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Sample records for chickpea wilt illustrate

  1. Identification of resistant sources in chickpea against fusarium wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.Fr. f. sp. ciceris is a devastating disease of chickpea in Pakistan. In the present study 321 genotypes from different sources were evaluated under controlled condition to identify genetic sources of resistance against this disease at seedling and reproductive stage. Disease reaction at two stages revealed considerable variation among the genotypes. At seedling stage disease incidence varied from 0 to 29.3% whereas at reproductive stage ranged from 0 to 57%. At seedling stage 173 genotypes were resistant, 54 were tolerant and 94 were susceptible, whereas at reproductive stage, 102 genotypes were resistant, 36 were tolerant and 183 were susceptible. Eighty two genotypes showed steady resistance at both stages. These genotypes may be exploited for the development of resistant cultivars against wilt. (author

  2. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT INORGANIC MOLECULES ON WILT PATHOGEN OF CHICKPEA

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    S.Ranjitha Rani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is one of the most important legumes grown in Asia. Though the area under this crop is more, the average yield per hectare is low because of several biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, the wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri is most destructive seed and soil borne disease. (Haware et al., 1986 which threatens successful cultivation of chickpea and causes severe losses in chickpea growing areas. (Grewal et al.,1974b and Singh et al.,1977. Different insecticides and herbicides were tried under in vitro, the insecticides Emamectin benzoate 5% SG, Imidachloprid 75% WP, Quinalphos 25% EC, Entrust 80% WP were used in three different concentrations. Among these highest per cent growth of inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was observed in Imidacloprid 0.3g (50.92% followed by Emamectin benzoate 0.05 mg (35.55%. The herbicides viz., Pendimethalin 30%EC, Imazathaphyr 10% SL, 2,4-D sodium salt 80%WP, Metsulfuron methyl 20% WG were used in three different concentrations, highest per cent growth of inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was observed in Pendimethalin 0.5ml (73.33%, followed by Pendimethalin 0.4ml (65.55%.

  3. Screening of chickpea advanced lines for sources of resistance against blight and wilt two major diseases of chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) an important food legume, ranks third in the world. In Pakistan yield of chickpea is low due to the prevalence of wilt and blight diseases - the two destructive diseases. The control measures available are not feasible and economical, except to exploit host plant resistance mechanism to identify the sources of resistance in existing chickpea germplasm. Fifty four advance chickpea genotypes were screened in blight screening nursery and wilt sick plot. Out of total 54 genotypes 23 were resistant and 16 were moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight disease. Among 23 resistant genotypes; K0058-09, K0062-09, K0066-09, D095-09, K07A005, BK05A015 and BK04A013 had disease rating mean of 3. The results of early wilt showed 19 genotypes as highly resistant and 15 as resistant. The genotypes K0070-09, BKK17106, CH 65/02 and BK04A013 were highly susceptible to wilt during early pathogen infection at seedling stage while the genotypes K0063-09, BKK17106 and BK04A013 were susceptible during late season. Resistance sources identified could be exploited directly and also may be transferred through hybridization to high yielding disease susceptible genotypes. (author)

  4. New Lines of Chickpea Against Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris Wilt

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    Rosa M. Arvayo-Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mexico, 70 and 20% of chickpea is produced in Sinaloa and Sonora, respectively. In Sonora wilting by Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris (FOC causes losses of up to 60%, while in other parts of the world ranged from 12-15% annually. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of new lines of chickpea obtained through breeding programs against FOC wilt. Approach: In order to evaluate the resistance of new chickpea lines: Hoga-012, Hoga-490-2 and Hoga-508, including the two most important commercial cultivars in Mexico: Blanco Sinaloa-92 and Costa-2004 and as control two cultivars: JG-62 (susceptible and WR-315 (resistant, a pathogen city test was performed with races 0 and 5 of FOC. Plants were evaluated based on leaf and root damage during 50 days, using a hedonic scale of five levels (0-4. Results: New chickpea lines as well as commercial cultivars were susceptible to races 0 and 5 of FOC. Changes (PConclusion: New lines of chickpea and commercial cultivars did not show resistance to FOC races isolated in chickpea fields of Sonora. Thus, it should be continued in the search for resistant genotypes through breeding programs to assist in controlling the disease.

  5. Biological control of chickpea wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in an attempt to control chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, using antagonistic properties of soil microorganisms. It also aimed at avoiding problems resulting from the use of chemical fungicides. A trichoderma sp. was isolated from the rhizosphere of a resistant chickpea variety (ICCV-2) and a bacillus sp. from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of the same variety. Both microorganisms proved to be effective in controlling the disease. In addition, trichoderma harzianum, which was obtained from Giza Research Station in Egypt, was also antagonistic to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Wilt incidence was significantly reduced when chickpea was grown in posts containing soil mixed with any of the three antagonists or when chickpea seeds were initially treated with the seed-dressing fungicide vincit at 2 ml/kg seeds. Trichoderma harzianum proved to be the best bioagent as it gave the lowest disease incidence. In the field, the two trichoderma spp. were as effective as vincit in causing reduction in the wilt incidence. At the higher concentration of 140 g/m''2, the two antagonists were effective throughout the growth period, but they were less effective at the lower concentration of 70 g/m''2 particularly at the seedling stage.(Author)

  6. Study of fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris resistance in recombinant inbred line population of chickpea

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    Sidramappa, S. A. Patil, Shobharani.M and P. M. Salimath

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is a devastating disease of chickpea in India. One hundred and 26 RecombinantInbred Lines (RILs derived from a cross ICCV-2 x JG 62 along with six checks were evaluated for wilt resistance underunprotected natural infestation to identify the genetic sources for resistance. The genotypes were classified as highly resistant,moderately resistant, intermediate, susceptible and highly susceptible based on per cent plants wilted. Some of genotypesshowed high resistance to fusarium wilt. The per cent plants wilted in different lines ranged from O to 100 per cent. A total of45, 31, 25, 11 and 20 genotypes fell into highly resistant, moderately resistant, intermediate, susceptible and highly susceptibleclasses respectively. Less proportion of highly resistant genotypes were observed and it may be due to the fact that the wiltresistance was governed by recessive alleles. The resistant genotypes may be exploited for the development of resistant cultivarsagainst wilt.

  7. Comparative efficacy of different fungicides against fusarium wilt of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the most serious and widespread disease of chickpea, causing a 100% loss under favorable conditions. Fourteen fungicides were evaluated against wilt pathogen In vitro with five different concentrations ranging from 1-10000 ppm. Among these only Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl was found as the most effective at all used concentrations. Other fungicides like Aliette, Nativo, Hombre-excel and Dividend star were found to be moderately effective. Whereas, remaining fungicides were ineffective against the targeted pathogen. Generally, a positive co-relation was observed between increasing concentrations of the tested fungicides and inhibition of Foc. Based on In vitro results Carbendazim, Thiophanate-methyl, Aliette, Dividend-star, Hombre-excel, Score and Nativo were selected for pot and field experiments. The higher concentrations of the few fungicides completely inhibited the pathogen as well as found to be phytotoxic and suppressed the plant growth while lower concentrations promoted the growth of chickpea plants. On over all bases, the Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl, followed by Aliette and Nativo were more effective in reducing the impact of pathogen as well as enhancing the plant growth in greenhouse experiment. Under field conditions, all fungicides except Score remarkably decreased the disease development and subsequently increased the plant growth as well as grain yield as compared to untreated plants. (author)

  8. Screening of ten advanced chickpea lines for blight and wilt resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten advanced chickpea lines developed at NIAB were screened for resistance to Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt diseases in different sets of experiments conducted under controlled environment. Inoculation of plants by spore suspension of virulent strains of Ascochyta rabiei revealed that one line (97313) was resistant tolerant, two lines (97305, 97392) were tolerant, six lines (97306, 97310, 97311, 97303, 97302, 97393) were tolerant/susceptible and one line (97301) was susceptible. Screening of the same lines against Fusarium wilt by water culture method showed that two lines (97301, 97313) were moderately resistant, four lines (97302, 97303, 97306, 97393) were tolerant and the remaining four lines were susceptible. Screening through phytotoxic culture filtrates revealed that two lines (97302, 97313) were less sensitive to culture filtrates of Ascochyta rabiei and Fusarium oxysporum than the resistant check (CM88). These lines were also analyzed spectrophotometrically for peroxidase enzyme activity. Maximum enzyme activity was detected after 48 hours of inoculation with A. rabiei in three lines (97305, 97311, 97313) and resistant check (CM88) while enzyme activity in the remaining lines reached its maximum after 72 hours of inoculation which was comparable to the susceptible check (Pb-1). These studies lead to the conclusion that one line (97313) exhibited resistance against both the diseases and can be used as a source of resistance for further improvement of chickpea germplasm. (author)

  9. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

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    Medha L Upasani

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62 and wilt-resistant (Digvijay chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.

  10. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Medha L; Gurjar, Gayatri S; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62) and wilt-resistant (Digvijay) chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar. PMID:27227745

  11. Trichoderma harzianum L1 as a potential source for lytic enzymes and elicitor of defense responses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. against wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

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    Sreeramulu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some natural lignocellulosic substances on the production of ß-glucanase, chitinase, protease and xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum L1 has been studied under solid state fermentation conditions. Maximum activities of all these enzymes were observed in the fermentation medium containing the mixture of 1% rice bran, neem cake and 0.1% crab shell powder. The induction of plant defense response was investigated by inoculating the roots of chickpea cv JG62 with the biocontrol agent, T. harzianum L1. A root extract of chickpea inoculated with T. harzianum L1 showed increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase, as well as induction of new trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors. The Fusarium oxysporum protease-2 was inhibited completely by root extract of chickpea inoculated with T. harzianum L1 and showed maximum resistance to rotting of roots caused by wilt disease

  12. Impact of Genomic Technologies on Chickpea Breeding Strategies

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    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The major abiotic and biotic stresses that adversely affect yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. include drought, heat, fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight and pod borer. Excellent progress has been made in developing short-duration varieties with high resistance to fusarium wilt. The early maturity helps in escaping terminal drought and heat stresses and the adaptation of chickpea to short-season environments. Ascochyta blight continues to be a major challenge to chickpea productivity in areas where chickpea is exposed to cool and wet conditions. Limited variability for pod borer resistance has been a major bottleneck in the development of pod borer resistant cultivars. The use of genomics technologies in chickpea breeding programs has been limited, since available genomic resources were not adequate and limited polymorphism was observed in the cultivated chickpea for the available molecular markers. Remarkable progress has been made in the development of genetic and genomic resources in recent years and integration of genomic technologies in chickpea breeding has now started. Marker-assisted breeding is currently being used for improving drought tolerance and combining resistance to diseases. The integration of genomic technologies is expected to improve the precision and efficiency of chickpea breeding in the development of improved cultivars with enhanced resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, better adaptation to existing and evolving agro-ecologies and traits preferred by farmers, industries and consumers.

  13. Chickpea improvement programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important crop grown in winter in Pakistan. Creation of genetic variability and performance of chickpea mutants in micro yield trials at Nuclear Institute of food and Agriculture (NIFA) Fasilabad, Pakistan are discussed. The mutant line gave significantly highest number of pods, grains per plant, harvest index and yield. The result revealed significant difference among different varieties for the character studies of chickpea and testing of mutants against gram blight in disease screening nurseries have been discussed. (A.B.)

  14. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri CAUSING CHICK PEA WILT

    OpenAIRE

    S.Ranjitha Rani; S.S.Mane

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.) is one of the most important legumes grown in Asia. Though the area under this crop is more, the average yield per hectare is low because of several biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, the wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. ciceriis most destructive seed and soil borne disease. (Haware et al., 1986) which threatens successful cultivation of chickpea and causes severe losses in chickpea growing areas. (Grewal et al.,1974b and Singh et al.,1977.) The organic...

  15. 'CM 88' - A multiple disease resistant chickpea mutant variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chickpea is the most important grain legume crop of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp cicer) are most serious diseases, having the potential to devastate a crop. A multiple disease resistant and high yielding mutant CM 88 has been developed through 100 Gy gamma irradiation treatment of variety 'C 727'. This was once a widely grown and popular variety, which lost its resistance to Ascochyta and was replaced. The selection of mutants was performed in the M2 generation grown in the Ascochyta blight nursery and sixteen mutants were selected. In the subsequent generations CM 88 proved resistant to both Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt, and exhibited superiority in agronomic characteristics. CM 88 was also tested for many years in the various yield trials on research stations and farmers fields throughout the country. In these trials it out yielded both the parent and standard varieties. The mutant CM 88 has been approved by the Punjab Seed Council on 27 October 1994 for general cultivation in the Punjab Province, especially the Thal area which accounts for more than 70% of the area under chickpea cultivation. (author)

  16. Ascochyta Blight of Chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Ali; Ozkan, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) which is also called as anthracnose is the most important yield increasing fungal disease in chickpea production over the world and usually depends on winter rains. Symptoms of disease usually appear around flowering and podding time as patches of blighted plants in the field. Typical circular spots appear on leaves and pods, elongated lesions on stem, and deep cankerous lesions on seeds. Present research was made to an evaluation of ascochyta blight, main ...

  17. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  18. Development of Transgenics in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food crop in much of the developing world and ranks third in production among food legumes. Chickpea production is limited worldwide by drought, insect damage from Helicoverpa armigera, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis and disease pressure from ...

  19. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  20. Chefe (ICCV 92318 - a new kabuli chickpea variety for Ethiopia

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    Ketema Daba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ICCV 92318, a new kabuli chickpea cultivar developed from (ICCV 2 x Surutato x ICC 7344, was selected for multilocation evaluation along with the controls DZ 10-4 (local cultivar and Arerti (standard cultivar. The trials were conducted at 7 locations in Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, during 1999/2000 and 2000/01 and at 4 locations during 2001/02. The overall average yield of ICCV 92318 was 2546 kg/ha against 2864 kg/ha for Arerti and 2093 kg/ha for DZ 10-4. Although ICCV 92318 was not superior to Arerti in yield, it was selected for release primarily because of its attractive and larger (35 g per 100-seed weight seeds compared to Arerti (26 g per 100-seed weight, and high resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris. It was released as cv. Chefe in 2004.

  1. RHEOLOGY OF CHICKPEA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE DISPERSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Ionescu; Iuliana Aprodu; Gabriela Gurau; Iuliana Banu

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea proteins are used as ingredients in comminuted sausage products and many oriental textured foods. Rheological behaviour of chickpea protein concentrate was studied using a controlled stress rheometer. The protein dispersion prepared with phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 presented non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and rheological data well fitted to the Sisko, Carreau and Cross models. The viscoelastic properties of the chickpea protein suspensions were estimated by measuring the stora...

  2. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  3. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  4. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.;

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P < 0.05) seedling rate...... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by salinity where increasing salinity level led to decrease in dry biomass, root...... volume and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content...

  5. Transcriptome analyses reveal genotype- and developmental stage-specific molecular responses to drought and salinity stresses in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohini; Shankar, Rama; Thakkar, Bijal; Kudapa, Himabindu; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Mantri, Nitin; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the major factors that limit chickpea production worldwide. We performed whole transcriptome analyses of chickpea genotypes to investigate the molecular basis of drought and salinity stress response/adaptation. Phenotypic analyses confirmed the contrasting responses of the chickpea genotypes to drought or salinity stress. RNA-seq of the roots of drought and salinity related genotypes was carried out under control and stress conditions at vegetative and/or reproductive stages. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed divergent gene expression in the chickpea genotypes at different developmental stages. We identified a total of 4954 and 5545 genes exclusively regulated in drought-tolerant and salinity-tolerant genotypes, respectively. A significant fraction (~47%) of the transcription factor encoding genes showed differential expression under stress. The key enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, such as carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, generation of precursor metabolites/energy, protein modification, redox homeostasis and cell wall component biogenesis, were affected by drought and/or salinity stresses. Interestingly, transcript isoforms showed expression specificity across the chickpea genotypes and/or developmental stages as illustrated by the AP2-EREBP family members. Our findings provide insights into the transcriptome dynamics and components of regulatory network associated with drought and salinity stress responses in chickpea. PMID:26759178

  6. EFFECTIVE INCENTIVES AND CHICKPEA COMPETITIVENESS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Krishna D.; Kyle, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure the impact of government intervention in product and factor markets on chickpea competitiveness in India. This is done by estimating the nominal (NPC), effective (EPC) and effective subsidy (ESC) protection coefficients for chickpea and its main competing crops -wheat and mustard. Further, the Net Economic Benefit (NEB) in the production of these three crops is estimated to indicate where comparative advantage and production efficiency in production lie. In addi...

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of Mesorhizobium in chickpea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Hyun Kim; Mayank Kaashyap; Abhishek Rathore; Roma R Das; Swathi Parupalli; Hari D Upadhyaya; S Gopalakrishnan; Pooran M Gaur; Sarvjeet Singh; Jagmeet Kaur; Mohammad Yasin; Rajeev K Varshney

    2014-06-01

    Crop domestication, in general, has reduced genetic diversity in cultivated gene pool of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as compared with wild species (C. reticulatum, C. bijugum). To explore impact of domestication on symbiosis, 10 accessions of chickpeas, including 4 accessions of C. arietinum, and 3 accessions of each of C. reticulatum and C. bijugum species, were selected and DNAs were extracted from their nodules. To distinguish chickpea symbiont, preliminary sequences analysis was attempted with 9 genes (16S rRNA, atpD, dnaJ, glnA, gyrB, nifH, nifK, nodD and recA) of which 3 genes (gyrB, nifK and nodD) were selected based on sufficient sequence diversity for further phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence diversity for 3 genes demonstrated that sequences from C. reticulatum were more diverse. Nodule occupancy by dominant symbiont also indicated that C. reticulatum (60%) could have more various symbionts than cultivated chickpea (80%). The study demonstrated that wild chickpeas (C. reticulatum) could be used for selecting more diverse symbionts in the field conditions and it implies that chickpea domestication affected symbiosis negatively in addition to reducing genetic diversity.

