Bannigan, John; Thompson, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    Although, recent studies have suggested that disruption of somitogenesis may be involved in ventral body wall (VBW) defects; the molecular mechanisms of VBW defects remain unclear. In the chick embryo, the administration of cadmium (Cd) induces VBW defects similar to the human omphalocele. In this model, the earliest histological change in the somite occurs commencing at 4 h post-Cd treatment (4 h). PITX2 is expressed in somites, and PITX2 mutants have been shown to display VBW defects. PITX2 interacts with lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF1) to regulate somite myogenesis. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that PITX2 and LEF1 genes are downregulated during the critical period of early embryogenesis in the Cd-induced omphalocele chick model. Chick embryos were exposed to Cd or saline after 60 h incubation and harvested at 1, 4, and 8 h posttreatment. Chicks were then divided into two groups: control (n = 24), and Cd (n = 24). RT-PCR was performed and analyzed statistically (significant difference was accepted at p PITX2 and LEF1 at 4 h were significantly decreased in the Cd group compared with controls, whereas there were no differences at the other time points. Immunoreactivity of those proteins at 4 h was also markedly decreased in somites in the Cd-treated embryos compared with controls. Downregulation of PITX2 and LEF1 genes may interfere with ventral body wall formation in Cd chick model causing omphalocele by disrupting somite myogenesis.

  15. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation.

  16. Response of chick lines selected on carcass quality to dietary lysine supply: live performance and muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesseraud, S; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Peresson, R; Michel, J; Chagneau, A M

    1999-01-01

    Broiler carcass quality can be improved by conventional selection techniques. In this regard, an experimental "quality" line (QL) was selected for high breast meat yield. We analyzed the effects of this selection on the dietary lysine requirement in chicks from 0 to 3 wk. Control (CL) and QL chicks were provided ad libitum access to isoenergetic diets containing 20% crude protein but differing in their lysine content (0.75, 0.88, 1.01, and 1.13%). Two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect (P body weight, growth rate, feed intake, and weight of Pectoralis major and Gastrocnemius muscles. Conversely, the Sartorius muscle weight was not modified (P = 0.21) by genotype. Lysine deficiency markedly reduced body weight, growth rate, and feed intake, and increased feed conversion ratio (P weight of Gastrocnemius, Sartorius, and P. major (P body or muscle weight response to diet lysine concentration depended on the line, with QL chicks appearing less sensitive to lysine deficiency. Consequently, their dietary requirements could be lower. Finally, when weight gain and P. major muscle protein deposition were plotted against lysine intake, QL chicks appeared to be more efficient than CL chicks. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this await clarification.

  17. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  18. Medical Management of Hypovitaminosis D With Cholecalciferol and Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin A; Kinney, Matthew E; Hanley, Christopher S; Padilla, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Three hand-reared, 50-53 day-old, red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) chicks were evaluated for acute lameness and reluctance to ambulate. Two of the 3 chicks presented with angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsi and external rotation of the legs. Radiographs demonstrated decreased opacity of the long bone of the legs, with poorly delineated cortices and deviation of the proximal tarsometarsi. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol revealed all 3 chicks were deficient in vitamin D(3) at presentation. The chicks were administered injectable vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol), oral vitamin D(3), and an ultraviolet B (UV-B) light was placed in their enclosure. Elastic, therapeutic taping was used to correct angular limb deformities present in 2 of the 3 chicks. Taping was continued until the angular limb deformities were corrected and lameness resolved. Hypovitaminosis D is a common cause of metabolic bone disease in captive avian species. Cholecalciferol administration, UV-B light supplementation, and elastic, therapeutic taping were effective treatments for osteodystrophy and secondary angular limb deformities due to hypovitaminosis D. This multifaceted treatment may be useful in other long-legged juvenile birds with similar clinical signs.

  19. Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on parvalbumin and calretinin expressing hippocampal neurons in a chick model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Audrey G; McCarthy, Molly M; Brishnehan, Kirk M; Rao, Venugopal; Batia, Lyn M; Gupta, Madhul; Das, Srijit; Mitra, Nilesh K; Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2009-03-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by physical deformities and learning and memory deficits. The chick hippocampus, whose functions are controlled by interneurons expressing calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR), is involved in learning and memory mechanisms. Effects on growth and development and hippocampal morphology were studied in chick embryos exposed to 5% and 10% ethanol volume/volume (vol/vol) for 2 or 8 days of gestation. There was a significant dose-dependent reduction (P<.05) in body weight and mean number per section of PV and CR expressing hippocampal neurons in ethanol-exposed chicks, without alterations in neuronal nuclear size or hippocampal volume, compared appropriate controls. Moreover, when chicks exposed to 5% ethanol for 2 and 8 days of gestation were compared, no significant differences were found in body parameters or neuronal counts. Similarly, exposure to 10% ethanol did not induce any significant changes in chicks exposed for 2 or 8 gestational days. Thus, these results suggest that gestational ethanol exposure induces a reduction in the mean number per section of PV and CR expressing hippocampal neurons, and could be a possible mechanism responsible for learning and memory disorders in FAS.

  20. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  1. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...

  2. Wideband electromagnetically coupled coaxial probe fed slot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The antenna structure is shown in figure 1. The upper parasitic layer is horizontal slot loaded rectangular patch and lower one is coaxial probe fed U-slot loaded patch. Due to presence of parasitic element in the stacked configuration, there are two resonant associated with two resonators. These two resonance frequencies ...

  3. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  4. MODIFIED EDGE FED SIERPINSKI CARPET MINIATURIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented a modified edge fed Sierpinski carpet microstrip patch antenna for antenna miniaturization. The proposed design was etched as Sierpinski carpet to lower the antenna resonant frequency, which is used to reduce the conventional patch antenna size. After the Sierpinski carpet second iteration, the ...

  5. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-08-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams.

  6. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  7. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijrink, I A M; van Duijvendijk, L A G; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-09-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may reduce negative effects of prolonged egg storage because it may prevent changes in the embryo and in egg characteristics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high CO(2) concentrations or a low O(2) concentration in the storage air on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. Eggs were stored for 14 d in 4 different storage air compositions: normal air (control; 20.9% O(2), 0.05% CO(2), 78.1% N(2)), 0.74% CO(2) treatment (20.8% O(2), 0.74% CO(2), 77.5% N(2)), 1.5% CO(2) treatment (20.6% O(2), 1.5% CO(2), 77.0% N(2))(,) or 3.0% O(2) treatment (3.0% O(2), 0.04% CO(2), 96.0% N(2)). The storage temperature was 16 degrees C and the RH was 75%. Results showed that the change in albumen pH and albumen height between oviposition and the end of storage was less in the 0.74 and 1.5% CO(2) treatments than in the control and 3.0% O(2) treatments (P storage air had a positive effect on albumen height and albumen pH, it is concluded that the storage air compositions, studied in the current study, do not affect embryonic development, hatchability, or chick quality when eggs are stored for 14 d at a storage temperature of 16 degrees C.

  8. Antiparasitic effect of wild rue (Peganum harmala L.) against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanweer, A Jabbar; Chand, N; Saddique, U; Bailey, C A; Khan, R U

    2014-08-01

    Organic farming of poultry has increased in recent years as the prophylactic use of antibiotics has come into disfavor. This study was conducted to explore the antiparasitic effect of a methanolic extract of Peganum harmala in broilers challenged with coccidiosis. For this purpose, 200 1-week-old broiler chicks were divided into five treatments: negative control (basal diet, Ph-0/NC), positive control (basal diet with coccidiosis challenge, Ph-0/C), and three groups challenged with coccidiosis and supplemented with P. harmala at the rate of 200 mg L(-1) (Ph-200), 250 mg L(-1) (Ph-250), and 300 mg L(-1) (Ph-300) drinking water. Each group had three replicates of ten chicks each. Challenge with standard dose of the larvae of coccidiosis and supplementation of P. harmala were initiated on day 14 until 35 days of age. As expected, the results revealed that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were depressed significantly in Ph-0 group with significant mortality percentage. Weight gain, total body weight, and FCR increased linearly with increasing dose of P. harmala with the exception of feed intake. The growth and feed efficiency of Ph-0/NC was better in Ph-0/NC compared to that in Ph-0/C and comparable to that in P. harmala-treated birds. Similarly, mean ooccytes per gram (OPG) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared to that in Ph-0/C. Histological evidences showed that cecal lesion and leucocyte infiltration decreased markedly in supplemented groups of P. harmala specifically the Ph-300 group compared to those in Ph-0/C. From the present experiment, we concluded the anticoccidial effect of P. harmala in broiler chicks.

  9. In ovo toxico-teratological effects of aluminum on embryonic chick heart and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMazoudy, Reda H; Bekhet, Gamal A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of extensive research and persistent arguments, the mechanism of aluminum (Al) toxicity is still obscure. It is firmly established that aluminum is a potent neurotoxicant. So, the aim based on is aluminum damage chicken heart, as well as the vitelline circulation. In the first 3 days of incubation (D0-D2), 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg aluminum chloride/0.3 ml avian saline was injected into the center of each viable fertilized egg yolk (AL1, AL2, and AL3 groups, respectively). Control eggs were either uninjected (AL0) or injected (ALS, 0.3 ml saline). Crown rump length was significantly decreased, while, embryonic mortalities, growth delay, as well as congenital heart defects were increased in the eggs injected 2.0 or 4.0 mg of Al. Although no relationship is clear about the embryonic mortality induced by Al in chicken embryos to the dose concentration, the higher mortality occurs in early developmental stages in developing chick embryos. Furthermore, chick embryos exposed to 4.0 mg/Al showed a high incidence of defects of ventricular septation and ventricular myocardium. Configuration and density of branched vitelline vessels were also significantly deteriorated after injection with 4.0 mg/Al. It concluded that Al is a cardiac teratogen for a chick in a dose-dependent way. These data highlight a novel approach for aluminum in congenital cardiovascular defects. Therefore, further research is needed to explain the teratogenicity of Al on the embryonic heart development.

  10. Effects of cadmium on chick embryogenesis and some comparisons with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.W.; Chen, D.C.C.; Hsu, J.L.

    1978-07-01

    During the last ten years because of the severity of the problem of pollution and the part that heavy metals play in it we have been doing research on the effects of some heavy metals on chick embryogenesis in order to get a comparative study and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Experiments were performed using 431 fertilized white Leghorn eggs to study the effect of cadmium on chick embryogenesis. Cadmium acetate at 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, 0.060, 0.12 or 0.24 mg/egg and lead acetate at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.075 mg/egg was injected in ovo on the fourth day of incubation. The embryos were taken out on the 19th day and examined for gross defects. Electrocardiograms were recorded on some embryos. Hemoglobin determinations were done on others. The changes in plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) of the embryos due to cadmium and lead acetate were also determined. It was found that the LD50 of cadmium acetate was close to 0.045 mg. The highest incidence of abnormality, 30.9% of the surviving embryos, appeared in the 0.030 mg group although malformed embryos were also found in the 0.015, 0.045 and 0.060 mg groups. The most common malformations occurred in the liver (58%) and the cardiovascular system, with edema totalling over 90%. Lesser abnormalities were observed in the limbs. Lead acetate affected ALAD more than cadmium acetate. There was no significant difference on hemoglobin concentration or EKG between the distilled water control and either the cadmium or lead treated groups. Thus, embryolethality, embryotoxicity, congenital abnormalities and changes in ALAD were all observed in the cadmium-treated chick embryos although lead acetate seemed to inhibit the ALAD activity more effectively than cadmium acetate.

  11. Detection of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana from Naturally Contaminated Chick Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benahmed, Faiza; Wang, Hua; Beaubrun, Junia Jean-Gilles; Gopinath, Gopal R; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Hanes, Darcy E; Hammack, Thomas S; Rasmussen, Mark; Davidson, Maureen K

    2017-10-04

    Because some significant outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced to contaminated animal feed, the rapid and efficient detection of Salmonella in feed is essential. However, the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method that uses lactose broth as a preenrichment medium has not reliably supported the results of real-time PCR assays for certain foods. We evaluated the BAM culture method and a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using two preenrichment media, modified buffered peptone water and lactose broth, to detect Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana in naturally contaminated chick feed. After 24 h of incubation, the qPCR method was as sensitive as the culture method when modified buffered peptone water was used as the preenrichment medium but less sensitive than culture when lactose broth was used. After 48 h of incubation, detection of Salmonella Cubana by qPCR and by culture in either preenrichment medium was equivalent. We also compared the performance of the traditional serotyping method, which uses pure cultures of Salmonella grown on blood agar, to two molecular serotyping methods. The serotyping method based on whole genome sequencing also requires pure cultures, but the PCR-based molecular serotyping method can be done directly with the enriched culture medium. The PCR-based molecular serotyping method provided simple and rapid detection and identification of Salmonella Cubana. However, whole genome sequencing allows accurate identification of many Salmonella serotypes and highlights variations in the genomes, even in tight genomic clusters. We also compared the genome of the chick feed isolate with 58 Salmonella Cubana strains in GenBank and found that the chick feed isolate was very closely related to an isolate from a foodborne outbreak involving alfalfa sprouts.

  12. Effect of vitamin D on the intestinal absorption of 203Pb and 47Ca in chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1982-03-01

    The transfer of 203Pb and/or 47Ca across the intestinal epithelium of the chick was investigated, with emphasis given to the functional role of cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). 203Pb, after introduction in the intestinal lumen, is rapidly accumulated by the intestinal tissue, and only a fraction of 203Pb is translocated parenterally (absorbed). Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect the accumulation of 203Pb by intestinal tissue but did accelerate 203Pb movement across the basal-lateral membrane. In contrast, cholecalciferol both decreased 47Ca tissue levels and increased 47Ca absorption. In rachitic chicks, the rate of absorption of 203Pb was greater in the distal than in the proximal segments of the intestine; after cholecalciferol repletion, the degree of absorption in al segments was similar, indicting the order of cholecalciferol effectiveness as duodenum greater than or equal to jejunum greater than ileum. An acute dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 to rachitic chicks also enhanced both 203Pb and 47Ca absorption, but the time course and pattern of absorption of these metal cations differed. The time at which the absorption of 203Pb peaked and returned to base-line occurred sooner than for 47Ca. Also the back-flux (blood leads to intestinal lumen) of 47Ca was enhanced by cholecalciferol, whereas no effect on the back-flux of 203Pb was noted. These studies show that cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH)2D3 affects both the 203Pb and 47Ca absorptive processes, but the nature of these responses are not identical, suggesting differences in the transport path or the macromolecular interactions of these metal ions during the course of absorption, or both.

  13. Identification of genes differentially expressed in dorsal and ventral chick midbrain during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, A; Volff, Jn; Wizenmann, A

    2009-04-27

    During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), patterning processes along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the neural tube generate different neuronal subtypes. As development progresses these neurons are arranged into functional units with varying cytoarchitecture, such as laminae or nuclei for efficient relaying of information. Early in development ventral and dorsal regions are similar in size and structure. Different proliferation rates and cell migration patterns are likely to result in the formation of laminae or nuclei, eventually. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that establish these different structural arrangements are not well understood.We undertook a differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) screen to identify genes with distinct expression patterns between dorsal and ventral regions of the chick midbrain in order to identify genes which regulate the sculpturing of such divergent neuronal organisation. We focused on the DV axis of the early chick midbrain since mesencephalic alar plate and basal plate develop into laminae and nuclei, respectively. We identified 53 differentially expressed bands in our initial screen. Twenty-six of these could be assigned to specific genes and we could unambiguously show the differential expression of five of the isolated cDNAs in vivo by in situ mRNA expression analysis. Additionally, we verified differential levels of expression of a selected number of genes by using reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR method with gene-specific primers.One of these genes, QR1, has been previously cloned and we present here a detailed study of its early developmental time course and pattern of expression providing some insights into its possible function. Our phylogenetic analysis of QR1 shows that it is the chick orthologue of Sparc-like 1/Hevin/Mast9 gene in mice, rats, dogs and humans, a protein involved in cell adhesion. This study reveals some possible networks, which might be involved in directing

  14. Early expression of hypocretin/orexin in the chick embryo brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle E Godden

    Full Text Available Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O neuropeptides are released by a discrete group of neurons in the vertebrate hypothalamus which play a pivotal role in the maintenance of waking behavior and brain state control. Previous studies have indicated that the H/O neuronal development differs between mammals and fish; H/O peptide-expressing cells are detectable during the earliest stages of brain morphogenesis in fish, but only towards the end of brain morphogenesis (by ∼ 85% of embryonic development in rats. The developmental emergence of H/O neurons has never been previously described in birds. With the goal of determining whether the chick developmental pattern was more similar to that of mammals or of fish, we investigated the emergence of H/O-expressing cells in the brain of chick embryos of different ages using immunohistochemistry. Post-natal chick brains were included in order to compare the spatial distribution of H/O cells with that of other vertebrates. We found that H/O-expressing cells appear to originate from two separate places in the region of the diencephalic proliferative zone. These developing cells express the H/O neuropeptide at a comparatively early age relative to rodents (already visible at 14% of the way through fetal development, thus bearing a closer resemblance to fish. The H/O-expressing cell population proliferates to a large number of cells by a relatively early embryonic age. As previously suggested, the distribution of H/O neurons is intermediate between that of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. This work suggests that, in addition to its roles in developed brains, the H/O peptide may play an important role in the early embryonic development of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  15. Effect of monochromatic light on circadian rhythmic expression of clock genes in the hypothalamus of chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the effect of monochromatic light on circadian clock gene expression in chick hypothalamus, a total 240 newly hatched chickens were reared under blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL) and white light (WL), respectively. On the post-hatched day 14, 24-h profiles of seven core clock genes (cClock, cBmal1, cBmal2, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) were measured at six time points (CT 0, CT 4, CT 8, CT 12, CT 16, CT 20, circadian time). We found all these clock genes expressed with a significant rhythmicity in different light wavelength groups. Meanwhile, cClock and cBmal1 showed a high level under GL, and followed a corresponding high expression of cCry1. However, RL decreased the expression levels of these genes. Be consistent with the mRNA level, CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins also showed a high level under GL. The CLOCK-like immunoreactive neurons were observed not only in the SCN, but also in the non-SCN brain region such as the nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, the periventricularis nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus and the median eminence. All these results are consistent with the auto-regulatory circadian feedback loop, and indicate that GL may play an important role on the circadian time generation and development in the chick hypothalamus. Our results also suggest that the circadian clock in the chick hypothalamus such as non-SCN brain region were involved in the regulation of photo information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Pinay as Fun, Fearless Female: Philippine Chick Literature in the Age of the Transnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Stuart Santiago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes Philippine chick literature by Summit Publishing – the first to come out with local chick literature via the Summit Books – and as a by-product of its magazine Cosmopolitan Philippines.This study delves into chick lit’s existence given these context(s: 1. the dynamics of publication in this country, i.e., the “literary” versus the “popular”, works in English versus works in Filipino, the “artsy” versus the bestseller; 2. the various kinds of feminism(s of which the middle class Filipina of today is necessarily part; and 3. the facts of globalization and the transnation that are the bases of the Summit Books’ existence, given its links to Cosmopolitan Philippines, and the latter’s existence as a local franchise of a transnational magazine. This paper also looks at the marginalization and suppression that is contingent upon these perspectives of the Summit Books with a view of seeing the possibilities of resistance and rebellion within them. This project uses as backbone contemporary third world feminist and current Philippine cultural theories that insist on the urgent tasks of relevance and involvement that all contemporary cultural productions by women must face. More particularly, this study uses notions of subjectivity and agency, and the processes of negotiation these allow, towards an analysis of where these women’s texts necessarily belong to. This kind of analysis is utilized precisely because these texts traverse across the oppressive and the empowering, the status quo and the possibilities of rebellion, and the powerless and the powerful. In the end, such negotiation is seen as Summit Books’ contribution to the contemporary creation of the Philippine feminine – one that demands that no text be reduced to just its class origins, or just the popular.

  17. Cholinergic neurons of the chick ciliary ganglia express adrenergic traits in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, G; Joh, T H; Grayson, L; Park, D H; Reis, D J; Iacovitti, L

    1985-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine whether neurons of the chick embryo ciliary ganglia (CG), a parasympathetic cholinergic ganglia, can express catecholaminergic (CA) traits. To accomplish this, we used immunocytochemical techniques to examine the presence of the CA enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in CGs removed from chick embryo at day 8 of development (E8). Few neurons containing TH but not PNMT were found in the E8 CG. To examine whether CG neurons express CA enzymes in vitro, CGs removed from E8 chick embryo were dissociated and kept in culture for 3 to 12 days. In 50% of the culture dishes, some neurons contain TH or PNMT after 5 days in vitro. In an equal proportion of culture plates, CG neurons did not express the enzymes. To determine whether the proportion of CG neurons expressing TH or PNMT is increased by tissue influences, ganglion cells were co-cultured with notochord. In 90% of the co-culture experiments, most neurons present in the culture dishes stained with TH or PNMT after 5 days in vitro. To test for the presence of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), another CA enzyme, cultures of CGs and CGs plus notochord were incubated with levodopa and processed for the detection of CA histofluorescence. Dopamine histofluorescence was present in all neurons after 3 days in vitro irrespective of the presence of notochord, suggesting that the expressions of TH and PNMT and that of AADC are differentially regulated. This study, therefore, demonstrates that cholinergic neurons of the CG contain CA enzymes in vivo and in vitro and that the proportion of neurons expressing CA traits during development in vitro can be increased by environmental cues such as those released by the notochord.

  18. Apolipoprotein E Antibodies Affect the Retention of Passive Avoidance Memory in the Chick

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Lancashire; Radmila Mileusnic; Steven P. R. Rose

    1998-01-01

    Isoforms of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) have been implicated as risk factors in Alzheimer’s disease. We have, therefore, examined the possible role of ApoE in memory formation, using a one-trial passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. Birds were trained on the task and then at various times pre or post-training were injected intracerebrally with anti-ApoE. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the presence of the antibody bound to the neuropil, close to the injection site and adjacent ...

  19. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... on quantitative trait loci using data from collaborating institutions and public resources. Our data can be queried by search engine and homology-based BLAST searches. ChickVD is publicly accessible at http://chicken.genomics.org.cn. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jan-1...

  20. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  1. Complement component C3aR constitutes a novel regulator for chick eye morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Bierly, Jeffrey; Haynes, Tracy; Reis, Edimara S; Han, Zeyu; Gutierrez, Christian; McKinney, Zachary; Tzekou, Apostolia; Lambris, John D; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2017-08-01

    Complement components have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including neurogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, differentiation, cancer, and more recently early development and regeneration. Following our initial observations indicating that C3a/C3aR signaling induces chick retina regeneration, we analyzed its role in chick eye morphogenesis. During eye development, the optic vesicle (OV) invaginates to generate a bilayer optic cup (OC) that gives rise to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina. We show by immunofluorescence staining that C3 and the receptor for C3a (the cleaved and active form of C3), C3aR, are present in chick embryos during eye morphogenesis in the OV and OC. Interestingly, C3aR is mainly localized in the nuclear compartment at the OC stage. Loss of function studies at the OV stage using morpholinos or a blocking antibody targeting the C3aR (anti-C3aR Ab), causes eye defects such as microphthalmia and defects in the ventral portion of the eye that result in coloboma. Such defects were not observed when C3aR was disrupted at the OC stage. Histological analysis demonstrated that microphthalmic eyes were unable to generate a normal optic stalk or a closed OC. The dorsal/ventral patterning defects were accompanied by an expansion of the ventral markers Pax2, cVax and retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme raldh-3 (aldh1a3) domains, an absence of the dorsal expression of Tbx5 and raldh-1 (aldh1a1) and a re-specification of the ventral RPE to neuroepithelium. In addition, the eyes showed overall decreased expression of Gli1 and a change in distribution of nuclear β-catenin, suggesting that Shh and Wnt pathways have been affected. Finally, we observed prominent cell death along with a decrease in proliferating cells, indicating that both processes contribute to the microphthalmic phenotype. Together our results show that C3aR is necessary for the proper morphogenesis of the OC. This is the first report implicating C3aR in

  2. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on free amino acid content of chick embryo blood plasma. [. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, B.; Dryanovski, P.; Simeonovska, M.

    1979-06-01

    Using thin-layer chromatography on cellulose film, it was demonstrated that there is a decrease in blood plasma free amino acids after exposing chick embryos to radiation (1000 rad). Only lysine and histidine content decreases on the 1st day. On the 2d, 3d, and 10th days, there is a decrease in lysine, histidine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, serine, aspartic and glutamic acids, threonine, and alanine. There was no change in amounts of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, valine, and tyrosine throughout the observation period. It was demonstrated that there is a change in rate of migration of nonessential amino acids from egg albumin to embryo blood after exposure to radiation.

  4. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison...