  8. Morphological Variability and Races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris Associated with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Arvayo-Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mexico is the third largest producer and exporter of chickpea (Cicer arietinum, with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora accounting for 70 and 20% of Mexicos production, respectively. The most damaging disease affecting this species is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Ciceris (FOC, which causes losses of up to 60% in Sonora. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the phenotype and genetics of FOC collected from affected chickpea plants in northwestern Mexico and to identify the abiotic factors that allow it to develop. Approach: Sampling focused on affected plants from 12 crops in Sonora and Sinaloa. Based on 355 isolated strains, using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR 161 were positive for FOC. Results: Of the 161 strains, 91 were identified as races previously recorded for the Americas: Yellowing (R0 (41%, R1B/C (15% and wilting (R5 (14% and R6 (28% reflecting the symptoms observed in the areas sampled. The other 70 isolates could be nonpathogenic, or could be races yet to be recorded for the Americas. Conclusion: Morphological variability in FOC was high in the main chickpea producing regions in northwestern Mexico and was not a function of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, nor of the geographic location of the cropfields. This is the first report of races of FOC in Mexico.

  9. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and authentic illustrations used in the publication of medical books, journals, films, videotapes, exhibits, posters, wall charts, and computer programs. A medical illustrator may also work as a member of ...

  10. Below ground nitrogen in fababean and chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic and non-isotopic methods were used to quantify below ground nitrogen (BGN) for two winter legumes, fababean (Vicia faba) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), under glasshouse and field conditions. In the glasshouse study, estimates of BGN for fababean and chickpea, respectively, were 13 and 10% of total plant N (physical recovery), 11 and 52% (soil 15N dilution), 30 and 52% (mass N balance), 39 and 53% (15N-shoot labelling), 37 and 42% (adjusted 15N shoot labelling), and 33 and 43 % (15N balance). In the field experiment, values were 25 and 77% (15N-shoot labelling), 24 and 68% (adjusted 15N shoot labelling) and 29 and 60% (15N balance). When averaged across all estimates (other than physical recovery), BGN of glasshouse-grown plants represented 31% of total plant N for fababean and 48% for chickpea. By comparison, the mean values for BGN as percent of total plant N in the field study using the two methods considered likely to give the most reliable results (adjusted 15N shoot labelling and 15N balance) were 27% for fababean and 64% for chickpea. (author)

  11. RHEOLOGY OF CHICKPEA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Ionescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea proteins are used as ingredients in comminuted sausage products and many oriental textured foods. Rheological behaviour of chickpea protein concentrate was studied using a controlled stress rheometer. The protein dispersion prepared with phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 presented non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and rheological data well fitted to the Sisko, Carreau and Cross models. The viscoelastic properties of the chickpea protein suspensions were estimated by measuring the storage and loss moduli in oscillatory frequency conditions (0.1-10 Hz at 20°C. Moreover, thermally induced gelation of the chickpea proteins (16, 24 and 36% was studied at pH 7.0 and 4.5 in the temperature range 50 to 100oC and salt concentration ranging from 0 to 1 M. Gelling behaviour was quantified by means of dynamic rheological measurements. Gels formation was preceded by the decrease of storage modulus and loss moduli, coupled with the increase of the phase angle (delta. The beginning of thermal gelation was influenced by protein concentration, pH and salt level. In all studied cases, storage modulus increased rapidly in the temperature range 70-90°C. All rheological parameters measured at 90°C were significantly higher at pH 4.5 compared to pH 7.0.

  12. Relationship between resistance to Stewart's wilt and Goss's wilt in dent corn inbreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart's wilt, caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Goss's wilt, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. nebraskensis (Cmn), are the two prominent bacterial leaf blight pathogens in maize in the US. Goss's wilt has become much more widespread in geographic range since 2008 and many pop...

  13. Cahiers illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Figure 1. Lettre A, Masques et bouffons enfantins.Illustré par A. Coinchon, Paris, A. Martin & Cie, s.d. [v.1880]. Figure 2. Couverture. Mme Doudet [pseudonyme de Th. Lefèvre], Bébé saura bientôt lire. Nouvel alphabet en images, Paris, Théodore Lefèvre & Cie, 1881 [1874]. Figure 3. Lettres A et B, Les Objets de la maison. Alphabet. Illustré par L. Dallet, Toulouse et Paris, B. Sirven, s.d. [v.1925]. Figure 4. Lettre N. Les Vacances de l’alphabet. Illustré par Lionel Koechlin, Paris, Mango ...

  14. Progress Toward Breeding for Verticillium Wilt Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  15. mutagenic treatments and selection in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present study was carried out through the three subsequent winter seasons of 1980/1981,1981/1982 and 1982/1983 at the experimental research center, faculty of agriculture , university of cairo, at giza and at the experimental farm belonging to the egyptian energy establishment, inshas. this investigation included two experiments . the first experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma rays and Ems. on yield and yield components of four genotypes of chickpea. the second experiment was designed to study the effect of selection through the mutagenic treatments.the materials used consisted of four chickpea genotypes, three of them (i.e giza 1, Nec 1055 and Nec 1046) are kabuli type and the fourth (Family 88) is desi type

  16. Conceptual design of a chickpea harvesting header

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Golpira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the development of stripper headers is growing owing to the excessive losses of combine harvesters and costs of manually harvesting for chickpeas. The design of a new concept can enhance the mechanized process for chickpea harvesting. A modified stripper platform was designed, in which passive fingers with V-shape slots removes the pods from the anchored plant. The floating platform was accompanied by a reel to complete the harvesting header. Black-box modeling was used to redesign the functional operators of the header followed by an investigation of the system behavior. Physical models of the platform and reel were modified to determine the crucial variables of the header arrangement during field trials. The slot width was fixed at 40 mm, finger length at 40 mm, keyhole diameter at 10 mm and entrance width at 6 mm; the batted reel at peripheral diameter of 700 mm and speed at 50 rpm. A tractor-mounted experimental harvester was built to evaluate the work quality of the stripper header. The performance of the prototype was tested with respect to losses and results confirmed the efficiency of the modified stripper header for chickpea harvesting. Furthermore, the header with a 1.4 m working width produced the spot work rates of 0.42 ha h-1.

  17. PLATELET AGGREGATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF GARDEN PEA, DESI CHICKPEA AND KABULI CHICKPEA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ZIA-UL-HAQ, M.; ALI KHAN, B.; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; AHMED, S.; QAYUM, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2012), s. 707-711. ISSN 0001-6837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : platelet aggregation * Garden pea * Desi chickpea Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2012 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2012_Haq_ACTA_POLONIAE_PHARMACEUTICA_707.pdf

  18. Comparative analysis of kabuli chickpea transcriptome with desi and wild chickpea provides a rich resource for development of functional markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Agarwal

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important crop legume plant with high nutritional value. The transcriptomes of desi and wild chickpea have already been sequenced. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of kabuli chickpea, C. arietinum (genotype ICCV2, having higher commercial value, using GS-FLX Roche 454 and Illumina technologies. The assemblies of both Roche 454 and Illumina datasets were optimized using various assembly programs and parameters. The final optimized hybrid assembly generated 43,389 transcripts with an average length of 1065 bp and N50 length of 1653 bp representing 46.2 Mb of kabuli chickpea transcriptome. We identified a total of 5409 simple sequence repeats (SSRs in these transcript sequences. Among these, at least 130 and 493 SSRs were polymorphic with desi (ICC4958 and wild (PI489777 chickpea, respectively. In addition, a total of 1986 and 37,954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted in kabuli/desi and kabuli/wild genotypes, respectively. The SNP frequency was 0.043 SNP per kb for kabuli/desi and 0.821 SNP per kb for kabuli/wild, reflecting very low genetic diversity in chickpea. Further, SSRs and SNPs present in tissue-specific and transcription factor encoding transcripts have been identified. The experimental validation of a selected set of polymorphic SSRs and SNPs exhibited high intra-specific polymorphism potential between desi and kabuli chickpea, suggesting their utility in large-scale genotyping applications. The kabuli chickpea gene index assembled, and SSRs and SNPs identified in this study will serve as useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of chickpea.

  19. Mutation induction in mungbean, blackgram, chickpea and lentil using chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Grain legumes cultivated in Bangladesh have narrow genetic bases. Seeds of four species were treated with sodium azide (NaN3) and EMS to create genetic variability. Phenotypically deviant types were selected in M2. The mungbean mutants were synchronous, early, bushy, erect and disease tolerant. Maximum frequency of variants occurred in the treatment with 0.75 mM of NaN3. The blackgram mutants were dwarf, bushy, trailing, synchronous and prolific podded. 1.0 mM NaN3 and 2% EMS concentrations produced the highest frequency of mutants. The chickpea mutants included broad-leaved, white flowered, erect, dwarf, bushy, early and chlorophyll-deficient types. White-flower mutants were reasonably free from wilt disease. The 0.4 mM concentration of NaN3 produced the highest frequency of mutants. In lentil, late flowering mutants were predominant. Some plants with increased number of pods were selected. Maximum frequency of mutants were obtained from 0.50 mM concentration of NaN3. (author)

  20. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  1. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  2. Recovery Plan for Laurel Wilt of Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  3. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema ePradhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilised to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analysed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs, about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding.

  4. Developmental expansion of the hilum in chickpea seed coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful growth of seeds is dependent on the flow of nutrients from vegetative tissues to the developing ovule. In legumes like chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), the pathway for this nutrient flow includes the pod wall surrounding the seeds, and ultimately the funiculus, which is the structure conne...

  5. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    OpenAIRE

    Bozdemir, S.; Güneṣer, O.; Yılmaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%), water activity (0.1833–0.5936), hardness (3243–4056 g), L (42.01–65.79), a* (10.56–19.24), b* (30.80–42.20), free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%), pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1), total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea), antioxidant capac...

  6. Fate and effects of lindane in a chickpea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lindane on non-target organisms and the concentrations of its residues in soil and the chickpea crop were investigated over three years. Lindane had adverse effects on some elements of the ecosystem. Ants (Formicidae), spiders (Aranae) and beetles (Carabidae), to a lesser extent, were more affected than Collembola. Organic matter, buried in non-degradable open-mesh bags in the plots, was slightly more degraded in the control plots than in the sprayed plots suggesting that the soil microflora and microfauna had been inhibited by the lindane. However, it was shown by chemical analyses that lindane was degraded in both soils and plants to one tenth of the original concentrations after application in 2 months and 1 month, respectively. Some concentrations (0.2-1.2 mg kg-1) of lindane were found in the harvested grain of the chickpea plants. (author). 1 ref., 6 tabs

  7. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  8. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  9. Phenotyping chickpeas and pigeonpeas for adaptation to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, H D; Kashiwagi, J; Varshney, R K; Gaur, P M; Saxena, K B; Krishnamurthy, L; Gowda, C L L; Pundir, R P S; Chaturvedi, S K; Basu, P S; Singh, I P

    2012-01-01

    The chickpea and pigeonpea are protein-rich grain legumes used for human consumption in many countries. Grain yield of these crops is low to moderate in the semi-arid tropics with large variation due to high GxE interaction. In the Indian subcontinent chickpea is grown in the post-rainy winter season on receding soil moisture, and in other countries during the cool and dry post winter or spring seasons. The pigeonpea is sown during rainy season which flowers and matures in post-rainy season. The rainy months are hot and humid with diurnal temperature varying between 25 and 35°C (maximum) and 20 and 25°C (minimum) with an erratic rainfall. The available soil water during post-rainy season is about 200-250 mm which is bare minimum to meet the normal evapotranspiration. Thus occurrence of drought is frequent and at varying degrees. To enhance productivity of these crops cultivars tolerant to drought need to be developed. ICRISAT conserves a large number of accessions of chickpea (>20,000) and pigeonpea (>15,000). However only a small proportion (crop improvement programs mainly due to non-availability of reliable information on traits of economic importance. To overcome this, core and mini core collections (10% of core, 1% of entire collection) have been developed. Using the mini core approach, trait-specific donor lines were identified for agronomic, quality, and stress related traits in both crops. Composite collections were developed both in chickpea (3000 accessions) and pigeonpea (1000 accessions), genotyped using SSR markers and genotype based reference sets of 300 accessions selected for each crop. Screening methods for different drought-tolerant traits such as early maturity (drought escape), large and deep root system, high water-use efficiency, smaller leaflets, reduced canopy temperature, carbon isotope discrimination, high leaf chlorophyll content (drought avoidance), and breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance have been discussed. PMID

  10. Illustrator CC digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A complete training package lets you learn Adobe Illustrator CC at your own speed Adobe Illustrator is the leading drawing and illustration software used to create artwork for a variety of media. This book-and-DVD package provides 13 self-paced lessons that get you up to speed on the latest version of Illustrator (Creative Cloud). Step-by-step instructions in the full-color book are supported by video tutorials on the DVD. Together, these tools will help you learn Adobe Illustrator basics, essential skills, and all the new capabilities in Illustrator CC-in no time.  Includes step-by-step in

  11. Characterization of Verticillium dahliae isolates and wilt epidemics of pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, R G; Smith, R F; Koike, S.T.; Wu, B M; Subbarao, K.V.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics of Verticillium wilt in pepper fields of the central coast of California and isolates of Verticillium dahliae associated with these epidemics were characterized. The mean incidence of wilted plants per field ranged from 6.3 to 97.8% in fields with Anaheim, jalapeno, paprika, or bell peppers. In general, incidence of wilt in jalapeno and bell pepper crops was lower than in crops of other types of pepper. Inoculum density of V. dahliae in the surveyed pepper fields ranged from 2.7 to ...

  12. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  13. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  14. Bioavailability of iron from a traditional Tunisian meal with chickpeas fed to healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1992-01-01

    The influence of a diet of couscous with chickpeas, a traditional Tunisian meal, or one providing iron as ferrous sulfate, on the utilization of 59Fe was evaluated in studies with rats. The iron content of the couscous and chickpea preparation was 30 mg/kg dry weight. There was no difference in the relative absorption of iron from ferrous sulfate or couscous with chickpeas, suggesting that iron from this preparation may be a good dietary source of nonheme iron for rats. Couscous and chickpeas consumption in Tunisia are estimated at 13.3 and 3.2 kg per capita/year, respectively. Our results in rats indicate that these foods could contribute a large proportion of an individual's iron requirement. We conclude that the plant foods, especially the chickpeas, can be excellent sources of dietary-available iron. PMID:1530281

  15. Suppression of Verticillium Wilt of Olive by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    OpenAIRE

    Sanei, S. J.; Razavi, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Protection of pathogen-free olive planting material from infection by Verticillium dahliae during plant propagation and/or at planting would help in the management of Verticillium wilt of olive. Despite the importance for rhizosphere functioning, rhizobacterial Pseudomonas spp. have been mainly studied in a cultivation-based manner. In this study, 8 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens obtained from roots of olive plants were tested for suppression of Verticillium wilt in nursery-produced oliv...

  16. Pattern of genetic diversity among Fusarium wilt resistant castor germplasm accessions (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anjani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini (Wr Gordon is one of the major yield losing diseases in castor.Cultivating wilt resistant cultivars is an effective strategy to control the disease. Utilization of diverse sources ofstable resistance is a prerequisite for durable resistance breeding. The experiment was conducted to identifygenetically diverse resistant sources in castor germplasm. Genetic diversity among 20 identified wilt resistantgermplasm was assessed using multivariate classificatory methods. Wide genetic diversity was demonstratedamong these accessions. These accessions are valuable in wilt resistance breeding programme. They wouldserve as base diverse material for wilt resistance breeding, wilt resistant genepool construction and moleculartagging of resistant genes.

  17. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  18. High Quality DNA Isolation Method for Chickpea Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    CİNGİLLİ, Hasibe; Abdülkadir AKÇİN

    2005-01-01

    In chickpea breeding genetic studies of individual plants need to be evaluated at the DNA level using molecular markers. A simple and reliable DNA extraction method is a prerequisite. This small-scale method is cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based and extracts DNA from 1 to 3 folded young leaves processed in a 1.5 ml tube with 0.5 ml of extraction buffer and homogenized using an electric drill. Compared with the micro-prep method the improved mini-prep CTAB method is highly efficient a...

  19. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Tasleem A.; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfor...