  5. Comparing the effectiveness of egg disinfectants against bacteria and mitotic indices of developing chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Zeweil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Total bacterial counts on hatching eggshell surface were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced as a result of using all disinfectants with different concentrations and formaldehyde fumigation treatments compared with those for eggs before treatment except for those subjected to water only which are considered as control with water. Chemical disinfectants significantly reduced the eggshell total bacterial count from 7.07 Logs to 2.41 Logs with 65.9% reduction and decreased again to 1.96 Logs with 72.3% reduction before setting in the incubator. Also, natural disinfectants significantly reduced the total bacterial count from 7.0 Logs to 1.86 Logs with 73.7% reduction and decreased again to 1.34 Logs with 81% reduction before setting in the incubator. Whereas, treatment with formaldehyde fumigation significantly reduced the bacterial count from 7.07 Logs to 2.53 Log with 64.2% reduction, but the bacterial count had increased numerically again during storage and before setting in the incubator to 4.20 Logs. Chemical disinfectant effects on developing chick embryos resulted in retarded growth as reflected by malformed limbs and beaks and muscle weakness was seen in a few hatched chicks. The mitotic indices of the spinal cord for chicks from egg treated by cumin 0.2% at 3rd and 4th day of age are slightly higher being 5.5% and 4.8% respectively, than those for other treatment and control groups. The mitotic index revealed that there was a significant (P < 0.05 difference between all disinfection and control groups on days 4, 7 and 10 of incubation with respect to skin systems, whereas skin system of newly hatched chicks did not demonstrate any significant differences between mitotic indices of experimented groups. Mitotic indices of embryonic dermal system on days 4 and 10 of incubation were slightly higher for natural disinfectant (being 4.7 and 0.1 compared with those for the chemical disinfectant (being 4 and 0.6, formaldehyde fumigation

  6. The Chick as a Model for the Study of the Cellular Mechanisms and Potential Therapies for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Mileusnic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While animal experiments have contributed much to our understanding of the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD, their value in predicting the effectiveness of treatment strategies in clinical trials has remained controversial. The disparity between the results obtained in animal models and clinical trials may in part be explained by limitations of the models and species-specific differences. We propose that one trial passive avoidance in the day-old chick is a useful system to study AD because of the close sequence homologies of chick and human amyloid precursor protein (APP. In the chick, APP is essential for memory consolidation, and disrupting its synthesis or structure results in amnesia. RER, a tripeptide sequence corresponding to part of the growth domain of APP, can restore memory loss and act as a cognitive enhancer. We suggest that RER and its homologues may form the basis for potential pharmacological protection against memory loss in AD.

  7. Toxico-pathological changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: their attenuation with Vitamin E and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Faiza; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Sharaf, Summaira; Gul, Shafia Tahseen; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2010-07-01

    Ninety 1-day old broiler chicks of mixed gender (as hatched) procured from a local hatchery were randomly divided into five equal groups. All the treatments were given through crop tubing. Groups 1-4 received cypermethrin (CY) (600mgkg(-1)b. wt.) daily for 30 days. In addition to CY (group 1), groups 2-4 received Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b. wt.), Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b. wt.), and Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b. wt.)+Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b. wt.), respectively. Group 5 served as control andreceived normal saline (2mlkg(-1)b. wt.) for 30 days. Randomly selected six broiler chicks from each group were slaughtered at experimental days 10, 20 and 30 for the collection of serum/plasma and morbid tissues. Absolute organ weights were recorded. Total plasma proteins, fibrinogen and creatinine were significantly (P<0.05) increased while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and urea decreased significantly (P<0.05) in CY-treated group when compared with the control group. Kidneys were swollen grossly in treated broiler chicks. In liver, necrosis of hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, bile duct hyperplasia and mononuclear cellular infiltration were observed. In kidneys, necrosis of tubular epithelial cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cellular infiltration and atrophy of glomeruli were observed. Sub-arachnoid space was much dilated in CY-treated broiler chicks. It can be concluded that CY induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broilers chicks; however, these toxic effects can be ameliorated by Vit E or Se. Combination of Vit E and Se was more effective in ameliorating toxic effects of cypermethrin in broilers chicks.

  8. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  10. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  11. Safety of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Shigeo (Foods Medicines Safety Center (Japan)); Kobayashi, Kazuo

    1983-01-01

    The safety of 7 irradiated foods (potato, onion, rice, wheat, vienna sausage, fish paste and mandarine orange), in terms of 2-year long-term toxic effect, reproductive physiology and possible teratogenesis, was studied using 3 generations of rats, mice and monkeys. The genetic toxicity was studied by means of various mutagenicity tests. The details of the studies conducted by the authors to date and some overseas data were reported. The available data showed no toxic effect.

  12. Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Toghyani, Majid; Mosavi, Seyed kazem; Modaresi, Mehrdad; Landy, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1) a basal diet (C) and normal drinking water, 2) 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3) 2% molasses kefir in drinki...

  13. Effects of Moringa oleifera root extract on the performance and serum biochemistry of Escherichia coli challenged broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun Bolu Stephen; Adedeji Aderibigbe Simeon; Taiwo Ologe; Gbenga Adeyeye

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and phytochemical effects of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera roots on E. coli challenged broiler chicks were investigated. Ninety one-day old broiler chicks were orally inoculated with E. coli at 1.23×108 CFU/ml and then divided into six treatment dose levels: 5g/l, 10g/l, and 15g/l Moringa root extract (MRE), positive control, negative control and a standard (commercial antibiotics). The extract showed no significant difference (P>0....

  14. Haematological and hepatic indices of cockerels fed treated dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-six day old Lairier cockerel chicks were used in an experiment to evaluate the after effects of detoxifying (soaking, boiling, addition of riboflavin and glycine to antagonize hypoglycins) dietary Blighia sapida (ackee apple) seed meal, BSSM. Blood chemistry, haematology, liver morphology indices which dietary BSSM ...

  15. Digestibility And Hematological Parameters Of Broiler Chickens Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of replacing synthetic lysine (SL) with blood meal (BM) on apparent nutrients digestibility and hematological responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty (150) unsexed Anak broiler chicks were used. There were five diets with diet (T1) containing 0.10% SL and ...

  16. broiler finishers fed with processed mottle mucuna beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or reduce the adverse effects of the anti nutritionalfactors One hundred and thirty. five (135) chicks (Lehman strain), at 28 ... Attempts to reduce cost of feeding broilers and to ensure sustainable supply of feed include utilization of feed ingredients ..... Kumasi: Cita Printing Press Ltd. Okorie, JD. (1983). A Guide to Livestock ...

  17. Carcass and organ characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of graded levels of heat-treated castor oil bean meal and supplementary L-lysine on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds was investigated. In experiment 1, 180 seven-day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 15 birds each. In experiment 2, 144 six weeks old broiler ...

  18. Performance and haematological indices of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Azadirachta indica (neem), Spondias mombin and Chromolaena odorata leaf meals as natural feed supplements on performance and haematology of broilers were evaluated. Two hundred and sixty-four 1 day-old Arbor acre chicks were divided randomly into six treatments and four replicates. Treatment 1 ...

  19. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  20. The chick eye in vision research: An excellent model for the study of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, C Ellis; Sayed, Javed A; Tamez, Heather; Zelinka, Chris; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Fischer, Andy J; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2017-11-01

    The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes. Current research applications for various ocular diseases and conditions, including ocular imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, are discussed. Several genetic and non-genetic ocular disease models are outlined, including for pathologic myopia, keratoconus, glaucoma, retinal detachment, retinal degeneration, ocular albinism, and ocular tumors. Finally, the use of stem cell technology to study the repair of damaged tissues in the chick eye is discussed. Overall, the chick model provides opportunities for high-throughput translational studies to more effectively prevent or treat blinding ocular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect different levels of nitrate water on performance and blood parameter of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza hessabi nameghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate of different levels of water nitrate on performance and blood parameter of broiler chicks. 240 day old Ross 308 were assigned in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Treatments so that water nitrate concentration was 10 mg in drinking water of poultry farm (control group or CG and another treatment 40, 70, 100 mg/ Lit nitrate Used. A group used from minimum nitrate(MN water (nitrate, 1.8 mg/ Lit respectively. Results showed that different levels of water nitrate did not affect on feed intake (FI, but in distance 42-0 days group used from MN water compared to the control group FI significantly reduced. Treatments in 21-0 days was no effect on FI. Body weight gain (42 days in CG comparative another groups significantly increased, but different levels of nitrate had no effect on body weight gain in 21 days. Taking 100 mg of nitrate caused a significant increase feed conversion ratio (FCR in 42-1 days. Minimum FCR was showed that in CG. The results about lymphoid organs showed that maximum weight of spleen and bourse observed in group receiving 70 mg/Lit nitrate. Group drinking MN water had minimum weight of spleen and bourse, but the thymus weight in another groups higher than the CG. Different levels of nitrate had no effect on blood HDL, but on the another blood parameter had significant effect (P

  2. Body movements during early stages of chick embryo under intermittent low oxygen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Kenji; Chiba, Yuya; Shimouchi, Akito

    2017-07-01

    We have attempted to elucidate the characteristic pattern of body movements in early stages of chick embryos under intermittent low oxygen incubation environment. In order to achieve this aim, the oxygen control system that can be set arbitrary oxygen concentration was developed. We choose the 18% of O2 concentration and tried to measure the embryonic body movements. As a results, only one chick embryo in the early stages under intermittent 18% O2 environment (the cycle is 18%O2-10min and 21%O2-50min) was successfully recorded and its body movements were analyzed. The characteristic body movements, which are attributed to the instantaneous effect of low oxygen environment, compared with before and after normal O2 condition were not observed. Because the early stage embryos in which the significant organs aside from heart are not formed yet have a strong adaptation to environment changes, short hypoxic condition like a 10 min might not affect instantaneous embryonic physiological changes. Meanwhile, although the cyclic interval of the large body movements becomes short in the normal development, it became long in 18%O2 condition. This result might indicate that intermittent low oxygen condition accumulatively influenced physiological function. Further improvements of accuracy in the oxygen control system and the calculation system of body movements, and further experiments under low oxygen conditions are required in the next step.

  3. [Effect of filial imprinting procedure on cell proliferation in the chick brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarova, N V; Anokhin, K V

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that memory formation during visual imprinting might be related to generation of new cells in the brain of newborn domestic chicks. Cell proliferation was examined in the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), arcopallium intermedium (AI), medial part of nidopallium and mesopallium (MNM), nidopallium dorso-caudalis (Ndc), hippocampus (Hp) and area parahippocampalis (APH), as well as in corresponding ventricular zones. Number of new cells was measured by BrdU incorporation 24 h or 7 days after training, BrdU was injected before training. 24 h after imprinting the number of BrdU-positive cells increased significantly in IMM. 7 days after training no changes were observed in IMM, while the number of new cells decreased in MNM and Ndc in comparison to the control group. These data suggest that newly generated cells in the brain of young chicks are influenced by imprinting procedure, which has opposite short-term and long-term effects. A possible reason for such double action of imprinting in contrast to conventional learning can be its additional stimulation of development of predisposition for features of natural parents.

  4. Effects of an imprinting procedure on cell proliferation in the chick brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarova, N V; Anokhin, K V

    2008-03-01

    We report here studies on the effects of an imprinting procedure on cell proliferation in neonatal chicks in brain structures known to undergo plastic changes in imprinting. Proliferating cells were detected immunohistochemically on brain sections by incorporation of pre-training doses of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA; numbers of new cells were counted in the intermediate medial mesopallium, the intermediate arcopallium, the medial part of the mesopallium and the nidopallium, the dorsocaudal nidopallium, the hippocampus, and the parahippocampal region 24 h and seven days after training. The intermediate medial mesopallium showed an increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells 24 h after training. However, at seven days post-training, the number of BrdU-containing cells decreased in the medial nidopallium and mesopallium, in the dorsocaudal nidopallium, and the right intermediate medial mesopallium. Thus, the imprinting procedure had differently directed transient and long-term influences on the genesis of new cells in the chick brain, inducing the appearance of a large number of cells in the parenchyma of the brain one day after training and decreases in the numbers of cells at later time points. This double effect may be associated with the fact that the imprinting procedure simultaneously initiates two brain processes involving the control of cell proliferation - one related to maturation of a species-specific functional system for tracking individuals of the same species and one related to remembering the characteristics of the actual parent.

  5. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2006-11-14

    Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  6. Chick derived induced pluripotent stem cells by the poly-cistronic transposon with enhanced transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Hirayama, Takashi; Tani, Tetsuya; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Onuma, Manabu; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2018-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology lead terminally differentiated cells into the pluripotent stem cells through the expression of defined reprogramming factors. Although, iPS cells have been established in a number of mammalian species, including mouse, human, and monkey, studies on iPS cells in avian species are still very limited. To establish chick iPS cells, six factors were used within the poly-cistronic reprogramming vector (PB-R6F), containing M3O (MyoD derived transactivation domain fused with Oct3/4), Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Lin28, and Nanog. The PB-R6F derived iPS cells were alkaline-phosphatase and SSEA-1 positive, which are markers of pluripotency. Elevated levels of endogenous Oct3/4 and Nanog genes were detected in the established iPS cells, suggesting the activation of the FGF signaling pathway is critical for the pluripotent status. Histological analysis of teratoma revealed that the established chick iPS cells have differentiation ability into three-germ-layer derived tissues. This is the first report of establishment of avian derived iPS cells with a single poly-cistronic transposon based expression system. The establishment of avian derived iPS cells could contribute to the genetic conservation and modification of avian species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Myopia produced in young chicks by intermittent minimal form visual deprivation--can spectacles cause myopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S J; Balakrishnan, V

    1992-10-01

    Spectacle use has been postulated to aggravate or cause human myopia. Form visual deprivation, by complete full-time occlusion or refractive lenses, has been demonstrated to cause axial myopia in animals. We raised young chicks in conditions which closely approximate plano spectacle wear in humans. In addition, we sought to achieve more physiological conditions of form deprivation. Nine newborn chicks were raised with intermittent monocular visual deprivation and their eye growth and refraction monitored by retinoscopy, ultrasonic A-scan biometry and with a travelling microscope. After hatching, the nictitating membranes were sutured for 3-4 days. This was followed by a transparent plano plastic cover over the same eye for 3-4 days per week. After 3 weeks, the manipulated eyes were more myopic (mean refraction -0.72 D, axial length 13.11 mm) than fellow eyes (+0.83 D, 11.99 mm) (p eye is exquisitely sensitive to disturbances in the visual environment; intermittent minimal manipulation by conditions simulating spectacle wear in man was myopiagenic. It is postulated that spectacles can cause form visual deprivation of foveal and nonfoveal neurons (and hence myopia) by reducing luminance and contrast, chromatic and spherical aberration (in nonfoveal neurons) and restriction and distortion from the frame.

  8. Exposure to excess phenobarbital negatively influences the osteogenesis of chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phenobarbital treatment also suppressed mineralization in both in vivo and in vitro long bone models. Next, we established that phenobarbital treatment delayed blood vessel invasion in a cartilage template, and this finding was supported by the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypertrophic zone following phenobarbital treatment. Phenobarbital treatment inhibited tube formation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it impaired angiogenesis in chick yolk sac membrane model and chorioallantoic membrane model. In summary, phenobarbital exposure led to shortened lengths of long bones during embryogenesis, which might result from inhibiting mesenchyme differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, and delaying mineralization by impairing vascular invasion.

  9. Comparison of classification methods for detecting associations between SNPs and chick mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Guilherme JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multi-category classification methods were used to detect SNP-mortality associations in broilers. The objective was to select a subset of whole genome SNPs associated with chick mortality. This was done by categorizing mortality rates and using a filter-wrapper feature selection procedure in each of the classification methods evaluated. Different numbers of categories (2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 and three classification algorithms (naïve Bayes classifiers, Bayesian networks and neural networks were compared, using early and late chick mortality rates in low and high hygiene environments. Evaluation of SNPs selected by each classification method was done by predicted residual sum of squares and a significance test-related metric. A naïve Bayes classifier, coupled with discretization into two or three categories generated the SNP subset with greatest predictive ability. Further, an alternative categorization scheme, which used only two extreme portions of the empirical distribution of mortality rates, was considered. This scheme selected SNPs with greater predictive ability than those chosen by the methods described previously. Use of extreme samples seems to enhance the ability of feature selection procedures to select influential SNPs in genetic association studies.

  10. The chick embryo as an experimental system for melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Busch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A primary cutaneous melanoma will not kill the patient, but its metastases. Since in vitro studies on melanoma cells in 2-D cultures do often not reflect reality, 3-D models might come closer to the physiological situation in the patient during cancer initiation and progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the chick embryo model for in vivo studies of melanoma cell migration and invasion. After transplantation of neural crest-derived melanoma cells into the neural tube, the melanoma cells resume neural crest cell migration along the medial and lateral pathways and finally undergo apoptosis in the target areas. Upon transplantation into ectopic areas such as the hindbrain or the optic cup malignant invasion and local tissue destruction occurs. In contrast, melanocytes are not able to spontaneously resume neural crest cell migration. However, malignant invasion can be induced in melanocytes by pre-treatment with the TGF-beta family members bone morphegenetic protein-2 or nodal. Transplantation of MCF7 breast cancer cells yields a different growth pattern in the rhombencephalon than melanoma cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The chick embryo model is a feasible, cost-effective in vivo system to study invasion by cancer cells in an embryonic environment. It may be useful to study invasive behavior induced by embryonic oncogenes and for targeted manipulation of melanoma or breast cancer cells aiming at ablation of invasive properties.

  11. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara M Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system.

  12. Effect of different vehicles in carrageenan suspension on the rate of the inflammatory response of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Maria Backx Noronha Madeira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the pattern of edema, increased vascular permeability and cellular exudation elicited by the injection of different carrageenan suspensions into the foot pad of 80 male chicks, three to four-week old. Carrageenan suspensions at 0.5% were prepared in: Ringer Locke solution (RL, glucose aqueous solution 0.1% (G, demineralized water (W or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The foot pad volume and vascular permeability were evaluated by pletismography and by Evans blue extravasation, respectively, before and at 0:15, 0:30, 1:00, 1:30, 2:00, 2:30, 3:00, 3:30 and 4:00 hours after injury. Cellular exudation was observed in thin sections of stained tissue 0:30, 1:30, 2:30 and 4:00 hours after injection of the carrageenan or vehicle only. The inflammatory response varied according to the carrageenan suspension used. Suspension C/PBS induced a less intense inflammatory response in foot pads of chicks than C/W, C/G and C/RL suspensions.

  13. Growth responses of breast and leg muscles to essential amino acids in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-03-01

    The first three essential amino acids (EAA) for broilers including methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and threonine (Thr) may greatly influence the growth of chick muscles at early stages of life. In order to survey the potential effects of those EAA on growth muscles, a rotatable three-variable central composite design (CCD) was conducted to track the interrelationships of dietary digestible Met (dMet), Lys (dLys) and Thr (dThr) for optimization of processing yields in broiler chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 60 floor pens of six birds each were assigned to 15 dietary treatments based on CCD containing five levels of dMet (0.416% to 0.584% of diet), dLys (0.881% to 1.319% of diet) and dThr (0.532% to 0.868% of diet) from 3 to 16 days of age. Experimental treatments significantly affected breast mass (BM) and leg mass (LM) of the birds (Pmuscle may indicate the higher importance of these EAA in this muscle than those in thigh muscle.

  14. Forced notch signaling inhibits commissural axon outgrowth in the developing chick central nerve system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A collection of in vitro evidence has demonstrated that Notch signaling plays a key role in the growth of neurites in differentiated neurons. However, the effects of Notch signaling on axon outgrowth in an in vivo condition remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the neural tubes of HH10-11 chick embryos were in ovo electroporated with various Notch transgenes of activating or inhibiting Notch signaling, and then their effects on commissural axon outgrowth across the floor plate midline in the chick developing central nerve system were investigated. Our results showed that forced expression of Notch intracellular domain, constitutively active form of RBPJ, or full-length Hes1 in the rostral hindbrain, diencephalon and spinal cord at stage HH10-11 significantly inhibited commissural axon outgrowth. On the other hand, inhibition of Notch signaling by ectopically expressing a dominant-negative form of RBPJ promoted commissural axonal growth along the circumferential axis. Further results revealed that these Notch signaling-mediated axon outgrowth defects may be not due to the alteration of axon guidance since commissural axon marker TAG1 was present in the axons in floor plate midline, and also not result from the changes in cell fate determination of commissural neurons since the expression of postmitotic neuron marker Tuj1 and specific commissural markers TAG1 and Pax7 was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We first used an in vivo system to provide evidence that forced Notch signaling negatively regulates commissural axon outgrowth.

  15. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

  16. EFFECT OF POST VACCINATION MEDICATION ON LAYER CHICKS VACCINATED WITH GUMBORO VACCINE NOBILIS D-78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Khan, S.M. Subtain, A. Aslam, K. Muhammad1 and K.A. Khan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty one-day-old layer chicks were divided into four experimental groups A, B, C and D, with 40 birds in each group. Group A was kept as control (non-vaccinated, group B was given vaccine but not medicated, group C was administered vaccine as well as multivitamins for 3 days post-vaccination, while group D was also medicated with aspirin for 3 days post-vaccination. The parameters studied were: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical analysis (serum protein, glucose and cholesterol, antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. At the end of experiment (42nd day adrenal glands from 10 randomly selected birds from each group were subjected to gross and histopathological examination and adrenal/body weight ratio was also determined. The results showed non significant difference among different groups. However, the group that was given multivitamins showed maximum immune response against IBDV, while the aspirin therapy did not show any significant difference. It can be concluded that vaccine produced undetectable stress in layer chicks and the vitamin supplementation evidently showed as an immuno-potentiating effect

  17. Alcohol exposure induces chick craniofacial bone defects by negatively affecting cranial neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guang; Lin, Zhuangling; Wu, Yushi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Meng; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-11-05

    Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs exposed to ethanol was investigated - using chick embryos and in vitro explant culture as experimental models. We demonstrated that exposure to 2% ethanol induced craniofacial defects, which includes parietal defect, in the developing chick fetus. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that ethanol treatment downregulated Ap-2ɑ, Pax7 and HNK-1 expressions by cranial NCCs. Using double-immunofluorescent stainings for Ap-2ɑ/pHIS3 and Ap-2ɑ/c-Caspase3, we showed that ethanol treatment inhibited cranial NCC proliferation and increased NCC apoptosis, respectively. Moreover, ethanol treatment of the dorsal neuroepithelium increased Laminin, N-Cadherin and Cadherin 6B expressions while Cadherin 7 expression was repressed. In situ hybridization also revealed that ethanol treatment up-regulated Cadherin 6B expression but down-regulated slug, Msx1, FoxD3 and BMP4 expressions. In summary, our experimental results demonstrated that ethanol treatment interferes with the production of cranial NCCs by affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of these cells. In addition, ethanol affected the delamination, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration of cranial NCCs, which may have contributed to the etiology of the craniofacial defects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  19. The effects of alcoholic leaf extract Ocimum basilicum on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niazi Fateme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiogenesis is an important biological processes of new blood vessels in many pathological stages of development and embryo development occurs and a complex and dynamic phenomenon that is needed for development and other physiological processes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alcoholic Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on angiogenesis chick chorioallantoic membrane is done. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 Ross fertilized eggs were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham-exposed and experimental groups were divided. The second day of incubation the eggs window was opened. Eighth day of the alcoholic extract of basil doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg on chick chorioallantoic membrane was injected. On day 12, embryos length and weight and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM was photographed by photostereomicroscope Then the numbers and lengths of vessels in special area on CAM were measured with Image J. analyzed through by t-test and ANOVA (P<0.05. Results: The data does not show significant difference between embryos length and weight in sham compare to all experimental groups. In the study vessels number just with 150 mg/kg observed significant. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of basil is an increase in the number of vessels and in this sense the healing and growth processes associated with them as well as effective.

  20. Expression pattern of LINGO-1 in the developing nervous system of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafuji, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2005-12-01

    We isolated a chick homologue of LINGO-1 (cLINGO-1), a novel component of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR)/p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) signaling complex, and examined the expression of cLINGO-1 in the developing brain and spinal cord of the chick embryo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. cLINGO-1 was expressed broadly in the spinal cord, including the ventral portion of the ventricular zone, and motor neurons. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the dorsal root ganglion and boundary cap cells at dorsal and ventral roots. In the early embryonic brain, cLINGO-1 was first expressed in the prosencephalon and the ventral mesencephalon, and later in the telencephalon, the rostral part of the mesencephalon and some parts of the hindbrain. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the ventral part of the neural retina and trigeminal and facial nerves. We also found that cLINGO-1, cNgR1 and p75NTR were expressed in overlapped patterns in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion, but that these genes were expressed in distinct patterns in the early embryonic brain.

  1. Central administration of dipeptides, beta-alanyl-BCAAs, induces hyperactivity in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denbow D Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine is a putative neurotransmitter and has a possible role in neuron-glia cell interactions. Previously, we reported that carnosine induced hyperactivity in chicks when intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. administered. In the present study, we focused on other β-alanyl dipeptides to determine if they have novel functions. Results In Experiment 1, i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-leucine, but not β-alanyl-glycine, induced hyperactivity behavior as observed with carnosine. Both carnosine and β-alanyl-L-leucine stimulated corticosterone release. Thus, dipeptides of β-alanyl-branched chain amino acids were compared in Experiment 2. The i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-isoleucine caused a similar response as β-alanyl-L-leucine, but β-alanyl-L-valine was somewhat less effective than the other two dipeptides. β-Alanyl-L-leucine strongly stimulated, and the other two dipeptides tended to stimulate, corticosterone release. Conclusion These results suggest that central β-alanyl-branched chain amino acid stimulates activity in chicks through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We named β-alanyl-L-leucine, β-alanyl-L-isoleucine and β-alanyl-L-valine as Excitin-1, Excitin-2 and Excitin-3, respectively.