  20. Genetic Improvement of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Using Induced Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main target of chickpea breeding programmes has been to develop high yielding cultivars. In an attempt to induce genetic variability for improvement of locally popular chickpea cultivar Vijay (Phule G-81-1-1), we employed three well known mutagens, sodium azide (SA), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and gamma radiation (GR). The objective was to provide genetic variability in the yield contributing traits that can be exploited for a genetic improvement of chickpea. Seeds of Chickpea cultivar Vijay were treated with three different concentrations / doses of SA (2, 3 and 4 mM), EMS (8, 12 and 16 mM) and gamma radiations (400, 500 and 600 Gy). In M1 generation no dominant mutations were observed, many different mutants were screened and isolated in M2 generation such as chlorophyll mutations (alnina, chlorina and xantha); leaf mutations (gigas, compact and curly); pod mutations (small, roundish, gigas and narrow elongated); seed mutations (green, dark brown, rough seed coat); flower mutations (white flower and open); morphological mutations (early, sterile, tall and gigas). True breeding mutant lines in M3 generation differed considerably in their quantitative traits from the parent cultivar. The early mutant lines matured 10 days earlier than the parent variety. The range in plant height was expanded from 0.02 to 14.91cm. Gigas mutant lines obtained after 400 Gy gamma irradiation were the tallest (44.44cm), with a 2-3 fold increase in pod and seed size over the control. Mutagenic treatments also caused changes in seed size and seed coat. Considerable genotypic variation was observed with regards to the number of seeds and pods per plant. Small leaf mutants showed double the number of seeds and pods per plant. As a result of mutagenic treatments, genetic variation was induced in mutants with respect to different quantitative characters. Induced mutant lines showed both positive and negative increase in the quantitative traits. Variation was also observed for crude

  1. Development of an early maturing chickpea variety, BINASOLA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea has higher yield potential, more important nutrients and diversified use than all other pulse crops in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, farmers are not very interested in growing this crop because the varieties have a long maturity period, small seed size and poor seed yielding. For this reason huge amounts of chickpea seeds are imported every year in exchange for valuable foreign currency. A mutation-breeding program was undertaken at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) in 1989 to develop an early maturing, large seeded and high yielding variety of chickpea. Seeds of the two exotic lines G-97 (now Binasola-2) and G-319 were treated with gamma-rays, sodium azide and a combination of the two mutagens. The following doses of gamma rays: 0, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy, concentrations of sodium azide: 0.4 mM, and combined doses: 200 Gy+0.4 mM, 300 Gy+0.4 mM, 400 Gy+0.4 mM and 500 Gy+0.4 mM were used. In the first year, the treated seeds were grown dose-wise and raised as M1 generation during 1989. M2 seeds were harvested from 4,542 individual M1 plants. These were grown in plant- progeny- rows in M2 generation. Eighty-seven individual M2 plants were selected, from which 16 M4 lines were further selected and put into preliminary observation trials in M4. Among them, one elite mutant L-84, which was derived from a single plant in the population of the 200 Gy gamma-ray treated G-97 was tested in M5, M6 and M7 along with other mutants and its parent. Finally the mutant was evaluated in advanced, zonal yield trials and farmers field trials in the following generations from 1995-2001 along with two selected lines and three released varieties (Hyprosola, Binasola-2 and Barisola-3). All the selected lines were grown at different agro-ecological zones in Bangladesh to observe the yield and other potentiality. Mutant performance was evaluated under two management practices i.e., Research management and Farmers' management. In the research management practices, NPK

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  3. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity i...

  4. Integrating Cultivar Resistance and Seed Treatment with Planting Dates to Manage Chickpea Ascochyta Blight

    OpenAIRE

    C. Akem; S. Kabbabeh; Ahmed, S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) planting date on seasonal epidemics of Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse and on grain yield was evaluated during the 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. Two chickpea cultivar (Ghab 1 and Ghab 3) and 2 breeding lines (FLIP 90-96 and F 88-85) were used in the field trials at 3 different locations representing the different agro ecological zones in which winter chickpea is grown in Syria and in most of the Mediterranean countrie...

  5. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response. PMID:25829607

  6. An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. is an important and widespread disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. worldwide. The disease is particularly severe under cool and humid weather conditions. Breeding for host resistance is an efficient means to combat this disease. In this paper, attempts have been made to summarize the progress made in identifying resistance sources, genetics and breeding for resistance, and genetic variation among the pathogen population. The search for resistance to AB in chickpea germplasm, breeding lines and land races using various screening methods has been updated. Importance of the genotype × environment (GE interaction in elucidating the aggressiveness among isolates from different locations and the identification of pathotypes and stable sources of resistance have also been discussed. Current and modern breeding programs for AB resistance based on crossing resistant/multiple resistant and high-yielding cultivars, stability of the breeding lines through multi-location testing and molecular marker-assisted selection method have been discussed. Gene pyramiding and the use of resistant genes present in wild relatives can be useful methods in the future. Identification of additional sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host–pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.

  7. The effects of wilting and storage temperatures on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghua; Zhang, Jianguo; Shi, Shangli; Sun, Qizhong

    2011-08-01

    In order to clarify the ensiling characteristics of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Swartz), the effects of wilting (no wilting, light wilting and heavy wilting) and storage temperatures (10°C, 20°C, 30°C and 40°C) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage were investigated. Wilting had no significant influence on the contents of crude protein, ether extract and acid detergent fiber, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria, aerobic bacteria, yeasts and mold (P > 0.05). Heavy wilted material, wilted for 12 h, had higher neutral detergent fiber content and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content than unwilted and light wilted materials (P silage (P silage. In all the silages, no wilting silage ensiled at 30°C had the highest butyric acid content (P silage, irrespective of wilting. The wilted silage or silage stored at low temperature had poor aerobic stability. PMID:21794013

  8. CONTEMPORARY AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsenko L. V.; Lichanskaya N. P.; Tsatsenko N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the contemporary agrobotanical illustration, as an integral part of scientific and educational work. For the analysis of the issue, we set up the basis of illustrative images, which acted as the test material. It has been shown that visual images serve as the material for the development of visual thinking students are taught to read information, which represents the worksheet, to think and to create something new. The article considers art of graphics pencil using a com...

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with -amylase inhibitor gene for insect resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ignacimuthu; S Prakash

    2006-09-01

    Chickpea is the world’s third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of the world’s supply. Chickpea seeds are attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis which cause extensive damage. The -amylase inhibitor gene isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was introduced into chickpea cultivar K850 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 288 kanamycin resistant plants were regenerated. Only 0.3% of these were true transformants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of 4.9 kb -amylase inhibitor gene in the transformed plants. Western blot confirmed the presence of -amylase inhibitor protein. The results of bioassay study revealed a significant reduction in the survival rate of bruchid weevil C. maculatus reared on transgenic chickpea seeds. All the transgenic plants exhibited a segregation ratio of 3:1.

  10. Allelic Variation within Single Podded Gene Characterized by STMS Marker in Chickpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ali; M.A. Haq; N. Iqbal; A. Hameed; T.M. Shah; B.M. Atta

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume crop throughout the world especially in developing countries. However the average yield worldwide is considered to be lower than its potential yield (Singh et al.,1994).

  11. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  12. Changes of RWC, Wilting Degree and ABA in Different Ramie Varieties under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Changes of RWC, wilting degree and ABA in different ramie varieties under drought stress were studied. The results showed: (1) wilting degree and ABA increased but RWC decreased with the increase of drought sress,and (2) drought resistant varieties had higher RWC and ABA but lower wilting degree than drought sensitive varieties.

  13. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sreevidya; Gopalakrishnan, S.; H. Kudapa; Varshney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures f...

  14. Plant growth-promoting traits of Pseudomonas geniculata isolated from chickpea nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Prakash, Bandikinda; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    A bacterium, isolated from nodules of chickpea grown in alluvial soils of Haryana state of India, designated as IC-76 was characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated under greenhouse, on-station and on-farm field conditions for PGP activity in chickpea. The isolate IC-76 produced indole acetic acid, siderophore, hydrocyanic acid, cellulase, protease, and β-1,3-glucanase. When the bacterium was evaluated individually for their PGP potential in the g...

  15. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Susan M Tosh; Farnworth, Edward R; Yolanda Brummer; Duncan, Alison M; Wright, Amanda J; Boye, Joyce I; Michèle Marcotte; Marzouk Benali

    2013-01-01

    Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because ...

  16. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected ...

  17. Effect of chickpea aqueous extracts, organic extracts, and protein concentrates on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; del Mar Yust, María; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Millán, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds are a staple in the traditional diet of many Mediterranean, Asian, and South and Central American countries. In addition, chickpea seeds have industrial applications since they can be used for the preparation of protein concentrates and isolates. The cell lines Caco-2 (epithelial intestinal) and J774 (macrophages) have been exposed to chickpea seed extracts and protein preparations in order to screen the different chickpea fractions for effects on cell growth. Both cell growth-promoting and cell growth-inhibiting effects were found. Most interestingly, a fraction soluble in ethanol and acetone specifically and almost completely inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells exhibiting a cancerous phenotype. It is concluded that chickpea seeds are a source of bioactive components and deserve further study for their possible anti-cancer effect. PMID:15298756

  18. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in...

  20. A high yielding, better quality chickpea mutant variety 'NIFA-95'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea or gram (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop of Pakistan, grown on over one million hectares annually. The national average yield of the crop is very low (0.5 t/ha) and thus the country had to spent about 2 billion rupees ($ 50 million) on import of pulses. The main causes of low yield are non-availability of genetic sources for resistance to various diseases especially gram blight Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., insect pest (Pod borer) and non-adoption of proper production technology by the farmers. This calls for earnest efforts of breeders to evolve high yielding and disease resistant varieties of chickpea for provision of quality seeds to the farming community to increase production of this important crop. Seeds of a highly blight susceptible variety '6153' were irradiated at 200 Gy dose of gamma radiation in 1985 and the promising mutant line CMN-446-4 was selected in M3 generation on the basis of disease resistance, greater number of pods and better plant type. After confirmation of its resistance to blight in M4 and M5, the mutant line was evaluated in various trials at different locations. In the advanced and zonal yield trials during 1993-95, the line CMN-446-4 produced the highest grain yield of 2,600 kg/ha as compared to the rest of the mutants and varieties. The line was also evaluated in the chickpea national uniform yield trial, conducted on over 11 locations in the country during 1993-94. In this trial, the mutant line ranked 3rd by producing an average yield of 1,528 kg/ha as compared to the two check varieties 'Punjab-91' (1,316 kg/ha) and 'Paidar-91' (1,391 kg/ha). The mutant line CMN-446-4 is moderately resistant to gram blight, highly resistant to stored pest (pulse beetle), contains 25.3% more protein as compared to the parental variety 6153 and is also better in nitrogen fixing capacity.The proposal for release of the mutant line CMN-446-4 as a new variety under the name 'NIFA-95' for general cultivation in the rainfed area

  1. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  2. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  3. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdemir, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%, water activity (0.1833–0.5936, hardness (3243–4056 g, L (42.01–65.79, a* (10.56–19.24, b* (30.80–42.20, free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%, pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1, total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea, antioxidant capacity (6.53–31.61 mmol Trolox·100g−1 chickpea, absorbed fat (13.46–13.92%, and caloric value (453.17–488.49 kcal·100g−1 chickpea. Hexanal, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, nonanal, benzaldehyde, p-cymene, and carvacrol were the major volatile compounds determined. The color, hardness, moisture content, water activity, free fatty acids, and peroxide value of the products were monitored for three months at room temperature. Consumer acceptance tests were conducted to reveal the changes which occurred during the storage period. All the products developed and evaluated in this study show potential in the market and industry, with the plain type being the preferred product.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron el desarrollo de nuevos aperitivos elaborados mediante fritura de garbanzos enteros y la evaluación de las propiedades y estabilidad de los nuevos productos durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados mas destacados fueron: contenido de humedad (3,48–9,19%, actividad de agua (0,1833–0,5936, dureza (3243–4056 g, L (42,01 a 65,79, a* (10.56–19,24, b* (30,80–42,20, ácidos grasos libres (0,2195–0,3467%, índice de peróxido (3,167 a 5,25 meq O2·kg −1, fenoles total (22,34–37,34 mgGA·100g−1 garbanzo, capacidad antioxidante (6.53– 31.61 mmol Trolox·100 g−1 garbanzos, grasa absorbida (13,46–13,92%, y el valor calórico (453,17 a 488,49 kcal·100 g−1 de garbanzos. Además, los componentes volátiles más importantes

  4. Suppression of seed rot and preemergence of chickpea by seed treatments with fluorescent pseudomonads in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A

    2006-01-01

    Species of Pythium isolated from rotted chickpea seeds and damped-off seedlings and chickpea soils at experimental field of Agriculture faculty of Tehran University in Karaj area that caused seed rot and preemergence damping-off of chickpea were Pyhium ultimum var. ultimum. One of the most important of soilborne fungal pathogens of the chickpea in Iran is seed rot and preemergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. Consequently, growers can expect as much as > 80% reduction in stand and yield if measures are not taken to control Pythium. Currently, most commercial seeds of chickpea are treated with pesticides. Fluorescent pseudomonads applied to seed are known to reduce soilborne diseases of chickpea caused by Pythium spp. In this study rotted chickpea seeds and diseased seedlings and soil samples were collected from experimental field in Karaj. Soils and roots used as sources of bacteria were collected from field. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated by plating samples on S1 and King's Medium B (KMB). Bacteria were preserved in 0.1 M MgSO4 for long-term storage; and NAG (containing 2% glucose) slants and plates at 4 degrees C short-term storage. Of 20 fluorescent pseudomonads isolated on S1 medium, 2 isolates selected for next tests. All strains significantly increased emergence as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial; isolate Pf-4 consistently provided the best protection against Pythium. Seedling emergence from all bacteria seed treatments was statistically lower than the chemical treatments. All strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seed treatment with metalaxyl were statistically better than captan in sterilized soil. In nonsterilized soil collected from the field artificially infested with P. ultimum, all strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seedling emergence from seed treatment

  5. Verticillium Wilt Resistance Evaluation of Wisconsin Breeding Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is one of the most widespread and persistent problems encountered by potato producers. In Wisconsin, it is caused in large part by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Soil fumigation is currently the only consistently effective control measure. However, host plant resistan...

  6. Discovery of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] is a soil-inhabiting fungus that can survive for long periods in the absence of a host, making it impractical to eradicate from infested fields. This cotton host specific forms of the fungus is comprised of different genotyp...

  7. Influence of soil type on the wilting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, E. A.; Dexter, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    It has been shown that the water remaining in soil when plants wilt due to soil limitations and the residual water content as observed when soils are de-watered in pressure cell apparatus are essentially the same. Both are produced by immiscible displacement of water by air, and this leads to the water remaining in soil not being in thermodynamic equilibrium. Water removal by immiscible displacement ceases when hydraulic cut-off is reached. The point of hydraulic cut-off may be calculated by fitting waterretention data to equations for both the non-equilibrium case and the equilibrium case, and then solving these simultaneously. This has been done forwater retention data for 52 soil horizons in Poland. These results are used to obtain a pedotransfer function for the permanent wilting point due to soil limitations and the results are presented for the different soil texture classes. The pore water suction when wilting occurs is estimated to be 1.0 MPa. The methods and findings in this paper are used to explain a range of published results on plant wilting.

  8. Laurel wilt in avocado: Review of an emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    aurel wilt, caused by the vascular fungus Raffaelea lauricola, is transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and affects many plants in the family Lauraceae. It was introduced into the United States around 2002 through infested packing material arriving in Georgia. In Florida, t...

  9. Fungal diversity associated with verticillium wilt of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt is rarely known, which is important to know for the control of this detrimental disease. Our study is the preliminary attempt to find the associations of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt and provides the baseline information for biological control. About 30 different fungi from soil and 23 from cotton plants were isolated and confirmed through molecular characterization. The colony forming unit (CFU)/g dry soil of fungi before and after planting cotton showed significant variation among all the fungi. The overall frequency of all fungi for soil after sowing was significantly higher than before sowing. A. alternata, F. equiseti, F. concentricum, A. flavus, F. proliferatum, and Chaetomium sp. associated with high resistance (Arcot-1) to Verticillium wilt, whereas, V. dahliae, A.niger and Paecilomyces sp., with high susceptible (Arcot-438) germplasm. However, T. basicola, C. ramotenellum and G. intermedia were isolated from both. Soil plating was comparatively easiest than soil dilution method for the determination of frequency percentage, however, later method is useful for the screening of single spore isolation. Most of the antagonistic species were screened from soil; nevertheless, Paecilomyces and Chaetomium spp. were screened from plant and soil. In vitro test of T. longibrachiatum. T. atroviride, Paecilomyces and T. viride showed the strongest efficacy against V. dahliae. These efficient bio-agents can be used as an effective tool for other future studies regarding to Verticillium wilt of cotton. (author)

  10. Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  11. CONTEMPORARY AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the contemporary agrobotanical illustration, as an integral part of scientific and educational work. For the analysis of the issue, we set up the basis of illustrative images, which acted as the test material. It has been shown that visual images serve as the material for the development of visual thinking students are taught to read information, which represents the worksheet, to think and to create something new. The article considers art of graphics pencil using a computer-drawing program with processing in Photoshop. There are mixed techniques (mixed media, based on the use of traditional drawing and herbarium specimen, processed in Photoshop in the color. Another new direction of contemporary agroillustration is infographics. Its using in educational and scientific process is determined by the fact that infographics involves analytical processing of quantitative data obtained during the experiment. On the other hand, the data is needed to visualize, execute and present. A new direction in contemporary agro-botanical illustration is plant images taken with X-rays. The modern level of requirements to create images is high enough and it must be taken into account when carrying out scientific experiments, when it is necessary to demonstrate the object of research results. Modern agroillustration can be processed using various systems of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, for example, the system named “Edos”

  12. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  13. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  14. Nitrogen fixation by U.S. and Middle Eastern chickpeas with commercial and wild Middle Eastern inocula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are native to the Middle East (ME), and must be inoculated with symbiotic bacteria in order to fix nitrogen (N) in North American soils. Commercial inocula for chickpea contain several strains of the known N-fixing symbiont Mesorhizobium ciceri. It is not known whethe...

  15. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post harvest debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004-2005, early winter application of suspensions of Aureobasidium pullulans (AuP) conidia to post-harvest chickpea debris resulted in significantly fewer spring-time Ascochyta blight lesions on chickpea test plants relative to controls. Survival of plants adjacent to treated debris was higher t...

  16. Environmental influences on pigeonpea-Fusarium udum interactions and stability of genotypes to Fusarium wilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta eSharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed to identify and validate resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determine the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. Total 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt in wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes found resistant to wilt were tested further for two more years in wilt sick plot at Patancheru and Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN comprising of 29 genotypes was constituted. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G, environment (E and G × E interactions biplot partitioned main effect into G, E and G × E interactions and significant effects (p≤0.001 were obtained for wilt incidence. Genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by environment (29.32%. GGE biplot in integration with boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106 and ICPL 20094 based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding program.