  2. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  3. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  4. Doubly fed machine review: agenda. Conference report, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The visual aids presented at the doubly fed machine review are presented. The doubly fed machine is a generating system either for wind turbines or hydro systems. Conceptual design and trade-offs are included, as well as testing. (LEW)

  5. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cetiner, N. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; McDuffee, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  6. Controlling effects of irradiance and heterotrophy on carbon translocation in the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Tremblay

    Full Text Available Temperate symbiotic corals, such as the Mediterranean species Cladocora caespitosa, live in seasonally changing environments, where irradiance can be ten times higher in summer than winter. These corals shift from autotrophy in summer to heterotrophy in winter in response to light limitation of the symbiont's photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the autotrophic carbon budget under different conditions of irradiance (20 and 120 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 and feeding (fed three times a week with Artemia salina nauplii, and unfed. Corals were incubated in H(13CO(3 (--enriched seawater, and the fate of (13C was followed in the symbionts and the host tissue. The total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis and translocated was significantly higher at high than low irradiance (ca. 13 versus 2.5-4.5 µg cm(-2 h(-1, because the rates of photosynthesis and carbon fixation were also higher. However, the percent of carbon translocation was similar under the two irradiances, and reached more than 70% of the total fixed carbon. Host feeding induced a decrease in the percentage of carbon translocated under low irradiance (from 70 to 53%, and also a decrease in the rates of carbon translocation per symbiont cell under both irradiances. The fate of autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon differed according to irradiance. At low irradiance, autotrophic carbon was mostly respired by the host and the symbionts, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass. Under high irradiance, autotrophic carbon was both respired and released as particulate and dissolved organic carbon, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass and symbiont concentration. Overall, the maintenance of high symbiont concentration and high percentage of carbon translocation under low irradiance allow this coral species to optimize its autotrophic carbon acquisition, when irradiance conditions are not favourable to photosynthesis.

  7. Controlling Effects of Irradiance and Heterotrophy on Carbon Translocation in the Temperate Coral Cladocora caespitosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Maguer, Jean François; Rottier, Cécile; Legendre, Louis; Grover, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Temperate symbiotic corals, such as the Mediterranean species Cladocora caespitosa, live in seasonally changing environments, where irradiance can be ten times higher in summer than winter. These corals shift from autotrophy in summer to heterotrophy in winter in response to light limitation of the symbiont’s photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the autotrophic carbon budget under different conditions of irradiance (20 and 120 µmol photons m−2 s−1) and feeding (fed three times a week with Artemia salina nauplii, and unfed). Corals were incubated in H13CO3−-enriched seawater, and the fate of 13C was followed in the symbionts and the host tissue. The total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis and translocated was significantly higher at high than low irradiance (ca. 13 versus 2.5–4.5 µg cm−2 h−1), because the rates of photosynthesis and carbon fixation were also higher. However, the percent of carbon translocation was similar under the two irradiances, and reached more than 70% of the total fixed carbon. Host feeding induced a decrease in the percentage of carbon translocated under low irradiance (from 70 to 53%), and also a decrease in the rates of carbon translocation per symbiont cell under both irradiances. The fate of autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon differed according to irradiance. At low irradiance, autotrophic carbon was mostly respired by the host and the symbionts, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass. Under high irradiance, autotrophic carbon was both respired and released as particulate and dissolved organic carbon, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass and symbiont concentration. Overall, the maintenance of high symbiont concentration and high percentage of carbon translocation under low irradiance allow this coral species to optimize its autotrophic carbon acquisition, when irradiance conditions are not favourable to photosynthesis. PMID:22970284

  8. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  9. Protein and energy utilization by cockerels fed four different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein and energy efficiency were significantly (p<0.05) improved in birds fed diet 3 and diet 4. These results are due to the consumption of higher levels of protein and energy by cockerels fed diet 3 and diet 4 coupled with the birds ability to better utilize these nutrients compared to those fed diet 1 and diet 2 respectively.

  10. Survival and growth of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed with freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival and growth performance of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed with freshwater zooplankton was compared to those fed with Artémia salina. Clarias gariepinus larvae at the end of yolk sac resorption with 2.8 ± 0.1 mg initial weight were fed ad libitum to live zooplankton for 08 days in concrete basins (without water ...

  11. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  12. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled data...

  13. The effect of monocular deprivation on unihemispheric sleep in light and dark incubated/reared domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Angelica; Bobbo, Daniela; Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2018-03-01

    Unihemispheric sleep is an aspect of the cerebral lateralization of certain species of birds. During sleep, domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show brief periods of monocular-unihemispheric sleep (Mo-Un sleep): one eye is open and the connected hemisphere is awaken while the other eye remains shut and the connected hemisphere sleeps. The time spent in Mo-Un sleep was investigated following a brief monocular deprivation (MD) in chicks hatched from eggs incubated in darkness and reared in light (D-L), incubated in light and reared in light (L-L) and incubated in darkness and reared in darkness (D-D). The right eye occluded for 12 h in half of chicks and the left eye in the other half. At the end of MD, the Mo-Un sleep was recorded. The effect of MD (total time and time bias) prevailed in determining the pattern of Mo-Un sleep. Chicks showed more time sleeping with the eye/hemisphere that was in control of visual behaviour during MD and opened more time the eye and awake the hemisphere visually deprived. The Mo-Un pattern was not influenced by incubation, rearing, symmetry/asymmetry of visual pathways and imprinting thereby indicating that Mo-Un sleep pattern depends only on the kind of visual experience during wakefulness.

  14. Characterization of a highly virulent and antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain isolated from diseased chicks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Hui, Qi; Fu, Bao-Quan; Lu, Shi-Ying; Li, Yan-Song; Zou, De-Ying; Li, Zhao-Hui; Yan, Dong-Ming; Ding, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Poultry husbandry is a very important aspect of the agricultural economy in China. However, chicks are often susceptible to infectious disease microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites, causing large economic losses in recent years. In the present study, we isolated an Acinetobacter baumannii strain, CCGGD201101, from diseased chicks in the Jilin Province of China. Regression analyses of virulence and LD50 tests conducted using healthy chicks confirmed that A. baumannii CCGGD201101, with an LD50 of 1.81 (±0.11) × 10(4) CFU, was more virulent than A. baumannii ATCC17978, with an LD50 of 1.73 (±0.13) × 10(7) CFU. Moreover, TEM examination showed that the pili of A. baumannii CCGGD201101 were different from those of ATCC17978. Antibiotic sensitivity analyses showed that A. baumannii CCGGD201101 was sensitive to rifampicin but resistant to most other antibiotics. These results imply that A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 had both virulence enhancement and antibiotic resistance characteristics, which are beneficial for A. baumannii survival under adverse conditions and enhance fitness and invasiveness in the host. A. baumannii CCGGD20101, with its high virulence and antimicrobial resistance, may be one of the pathogens causing death of diseased chicks. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Immunological evaluation of the intestinal mucosa of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus Spp. and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Okamoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the antibody production by intestinal mucosa of broilers chicks were orally inoculated with Lactobacillus spp. at one and/or 21 days of age, and subsequently challenged with Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. A total number of 288 drug-free broiler chicks was divided into 6 groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, according to age at Lactobacillus spp. inoculation and SE challenge. The intestinal mucosa immune response was determined as the production of immunoglobulin A against S. Enteritidis, and evaluated by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique in intestinal washing fluid. Groups treated with Lactobacillus spp. presented higher IgA production only when the chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis at 21 days of age. Nevertheless, the expected stimulus for intestinal mucosa antibody production induced by Lactobacillus spp was observed in only some of the treated groups, demonstrating that the protocol utilized in the present experiment resulted in few beneficial effects for chicks, particularly during the first days of life.

  16. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p improvement with training. In both sound-stimulated groups, the total time taken to reach the target decreased significantly (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 accompanying the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Murakami, Akio; Hirose, Naoki; Aoki, Naoya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2008-06-15

    Using cDNA microarrays, we have identified elsewhere the genes of microtubule-associated proteins as a group up-regulated in newly hatched chick brains after filial imprinting training. Here we show by in situ hybridization that the mRNA for the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene was enriched in the mesopallium and the hippocampus in the trained chick brain. The regionally specific enrichments of MAP2 mRNA were not observed in the brain of dark-reared or light-exposed chick as controls, implying an association between the degree of expression and the strength of the learned preference. In agreement with the gene expression, MAP2 protein was accumulated in the mesopallium of the trained chick brain, but not in the brains of the controls. The accumulation of MAP2 was found in the cytosol of neurons and co-localized with beta-tubulin, suggesting a change in microtubule assembly. Our results suggest a postnatal reorganization of cytoskeleton following filial imprinting.

  18. Activation of cholecystokinin neurons in the dorsal pallium of the telencephalon is indispensable for the acquisition of chick imprinting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Uchimura, Motoaki; Fujiwara, Ken; Yada, Toshihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2007-09-01

    Chick imprinting behavior is a good model for the study of learning and memory. Imprinting object is recognized and processed in the visual wulst, and the memory is stored in the intermediate medial mesopallium in the dorsal pallium of the telencephalon. We identified chicken cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing cells localized in these area. The number of CCK mRNA-positive cells increased in chicks underwent imprinting training, and these cells expressed nuclear Fos immunoreactivity at high frequency in these regions. Most of these CCK-positive cells were glutamatergic and negative for parvalbumin immunoreactivity. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the CCK mRNA levels were significantly increased in the trained chicks compared with untrained chicks. In contrast, the increase in CCK- and c-Fos-double-positive cells associated with the training was not observed after closure of the critical period. These results indicate that CCK cells in the dorsal pallium are activated acutely by visual training that can elicit imprinting. In addition, the CCK receptor antagonist significantly suppressed the acquisition of memory. These results suggest that the activation of CCK cells in the visual wulst as well as in the intermediate medial mesopallium by visual stimuli is indispensable for the acquisition of visual imprinting.

  19. The effect of food restriction on morphological and metabolic development in two lines of growing Japanese quail chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ziel, CE; Visser, GH

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether there is a relationship between the inherent maximum growth rate of a chick and its degree of developmental plasticity, we studied the effects of food restriction on morphological and physiological development in P-line (selected for high growth rates) and C-line (nonselected)

  20. Performance of Chicks Submitted to Fasting Post-Hatching and with Maltodextrine Supplementing to Diet as Hydrating and Energetic Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maltodextrin on performance of chicks passed through four fasting periods. A completely randomized design was performed, consisting of three treatments (1 - control, 2 - 4% saccharose; 3-4% maltodextrin 20 and four fasting periods after hatching (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours with four replications, totaling 1920 birds of both sexes. The studied variables were: water intake in the first 12 hours, average food intake, average body weight and real feed conversion. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared with each other by Dunnett test at 5% significance. The use of additives and imposing of different fasting periods did not influence the performance at 42 days old. Therefore, fasted chicks consumed significantly more water. At 7 days old, chicks fasted showed higher body weight and higher feed intake, however, the viability did not suffer any influence, the weight remained higher after 21days with the fast imposition and there was no influence on other variables. There was no effect of fasting on broiler chiken's performance at 42 days old. The inclusion of sucrose and maltodextrin to drinking water stimulated the chick´s water intake and provided higher viability after seven days old.

  1. Generation Chick: Reading Bridget Jones’s Diary, Jessica, 30., and Dies ist kein Liebeslied as Postfeminist Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bethman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Helen Fielding’s, Marlene Streeruwitz’s, and Karen Duve’s novels in the context of the literarisches Fräuleinwunder , the generic conventions of chick lit, and postfeminism, relating all three to the globalization of the book publishing industry and its effects on German-language fiction. I argue that Duve’s and Streeruwitz’s texts can be understood as responses to the Anglo-American chick lit that flooded the German-language book market in the 1990s, of which Fielding’s novel is one of the best-known. Close readings situate both German-language novels firmly within the generic conventions of chick lit, and then look at the ways the texts relate to postfeminism, as well as second- and third-wave feminism. I conclude by arguing that our concept of Frauenliteratur should be expanded to include chick lit as well as more overtly political feminist texts.

  2. Identification of Gelatinases involved in the Rous sarcoma Virus-induced Tumors in Chicks as Prognostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kotresh and Meena Kataria

    Full Text Available The present work is undertaken to study the expression of levels of gelatinases in tumorogenesis by Rous sarcoma virus(RSV in layer chicks and explored the possibility of using gelatinases as potential biological markers in metastatic neoplasms. Two days old chicks (40 were divided into two groups (Gp I and Gp II. Gp-I (20 treated with Rous sarcoma virus for tumor induction. The Gp II (control was inoculated with RPMI-1640. Tumors appeared earliest by three days post infection with RSV and were progressive leading to mortality of birds by twenty eight days. Distant tumors were observed in liver, heart, lung, and kidney on post mortem. A prominent band of gelatinase of around 75 kDa was detected in plasma of infected chicks by gelatin zymography. Results indicate over expression of gelatinases and are leaked into plasma on Rous sarcoma virus infection. Expression of gelatinases in primary tumors, metastasized liver, heart, lung and kidney and corresponding tissues in healthy control chicks was determined by RT-PCR analysis. Over expression of gelatinase gene was observed in metastaic tissues and primary tumors than control. The described assays could be used as a prognostic assay method for detection of proteases in metastatic neoplasms of animals. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 500-502

  3. Taurine prevents hypercholesterolemia in ovariectomized rats fed corn oil but not in those fed coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Taro; Miyazato, Shouko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    We studied whether the type of dietary fatty acid influences the preventive effect of taurine on the ovarian hormone deficiency-induced increase in plasma cholesterol concentration in 6-mo-old ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed one of the following four diets for 28 d: purified diets based on corn oil, which is rich in linoleic acid, with or with out taurine (50 g/kg) or purified diets based on coconut oil, which is rich in lauric and myristic acids, with or without taurine. Body mass gain, food intake, liver weight and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, LDL and VLDL concentrations were not affected by the diets. On the other hand, taurine lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration (P oil, but not in those fed coconut oil. In rats fed both types of oils, taurine increased the LDL receptor mRNA level (P cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity (P coconut oil, but not in those fed corn oil. Taurine increased liver total lipid (P oil, but not in those fed coconut oil. These results indicate that the effect of taurine on ovarian hormone deficiency-induced changes in cholesterol metabolism is influenced by the type of dietary fatty acids.

  4. The effects of irradiation and microfiltration on the cells growing and total lipids production in the cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Yang, Ya-Chun

    2012-03-01

    The results of this study indicate that the irradiation could enhance the cells growing of Rhodotorula glutinis to 54.2 ± 1.6g/L as compared to the control (without irradiation) of 38.3 ± 1.2g/L. However, different wavelength of LEDs' (red, green, blue and white) had no significant impacts on the growth and on the lipid content. The accumulation of potential inhibitive metabolic products probably impedes growth, which restricts more biomass accumulated in the fed-batch operation with irradiation. The combining of the fed-batch operation with irradiation and microfiltration can successfully improve the growth of R. glutinis to the maximum of 72.4 ± 0.6g/L and 51.2 ± 4.9% of lipid content obtained. Conclusively, the integration process of a fed-batch operation, irradiation and microfiltration can effectively enhance cell growth in R. glutinis, without any reimbursement of lipid contents. This finding might be useful when applied to the commercialized cultivation of R. glutinis for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  6. Food irradiation and the consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  7. The effects of different eggshell temperatures on embryonic development, hatchability, chick quality, and first-week broiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, A; Sahan, U; Baycan, S C; Sozcu, A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of different eggshell temperatures (EST) during 10 to 18 d of incubation on embryonic development, hatchability, chick quality, first-week broiler performance. The EST were maintained within the temperature ranges of 33.3 to 36.7, 37.8 to 38.2, and 38.9 to 40.0°C for the low, control, and high EST treatments, respectively. From d 15 to 18, embryo weight and relative embryo weight were found to be similar in the low and high EST groups. Salable chicks and hatchability of total eggs was found to be higher in the control EST group. Between d 10 and 17 of incubation, embryonic mortality in low, control, and high EST groups was determined to be 1.6, 0.8, and 2.0%, respectively. From d 18 to hatch, embryonic mortality and rate of dead and cull chicks were found to be significantly different. Hatching in high EST group was completed 26 h early, although hatching in low EST group was completed 10 h later than the control EST group. On the of hatching day, chick weight and length were found to be 39.5, 41.0, and 42.5 g, and 18.5, 21.4, and 19.1 cm in low, control, and high EST groups, respectively. The highest residual yolk sac weight and relative residual yolk sac weight were observed in high EST group as 7.7 g and 18.7%. Yolk-free chick weight and relative yolk-free chick weight were highest in the control EST group. At 1 wk of age, the BW in low, control, and high EST groups were determined as 131.1, 140.0, and 140.8 g, respectively. No significant difference was found for feed intake and feed conversion among treatments for wk 1. The mortality during the first week did not differ among groups; however, a higher mortality rate was observed numerically in the high EST group. In conclusion, embryo development, incubation parameters, chick quality, and the first week performance are affected by small changes in the EST.

  8. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis infection alters the indigenous microbiota diversity in young layer chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Khine Zar Mon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian gastrointestinal tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors especially during the early post-hatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post-infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and post-infection time-points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the gastrointestinal microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non

  9. [Evaluation of fatty acid levels and selected bioelements in femoral bones of chicks depending on age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dołegowska, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The study was done in Starbro chicks aged 1 to 50 days. Two chicks were collected every day and the femoral bones were removed. Altogether, 200 bones were studied. The material was divided into 5 age groups (I to V). Compact and spongy bone, bone marrow and articular cartilage were sampled. Lipids were extracted according to Folch et al. Total lipids were measured spectrophotometrically. Gas chromatography was used to study the content of individual fatty acids. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (Philips PU 9100X), while fluorine content was studied with gas chromatography. As the distribution of the results deviated from normal, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and median tests were used. Correlations were studied with Spearman's Rs coefficients. Computations were done with Statistica 5.0 (StatSoft) software and the level of significance was taken as p < 0.05. Statistically significant differences in the fatty acid profile (Tab. 1) and content of elements (Tab. 2) were found. The content of fatty acids, calcium and fluorine correlated with age. Fatty acids with the highest content in bone tissues were C18:1, C16:0, C18:2 and C18:0. The highest content of fatty acids was found in bone marrow and the lowest in articular cartilage. Several correlations were revealed between individual fatty acids and elements (Tab. 3, 4). The following conclusions were drawn: 1) The fatty acid profile in compact and spongy bone, bone marrow and articular cartilage changed according to age of chicks; 2) Content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and fluoride correlated with age; 3) Oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0), linoleic (C18:2), stearic (C18:0) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) accounted for the majority of the fatty acid pool; 4) Correlations in the content of fatty acids and elements were noted between bone structures. Fatty acids appear to play an important role in the metabolism of bone tissues

  10. Dose titration of FITC-D for optimal measurement of enteric inflammation in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Tellez, G; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Seeber-Galarza, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Wolfenden, A D; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) have been used in foodstock animals to reduce enteric inflammation and maintain intestinal homeostasis, thus improving growth and performance. Due to increasing restrictions regarding the use of AGP however, precise and high throughput enteric inflammation models and markers to search for effective alternatives are urgently needed. In this paper, oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d, 3-5 kDa) and its passage into blood was used as a marker for tight junction permeability. In experiement 1, broilers were assigned to a control group, a group which received 24 h feed restriction (FR), or a group which received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (0.75% in water for 5 d), and each group then underwent an oral gavage of FITC-d 2.5 h before sample collection on d10. FITC-d in serum and intestinal samples (duodenum and ceca) were found to be higher (Pexperiment 2, FR was evaluated for its effect on mucosal leakage and an oral dose of FITC-d of 0.5, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/chick was used to measure the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) permeability at 6 d of age. The amount of FITC-d remaining in the duodenal tissue of the control birds increased with dose, only the 1.1 mg FITC-d/chick dose resulted in differences (PExperiment 3 compared serum levels after administration of 0.55 and 1.1 mg/chick doses of FITC-d in birds treated with FR, rye-based diet (RBD), and DSS. Intestinal sections were collected for FITC-d recovery in the 1.1 mg dosage group. All inflammation treatments significantly increased serum FITC-d levels at both doses. Only FR resulted in increased (P<0.05) FITC-d recovery from duodenum, ileum, and ceca. In conclusion, FR, DSS, and RBD affected GIT tight junction integrity, suggesting their value for enteric inflammation models, and FITC-d may be a good indicator of permeability. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Canonical Wnt signaling activity in early stages of chick lung development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Silva Moura

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling pathway is an essential player during vertebrate embryonic development which has been associated with several developmental processes such as gastrulation, body axis formation and morphogenesis of numerous organs, namely the lung. Wnt proteins act through specific transmembrane receptors, which activate intracellular pathways that regulate cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Morphogenesis of the fetal lung depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that are governed by several growth and transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, fate, migration and differentiation. This process is controlled by different signaling pathways such as FGF, Shh and Wnt among others. Wnt signaling is recognized as a key molecular player in mammalian pulmonary development but little is known about its function in avian lung development. The present work characterizes, for the first time, the expression pattern of several Wnt signaling members, such as wnt-1, wnt-2b, wnt-3a, wnt-5a, wnt-7b, wnt-8b, wnt-9a, lrp5, lrp6, sfrp1, dkk1, β-catenin and axin2 at early stages of chick lung development. In general, their expression is similar to their mammalian counterparts. By assessing protein expression levels of active/total β-catenin and phospho-LRP6/LRP6 it is revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is active in this embryonic tissue. In vitro inhibition studies were performed in order to evaluate the function of Wnt signaling pathway in lung branching. Lung explants treated with canonical Wnt signaling inhibitors (FH535 and PK115-584 presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture along with a decrease in axin2 expression levels. Branching analysis confirmed this inhibition. Wnt-FGF crosstalk assessment revealed that this interaction is preserved in the chick lung. This study demonstrates that Wnt signaling is crucial for precise chick lung branching and further supports the

  12. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  13. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  14. Evaluation of aviguard, a commercial competitive exclusion product for efficacy and after-effect on the antibody response of chicks to Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Ota, Y; Mizukami, A; Ito, T; Ngwai, Y B; Adachi, Y

    2002-11-01

    The competitive exclusion (CE) action of Aviguard (AG) and its effects on the antibody response of chicks were evaluated in this study. We observed that AG protected the chicks from overwhelming colonization. Fourteen days after infection, fewer AG-pretreated than nonpretreated chicks shed salmonellae from their coloaca in both infected groups, although much less from SE-infected chicks. Antibody titers of sera produced to Salmonella typhimurium (ST) and SE in pretreated and non-pretreated chicks were not significantly different. Immunoblotting showed that these antibodies reacted with SDS-PAGE-separated 71.4, 67.7, 44.0, and 30.3 kDa proteins detectable in the test strains. Few weak bands of doubtful significance were observed in the cross-reaction between the sera of ST- and SE-infected chicks with ST and SE antigens, respectively. Our study showed that AG protected chicks from overwhelming colonization by salmonellae, and neither altered the antigenic proteins of infecting salmonellae nor their recognition by specific antibodies produced in response to the infection.