  17. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pulses especially in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genetic variability has been exhausted due to natural selection and hence conventional breeding methods are not very fruitful. Mutation techniques are the best methods to enlarge the genetically conditioned variability of a species within a short time and have played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Investigations on the effects of ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens in induction of macro-mutations have received much attention owing to their utmost importance in plant breeding. The present study reports a bold seeded mutant in chickpea, the most dominating pulse crop on the Indian subcontinent. Fresh seeds of chickpea variety 'Pusa-212' were procured from IARI, New Delhi and treated with different doses/concentrations of gamma rays (60Co source at NBRI, Lucknow) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), individually as well as in combination, to raise the M1 generation. Seeds of M1 plants were sown to raise M2 plant progenies. A bold seeded mutant was isolated from 400 Gy gamma ray treatments. The mutant was confirmed as true bred, all the mutant seeds gave rise to morphologically similar plants in M3, which were quite distinct from the control. The bold seeded mutant showed 'gigas' characteristics and vigorous growth. The plant remained initially straight but later on attained a trailing habit due to heavy secondary branching. The leaves, petioles, flowers, pods and seeds were almost double that of the parent variety, in size. The flowering occurred 10 days later than the parent and maturity was also delayed accordingly. Observations were recorded on various quantitative traits. Plant height and number of primary branches showed a significant improvement over the parent. It is interesting to note that the number of pods and number of seeds per pod significantly decreased. However, the hundred seed weight (31.73±0.59g) in the mutant plants was more than double in the parent variety

  18. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  19. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  20. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF PEA AND CHICKPEA GRAIN IN DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents materials on comparative study of the nutritional value of chickpeas and peas which are widespread in the arid zone of the Southern Urals. The scheme of the scientific and economic experiments involved the assessment of yield formation of chickpeas and peas during the vegetation. The study showed that different varieties of chickpea and pea have considerable difference in the content of nutrients. The amount of crude protein in the pea grain ranged from 25.1 to 26.8%, and chickpea – 21.7 - 22.9%. With regard to the fat, its highest concentration was in chickpea grain - 3.63%, on average, which is 1.16% higher than on average in the pea grain. The chemical composition of the pea and chickpea grain of different varieties points to differences in their composition and homogeneity within the culture. Basing on the study, we recommend to sow chickpea and pea grain in the middle of May to obtain the highest yield, this, in turn, has a positive effect on the nutritional value of the crops. When selecting plants for cultivation in the conditions of the Southern Urals, it is preferable to choose the variety of Madonna pea, which has a higher potential for yield than the chickpea variety Krasnokutsky-123. It has been experimentally found that chickpea grain has better moisture-retaining power in a bound condition during the vegetation period as compared to the relevant characteristics of pea grain, which is a positive drought-resistant value of crop. In structural elements of the harvest the peas showed the trend of the highest rates in comparison with the corresponding elements in chickpeas

  1. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT DISEASE [MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA (TASSI. GOID] OF CHICKPEA THROUGH BOTANICALS AND OIL CAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. KANSARA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of root rot disease in chickpea has become a major constraint for cultivation of chickpea. Consideringthe fact, below investigation was carried out for this pathological problem. The efficacy of various botanicals andoil cakes were evaluated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi. Goid causing dry root rot of chickpea. Thephyto extracts of thirteen plant species were evaluated in vitro by poisoned food technique against M. phaseolina.The extract of garlic cloves (Allium sativum L. was proved excellent with maximum inhibiting (73 % mycelialgrowth and sclerotial formation followed by rhizome extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa L (63.98 %. The fourorganic extracts were tested against M. phaseolina by poisoned food technique in vitro. Significantly least growthof mycelium and maximum mycelium inhibition was recorded in extracts of neem cake (59.40 % followed byfarm yard manure (42.56 %. Next best in order of merit were castor cake and mustard cake.

  2. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  3. Evaluation of advanced chickpea genotypes for resistance to pod borer, helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)

  4. Expansion in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed during soaking and cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Sedat; Turhan, Mahir; Köksel, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    The linear and volumetric expansion of chickpea seeds during water absorption at 20, 30, 50, 70, 85 and 100°C was studied. Length, width and thickness of chickpea seeds linearly increased with the increase in moisture content at all temperatures studied, where the greatest increase was found in length. Two different mathematical approaches were used for the determination of the expansion coefficients. The plots of the both linear and volumetric expansion coefficients versus temperature exhibited two linear lines, the first one was through 20, 30 and 50ºC and the second one was trough 70, 85 and 100ºC. The crossing point (58ºC) of these lines was very close to the gelatinisation temperature (60ºC) of chickpea starch.

  5. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana.

  6. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0-10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27144024

  7. Effects of moisture content and number of loadings on force relaxation behaviour of chickpea kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Mann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic rheological property (force relaxation of a single kernel of chickpea under uni-axial compression was studied. Information on the force relaxation behaviour of chickpea kernels is not available. Meanwhile, no papers was found to study the effects of number of loadings on stress relaxation behaviour of grains and fruits. In this study the effects of moisture content and number of loadings were studied on force relaxation behaviour of chickpea kernels. The results showed that the chickpea kernels had a time dependent behaviour similar to other viscoelastic materials. The three-term Maxwell model with a maximum relative difference (MRD of 5% and R2 higher than 0.997 was chosen as the best fit equation to the relaxation data. Moisture content had a decreasing effect on the first term of the three-term Maxwell model (F1, t1, but the number of loadings had an increasing effect on the first term of the Maxwell model. For all moisture contents and number of loadings, the grain tissue dissipates a major proportion of the initially applied force at a relatively slow rate. As the number of loading increases, the kernel becomes more elastic. Consequently, more force was required to maintain a certain deformation level. A master curve was proposed to determine the force relaxation behaviour of the chickpea kernels at moisture contents between 6.7 and 18% for 1 to 9 cycles of loadings. The Peleg and Pollak model was unsatisfactory for representing the relaxation force for chickpea kernels.

  8. The Effect of Salinity Stress on Germination of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Land Race of Tigray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major stresses especially in arid and semiarid regions, which severely limit crop production. It impairs seed germination, reduces nodule formation, retards plant development and reduce crop yield. Salinity affects germination and physiology of crops due to osmotic potential which prevents water up take and by toxic effect of ions on embryo viability. This study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. in the laboratory of Mekelle University by using NaCl and Na2So4 to simulate salinity and tape water as control group. The seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum landraces were collected from Hagereselam and Samre. Then 10 seeds of chickpea from both sites were treated in each salt concentration in 3 replications designed by using complete random block design. The result of the experiment showed that the concentrations of salt have a negative impact on the germination and growth of chickpea, as a result when the concentration of salt increases, the germination, water uptake and length of root and shoot decreases. Furthermore we found that different salinity simulated having different impacts on germination. Our result clearly indicated that NaCl highly affects germination and growth of chickpea than Na2SO4. Meanwhile, the effect of salinity for both land race have significance difference in parameters of water up take, % of germination, length of root and shoot (t-test n = 25 p<0.05. Our result further indicated that there is a difference in sanity tolerance level between the 2 land races of chickpea.

  9. Control of Fusarium Wilt of Chili With Chitinolytic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    DWI SURYANTO; SITI PATONAH; ERMAN MUNIR

    2010-01-01

    Biological control of plant disease using antagonistic microorganism has been obtaining much attention and implemented for decades. One of the potential microorganisms used in this strategy is chitinolytic bacteria. Utilization of this bacteria ranges from cell life, enzymes, genes, or other metabolites. In this study, we examined the ability of chitinolytic bacteria as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of red chili (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings. The ability of chitinolytic bacteria to sup...

  10. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum, is a very serious disease of Eucalyptus in southern China, mainly in Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces. It causes the death of seedlings and young trees and the mortality may exceed 90 percent in some sites. Susceptible species include E. grandis, E. urophylla, hybrids between the two and E. citriodora. In nursery and field trials with E. urophylla and field trial with E. grandis x E. urophylla inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to red...

  11. Fusarium Wilt Suppression and Agglutinability of Pseudomonas putida†

    OpenAIRE

    Tari, P. H.; Anderson, A J

    1988-01-01

    Mutants of Pseudomonas putida (Agg−) that lack the ability to agglutinate with components present in washes of bean and cucumber roots showed limited potential to protect cucumber plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. However, a higher level of protection was observed against Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants coinoculated with the parental bacterium (Agg+), which was agglutinable. The Agg− mutants did not colonize the roots of cucumber plants as extensively as the Agg+ parental...

  12. Radiology illustrated. Chest radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Pathology; Chung, Man Pyo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Medicine; Jeong, Yeon Joo [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Pattern approach to the diagnosis of lung diseases based on CT scan appearances. Guide to quick and reliable differential diagnosis. CT-pathology correlation. Emphasis on state-of-the-art MDCT. The purpose of this atlas is to illustrate how to achieve reliable diagnoses when confronted by the different abnormalities, or ''disease patterns'', that may be visualized on CT scans of the chest. The task of pattern recognition has been greatly facilitated by the advent of multidetector CT (MDCT), and the focus of the book is very much on the role of state-of-the-art MDCT. A wide range of disease patterns and distributions are covered, with emphasis on the typical imaging characteristics of the various focal and diffuse lung diseases. In addition, clinical information relevant to differential diagnosis is provided and the underlying gross and microscopic pathology is depicted, permitting CT-pathology correlation. The entire information relevant to each disease pattern is also tabulated for ease of reference. This book will be an invaluable handy tool that will enable the reader to quickly and easily reach a diagnosis appropriate to the pattern of lung abnormality identified on CT scans.

  13. Biofortification of iron in chickpea by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency is a major nutritional disorder being responsible to affect millions of people around the globe. Its malnutrition may be reduced through biofortification: a process to produce micronutrient enriched staple food. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can fortify iron content within edible plant tissues by enhancing its availability through various mechanisms. In a pot study, five bacterial isolates (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were tested for improving plant growth and bioavailable iron (Fe) content in chickpea where Fe was applied in the form of iron sulphate solution. Results showed that inoculation with PGPR significantly enhanced the plant height, root length, root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights and Fe content compared to un-inoculated control plants. Application of FeSO/sub 4/ significantly improved the Fe content upto 100 and 173% in grain and shoot respectively, as compared to control. Application of PGPR along with iron showed 81 and 75% increase in grain and shoot iron contents, respectively, over control. These results suggested that PGPR can help plants to uptake extra Fe from soil, if soil is supplemented with additional Fe. These findings advocate that microbial assisted biofortification in grain can alleviate micronutrient deficiency in humans especially in resource limited countries. (author)

  14. Varietal differences in photosynthesis and productivity of chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.) there was considerable variability in the activity of RuDPC, and PEPC, and in the net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, leaf area index (LAI), biological yield, sink components and seed yield, with little diversity in CO2-compensation point. The net photosynthetic rate did not have significant correlations with RuDPC or PEPC activity and photorespiration, but it was correlated positively with PEPC activity at flowering and negatively with photorespiration at flower-bud initiation. Assimilate production seemed to determine seed yield, as high photosynthetic rate at the stage of flower-bud initiation increased pods/plant. The net photosynthesis during grain development and the LAI at the full-bloom stage determined the differences in biological yield, which was positively correlated with 1,000 seed weight. Seed number/pod, however, was not related to assimilate production. 14CO2 was used in the study to estimate the rate of photosynthesis. (auth.)

  15. Control of Fusarium Wilt of Chili With Chitinolytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI SURYANTO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of plant disease using antagonistic microorganism has been obtaining much attention and implemented for decades. One of the potential microorganisms used in this strategy is chitinolytic bacteria. Utilization of this bacteria ranges from cell life, enzymes, genes, or other metabolites. In this study, we examined the ability of chitinolytic bacteria as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of red chili (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings. The ability of chitinolytic bacteria to suppress the disease was evaluated by soaking red chili seeds in the bacterial isolates solution for 30 minutes prior seedling. Percentage of seedling of treated chili seed at end of study (4-weeks ranging from 46 to 82.14%. Relative reduction of the seedling damping-off was observed in all bacterial treatment ranged from 28.57 to 60.71%. Furthermore, manifestation of bacterial suppression to Fusarium wilt was also exhibited by increasing of seedling height (ranged from 7.33 to 7.87 cm compared to 6.88 cm and dry-weight (ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 mg compared to 2.3 mg. However, no significant effect was observed in leaf number. Then, from all chitinolytic isolates tested, BK08 was the most potential candidate for biological control agent of Fusarium wilt in chili seedling.

  16. Genetic dissection of drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev K. Varshney; Thudi, Mahendar; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Gaur, Pooran M.; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Jaganathan, Deepa; Koppolu, Jahnavi; Bohra, Abhishek; Tripathi, Shailesh; Rathore, Abhishek; Aravind K. Jukanti; Jayalakshmi, Veera; Vemula, Anilkumar; Singh, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Key message Analysis of phenotypic data for 20 drought tolerance traits in 1–7 seasons at 1–5 locations together with genetic mapping data for two mapping populations provided 9 QTL clusters of which one present on CaLG04 has a high potential to enhance drought tolerance in chickpea improvement. Abstract Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important grain legume cultivated by resource poor farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Drought is one of the major constra...

  17. Stability Analysis of some Winter Sown Chickpea Cultivars in East Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Saim

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, yield stabilty of 10 winter growth chickpea genotypes were investigated in Adana, Kahramanmaraş and Hatay Yayladağ. Experiments were located Çukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Crop Science Department Experimental area in Adana, and farmers field in Kahramanmaraş and Hatay-Yayladağ. Chickpea variety that newly registered for winter crop ILC 482 (Güney Sarısı)), ILC-195, FLIP 85-14C (Menemen 92), FLIP 85-135C( Taşova 89) and promissing line FLIP 84-17C, FLIP 85-4C, F...

  18. Assessment of the estrogenic activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) sprout isoflavone extract in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hai-rong; Wang, Jie; Qi, Hong-xue; Gao, Yan-hua; Pang, Li-Juan; Yang, Yi(Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC); Wang, Zhen-Hua; Duan, Ming-jun; Chen, Hua; Cao, Xu; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is a traditional Uighur herb. In this study we investigated the estrogenic activities of the isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Ten-week-old virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX). The rats were administered via intragastric gavage 3 different doses of ICS (20, 50, or 100 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 5 weeks. Their uterine weight and serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)...

  19. Saponins from Soy and Chickpea: Stability during Beadmaking and in Vitro Bioaccessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Serventi, Luca; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; RIEDL, KEN M.; Kerem, Zohar; Berhow, Mark A.; Vodovotz, Yael; Schwartz, Steven J.; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy–chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy–chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was greater than for type E and DDMP saponins. Simulated digestion of breads resulted in greater relative losses of type A and DDMP saponins than type B and E saponins due in part to conversion of DDMP. Bioa...

  20. Weed species in chickpea in Southeast Anatolian Region and their distribution and densities.

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, A.; TEPE, I.; Erman, M

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify some important weeds in chickpea growing areas in Adıyaman, Diyarbakır, Mardin and Şanlıurfa provinces where chickpea is one of the most important agricultural crop in 2000. For this aim, a survey was performed in these provinces. According to survey results, 30 species belong to 3 different families in Monocotyledons and 125 species belong to 30 different in Dicotyledons, totally 155 species were identified. 91 species in Adıyaman, 123 species in...

  1. Multiple post-domestication origins of kabuli chickpea through allelic variation in a diversification-associated transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma Penmetsa, R; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Bergmann, Emily M; Vance, Lisa; Castro, Brenna; Kassa, Mulualem T; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Farmer, Andrew D; Baek, Jong-Min; Coyne, Clarice J; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2016-09-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is among the founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. One of two major forms of chickpea, the so-called kabuli type, has white flowers and light-colored seed coats, properties not known to exist in the wild progenitor. The origin of the kabuli form has been enigmatic. We genotyped a collection of wild and cultivated chickpea genotypes with 538 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined patterns of molecular diversity relative to geographical sources and market types. In addition, we examined sequence and expression variation in candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes. A reduction in genetic diversity and extensive genetic admixture distinguish cultivated chickpea from its wild progenitor species. Among germplasm, the kabuli form is polyphyletic. We identified a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor at chickpea's B locus that conditions flower and seed colors, orthologous to Mendel's A gene of garden pea, whose loss of function is associated invariantly with the kabuli type of chickpea. From the polyphyletic distribution of the kabuli form in germplasm, an absence of nested variation within the bHLH gene and invariant association of loss of function of bHLH among the kabuli type, we conclude that the kabuli form arose multiple times during the phase of phenotypic diversification after initial domestication of cultivated chickpea. PMID:27193699

  2. Transmembrane START domain proteins: in silico identification, characterization and expression analysis under stress conditions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, Viswanathan; Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tejkumar; Kumar, Vajinder; Jain, Pradeep K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bhat, Shripad R.; Srinivasan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory related transfer (StART) proteins that are involved in transport of lipid molecules, play a myriad of functions in insects, mammals and plants. These proteins consist of a modular START domain of approximately 200 amino acids which binds and transfers the lipids. In the present study we have performed a genome-wide search for all START domain proteins in chickpea. The search identified 36 chickpea genes belonging to the START domain family. Through a phylogenetic tree reconstructed with Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean START proteins, we were able to identify four transmembrane START (TM-START) proteins in chickpea. These four proteins are homologous to the highly conserved mammalian phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins. Multiple sequence alignment of all the transmembrane containing START proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean revealed that the amino acid residues to which phosphatidylcholine binds in mammals, is also conserved in all these plant species, implying an important functional role and a very similar mode of action of all these proteins across dicots and monocots. This study characterizes a few of the not so well studied transmembrane START superfamily genes that may be involved in stress signaling. Expression analysis in various tissues showed that these genes are predominantly expressed in flowers and roots of chickpea. Three of the chickpea TM-START genes showed induced expression in response to drought, salt, wound and heat stress, suggesting their role in stress response. PMID:26445326

  3. Inhibitory effects of chickpea and Tribulus terrestris on lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-15

    The total saponin content and its in vitro bioaccessibilities in Tribulus terrestris and chickpea were determined by a static in vitro digestion method (COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST). Also, in vitro inhibitory effects of the chosen food samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes were determined by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. The tested T. terrestris and chickpea showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 6967 ± 343 and 2885 ± 85.4 μg/ml, respectively) and α-amylase (IC50 343 ± 26.2 and 167 ± 6.12 μg/ml, respectively). The inhibitory activities of T. terrestris and chickpea against lipase were 15.3 ± 2.03 and 9.74 ± 1.09 μg/ml, respectively. The present study provides the first evidence that these food samples (T. terrestris, chickpea) are potent inhibitors of key enzymes in digestion of carbohydrates and lipids in vitro. PMID:27006227

  4. Variation in the Agronomic and Morphological Traits of Iranian Chickpea Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI; Mohammad Reza JAHANSOUZ

    2005-01-01

    Landraces of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Iran have not been adequately characterized for their agronomic and morphological traits. Such characterization would be helpful in the development of improved cultivars, so in this study 362 chickpea accessions, collected from the major chickpea growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of variation (CVs)were recorded in pods/branch, seeds/pod, yield/plant, seeds/plant, pods/plant and branches/plant. Using principal component (PC) analysis, the first four PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 84.10% of the variability among accessions, whereas PC5 to PC10 were less than unity. PC1 was positively related to days to first maturity, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% maturity. The characters with the greatest weight on PC2 were seeds/plant and yield/plant, whereas PC3 was mainly related to pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight, and PC4 was positively related to pods/branch and negatively to branches/plant. The germplasm was grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from clusters Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. These accessions are an important resource for the establishment of a core collection of chickpeas in the world.