  15. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  16. Effect of antithyroid drug on chick embryos during the last week of development: delayed hatching and decreased cerebellar acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Gen; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Tezuka, Yu; Kagami, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Toru; Nishigori, Hideo

    2011-11-01

    Hypothyroid state during embryogenesis disturbs normal growth and brain development, influencing later life. To evaluate the harmful consequences of the state during embryogenesis using an animal model, we inhibited thyroid hormone biosynthesis in chick embryos by using methimazole (MMI). Typically, embryos were treated with MMI (20 µmol/egg) on day 14, and examined on specific days.  Of the control embryos, 94% hatched on day 21, whereas 0% and 60% of MMI-treated embryos hatched on days 21 and 24, respectively. MMI retarded the rates of bodyweight gain as well as liver and heart development, and delayed hatching. However, the external differences in appearance and differences in the weights of the newly hatched control chicks on day 21 and the MMI-treated chicks on day 24 were less obvious. Embryos treated with MMI exhibited increased mass in their brain parts on day 24. Most notably, the treatment resulted in a 1.35-fold increase in cerebellum weight compared to that of the untreated animals. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebellum on the day of hatching decreased significantly to 0.85-fold that of the untreated controls. Thyroid hormone receptor β mRNA was detected from day 12 and dramatically expressed from day 19 to the day of hatching. The 'fertilized hen's egg-chick embryo-chick system' is an appropriate animal model for investigating the hypothyroid state during embryogenesis. Decreased cerebellar acetylcholinesterase activity after MMI treatment was assumed to relate to a mechanism of motor and cognitive deficits in congenital hypothyroidism. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Impaired imprinting and social behaviors in chicks exposed to mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, during the final week of embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hideo; Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu

    2014-03-15

    The effects of glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during embryogenesis on the imprinting abilities and social behaviors of hatchlings were examined using "fertile hen's egg-embryo-chick" system. Of embryos treated with mifepristone (0.4μmol/egg) on day 14, over 75% hatched a day later than the controls (day 22) without external anomalies. The mifepristone-treated hatchlings were assayed for imprinting ability on post-hatching day 2 and for social behaviors on day 3. The findings were as follows: imprinting ability (expressed as preference score) was significantly lower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (0.65±0.06 vs. 0.92±0.02, P<0.005). Aggregation tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) required for four chicks, individually isolated with cardboard dividers in a box, to form a group after removal of the barriers showed that aggregation was significantly slower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (8.7±1.1 vs. 2.6±0.3, P<0.001). In belongingness tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) for a chick isolated at a corner to join a group of three chicks placed at the opposite corner, mifepristone-treated hatchlings took significantly longer than controls (4.5±0.4/40 cm vs. 2.4±0.08/40 cm, P<0.001). In vocalization tests, using a decibel meter to measure average decibel level/30s (chick vocalization), mifepristone-treated hatchlings had significantly weaker vocalizations than controls (14.2±1.9/30s vs. 26.4±1.3/30s P<0.001). In conclusion, glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during the last week embryogenesis altered the programming of brain development, resulting in impaired behavioral activities in late life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chick CFC controls Lefty1 expression in the embryonic midline and nodal expression in the lateral plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlange, T; Schnipkoweit, I; Andrée, B; Ebert, A; Zile, M H; Arnold, H H; Brand, T

    2001-06-15

    Members of the EGF-CFC family of proteins have recently been implicated as essential cofactors for Nodal signaling. Here we report the isolation of chick CFC and describe its expression pattern, which appears to be similar to Cfc1 in mouse. During early gastrulation, chick CFC was asymmetrically expressed on the left side of Hensen's node as well as in the emerging notochord, prechordal plate, and lateral plate mesoderm. Subsequently, its expression became confined to the heart fields, notochord, and posterior mesoderm. Implantation experiments suggest that chick CFC expression in the lateral plate mesoderm is dependent on BMP signaling, while in the midline its expression depends on an Activin-like signal. The asymmetric expression domain within Hensen's node was not affected by application of FGF8, Noggin, or Shh antibody. Implantation of cells expressing human or mouse CFC2, or chick CFC on the right side of Hensen's node randomized heart looping without affecting expression of genes involved in left-right axis formation, including SnR, Nodal, Car, or Pitx2. Application of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to the midline of Hamburger-Hamilton stage 4-5 embryos also randomized heart looping, but in contrast to the overexpression experiments, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment resulted in bilateral expression of Nodal, Car, Pitx2, and NKX3.2, whereas Lefty1 expression in the midline was transiently lost. Application of the antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to the lateral plate mesoderm abolished Nodal expression. Thus, chick CFC seems to have a dual function in left-right axis formation by maintaining Nodal expression in the lateral plate mesoderm and controlling expression of Lefty1 expression in the midline territory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  20. Effects of Maternal Zinc Glycine on Mortality, Zinc Concentration, and Antioxidant Status in a Developing Embryo and 1-Day-Old Chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zinc glycine (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) on mortality, zinc (Zn) concentration, and antioxidant status in a developing embryo and 1-day-old chick. Six hundred 39-week-old broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each treatment including 5 replicates with 20 birds each. Six treatments received a basal diet (control, 24 mg Zn/kg diet) or a basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (80 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-Gly (20, 40, 60, or 80 mg Zn/kg), respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-experiment with a basal diet. At the last week, 100 eggs per replicate were randomly collected for incubation. Compared with the control treatment, Zn supplementation decreased (P day-old chick, and improved (P day-old chick. Compared with the ZnSO4 treatment, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly decreased (P day-old chick. The 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly increased (P day-old chick, total superoxide dismutase activity in 1-day-old chick, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of d9 embryo and 1-day-old chick than that in ZnSO4 treatment. The liver metallothionein concentration of the developing embryo and 1-day-old chick and its mRNA abundance of d19 embryo were also significantly increased (P day-old chick, and 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly treatment was the optimum choice.

  1. Experimental studies on prevention of trichinosis by food irradiation (Co60)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazu, Kimitaka (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    A systemic study was performed to elucidate the effects of [sup 60]Co irradiation on maturation or fecundity of Trichinella spiralis by assessing from parasitological, morphological and immunological points of view. Pieces of muscle tissue of mice infected with T. spiralis were irradiated with [sup 60]Co at doses of 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. These irradiated tissue (Experimental group) and non-irradiated tissues (Control group) were fed to healthy mice. Half of the mice were sacrificed 6 days after the ingestion. The number of adult worms were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between the dose of [sup 60]Co irradiation and worm damage; the higher the dose the more damage parasites had, and no adults were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 150 Gy prior to infection. The same tendency was true for the histopathology of the intenstines of host mice; the higher the dose the less tissue damage. Circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in every serum examined by ELISA. The remaining mice were sacrificed 30 days after the ingestion. The numbers of muscle larvae were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between th dose of [sup 60]Co irradiation and worm damage, and no larvae were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 75Gy. Higher concentrations of circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in the serum samples taken with muscle larvae. Thus this study established that [sup 60]Co irradiation of more than 150 Gy caused complete damage on maturation, and that irradiation of more than 75 Gy caused complete damage on the fecundity of T. spimalis. (author).

  2. Cultivation of Clinostomum marginatum (Digenea: Clinostomatidae) metacercariae in vitro, in chick embryo and in mouse coelom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, O R; Uglem, G L

    1990-08-01

    Metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum obtained from naturally infected Perca flavescens were cultured by 5 methods. In vitro cultivation at 37 C in twice daily changes of Tyrode's, Na-poor Tyrode's, and Eagle's media failed to produce ovigerous adults after 4-5 days. Metacercariae placed on the chorioallantois of week-old chick embryos at 37 C migrated to the albumen. Only 8 of 123 worms recovered were ovigerous after 4-7 days in ovo. Best success occurred with metacercariae injected in groups of 4 or 6 into the abdominal cavities of male A/J mice. Despite liver lesions and strong inflammatory responses in the host, all 174 worms recovered were ovigerous after 4-8 days. None of 41 mice died prematurely from the procedure or the parasites.

  3. The Comparison of Performance of Three Hybrid Combinations of Broiler Chicks at Different Dose of Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available If we want to find replacement to use of antibiotics, we must search more naturally alternative methods. Such method can be also used with probiotics in poultry nutrition. By the help of them we can achieve better health state and higher increase of live and slaughter weight. We tested the effect of probiotic Propoul in the experiment. We applied two different doses of probiotic at three hybrid combinations broiler chicks (Ross 308, Hubbard JV, Cobb 500. We watched difference among live weight, body symmetry and feed conversation. In all hybrids we found statistically significant difference (P<0,05 between experimental groups and control group, only experimental group 2 and control group at hybrid Ross 308 we found statistically significant difference (P<0,05. We did not find the difference between experimental groups. With the application of probiotics are reached better feed conversation in experimental groups against control group. We did not find statistically significant difference in body symmetry.

  4. Bidirectional Fusion of the Heart-forming Fields in the Developing Chick Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rodriguez, R.A.; Krug, E.L.; Reyes, L.; Villavicencio, L.; Mjaatvedt, C.H.; Markwald, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally thought that the early pre-tubular chick heart is formed by fusion of the anterior or cephalic limits of the paired cardiogenic fields. However, this study shows that the heart fields initially fuse at their midpoint to form a transitory “butterfly”-shaped, cardiogenic structure. Fusion then progresses bi-directionally along the longitudinal axis in both cranial and caudal directions. Using in vivo labeling, we demonstrate that cells along the ventral fusion line are highly motile, crossing future primitive segments. We found that mesoderm cells migrated cephalically from the unfused tips of the anterior/cephalic wings into the head mesenchyme in the region that has been called the secondary heart field. Perturbing the anterior/cranial fusion results in formation of a biconal heart. A theoretical role of the ventral fusion line acting as a “heart organizer” and its role in cardia bifida is discussed. PMID:16252277

  5. Viscoelastic material properties of the myocardium and cardiac jelly in the looping chick heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiang; Varner, Victor D; Brilli, Lauren L; Young, Jonathan M; Taber, Larry A; Perucchio, Renato

    2012-02-01

    Accurate material properties of developing embryonic tissues are a crucial factor in studies of the mechanics of morphogenesis. In the present work, we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of the looping heart tube in the chick embryo through nonlinear finite element modeling and microindentation experiments. Both hysteresis and ramp-hold experiments were performed on the intact heart and isolated cardiac jelly (extracellular matrix). An inverse computational method was used to determine the constitutive relations for the myocardium and cardiac jelly. With both layers assumed to be quasilinear viscoelastic, material coefficients for an Ogden type strain-energy density function combined with Prony series of two terms or less were determined by fitting numerical results from a simplified model of a heart segment to experimental data. The experimental and modeling techniques can be applied generally for determining viscoelastic material properties of embryonic tissues.

  6. Hematological alterations in broiler chicks during different seasons supplemented with herbal formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh1

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on Vencobb broiler chicks to ascertain the antistress affects of Zist, Zeetress and a combination of Amla and Turmeric during summer, rainy and winter seasons and thereby the haematological changes of birds revealed that during all the three seasons a marked improvement in Haemoglobin was encountered in all the three groups where herbal preparations were supplemented. A marked increase in the lymphocyte count occurred during summer and winter seasons in all the experimental groups of bird as compared to the control group. The heterophil count was decreased with the supplementation of herbal formulations in the feed irrespective of the seasons encountered in the season. This decrease in heterophil count was highly significant in seasons like summer, winter and rainy. This observation proves the hepato-stimulatory, hepato protective and immuno modulating effects of herbal preparations. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 110-112

  7. Signaling pathways regulating the expression of Prx1 and Prx2 in the Chick Mandibular Mesenchyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-El; Mina, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Prx1 and Prx2 are members of the aristaless-related homeobox genes shown to play redundant but essential roles in morphogenesis of the mandibular processes. To gain insight into the signaling pathways that regulate expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme, we used the chick as a model system. We examined the patterns of gene expression in the face and the roles of signals derived from the epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our results demonstrated stage-dependent roles of mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx in the mandibular mesenchyme and provide evidence for positive roles of members of the fibroblast and hedgehog families derived from mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our studies suggest that endothelin-1 signaling derived from the mesenchyme is involved in restricting the expression of Prx2 to the medial mandibular mesenchyme. PMID:18942149

  8. Failure of irradiated onion to induce sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittler, S. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences); Eiss, M.I. (McCormick and Co., Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (USA). Research and Development Labs.)

    1982-01-01

    The feeding of Drosophila for all of their entire larval life plus 2 days as an adult on onion powder that had been irradiated with 15, 950 or 1500 krad did not significantly increase sex-linked recessive lethal mutations. The Drosophila were fed on a mixture that contained 24.5% of onion powder by dry weight. The onion powder had been exposed to a cobalt-60 source of 1.2 million Curies.