  5. Synergistic effect of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ameliorates drought stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions. PMID:26362119

  6. Nutritional and chemical alteration of raw, irradiated and cooked chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work objective was analyzing the centesimal and mineral composition to verifying the alterations on the nutritional characteristics caused by the cooking process. Also were carried out analysis of the iron availability in vitro, protein digestibility in vitro and the profile of amino acids in the raw and cooked in the control and irradiated seeds (doses of 2 kGy, 4 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy). The results of the mineral analysis showed that only phosphorus decrease with cooking process and it decreased ash and carbohydrates available. In the control and in the doses of 4 kGy and 6 kGy the cooking has not influenced the digestibility of the protein, but the treatments that received radiation doses of 2 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy were influenced. The cooked chickpea has shown better digestibility in higher doses of radiation although the treatments have shown low digestibility. The raw chickpea presented a better dialysis of iron in the control and in the doses 2 kGy and 4 kGy and the cooked chickpea presented improvement according to the increase of radiation doses. In relation to the essential amino acids, the chickpea has presented an adequate nutritional value, except for the methionine. (author)

  7. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  8. The Improvement of TAEK-Sagel Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Mutant Variety in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is aimed to improve chickpea varieties that are well-adapted to chickpea growing areas, resistant to cold, suitable to machinery harvest type, exhibit high yield and high protein content, bigger seed size, resistance to antracnose and other diseases and pests, and improved quality characteristics. This chickpea breeding project was started with ILC 482, Akcin-91 and AK 71114 parental varieties and eight different gamma radiation dose rates between 50-400Gy were used. After following mutation breeding steps, location experiments started for testing yield and quality characteristics in 2004. According to the results of these experiments two outstanding mutant lines were given for registration. One of them was registrated TAEK Sagel in 2006. In this paper, the yield and quality characteristics of 'TAEK-Sagel' mutant chickpea variety are discussed. It was found that this mutant has 186 kg/da average yield with 23% seed protein content. In addition, its cooking time was shorter than the others (37 minutes). (author)

  9. Development of flow cytogenetics and physical genome mapping in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vláčilová, K.; Ohri, D.; Vrána, Jan; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Doleželová, Marie; Kahl, G.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2002), s. 695-706. ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cell cycle * chickpea (Cicer arietinum) * human cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2002

  10. The chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse domestication in the ancient near east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2003-12-01

    The widely accepted models describing the emergence of domesticated grain crops from their wild type ancestors are mostly based upon selection (conscious or unconscious) of major features related either to seed dispersal (nonbrittle ear, indehiscent pod) or free germination (nondormant seeds, soft seed coat). Based on the breeding systems (self-pollination) and dominance relations between the allelomorphs of seed dispersal mode and seed dormancy, it was postulated that establishment of the domesticated forms and replacement of the wild ancestral populations occurred in the Near East within a relatively short time. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), however, appears as an exception among all other "founder crops" of Old World agriculture because of its ancient conversion into a summer crop. The chickpea is also exceptional because its major domestication trait appears to be vernalization insensitivity rather than pod indehiscence or free germination. Moreover, the genetic basis of vernalization response in wild chickpea (Cicer reticulatum Ladiz.) is polygenic, suggesting that a long domestication process was imperative due to the elusive phenotype of vernalization nonresponsiveness. There is also a gap in chickpea remains in the archaeological record between the Late Prepottery Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. Contrary to the common view that Levantine summer cropping was introduced relatively late (Early Bronze Age), we argue for an earlier (Neolithic) Levantine origin of summer cropping because chickpea, when grown as a common winter crop, was vulnerable to the devastating pathogen Didymella rabiei, the causal agent of Ascochyta blight. The ancient (Neolithic) conversion of chickpea into a summer crop required seasonal differentiation of agronomic operation from the early phases of the Neolithic revolution. This topic is difficult to deal with, as direct data on seasonality in prehistoric Old World field crop husbandry are practically nonexistent. Consequently

  11. Molecular research and genetic engineering of resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne pathogen, causes Verticillium wilt, one of the most serious diseases in cotton, deleteriously influencing the crop’s production and quality. Verticillium wilt has become a major obstacle in cotton production since Helicoverpa armigera, the cotton bollworm, became e...

  12. Comparative genomics yields insights into niche adaptation of plant vascular wilt pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmola...

  13. Verticillium comparative genomics yields insights into niche adaptation by plant vascular wilt pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual losses. The characteristic vascular wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels. To gain insights into the mechan...

  14. Introduction of Bottle Gourd DNA into Watermelon by Soaking Embryo for Resistance to Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to utilize wilt disease resistance of bottle gourd, total DNA of bottle gourd was introduced into watermelon through the method of soaking embryo. The DNA-introduced variant offsprings were cultured in contaminated soil to elect the wilt disease resistance for more than 3 generations. 2 high- resistant and 2 middle-resistant watermelon materials were obtained.

  15. Verticillium wilt in nursery trees: damage thresholds, spatial and temporal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verticillium wilt can cause high losses in tree nurseries. To be able to predict disease and unravel disease dynamics over time and space, the relationship between verticillium wilt and soil inoculum densities of Verticillium dahliae and the nematode Pratylenchus fallax was studied in two 4-year fie

  16. Illustrator CS5 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    A book-and-video training package provides a unique illustration to the basics of Illustrator Adobe Illustrator is a unique design and drawing program that allows you to create and produce brilliant art for a variety of mediums. This full-color book-and-video training package deciphers even the most complex Illustrator tasks and gets you quickly up to speed using the capabilities of the newest release of Illustrator. Thirteen self-paced lessons explain how to create and produce vibrant graphics using this robust vector drawing application. The complementary lessons featured on the vid

  17. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  18. Transcriptional profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated in response to high-salinity, cold and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Edwin CK

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum has a narrow genetic base making it difficult for breeders to produce new elite cultivars with durable resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. As an alternative to genome mapping, microarrays have recently been applied in crop species to identify and assess the function of putative genes thought to be involved in plant abiotic stress and defence responses. In the present study, a cDNA microarray approach was taken in order to determine if the transcription of genes, from a set of previously identified putative stress-responsive genes from chickpea and its close relative Lathyrus sativus, were altered in chickpea by the three abiotic stresses; drought, cold and high-salinity. For this, chickpea genotypes known to be tolerant and susceptible to each abiotic stress were challenged and gene expression in the leaf, root and/or flower tissues was studied. The transcripts that were differentially expressed among stressed and unstressed plants in response to the particular stress were analysed in the context of tolerant/susceptible genotypes. Results The transcriptional change of more than two fold was observed for 109, 210 and 386 genes after drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, respectively. Among these, two, 15 and 30 genes were consensually differentially expressed (DE between tolerant and susceptible genotypes studied for drought, cold and high-salinity, respectively. The genes that were DE in tolerant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses code for various functional and regulatory proteins. Significant differences in stress responses were observed within and between tolerant and susceptible genotypes highlighting the multiple gene control and complexity of abiotic stress response mechanism in chickpea. Conclusion The annotation of these genes suggests that they may have a role in abiotic stress response and are potential candidates for tolerance/susceptibility.

  19. Identification of candidate genes for dissecting complex branch number trait in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-04-01

    The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea. Of these, seven branch number-associated genes were further validated successfully in two inter (ICC 4958×ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 12299×ICC 8261)-specific mapping populations. The axillary meristem and shoot apical meristem-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (4-5 fold) of the validated seven branch number-associated genes especially in high branch number as compared to the low branch number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two aforesaid mapping populations was apparent. Collectively, this combinatorial genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in seven potential known/candidate genes [PIN1 (PIN-FORMED protein 1), TB1 (teosinte branched 1), BA1/LAX1 (BARREN STALK1/LIKE AUXIN1), GRAS8 (gibberellic acid insensitive/GAI, Repressor of ga13/RGA and Scarecrow8/SCR8), ERF (ethylene-responsive element-binding factor), MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) and lipase] governing chickpea branch number. The useful information generated from this study have potential to expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement by developing high-yielding cultivars with more number of productive (pods and seeds) branches in chickpea. PMID:26940492

  20. Increased susceptibility to bacterial wilt in tomatoes by nematode galling and the role of the Mi gene in resistance to nematodes and bacterial wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Deberdt, P.; Quénéhervé, Patrick; Darrasse, A; Prior, P

    1999-01-01

    The soil-borne bacterial pathogen #Ralstonia solanacearum$ commonly coexists with polyspecific nematode populations in tropical and subtropical areas. The wounding of roots by nematodes is usually invoked to explain the correlation between nematode infection and bacterial wilt, since this wounding increases the number of sites for bacterial entry. Bacterial wilt development on tomato was investigated in a controlled environment on the susceptible tomato cultivar Floradel and the polygenically...

  1. Comparative study on the induction of defense related enzymes in two different cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L genotypes by salicylic acid, spermine and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raju

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Induction of some defense related enzymes and phenolics in roots and shoots of two different genotypes of chickpea cultivars which were susceptible (L550 and resistant (ICCV10 to wilt disease treated with salicylic acid, spermine (Spm, SA+Spm and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was investigated. Higher levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, ß-1, 3-glucanase (PR-2 and phenolics were observed in roots and shoots of resistant cultivar than that of susceptible cultivar on treatment with elicitors and pathogen. However, no major changes were observed in susceptible cultivar after the treatments. ß-1, 3-glucanase is constitutively present and is further induced in roots and shoots of resistant cultivar by F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. No induction of ß-1, 3-glucanase was observed in susceptible cultivar. The structural changes during disease progression were observed by histochemical staining. However, the pathogen invasion was more in susceptible cultivar compared with resistant cultivar. Further, the invasion was restricted in roots of resistant cultivar treated with SA. These results suggest that induction of defense proteins and accumulation of phenolics might have contributed to restrict the invasion of F.oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, in resistant cultivar ICCV10.

  2. Comparisons of the Effects of Elevated Vapor Pressure Deficit on Gene Expression in Leaves among Two Fast-Wilting and a Slow-Wilting Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Mura Jyostna; Sinclair, Thomas R; Taliercio, Earl

    2015-01-01

    Limiting the transpiration rate (TR) of a plant under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) has the potential to improve crop yield under drought conditions. The effects of elevated VPD on the expression of genes in the leaves of three soybean accessions, Plant Introduction (PI) 416937, PI 471938 and Hutcheson (PI 518664) were investigated because these accessions have contrasting responses to VPD changes. Hutcheson, a fast-wilting soybean, and PI 471938, a slow-wilting soybean, respond to increased VPD with a linear increase in TR. TR of the slow-wilting PI 416937 is limited when VPD increases to greater than about 2 kPa. The objective of this study was to identify the response of the transcriptome of these accessions to elevated VPD under well-watered conditions and identify responses that are unique to the slow-wilting accessions. Gene expression analysis in leaves of genotypes PI 471938 and Hutcheson showed that 22 and 1 genes, respectively, were differentially expressed under high VPD. In contrast, there were 944 genes differentially expressed in PI 416937 with the same increase in VPD. The increased alteration of the transcriptome of PI 416937 in response to elevated VPD clearly distinguished it from the other slow-wilting PI 471938 and the fast-wilting Hutcheson. The inventory and analysis of differentially expressed genes in PI 416937 in response to VPD is a foundation for further investigation to extend the current understanding of plant hydraulic conductivity in drought environments. PMID:26427064

  3. Plant water relations and photosynthetic activity in three Tunisian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes subjected to drought

    OpenAIRE

    KROUMA, Abdelmajid

    2010-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food crop grown under rainfed conditions in Mediterranean regions in which drought is a major limiting factor for production. In these areas little attention is given to legumes, and efforts to identify drought-tolerant genotypes are primarily focused on major cereal crops. In the current study a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of drought stress on plant growth, photosynthesis, and water relations in 3 Tunisian chickpea g...

  4. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, M. H.; M. Ashraf Hossain; Kashem, M. A.; Shiv Kumar; Rafii, M. Y.; M. A. Latif

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for...

  5. Sources of resistance in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) land races against ascochyta rabiei causal agent of ascochyta blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei, is a major yield limiting factor of chickpea in Turkey and around the world. This study was conducted to identify sources of genetic resistance against chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. For this purpose, 68 chickpea land races of different origins were evaluated in both field and growth chamber conditions during 2008-2009 growing seassons. Two standard cultivars were used as a reference, Inci (resistant) and Canitez (susceptible). Disease severity scoring was conducted on a 1-9 rating scale 21 days after inoculation in growth chamber test and at flowering and pot filling stages in field tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference among the chickpea landraces in ascochyta blight resistance at p<0.05. None of the chickpea land races was highly resistant to the pathogen in growth chamber and field conditions. Only two landraces (10A and 28B) were moderately resistant to the disease. Some of the landraces resulted in a particular plant to exhibit no disease symptoms, indicating that the variation within chickpea land races was high. Therefore, seeds of this plant were harvested separately and preserved for further evaluations. (author)

  6. In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index, and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Warkentin, Tom D; Vandenberg, Bert

    2008-11-15

    In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index (eGI), and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea grown in Canada under identical environmental conditions were investigated. The protein content and gelatinization transition temperatures of lentil flour were higher than those of pea and chickpea flours. Chickpea flour showed a lower amylose content (10.8-13.5%) but higher free lipid content (6.5-7.1%) and amylose-lipid complex melting enthalpy (0.7-0.8J/g). Significant differences among cultivars within the same species were observed with respect to swelling power, gelatinization properties, pasting properties and in vitro starch digestibility, especially chickpea flour from desi (Myles) and kabuli type (FLIP 97-101C and 97-Indian2-11). Lentil flour was hydrolyzed more slowly and to a lesser extent than pea and chickpea flours. The amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in chickpea flour was the highest among the pulse flours, but the resistant starch (RS) content was the lowest. The eGI of lentil flour was the lowest among the pulse flours. PMID:26047429

  7. Book illustration in children's picturebooks

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević, Silvo

    2015-01-01

    Visual art is based on visual sensation. It is the art of communication through visual messages. Visual message, dealt with in this thesis is illustration, which usually works closely with the text in order to pass on an information. Through the thesis I precisely define what constitutes illustration and after historical review I focus on children's literature. Also present picture book as a special genre of children's literature, where illustration plays an important role because in conjunct...

  8. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    F de P. Latapie, « F.Éphémérides », 12e cahier, journée du 18 septembre 1776 (Archives privées de la famille Latapie). Fig. 1 – Johann Kentmann, De omni rerum fossilium genere, gemmis, lapidibus, metallis, et huiusmodi, libri aliquot, plerique nunc primum editi [...], [Tiguri], [s.e.], [1565], f. a5v. Fig. 2 – Enea Vico, Eventus, silografia, metà del xvi secolo (da G. Bordon, Enea Vico. Fra memoria e miraggio della classicità, Roma, 1997, p. 221). Fig. 1 – L. Bufalini, Roma, Rome, A. Baldo...

  9. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Les trois sites principalement étudiés dans ce corpus La Salle des départs d’Ettore Spalletti Le Lieu de recueillement et de prière de Michelangelo Pistoletto L’Oratoire de Pierre Buraglio Les espaces cités en comparaison Centre de soins palliatifs de Caroline Sorger Chambre mortuaire de Pierre Henri Bouchacourt Chambre mortuaire de Sophie Vigneau Chapelle évangélique de Werner Mally Ill. 1 : Salle des départs, Garches, 1996Ettore Spalletti, artiste ; Guido Fanti et Bernard N. Godgo, archite...

  10. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Figure 1 : L’ensemble des tranches de vie de N1 (Homme, 61 ans) compilées dans le Système d’information géographique de type biographique (métrique temporelle) et support de l’herméneutique cartographique © SCALAB 2004 (B.Beaude & A.Andrieu) ; EhEA 2006 (B.Feildel & H.Bailleul), UMR 6173 Université de Tours Figure 2 : Répertoire des chorèmes de l’habiter Figure 3 : Chorème de l’habiter de A1, jeune femme de 27 ans © EhEA 2007 (B. Feildel 1 H. Bailleul), UMR 6173 Université de Tours Figure ...

  11. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1/ Atelier de Neri di Bici (attr.), Saint Yves rendant la justice, XVe siècle (Florence, Opera del Duomo) 2/ Le Sodoma,Saint Yves rendant la justice, 1507 (San Gimignano, fresque du Palais communal) 3/ Jacopo da Empoli, Saint Yves entre la veuve et l’orphelin, 1616 (Florence, galerie Pitti) 4/ Jacopo da Empoli, Saint Luc recommandant saint Yves à la Vierge, v. 1630 (Paris, Musée du Louvre) 5/ Giacomo Triga, La Vierge et les saints Yves, Gilles et Gimnesius, 1723 (Rome, église Santa Lucia ...