  9. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development. © 2015 Wang, Li, Wang, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. The impact of caffeine on connexin expression in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyocytes are electrically coupled by gap junctions, defined as clusters of low-resistance multisubunit transmembrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs). The expression of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45, which are present in cardiomyocytes, is known to be developmentally regulated. This study investigates the premise that alterations in gap junction proteins are one of the mechanisms by which teratogens may act. Specifically, those molecules known to be teratogenic in humans could cause their effects via disruption of cell-to-cell communication pathways, resulting in an inability to co-ordinate tissue development. Caffeine significantly inhibited contractile activity at concentrations above and including 1500 μm (P cell viability and total protein, in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system. The effects of caffeine on key cardiac gap junction protein (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression were analysed using immunocytochemistry and in-cell Western blotting. The results indicated that caffeine altered the expression pattern of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≥2000 μm), i.e., at concentrations that did not affect total cell protein and cell viability. In addition the effects of caffeine on cardiomyocyte formation and function (contractile activity score) were correlated with modulation of Cxs (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression, at above and including 2000 μm caffeine concentrations (P < 0.05). These experiments provide evidence that embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture may be a useful in vitro method for mechanistic studies of perturbation of embryonic heart development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Microgravity in the STS-29 space shuttle discovery affected the vestibular system of chick embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D.; Jones, T.; Vellinger, J.; Deuser, M.; Hester, P.; Hullinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    Out of 32 embryos flown (16 @ E2 + 16 @ E9) for 5 days, 16 survived. All sixteen E2 were dead at landing. Eight were opened and eight were incubated at 1.0G. Autopsy showed that 4 E2 survived over 24 hours in space. Eight E14 hatched without anatomical malformations, and 8 E14 were fixed. The height of the macular epithelia was 31 mu m (mean) in control and 26 mu m in flight chicks. The cross-sectional area of macular nuclei of control was 17 mu m(2) for hair cells and 14 mu m(2) in supporting cells. In flight, cross-sectional area was 17 mu m(2) in hair cells and 15 mu m(2) in supporting cells (n=250). The shape factor of cartilage cells (1.0 = perfect circle) between control (mean = 0.70) and flight (mean = 0.72), and the area of cartilaginous cells between controls (mean = 9 mu m(2)) and flight (mean = 9 mu m(2)) did not differ (n=300). The nuclei of support cells were closer to the basement membrane in flight than in control chicks. The immunoreactivity of otoconia with anti keratan, fibronectin or chrondroitin sulfate was not different between flight and control ears. There were more afferent fibers inside the macular epithelia of flight (p<0.05) than control. Three of 8 flight animals had elevated vestibular thresholds (VT), with normal mean response amplitudes and latencies. Modified afferent innervation patterns requiring weeks to compensate are sufficient to elevate VT, and should be investigated further. Other reversible (sublethal) microgravity effects on sensory epithelia (vacuoles, swelling, etc) require quantification.

  12. Temperature effects on food supply and chick mortality in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David W; Luo, Miles K; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar

    2013-09-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding success in Ithaca, NY, USA, over the past quarter century has shown generally healthy fledgling production punctuated by years of high nestling mortality. This study tested the potential effects that temperature may have on the food supply and breeding success of swallows. Data from 17 years of daily insect samples were used to relate flying insect abundances to daily maximum temperatures and to define "cold snaps" as strings of consecutive days when the maximum temperatures did not exceed critical temperatures. The distributions of cold snaps and chick mortality events were investigated both through detailed reconstructions of the fates and fate dates of individual chicks, focused on the three breeding seasons of lowest fledging success, and with less detailed brood-level analyses of a larger 11-year dataset including years of more moderate mortality. Mark-recapture analyses of daily brood survival rate (DSR) reveal very strong support for the effects of cold temperatures on brood survival rates, and all the top models agree on a critical temperature of 18.5 °C for insect flight activity in Ithaca. The individual-level analyses, focused on years of higher mortality, favored a 3-day cold snap definition as the most predictive of DSR effects, whereas the larger-scale brood-level analyses revealed 1- and 2-day cold snaps as having the most significant effects on DSR. Regardless, all analyses reveal that, in an age of generally warmer climates, the largest effect of weather on swallow fledgling production is from cold temperatures.

  13. Distribution of microglial cells in the cerebral hemispheres of embryonic and neonatal chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, morphology and morphometry of microglial cells in the chick cerebral hemispheres from embryonic day 4 (E4 to the first neonatal day (P1 were studied by histochemical labeling with a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum lectin. The histochemical analysis revealed lectin-reactive cells in the nervous parenchyma on day E4. Between E4 (5.7 ± 1.35 mm length and E17 (8.25 ± 1.2 mm length, the lectin-reactive cells were identified as ameboid microglia and observed starting from the subventricular layer, distributed throughout the mantle layer and in the proximity of the blood vessels. After day E13, the lectin-reactive cells exhibited elongated forms with small branched processes, and were considered primitive ramified microglia. Later, between E18 (5.85 ± 1.5 mm cell body length and P1 (3.25 ± 0.6 mm cell body length, cells with more elongated branched processes were observed, constituting the ramified microglia. Our findings provide additional information on the migration and differentiation of microglial cells, whose ramified form is observed at the end of embryonic development. The present paper focused on the arrangement of microglial cells in developing cerebral hemispheres of embryonic and neonatal chicks, which are little studied in the literature. Details of morphology, morphometry and spatial distribution of microglial cells contributed to the understanding of bird and mammal central nervous system ontogeny. Furthermore, the identification and localization of microglial cells during the normal development could be used as a morphological guide for embryonic brain injury researches.

  14. Growing in Antarctica, a challenge for white adipose tissue development in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, Mireille; Baudimont, Fannie; Tirard, Julien; Rey, Benjamin; Moureaux, Elodie; Géloën, Alain; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-11-01

    Rapid growth is of crucial importance for Adélie penguin chicks reared during the short Antarctic summer. It partly depends on the rapid ontogenesis of fat stores that are virtually null at hatching but then develop considerably (x40) within a month to constitute both an isolative layer against cold and an energy store to fuel thermogenic and growth processes. The present study was aimed at identifying by RT-PCR the major transcriptional events that chronologically underlie the morphological transformation of adipocyte precursors into mature adipocytes from hatching to 30 days of age. The peak expression of GATA binding protein 3, a marker of preadipocytes, at day 7 posthatch indicates a key proliferation step, possibly in relation to the expression of C/EBPalpha (C/EBPalpha). High plasma total 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) levels and high levels of growth hormone receptor transcripts at hatching suggested that growth hormone and T(3) play early activating roles to favor proliferation of preadipocyte precursors. Differentiation and growth of preadipocytes may occur around day 15 in connection with increased abundance of transcripts encoding IGF-1, proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and C/EBPbeta, gradually leading to functional maturation of metabolic features of adipocytes including lipid uptake and storage (lipoprotein lipase, fatty-acid synthase) and late endocrine functions (adiponectin) by day 30. Present results show a close correlation between adipose tissue development and chick biology and a difference in the scheduled expression of regulatory factors controlling adipogenesis compared with in vitro studies using cell lines emphasizing the importance of in vivo approaches.

  15. Wide range of mercury contamination in chicks of southern ocean seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévin, Pierre; Carravieri, Alice; Jaeger, Audrey; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Using top predators as sentinels of the marine environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen Islands, a remote area from the poorly known Southern Indian Ocean. Chicks of 21 sympatric seabirds presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ~102 times more feather Hg than the less contaminated species. Hence, Kerguelen seabirds encompass the whole range of chick feather Hg values that were previously collected worldwide in poorly industrialized localities. Using stable isotopes, the effects of foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C) and trophic positions (reflected by δ(15)N) on Hg concentrations were investigated. Species-related Hg variations were highly and positively linked to feather δ(15)N values, thus highlighting the occurrence of efficient Hg biomagnification processes within subantarctic marine trophic webs. By contrast, Hg contamination overall correlated poorly with feeding habitats, because of the pooling of species foraging within different isotopic gradients corresponding to distinct seabird habitats (benthic, pelagic, neritic and oceanic). However, when focusing on oceanic seabirds, Hg concentration was related to feather δ(13)C values, with species feeding in colder waters (lower δ(13)C values) south of Kerguelen Islands being less prone to be contaminated than species feeding in northern warmer waters (higher δ(13)C values). Within the context of continuous increase in global Hg emissions, Kerguelen Islands that are located far away from anthropogenic sources can be considered as an ideal study site to monitor the temporal trend of global Hg contamination. The present work helps selecting some seabird species as sentinels of environmental pollution according to their high Hg concentrations and their contrasted foraging ecology.

  16. Effect of Saffron aqua Extract on Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies confirmed anticancer properties of saffron extract. Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels which is necessary in many physiological stages and pathological events such as tumor growth. So it would be an effective strategy to inhibit angiogenesis to treat many cancers and metastasis. In this experimental study, effects of saffron on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane (CAM were investigated. Materials and Methods: Fifity ross fertilized eggs divided in 5 groups, including: control, sham exposed, experimental group 1, 2 and 3. In second day of incubation window was opened on eggs. In day 8 gelatin sponges contain gelatin and albumin was put on chorioalantoic membrane and was soaked with Saffron aqua extract in concentration 100, 400 and 800 μg/ml. In 12th day all cases were photographed by photo stereomicroscope. Numbers and lengths of vessels around the sponges were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 in significant level p<0.05. Results: According to data analysis, changes had no correlation on the average length of blood vessels in the first experimental group (41.5±5.5 mm, compared with the control group, (44.5±2.4 mm. While in the second and third experimental group (40.2±2.1 mm and (38.4±3.8 mm these changes were significant (p=0.001. On the other hand, the average number of blood vessels in the first experimental group (22.07±5.2 in compare with the control group (27.46±4.4 shows a significant reduction (p=0.02, this decline between the second (18.80±4.4 and third (15.87±3.8 experimental groups was significant at the level of p=0.001. Conclusion: Saffron extract has a dose dependent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane.

  17. Thyroid hormone components are expressed in three sequential waves during development of the chick retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billings Nathan A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone (TH is an important developmental regulator in many tissues, including the retina. TH is activated locally via deiodinase 2 (Dio2, and it is destroyed by deiodinase 3 (Dio3. The TH receptors, TRa and TRb, mediate TH activity through hormone and DNA binding, and interactions with transcription regulators. Results In the current work, the expression of these TH components was examined in the chick retina over time. Three waves of expression were characterized and found to be correlated with critical developmental events. The first wave occurred as progenitor cells began to make photoreceptors, the second as some cell types adopted a more mature location and differentiation state, and the third as Müller glia were generated. The cell types expressing the components, as well as the kinetics of expression within the cell cycle, were defined. TRb expression initiated during G2 in progenitor cells, concomitant with NeuroD and Otx2, which are expressed in early photoreceptor cells. TRb was expressed in photoreceptor cells for several days and then was reduced in expression level, as the expression of Crx, a later photoreceptor gene, became more evident. Dio3 was expressed throughout the cell cycle in progenitor cells. TRa was in most, if not all, retinal cells. Dio2 appeared transiently in a ventral (high to dorsal gradient, likely in a subset of photoreceptor cells. Conclusion Multiple TH components were expressed in dynamic patterns in cycling progenitor cells and photoreceptors cells across the developing chick retina. These dynamic patterns suggest that TH is playing several roles in retinal development, both within the cycling progenitor cells and possibly with respect to the timing of differentiation of photoreceptor cells.

  18. Wide range of mercury contamination in chicks of southern ocean seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blévin

    Full Text Available Using top predators as sentinels of the marine environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen Islands, a remote area from the poorly known Southern Indian Ocean. Chicks of 21 sympatric seabirds presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ~102 times more feather Hg than the less contaminated species. Hence, Kerguelen seabirds encompass the whole range of chick feather Hg values that were previously collected worldwide in poorly industrialized localities. Using stable isotopes, the effects of foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13C and trophic positions (reflected by δ(15N on Hg concentrations were investigated. Species-related Hg variations were highly and positively linked to feather δ(15N values, thus highlighting the occurrence of efficient Hg biomagnification processes within subantarctic marine trophic webs. By contrast, Hg contamination overall correlated poorly with feeding habitats, because of the pooling of species foraging within different isotopic gradients corresponding to distinct seabird habitats (benthic, pelagic, neritic and oceanic. However, when focusing on oceanic seabirds, Hg concentration was related to feather δ(13C values, with species feeding in colder waters (lower δ(13C values south of Kerguelen Islands being less prone to be contaminated than species feeding in northern warmer waters (higher δ(13C values. Within the context of continuous increase in global Hg emissions, Kerguelen Islands that are located far away from anthropogenic sources can be considered as an ideal study site to monitor the temporal trend of global Hg contamination. The present work helps selecting some seabird species as sentinels of environmental pollution according to their high Hg concentrations and their contrasted foraging ecology.

  19. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni-Ya Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450 isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120 were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO.

  20. Investigation of Interaction between Deferoxamine and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Dashtizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferoxamine (DFO is an iron chelator. In the present research, the synergic effects of deferoxamine and electromagnetic field (with 50 H frequency and 100 Gauss intensity on angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 fertilized egg used and randomly divided 8 group: control group, laboratory control groups of 1 and 2, experimental group 1 (treatment with electromagnetic field, 2 and 3 (treatment with deferoxamine 10, 100 µmol, respectively, 4 and 5 (treatment both deferoxamine 10 and 100 µmol respectively and electromagnetic field. On 8th day of incubation, 2 and 4 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine and for 3 and 5 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine 100 µmol. On 10th day, 1, 4 and 5 groups were put in electromagnetic field. On 12th day, the number and length of vessels in all samples was measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19, ANOVA and t-test. Results: The mean number and length of vessels in the control and experimental cases did not show any significant differences. Comparison between mean number of vessels in the control and group 2, 3, 4, 5 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 and groups 2 and 4 was showed a significant decrease in the mean length of vessels compared with the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using deferoxamine with low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz and 100 G cause inhibition of angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.