  12. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facettes multiples de la mangrove Divers faciès végétaux de la mangrove Rhizophora et Avicennia. © Cormier. Avicennia et Laguncularia. © Cormier. Mangrove : un écosystème forestier parcouru de bolons. © Cormier. Écosystème à mangrove (du rebord de plateau au bolon, y compris rizières de mangrove et tannes). Cormier © Orstom. Faune typique de la mangrove Monodactylus (Psettia sebae). Vidy © Orstom. Crabes violonistes (Uca spp.) Intès © Orstom. Les Rivières du Sud : des mangroves densémen...

  13. Fantasy book illustration and design

    OpenAIRE

    Furjan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers illustrating the fantasy book, The Story of a Past Future, written by the author. The goals were to make illustrations for the book and a map of the world in which the story is happening as well as design the book layout and the cover. This document covers illustration in general, in the fantasy field and in digital environments. It also considers making a book cover. In the first part knowledge about illustration and fantasy art is provided through a research of rel...

  14. Control of root rot of chickpea caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by different agents and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotium rolfsii causes root rot disease in several crops including chickpea that result in low yield. Artificial infection of chickpea seedlings by S. rolfsii in vitro demonstrated that different tissues of the plant completely disintegrated by fungal infection. In vitro and green house pot experiments demonstrated that inducers in combination with fungicides, oils and bio agents resulted in about 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Treatments have no phyto toxic effect on chickpea seedlings at low doses. Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens were effective as biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii. The percent of survival plants, fresh weight, dry weight and plant height of chickpea plants increased with different treatments with inducers compared with the control. Chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll amounts increased to the maximum values. The activity of two plant enzymes, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase increased. In this study, gamma irradiation of chickpea seeds at doses 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy have negative effect on survival, plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of chickpea. The effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the antagonistic effect of Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increase the antagonistic effect of Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens against S. rolfsii . Effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 5 kGy on the mycelial growth and pathogenicity of S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation at doses 0.25 up to 3.0 kGy increase the pathogenicity of S. rolfsii but gamma irradiation at dose 5.0 kGy completely inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii. Extracellular polygalacturonase was characterized and purified by precipitation with 70 % ammonium sulfate, dialysis and gel filtration through Sephadex 75

  15. Biological N2 Fixation by Chickpea in inter cropping System on Sand Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out at the plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The benefits of N2 fixation by legumes to cereals growing in inter crops or to grasses growing in mixed swards are high clear. in cases the benefit to the N status of cereals has bee seen when they are inter cropped with legumes , where benefit is found ,it is mainly due to sparing of soil N rather than direct transfer from the legume. inter cropped wheat has a high grains yield as compared to those recorded under sole crop. The application of inter cropping system induced an increase of wheat grain yield against the sole system. regardless the cultivation system, the over all means of fertilizer rates indicated (50% MF + 50% OM) treatment was superiority (100% OM) and (75% MF + 25% OM) or those recorded with either un fertilizer when wheat grain yield considered. Comparison heed between organic sources reflected the superiority of under sole cultivation, while chickpea straw was the best under inter cropping. Inter cropped has a high grain N uptake compared to soil system. While totally organic materials had accumulates more N in grain than those of underrated treated control. In the same time, the overall mean indicated the superiority of compost treatment combined with 50% mineral fertilizer under inter cropping system over those of either only organic materials treatment or those combined with 75% mineral fertilizer. Plants treated of chickpea straw and compost, achieved the best value of straw weight. Among the organic manure treatments, chickpea straw and compost seem to be the best ones. Nitrogen derived from air (% Ndfa) shoots and seeds of chickpea plant: In case of cow manure and maize stalk, the best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general

  16. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

  17. Studies on Cotton Breeding Resistant to Fusarium and Verticillium wilt Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Peng-sheng; ZENG Hua-lan; WEI Shu-gu; ZHANG Yu; LI Qiong-ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ Both Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are important soil-borne diseases,which can not be effectively controlled by chemical fungicides.The two diseases,especially Verticillium wilt,have spread all over the cotton belt,and obstructed the progress of cotton production in China in recent years.It has been proven that breeding and growing resistant cultivars is one of the most economical and effective measures to control these diseases.The program of breeding cotton for resistance to wilt diseases has been continuously studied in Industrial Crops Research Institute,Sighuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences(ICRI-SAAS) for more than 50 years.

  18. Studies on fact of 14C-lindane in soil and chickpea plants under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of 14C-lindane (γ-1,2,3,4,5,6 - hexachlorocyclohexane) was investigated under laboratory conditions. Chickpea plants and soil were treated with 14C-lindane. The results indicated a decrease of lindane on the plant surface from 36.6% to 6.5% and a corresponding increase in extractable residues from within the plant from 12.5% to 34.5% during the 60 days of the trial. In the soil, extractable residues decreased from 47.4% to 31.2%. Bound residues in both plant and soil remained low throughout the trial. After 60 days, the chickpea plants took up 16.4% of the lindane applied to the soil. (author). 2 refs, 7 figs

  19. The improvement of TAEK-SAGEL chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) mutant variety in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, because of it's high carbohydrate content, it is also energy source. It is very rich some vitamin and minerals basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea varieties with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Seeds of the Ak-71114 and Akcin chickpea varieties were irradiated with 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy of gamma rays by using60Cosource. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits (earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabie) resistance) were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein content was analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size

  20. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DEFATTED CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM, L. FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Claret Fernandes de Aguiar VALIM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Defatted chickpea (Cicer arietinum, L flour was submitted to thermoplastic extrusion at three feed moisture levels (13%, 18% and 27%. The functional properties of raw and extruded flours were investigated. The nitrogen solubility index of raw chickpea flour was minimum at pH 4.0 but increased at both lower and higher pHs. Extrusion reduced nitrogen solubility drastically for all feed moisture levels. Water and oil absorption capacity were significantly (p O < 05 increased after extrusion treatment. Foam stability could be improved by extrusion and was positively influenced by alkaline pH. It was also verified that extrusion cooking increased significantly (p O < 05 the emulsifying capacity of the extruded flour with 13% moisture level in water.

  1. Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y. (Yahya)

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of drought stress on proline content, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and yield characteristics in three varieties of chickpea (drought tolerant Bivaniej and ILC482 and drought sensitive Pirouz). A field experiment with four irrigation regimes was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications....

  2. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours

    OpenAIRE

    Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-01-01

    tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity...

  3. Integrating Cultivar Resistance and Seed Treatment with Planting Dates to Manage Chickpea Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Akem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum planting date on seasonal epidemics of Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labrousse and on grain yield was evaluated during the 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. Two chickpea cultivar (Ghab 1 and Ghab 3 and 2 breeding lines (FLIP 90-96 and F 88-85 were used in the field trials at 3 different locations representing the different agro ecological zones in which winter chickpea is grown in Syria and in most of the Mediterranean countries. Four field plantings were made at 14-day intervals from mid November to mid March. All plots were initially inoculated with infected debris and disease development followed natural prevailing environmental conditions. Ascochyta blight disease severity ratings were taken at early flowering and again at podding and grain yield for each plot was measured at harvest. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in disease severity between the first and third planting in all the entries at all the locations and for both years. The difference in disease severity resulted in significant yield differences but not in differences in seed quality. Under Syrian and Mediterranean conditions, an increase in Ascochyta blight severity can be expected with early planting of chickpea before January and this can result in a corresponding big loss in crop yield. The loss in yield from disease through early plantings however, is more than compensated for, by the reduction in yield due to other environmental parameters in late spring planting, if moderate resistant cultivars are planted.

  4. Developing of technology and studing the quality of functional bread enriched with dry chickpea flour

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva Antoaneta Vassileva

    2015-01-01

    Recipes and technologies for the preparation of high quality bread based on wheat flour type 500 by the use of different amounts of chickpeas flour (10%, 20% and 30%) as a proportion of the flour mass have been developed. Based on this, test laboratory bakings of bread have been performed. Finished products were qualified by their organoleptic properties (appearance, colour of the bread bark, colour of the bread crumb, porosity, stickiness, elasticity, flavor and smell, aftertaste) and physic...

  5. JAZ repressors: Possible Involvement in Nutrients Deficiency Response in Rice and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonates (JA are well-known phytohormones which play important roles in plant development and defence against pathogens. Jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ proteins are plant-specific proteins and act as transcriptional repressors of JA-responsive genes. JA regulates both biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants; however, its role in nutrient deficiency responses is very elusive. Although, JA is well-known for root growth inhibition, little is known about behaviour of JAZ genes in response to nutrient deficiencies, under which root architectural alteration is an important adaptation. Using protein sequence homology and a conserved-domains approach, here we identify ten novel JAZ genes from the recently sequenced Chickpea genome, which is one of the most nutrient efficient crops. Both rice and chickpea JAZ genes express in tissue- and stimuli-specific manners. Many of which are preferentially expressed in root. Our analysis further showed differential expression of JAZ genes under macro (NPK and micronutrients (Zn, Fe deficiency in rice and chickpea roots. While both rice and chickpea JAZ genes showed a certain level of specificity towards type of nutrient deficiency, generally majority of them showed induction under K deficiency. Generally, JAZ genes showed an induction at early stages of stress and expression declined at later stages of macro-nutrient deficiency. Our results suggest that JAZ genes might play a role in early nutrient deficiency response both in monocot and dicot roots, and information generated here can be further used for understanding the possible roles of JA in root architectural alterations for nutrient deficiency adaptations

  6. Interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp. in the disease complex of chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDIQUI, Zaki Anwar; FATIMA, Munavvar; ALAM, Subha

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp., alone or in combination, on the disease complex in chickpea were examined. Individual inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris caused significant reductions in plant growth, while inoculation with Rhizobium sp. resulted in a significant increase in plant growth. Inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris together caused a greater reduction in plant growth than the damage caused by each of them alone. ...

  7. Evaluation of chickpea and groundnut for N2 fixation and yield in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments on chickpea and groundnut were variously carried out at four locations in Bangladesh. Generally consistent trends were obtained in terms of positive effects of inoculation with rhizobia, and genotypic diversity for components of N2 fixation and yield. Inoculation of groundnut increased average nodule number by 77% at Rajshahi, 99% at Mymensingh and 148% at Jamalput. The increases in nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, pod and stover yields due to inoculation ranged from 93 to 146%, 55 to 77%, 43 to 50% and 29 to 80%, respectively. At all three locations, significant differences were found amongst the genotypes for nodulation, dry matter production and yield. Mutant genotype 62-30 was superior for most components, and statistically better than the present variety Dacca-1 for all characteristics investigated. Inoculant application to chickpea resulted in at least a doubling of nodule number at Ishurdi and Mymensingh; on average, there was a three-fold increase in nodule mass as a result of inoculation. Seed-yield increases due to inoculation ranged from 24 to 50%. Inoculated cv. G-97 recorded a seed yield of about 1.5 t/ha at Ishurdi, 47% higher than that produced by Nabin, a variety widely cultivated in Bangladesh. Total-N yield and the amount of N fixed by G-97 with inoculant were also higher than for Hyprosola, which is known for high yield and protein content. In a screening trial at Mymensingh the commercial chickpea Nabin and Hyprosola were consistently inferior to advanced lines produced by mutation breeding. Of 12 mutant groundnut genotypes tested, D1-15KR/62-30 maintained superiority for almost all components. Most of the mutants performed better than the commercial variety Dacca-1. The data show the potential for increasing chickpea and groundnut yields in Bangladesh by improving N2 fixation via selection of superior genotype in conjunction with compatible rhizobia

  8. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Jadhav; S. J. Rayate; L. B. Mhase; M. Thudi; A. Chitikineni; P. N. Harer; A. S. Jadhav; R. K. Varshney; P. L. Kulwal

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding $Q$ values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  9. Application of INAA for phyto-accumulation study of selenium by chickpea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phyto-accumulation efficacy of selenium (Se) from soil by chickpea plant is reported. Chickpea plants were grown in soil having different concentrations (1-4 mg kg-1) of Se. Samples of soil and different parts of chickpea plants in Se rich soil were analyzed for determination of Se concentrations by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were irradiated in self-serve facility of CIRUS reactor, BARC, Mumbai at a neutron flux of the order of 1013 cm-2 s-1. The gamma activity at 264.7 keV of 75Se (119.8 d) was measured using a 45% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. Dependence of Se distribution in soil and plants on its spiking concentration was evaluated in this work. The Se concentrations determined in plant parts grown in control soil and in soil spiked with Se (4 mg kg-1) are in the range of 0.6-0.8 and 65-68 mg kg-1 respectively. (author)

  10. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tosh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  11. Response of chickpea (cicer aeritinum L.) to sulphur fertilization for yield, nodulation and nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur fertilization (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg soil) of the chickpea as ground elemental sulphur in the presence of uniform dressing of nitrogen, phosphorus (P/sub 2/O/sub 5/) and Potash (K /sub 2/O) each applied at the rate of 5, 40, 20 mg/kg soil, respectively improved significantly the modulation response (number and weight of nodules/plant), and increased significantly the dry matter yield of pods of the crop by 23.0 to 59.0 percent, of shoots by 22 to 61.0 percent and of roots by 13.0 to 22.0 percent. Sulphur application also improved significantly the N concentration and uptake by pods, shoots and roots of chickpea. The increase in N uptake by pods was in the range of 33 to 92 percent, by shoots in the range of 65 to 115 percent and by the roots in the range of 52 to 65.0 percent. Sulphur at the rate of 10 mg/kg soil was the optimum dose in the present experiment, which increased the dry matter yield of roots, shoots and pods by 22.0 to 59.0 percent and N uptake by roots, shoots and pods of chickpea by 65.0 to 115.0 percent. (author)

  12. AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEVERAL CHICKPEA ECOTYPES (CICER ARIETINUM GROWN IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. VURAL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The chickpea is an important field crop for low quality fields and drought-enduring, in Isparta ecology, as a sowing duty covers a large area. This research has been conducted in order to determine the most suitable chickpea line and varieties in the grain-chickpea sowing duty system of the Isparta city ecological conditions. Eleven cultivars and lines grown in Turkey were used in this two-year long study (between the years 1996 and 1997, which involved a randomize block experimental design with four replications. Data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. According to the two-year results, the differences between the lines and cultivars were found to be important in all components observed. The annual differences proved significant for all components, except the number of pods per plant and the height of the first pod from the ground. Anthracnose (Ascochyta rabiei pass. Lab. was not found in any cultivar and line in natural conditions, in none of the tow years. One principal component (PC1 was found by factorial analyses. The eleven examined cultivars were separated in two main groups and three subclusters by cluster analyses.

  13. DNA polymorphisms in chickpea accessions as revealed by PCR-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, P; Koul, K K; Shrivastava, N; Mendaki, M J; Bhagyawant, S S

    2015-01-01

    Chickpea is a food legume which is alleged to be a preferred source of protein next only to milk. Germplasm of cultivated chickpea available is deficient in desired genetic variation. Genetic manipulations therefore, necessitate the genetic exploitation of its related annual and wild species. 42 RAPD and 41 ISSR markers were employed to ascertain polymorphism across 20 genotypes which were collected from 10 different geographical areas of the world. RAPD marker detected 51% genetic polymorphisms while ISSR marker detected 54 %. With an average of 6.5 each RAPD primer amplified 5—8 bands. Similarly with an average of 7.9 each ISSR primer amplified 4—12 bands. The cluster dendrogram demonstrated a similarity coefficient range from 0.80 to 0.92 due to RAPD markers, whereas with ISSR primers the cluster dendrogram showed similarity coefficient of 0.60 to 1.00. Accessions from same geographical area seem to be genetically similar than those from geographically distant and isolated ones. When however compared, interestingly the ISSR dendrogram showed more correlation with pedigree data than the RAPD dendrogram. The variability index worked out in the present study ranges from 0.79 to 0.96. Since the ultimate reason for such studies is selection of diverse genetic accessions for their recommendation to breeding programmers, the accessions like ICC6263, ICC6306 and ICC17160 can be recommended as parents. Further breeding programmes can therefore be planned to procure additional variation complexes in chickpea genetic stocks. PMID:26516116

  14. Enterobacter spp.: A new evidence causing bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAPHAT; Kawicha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six pathogenetic bacterial strains were isolated from wilted mulberry plants in Hangzhou,Zhejiang province of China.The six representative strains were confirmed to be involved in more than one Enterobacter species by common bacteriological test,electron microscope observation,hypersensitive reaction,Koch’s postulates,physiological and biochemical test,biolog,fatty acid methyl esters analysis (FAMEs),enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR),16s rRNA sequences analysis,and comparative analysis with 7 type strains and 3 reference strains.This is the first report on mulberry disease caused by Enterobacter spp.in the world providing new evidence on induction of the plant disease in this genus.The results are not only important in the mulberry disease management but also have significant scientific value for further studies of opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains in Enterobacter.

  15. In vitro selection for resistance to Fusarium wilt in Banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusarium wilt or Panama disease, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), is one of the most serious diseases of banana in tropical and subtropical countries. Although there are banana cultivars resistant to the disease, transfer of the resistance trait to susceptible cultivars by traditional cross-breeding is difficult. In vitro selections of banana mutants tolerant to race 1 of FOC were carried out with fusaric acid and culture filtrate on multiple bud clumps. Regenerated plants showed tolerance to the disease in the greenhouse, and some of the plants also showed resistance in the field. Although the level of tolerance observed was not sufficiently high, in vitro selection by toxic substances extracted from pathogenic fungi resulted in an improvement of plant tolerance to the pathogen. Other selection factors for in vitro selection were reviewed, and a protocol for obtaining disease tolerant plants of banana is suggested. (author)

  16. Effect of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Pratylenchus penetrans on Verticillium Wilt of Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C

    1987-07-01

    Verticillium albo-atrum wilt symptoms appeared faster and were significantly more severe in the presence of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Vernal, a wilt-susceptible cultivar, than in Marls Kabul, a wilt-resistant cultivar. Winter kill in the field was not affected by the nematode during the first winter, but 50% of plants were killed in the second winter. Forage yield from nematode-infected plants was significantly reduced the second year. Interaction with V. albo-atrum did not significantly reduce forage yields below that of D. dipsaci alone. Pratylenchus penetrans did not increase the severity of wilt symptoms in the presence of V. albo-atrum, nor did it affect forage yield in the greenhouse. It did, however, reduce alfalfa yields in presence of V. albo-atrum under field conditions. D. dipsaci and P. penetrans reproduced faster in Vernal than in Maris Kabul when the fungus was present. PMID:19290158

  17. Integrated Management of Wilt Complex Disease in Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq R. Rather; V. K. Razdan; Tewari, A. K.; Efath Shanaz; Z.A. Bhat; Mir G. Hassan; T. A. Wani

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various disease management tools on seedling emergence, wilt incidence and yield of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Var. California Wonder was studied as part of integrated management strategies under both glass house and field conditions. Different fungicides were tested against the four wilt pathogens viz, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytopthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii under in- vitro conditions. The fungicides viz, Captan, Carbendazim, Metalaxyl and Carboxin w...

  18. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant’s late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Ind...

  19. Fusarium oxysporum as causal agent of tomato wilt and fruit rot

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Ignjatov; Dragana Milošević; Zorica Nikolić; Jelica Gvozdanović-Varga; Dušica Jovičić; Gordana Zdjelar

    2012-01-01

    Tomatoes are parasitized by a number of pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causal agent of fusarium wilt. Fresh vegetable fruits can be contaminated with various fungi that produce mycotoxins, which is an important issue for human health. The objective of this paper was to isolate, determine, and identify causal organisms of tomato wilt and fruit rot, based on the pathogens morphological and molecular characteristics. Samples of dis...

  20. The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular wilt pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Koste A Yadeta; J. Thomma, Bart P. H.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular wilts are among the most destructive plant diseases that occur in annual crops as well as in woody perennials. These diseases are generally caused by soil-borne bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that infect through the roots and enter the water-conducting xylem vessels where they proliferate and obstruct the transportation of water and minerals. As a consequence, leaves wilt and die, which may lead to impairment of the whole plant and eventually to death of the plant. Cultural, chemical...

  1. Rhizobacteria induces resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by increasing the activity of defense enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Hélvio Gledson Maciel Ferraz; Renata Sousa Resende; Patrícia Ricardino Silveira; Camila Cristina Lage Andrade; Elisângela Aparecida Milagres; José Rogério Oliveira; Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol), is one of the most important diseases that affect tomato yield worldwide. This study investigated the potential of three antagonists, Streptomyces setonii (UFV 618), Bacillus cereus (UFV 592) and Serratia marcescens (UFV 252), and as positive control the hormone jasmonic acid (JA), to reduce Fusarium wilt symptoms and to potentiate the defense enzymes in the stem tissues of tomato plants infected by Fol. The seeds were micro...

  2. Combining fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. strains to enhance suppression of fusarium wilt of radish

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Marjan; Sluis, Ientse van der; Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P. A. H. M.

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium wilt diseases, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, lead to significant yield losses of crops. One strategy to control fusarium wilt is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. It has been demonstrated that different strains of these bacteria suppress disease by different mechanisms. Therefore, application of a mixture of these biocontrol strains, and thus of several suppressive mechanisms, may represent a viable control strategy. A prerequisite for biocontrol by...

  3. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  4. Progresses in the Mechanism of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xingang; WU Fengzhi; WANG Xuezheng; YUAN Ye

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum (Owen) is one of the most devastating diseases in cucumber production worldwide.Recent progresses in the mechanism of resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber were reviewed in this paper,including pathogenic mechanism of Fusarium oxysporum,the resistance mechanism of cucumber,the heredity of resistance,and the location of resistance genes.Following works should be the location and cloning of resistance genes with molecular biologic methods.

  5. Detection of Laurel Wilt Disease in Avocado Using Low Altitude Aerial Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ana I de Castro; Ehsani, Reza; Ploetz, Randy C.; Jonathan H Crane; Buchanon, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial ...

  6. Trichoderma inoculation augments grain amino acids and mineral nutrients by modulating arsenic speciation and accumulation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is an industrially important fungi which also imparts stress tolerance and plant growth promotion in various crops. Arsenic (As) contamination of field soils is one of the challenging problems in agriculture, posing potential threats for both human health and the environment. Plants in association with microbes are a liable method to improve metal tolerance and enhance crop productivity. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume providing cheap source of protein in semi-arid regions including As affected areas. In this study we report the role of T. reesei NBRI 0716 (NBRI 0716) in supporting chickpea growth and improving soil quality in As simulated conditions. NBRI 0716 modulated the As speciation and its availability to improve grain yield and quality (amino acids and mineral content) in chickpea (C. arietinum L.) plants grown in As spiked soil (100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Arsenic accumulation and speciation results indicate that arsenate [As(V)] was the dominant species in chickpea seeds and rhizosphere soil. The Trichoderma reduced total grain inorganic As (Asi) by 66% and enhanced dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsinic acid (MMA) content of seed and rhizosphere soil. The results indicate a probable role of NBRI 0716 in As methylation as the possible mechanism for maneuvering As stress in chickpea. Analysis of functional diversity using carbon source utilization (Biolog) showed significant difference in diversity and evenness indices among the soil microbial rhizosphere communities. Microbial diversity loss caused by As were prevented in the presence of Trichoderma NBRI 0716. PMID:25839184

  7. Radiology illustrated. Uroradiology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyup (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2012-07-01

    Uroradiology is an up-to-date, image-oriented reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. All aspects of the imaging of urologic diseases are covered, and case studies illustrate the findings obtained with the relevant imaging modalities in both common and uncommon conditions. Most chapters focus on a particular clinical problem, but normal findings, congenital anomalies, and interventions are also discussed and illustrated. In this second edition, the range and quality of the illustrations have been enhanced, and many schematic drawings have been added to help readers memorize characteristic imaging findings through pattern recognition. The accompanying text is concise and informative. Besides serving as an outstanding aid to differential diagnosis, this book will provide a user-friendly review tool for certification or recertification in radiology. (orig.)

  8. Illustrative rendering of vortex cores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shafii, S.; Obermaier, H.; Kolář, Václav; Hlawitschka, M.; Garth, C.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K. I.

    Leipzig: The Eurographics Association, 2013 - (Hlawitschka, M.; Weinkauf, T.) [Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis 2013). Leipzig (DE), 17.06.2013-21.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : flow visualization * vortices * illustrative rendering Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://graphics.cs.ucdavis.edu/~hamann/ShafiiObermaierKolarHlawitschkaGarthHamannJoyEurovis2013ShortPaperAsPublished06172013.pdf

  9. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana I; Ehsani, Reza; Ploetz, Randy C; Crane, Jonathan H; Buchanon, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs), band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR), (Red-Green) and Combination 1 (COMB1) in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB) to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the rapid detection

  10. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The sho...

  11. Effects of Fungicides, Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiated Bioagents on Chickpea Root Rot Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii) causes root rot disease in several crops including Cicer arietinum (chickpea) that results in low yield. In vitro experiments on fungicides, vitavax and monceren T, and essential oils, clove and mint oils, were conducted to control root rot disease of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii. The treatments resulted in 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Gliocladium virens (G. virens) and Gliocladium deliquescens (G. deliquescens) were effective as biocontrol agents against S. rolfsii. The results showed that these treatments greatly reduced the root rot disease in chickpea. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increased the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii

  12. Analysis of gene expression in response to water deficit of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. varieties differing in drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Debasis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (C. arietinum L. ranks third in food legume crop production in the world. However, drought poses a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Unfortunately, cultivated chickpea has a high morphological but narrow genetic diversity, and understanding the genetic processes of this plant is hindered by the fact that the chickpea genome has not yet been sequenced and its EST resources are limited. In this study, two chickpea varieties having contrasting levels of drought-tolerance were analyzed for differences in transcript profiling during drought stress treatment by withdrawal of irrigation at different time points. Transcript profiles of ESTs derived from subtractive cDNA libraries constructed with RNA from whole seedlings of both varieties were analyzed at different stages of stress treatment. Results A series of comparisons of transcript abundance between two varieties at different time points were made. 319 unique ESTs available from different libraries were categorized into eleven clusters according to their comparative expression profiles. Expression analysis revealed that 70% of the ESTs were more than two fold abundant in the tolerant cultivar at any point of the stress treatment of which expression of 33% ESTs were more than two fold high even under the control condition. 53 ESTs that displayed very high fold relative expression in the tolerant variety were screened for further analysis. These ESTs were clustered in four groups according to their expression patterns. Conclusions Annotation of the highly expressed ESTs in the tolerant cultivar predicted that most of them encoded proteins involved in cellular organization, protein metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription. Results from this study may help in targeting useful genes for improving drought tolerance in chickpea.

  13. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-08-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)-chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)-chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9-chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31-chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31-inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  14. A comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs for gene discovery and marker development in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Ramamurthy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., an important grain legume crop of the world is seriously challenged by terminal drought and salinity stresses. However, very limited number of molecular markers and candidate genes are available for undertaking molecular breeding in chickpea to tackle these stresses. This study reports generation and analysis of comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity-responsive expressed sequence tags (ESTs and gene-based markers. Results A total of 20,162 (18,435 high quality drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs were generated from ten different root tissue cDNA libraries of chickpea. Sequence editing, clustering and assembly analysis resulted in 6,404 unigenes (1,590 contigs and 4,814 singletons. Functional annotation of unigenes based on BLASTX analysis showed that 46.3% (2,965 had significant similarity (≤1E-05 to sequences in the non-redundant UniProt database. BLASTN analysis of unique sequences with ESTs of four legume species (Medicago, Lotus, soybean and groundnut and three model plant species (rice, Arabidopsis and poplar provided insights on conserved genes across legumes as well as novel transcripts for chickpea. Of 2,965 (46.3% significant unigenes, only 2,071 (32.3% unigenes could be functionally categorised according to Gene Ontology (GO descriptions. A total of 2,029 sequences containing 3,728 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified and 177 new EST-SSR markers were developed. Experimental validation of a set of 77 SSR markers on 24 genotypes revealed 230 alleles with an average of 4.6 alleles per marker and average polymorphism information content (PIC value of 0.43. Besides SSR markers, 21,405 high confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 742 contigs (with ≥ 5 ESTs were also identified. Recognition sites for restriction enzymes were identified for 7,884 SNPs in 240 contigs. Hierarchical clustering of 105 selected contigs provided clues about stress- responsive

  15. Effect of low doses of gamma irradiation and N-fertilizer on N-sources in chickpea, using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on the performance of winter chickpea in the presence of different levels of ammonium sulfate. The results showed an apparent effect of radiation and N-fertilizer on nodulation and N sub 2 -fixation. High levels of N-NH sup + sup 4 decreased N sub 2 - fixation but not nodule formation. However, the Presowing irradiation of chickpea with 10 Gy reduced the negative effect on N - fertilizer on N sub 2 - fixation (Author)

  16. 丽江鹰嘴豆异黄酮的含量测定%Lijiang chickpea Isoflavones Content determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永会; 张翠香

    2012-01-01

    This study Lijiang chickpea seed as raw material extraction isoflavone genistein, at the same time as control products Determination of Lijiang chickpea Isoflavones Content, for Lijiang the development and application of chicken beans provide some experimental data.%本实验拟丽江鹰嘴豆种子为原料提取异黄酮,同时以染料木素为对照品测定丽江鹰嘴豆异黄酮的含量,为丽江的鸡豆的开发应用提供一定的实验数据。

  17. Fertilizer-N uptake by Chickpea and Wheat Crops under Intercropping System using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. The lowest portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer was resulted from application of compost and chickpea straw treatments. It is worthy to mention that full recommend dos of fertilizer (20 kg N fed-1) was efficiently used by shoots of chickpea plants. Portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer by seeds of chickpea was lower than those recorded with shoots. Generally, there was no big significant difference between nitrogen gained by shoots and seeds from the organic materials. This holds true with all treatments. More declines in nitrogen derived from soil percentages were resulted from application of cow manure and compost treatments under different rate of mineral fertilizer, the application 100% MF treatment induced higher nitrogen derived from soil pool as compared to the other treatments. The best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general, nitrogen derived from air by shoots lower than those up taken by seeds of chickpea plant. Application of wheat straw and compost treatments were enhanced the nitrogen derived from fertilizer by straw of wheat plant as compared to caw manure, maize stalk, chickpea straw, but Ndff% in grains of wheat , cow manure and maize stalk increased as compared to the other treatment. Application of organic materials, chickpea straw and cow manure achieved the highest value of Ndfo% by straw of wheat plant as compared to maize stalk, compost and wheat straw. But values of nitrogen derived from organic in grains of wheat plants, the application of chickpea straw and wheat straw

  18. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lian

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV isolates. In addition, the complete nucleotide sequences for the 13 Korean TSWV isolates along with previously sequenced TSWV RNA segments from Korea and other countries were subjected to phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both the RNA L and RNA M segments of most Korean isolates might have originated in Western Europe and North America but that the RNA S segments for all Korean isolates might have originated in China and Japan. Recombination analysis identified a total of 12 recombination events among all isolates and segments and five recombination events among the 13 Korea isolates; among the five recombinants from Korea, three contained the whole RNA L segment, suggesting reassortment rather than recombination. Our analyses provide evidence that both recombination and reassortment have contributed to the molecular diversity of TSWV.

  19. Influence of water deficit on transpiration and radiation use efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the relationship between biomass production, radiation use and water use of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is essential to estimate biomass production in different water regimes. Experiments were conducted during three post-rainy seasons on a Vertisol (a typic pallustert) to study the effect of water deficits on radiation use, radiation use efficiency (RUE), transpiration and transpiration efficiency (TE) of chickpea. Different levels of soil water availability were created, either by having irrigated and non-irrigated plots or using a line source. Biomass production was linearly related to both cumulative intercepted solar radiation and transpiration in both well watered and water deficit treatments. Soil water availability did not affect RUE (total dry matter produced per unit of solar radiation interception) when at least 30% of extractable soil water (ESW) was present in the rooting zone, but below 30% ESW, RUE decreased linearly with the decrease in soil water content. RUE was also significantly correlated (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) with the ratio of actual to potential transpiration (T/Tp) and it declined curvilinearly with the decrease in T/Tp. TE decreased with the increase in saturation deficit (SD) of air. Normalization of TE with SD gave a conservative value of 4.8 g kPa kg−1. To estimate biomass production of chickpea in different environments, we need to account for the effect of plant water deficits on RUE in a radiation-based model and the effect of SD on TE in a transpiration-based model. (author)

  20. evaluation of biological nitrogen fixation process by chickpea using 15N tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the effect of gradual increase in fertilizer-N rates added to chickpea plants that cultivated in pots packed with light textured soil collected from surrounding area of biotechnology research center, libya was examined in pot experiment. seeds were inoculated with rhizobium strain as peat-based inocula or in liquid culture. Also, un inoculated treatment was included. 15 N-labelled urea(5% atom excess) was applied as N-fertilizer source at rates of 0,20, 40,60,80 and 100 Kg N ha-1. growth parameters of chickpea plants were positively affected by N-fertilizer but bacterial inoculation did not reflected significant difference with levels of 40,60 and 80 kg ha-1..dry matter accumulation was increased with increasing N fertilizer levels up to 80 Kg N ha-1 as compared to the unfertilized control then decreased at the level of 100 kg N ha-1. this holds true under inoculated and un inoculated treatments. similar trend was noticed with nitrogen uptake by chickpea shoots.accordingly, portion of N derived from fertilizer had been increased. nitrogen fixation (% N dfa), as estimated using isotope dilution approach, was increased with increasing N rates up to moderate additions (60 kg N ha-1) , then tended to decrease. Rhizobium inoculation has an important effect on enhancement of plant growth and N acquisition when low to moderate levels of fertilizer was added. The results obtained in this work suggests application of bio fertilization technology in combination with chemical fertilizers under field conditions to get advanced to generalize the data released from such investigations

  1. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids with...... consistent with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an...

  2. Development of ESTs from chickpea roots and their use in diversity analysis of the Cicer genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwar K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea is a major crop in many drier regions of the world where it is an important protein-rich food and an increasingly valuable traded commodity. The wild annual Cicer species are known to possess unique sources of resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, there has been limited utilization of these wild species by chickpea breeding programs due to interspecific crossing barriers and deleterious linkage drag. Molecular genetic diversity analysis may help predict which accessions are most likely to produce fertile progeny when crossed with chickpea cultivars. While, trait-markers may provide an effective tool for breaking linkage drag. Although SSR markers are the assay of choice for marker-assisted selection of specific traits in conventional breeding populations, they may not provide reliable estimates of interspecific diversity, and may lose selective power in backcross programs based on interspecific introgressions. Thus, we have pursued the development of gene-based markers to resolve these problems and to provide candidate gene markers for QTL mapping of important agronomic traits. Results An EST library was constructed after subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH of root tissue from two very closely related chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum. A total of 106 EST-based markers were designed from 477 sequences with functional annotations and these were tested on C. arietinum. Forty-four EST markers were polymorphic when screened across nine Cicer species (including the cultigen. Parsimony and PCoA analysis of the resultant EST-marker dataset indicated that most accessions cluster in accordance with the previously defined classification of primary (C. arietinum, C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum, secondary (C. pinnatifidum, C. bijugum and C. judaicum, and tertiary (C. yamashitae, C. chrossanicum and C. cuneatum gene-pools. A large proportion of EST alleles (45% were only

  3. Critical period of weed control in chickpea under non-irrigated conditions

    OpenAIRE

    TEPE, Işık; Erman, Murat; YERGİN, Reyyan; BÜKÜN, Bekir

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted during the growing seasons of 2005, 2006, and 2007 to determine the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in chickpea (cv. Aziziye 94). In order to evaluate the beginning of CPWC, weeds were allowed to compete at weekly intervals for 1 to 8 weeks after emergence (WAE) and, at the end of CPWC, plots were kept weed-free at weekly intervals for 1 to 8 WAE by periodic hand hoeing. The beginning and the end of CPWC were based on 5% acceptable yield loss (AYL) level...

  4. Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M.; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein ...

  5. Heat and mass transfer analysis of convective drying of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to describe the modelling and simulation of the dehydration of chickpea in a complex drying system process, using COMSOL Multiphysics Program. A model, based on mass and energy balances, was developed for the simulation of unsteady convective drying with air (3.0 m/s and 60 °C). The program predicted an 8 hours-dehydration time, with an effective moisture diffusivity of 3.1 *10−10 which was experimentally obtained. The empirical model that best represented the process was the exponential one

  6. Assessment of Response to Drought Stress of Chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.) Lines Under Rainfed Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    TOKER, Cengiz; ÇAĞIRGAN, M. İlhan

    1998-01-01

    Totally sixty four chickpea lines were grown for assesment of response to drought stress in the stress and non-stress environments under rainfed conditions. The seed yield of the lines when grown under the non-stress condition increased at a rate of 53% over the in stress condition. The line, FLIP 92-154C, was determinated as the best tolerant line to drought stress environment under the field condition. Also, seed yield strongly correlated with biological yield, harvest index, mean produc...

  7. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into organic acid and sugar fractions was enhanced.

  8. Rhizobacteria induces resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by increasing the activity of defense enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélvio Gledson Maciel Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol, is one of the most important diseases that affect tomato yield worldwide. This study investigated the potential of three antagonists, Streptomyces setonii (UFV 618, Bacillus cereus (UFV 592 and Serratia marcescens (UFV 252, and as positive control the hormone jasmonic acid (JA, to reduce Fusarium wilt symptoms and to potentiate the defense enzymes in the stem tissues of tomato plants infected by Fol. The seeds were microbiolized with each antagonist, and the soil was also drenched with them. The plants were sprayed with JA 48 h before Fol inoculation. The area under the Fusarium wilt index progress curve was reduced by 54, 48, 47 and 45% for the UFV 618, JA, UFV 592 and UFV 252 treatments, respectively. The three antagonists, and even the JA spray, efficiently reduced the Fusarium wilt symptoms on the tomato plant stems, which can be explained by the lower malondialdehyde concentration (an indication of oxidative damage to lipids in the plasma membranes and the greater activities of peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases, glucanases, chitinases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases and lipoxygenases, which are commonly involved in host resistance against fungal diseases. These results present a novel alternative that can be used in the integrated management of Fusarium wilt on tomatoes.

  9. Towards allele mining of bacterial wilt disease resistance gene in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is the most important vegetable commodity of the Philippines. Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one serious constraint in tomato production particularly during off-season planting. A major locus derived from H7996 that confers resistance to bacterial wilt has been mapped in the tomato genome. To validate the biological function of the resistance locus and generate multiple allele -mimics-, targeted mutation was induced in tomato using gamma ray and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagens. Suitable mutagen treatment was established by evaluating a wide range of mutagen doses/concentrations for a) percent seed germination, b) reduction in plant height, and c) loss of resistance. Six hundred Gy and 1.0% EMS were identified to generate large M1 families of H7996. From 10,000 initial seeds treated with either gamma ray or EMS, a total of 3,663 M1 plants were generated. M2 seeds were harvested from all surviving M1 plants. Several DNA markers have been resourced and are being developed specific to the bacterial wilt resistant gene. In the large M2 population, of H7996, both the phenotypic manifestation of bacterial wilt susceptibility and nucleotide changes in the resistance locus will be evaluated. Large M3 families for the different allele series of the bacterial wilt resistance gene will be established for future high throughput TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) analysis in the gene region

  10. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man-Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  11. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  12. GGE biplot analysis based selection of superior chickpea (cicer arietinum L.) inbred lines under variable water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important legume crop and grown mainly on the marginal lands in Pakistan. Insufficient and erratic water availability is severe problem for this crop. Hence, breeding chickpea for low moisture stress tolerance is absolutely important in this era of climate change. Research work was started with evaluation of mini core collection of 450 chickpea lines and 42 lines were retained after three years of selection under different water treatments. These 42 lines were used in current study for evaluation and further selection under three water treatments. Detailed study on these lines was conducted under irrigated, rainfed and tunnel conditions (no rainfall and irrigation) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. Data were collected for yield and yield components which were subjected to analysis of variance and GGE biplot analysis. Analysis showed highly significant differences among lines for all traits under study. Mean comparison showed less differences between irrigated and rainfed conditions than tunnel for all traits. GGE biplot ranked chickpea lines as; above average, below average, stable, unstable and ideally performing. Lines present closer to ideal genotype on GGE biplot were worthy for selection because these had higher mean values with stable performances across different water treatments. The ideal lines in these experiments; K008-11, CM1592/08, CM526/05, D089-11, TGDX201, D094-11 and K051-11 were selected with higher yield potential. (author)

  13. Cicer L., a monograph of the genus, with special reference to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), its ecology and cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    1972-01-01

    1. The history of the chickpea or gram, Cicer arietinum L., has been described from Homer's time and the earliest finds, 5450 B.C. in Hacilar, Turkey, up to the present day. The crop was first domesticated in Asia Minor and was introduced in India either from Central Asia or Asia Minor, the two mai

  14. Identification of Genes Induced in Lolium multiflorum by Bacterial Wilt Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco; Kölliker, Roland

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis(Xtg) causes bacterial wilt in many forage grasses including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), seriously reducing yield and quality. Breeding for resistance is currently the only practicable means of disease control. Molecular markers closely linked to...... resistance genes or QTL could complement and support phenotypic selection. We used comparative gene expression analysis of a partially resistant L. multiflorum genotype infected and not infected with Xtg to identify genes involved in the control of resistance to bacterial wilt. The genes differentially...... expressed upon infection will serve as the basis for the identification of key genes involved in bacterial wilt resistance and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding. Fluorescently labelled cDNA prepared from plant leaves collected at four different time points after infection was...

  15. Effect Of Salinization On Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization of soils or waters is one of the serious environmental problems in agriculture. It is necessary to determine the environmental factors under which the plants give higher yields and better quality to solve this problem. The problem of salinity is characterized by disruption in the physiological processes in plant which lead to shorting in growth and decrease in yield. The study was carried out to control fusarium disease in tomato plant irrigated with salt water (500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm). These treatments lead to excess in malic and citric acids i.e. from 21 mmol/g fresh weight in control to 38.8 mmol/g fresh weight at 100000 ppm for citric acid while for malic acid, the value was increased from 1.4 mmol/g fresh weight for control to 2.1 mmol/g fresh weight. The excess of malic and citric acids lead to increase in acidity and vitamin C in tomato fruits. On the other side, the plant may adapt to this stress by increasing its proline content from 0.59 µmol/g fresh weight to 6.56 µmol/g fresh weight at 100000 and abscisic acid from 0.49 µmol/g fresh weight to 20.7 µmol/g fresh weight. The results showed that the fusarium fungal growth was observed till 100000 ppm but did not form sclerotia spores at 45000 ppm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity was found to be 0.46, 2.3, 23.1, 69.2 and 153.8 dS/m for salinity levels of 500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to control the fusarium wilt disease by irrigating the plant with water has high salinity

  16. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himabindu Kudapa

    Full Text Available A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201, comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8% of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%. The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and intron spanning regions (ISRs for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding

  17. Production of wheat preceded with fallow versus continuous wheat or following chickpea or lentil in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two crop rotation experiments with 9 treatments and 4 replicates were laid down in a split plot design two sides, in the Northern and Southern Provinces of Syria. The experimental treatments were three 2-course crop rotations: fallow-wheat, chickpea/lentil-wheat and wheat-wheat (continuous wheat), with three rates of N fertilizer applications. 15N-labelled fertilizer was used as tracer to measure fertilizer use efficiency (UFE) and residual N transferred to the second, subsequent crop in the rotation. Total dry matter production of wheat following legumes was higher than continuous wheat or fallow-wheat rotation. Depending on soil inorganic N, dry matter yields were either increased with N addition or there was almost no effect. Measurements of soil water content during the growing season showed that the soil water storage over depth of 120 cm at harvest was higher after fallow than after chickpea, lentil or wheat. However, the observed differences were diminished at the beginning of the subsequent growing season. Contributions of fertilizer N to total N yield were 5-20% for wheat, 1-4% for chickpea, and 4% for lentil. Chickpea fixed 46-127 kg N ha-1 which contributed 65-85% of the total N yield in the crop. Fixed nitrogen was somewhat low for lentil, amounting to only 22-32% of the total N yield. Mineral nitrogen enrichment of the soil resulting from fallow was about 8-13 kg N ha-1. Residual N transferred to the subsequent wheat crop from lentil was rather low. However, it was detectable (3 kg N ha-1). No residual N benefits could be measured from chickpea. Fertilizer use efficiency varied depending on the crop: 22-57, 17-21, and 8-12% for wheat, lentil and chickpea, respectively. Rotation revenues, based on equivalent starch values (STE) from one cycle of rotation showed that wheat-wheat and chickpea-wheat rotations had almost similar revenues. However, they were higher than lentil-wheat and fallow-wheat rotations. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Azam, Sarwar; Sharpe, Andrew G; Taran, Bunyamin; Li, Rong; Deonovic, Benjamin; Cameron, Connor; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201), comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8%) of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%). The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and intron spanning regions (ISRs) for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding applications in

  19. Early selection of kabuli chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. tolerant to osmotic water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Ben Mbarek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight " kabuli " chickpea genotypes Beja1, Amdoun1, Nayer, Kasseb, Bochra, FLP96-114C, FLP88-42C and Chetoui were germinated, in two in vitro culture media, particularly, agar and filter paper Watman n°2 and under tree osmotic water pressures (OWP: -0,33; -4 and -8 bars induced by PEG8000. On filter paper, germination appeared more accelerated with a higher rate compared to the agar media. Osmotic water stress has negatively affected the seeds germination and the seedlings vegetative development parameters. Osmotic water pressure - 8 bars completely inhibited seeds germination on filter paper media. On the other hand, on agar media, it caused a feeble germination rate and a stunting of the seedlings. A broad genotypic variability of the chickpea cultivars was revealed toward the osmotic water stress. Tolerance index to osmotic water stress revealed three groups of cultivars: (1 Nayer and Kasseb are tolerant, (2 Bochra, FLIP88-42C and Chetoui are fairly tolerant and (3 Amdoun1, Beja1 and FLIP96-114C are sensitive to this abiotic stress.

  20. Response of vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea to pre- or post-emergence applied herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasilakoglou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad-leaved weeds constitute a serious problem in the production of winter legumes, but few selective herbicides controlling these weeds have been registered in Europe. Four field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and repeated in 2010/11 in Greece to study the response of common vetch (Vicia sativa L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and red pea (Lathyrus cicera L. to several rates of the herbicides pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine and flumioxazin applied pre-emergence, as well as imazamox applied post-emergence. Phytotoxicity, crop height, total weight and seed yield were evaluated during the experiments. The results of this study suggest that common vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea differed in their responses to the herbicides tested. Pendimethalin at 1.30 kg ha-1, S-metolachlor at 0.96 kg ha-1 and flumioxazine at 0.11 kg ha-1 used as pre-emergence applied herbicides provided the least phytotoxicity to legumes. Pendimethalin at 1.98 kg ha-1 and both rates of S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine provided the greatest common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. control. Imazamox at 0.03 to 0.04 kg ha-1 could also be used as early post-emergence applied herbicide in common vetch and red pea without any significant detrimental effect.

  1. Effect of P application methods on yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and P utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadcast and placement techniques for P application were evaluated in relation to P utilization in chickpea on sandy loam alluvial soil (Typic, Ustochrept) at Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) farm. Grain yield response per unit quantity of added P was highest at lowest rate of P application. A significant increase in total P uptake was noticed with subsequent increase in the dose of application upto 60 kg P2O5/ha, while percent P utilization declined steadily from 16.5 to 7.5 with increase in the levels of phosphate from 30 to 90 kg P2O5/ha respectively. Placement of phosphate at 3-4 cm below the seed proved superior to broadcast as noted by significantly higher values of grain yield, per cent P utilization and P uptake at flowering as well as maturity. Moreover, the results from alternate tagging technique conclusively indicated that chickpea derived relatively more P from the basal dose than from the siderdressed fertilizer. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Effect of radiation and soaking on trypsin inhibitor and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of Ascochyta-blight resistant chickpea for proximate components, vitamins, energy and trypsin inhibitor, was determined. The influence of irradiation and soaking at ambient temperatures (25-35deg C) on trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and protein content of chickpea, was investigated. A significant linear relation (r = -0.960 to -0.987) was found between the loss of TIA and soaking time of irradiated and unirradiated seeds (p < 0.05) and the rate of loss increased with increasing radiation dose (0.25-1.00 kGy). However, effect of radiation alone was negligible. Maximum decrease (30.7%) in TIA (from 330.0 to 228.6 TiU/g) occurred during soaking for 12 h of 1.00 kGy sample. The protein contents increased from an initial value of 21.7% to 23.4% and 22.7% as a result of soaking for 12 h in tap and distilled waters, respectively. Radiation treatment exhibited little or no effect. (author)

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals by chickpea grown in fly Ash treated soil: effect on antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Singh, Jay Shankar [Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kumar, Akhilesh; Tewari, D.D. [Department of Botany, Maharani Lal Kunwari Post Graduate College, Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2010-12-15

    Chickpea grown in fly ash (FA) treated soil (25, 50, and 100% FA) was used to evaluate the effect of FA on antioxidants, metal concentration (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a (chl-a), chlorophyll b (chl-b), total chlorophyll (total chl), and carotenoids), growth and yield performance. All antioxidants in roots, shoots and leaves of chickpea increase with increasing FA doses to combat FA stress. The activities of antioxidants were more in the root tissues to cope with stress induced in the plants as compared to shoot and leaf. Concentration of metals was found maximum in roots than the shoots and seeds. The highest concentration of Fe and lowest level of Cd were recorded in all treatments of FA for different parts of the plant. The treated crop showed reduced level of chlorophyll but enhanced level of carotenoids and protein. However, root length, number of nodules and biomass in 25 and 50% FA treatments did not differ significantly in comparison to respective control plants. These results suggest that heavy metals of FA causes oxidative stress in this crop and the antioxidant enzymes could help a pivotal role against oxidative injury. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Evaluation of N2 fixation by nodulation-variants of chickpea in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five nodulation-variants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cv. ICC 5003, delineated on the basis of visual ratings ('S1' for minimum nodulation to 'S5' for maximum), were used to investigate the optimum levels of nodulation and N2 fixation for growth and yield. Two field experiments were conducted, with fertilizer N (enriched in 15N) applied at 10 ('N1') or 100 kg ha-1 ('N2') on contrasting soils in different years; plants were evaluated for nodulation, growth, N2 fixation and yield. Experiment 2 included high-nodulating (HN) and low-nodulating (LN) selections of cvv. ICC 4948, ICC 14196 and Kourinsky. Non-nodulating selections of chickpea were included as references to quantify N2 fixation. In both experiments the trends in amounts of N fixed by the five selections at N1 were similar when assessed by 15N-enriched and by N-difference methods. The percent N derived from N2 fixation (estimated from 15N data) correlated with yield and amount of N fixed in Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1. The relative nodulation differences were consistent across locations; the S4 and S5 (and HN) lines were generally superior to S1 and S2 (and LN) for nodulation, N2-fixation, total dry matter and grain yield. Nodule number and mass correlated significantly (P2-fixed in both experiments

  5. Thermoluminescence studies of calcite extracted from natural sand used in making roasted chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the calcite extracted from natural sand which is used in making roasted chickpeas were investigated. And also the effects of different thermal treatments on thermoluminescence glow curve were observed. Two distinct TL peaks were observed at ∼130 °C and ∼230 °C. The annealing of sample, especially at 900 °C, causes a huge enhancement in sensitization of TL. Linearity in dose response is observed for the values up to 0.6 kGy and above 0.6 kGy linearity is not preserved and dose response becomes sublinear. The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400°C and 600 °C. - Highlights: • The natural sand sample used in making roasted chickpea shows thermoluminescence properties. • Annealing at 900 °C for about 15 min gives best TL output. • A good sensitization of about 70 factor was observed in annealed samples when they were compared with no annealed samples. • At doses lower than 0.6 kGy, dose response is linear and sublinear at doses higher than 0.6 kGy. • The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400 °C and 600 °C

  6. Thermoluminescence studies of calcite extracted from natural sand used in making roasted chickpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toktamiş, Hüseyin, E-mail: toktamis@gantep.edu.tr; Toktamiş, Dilek; Necmeddin Yazici, A.

    2014-09-15

    In this study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the calcite extracted from natural sand which is used in making roasted chickpeas were investigated. And also the effects of different thermal treatments on thermoluminescence glow curve were observed. Two distinct TL peaks were observed at ∼130 °C and ∼230 °C. The annealing of sample, especially at 900 °C, causes a huge enhancement in sensitization of TL. Linearity in dose response is observed for the values up to 0.6 kGy and above 0.6 kGy linearity is not preserved and dose response becomes sublinear. The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400°C and 600 °C. - Highlights: • The natural sand sample used in making roasted chickpea shows thermoluminescence properties. • Annealing at 900 °C for about 15 min gives best TL output. • A good sensitization of about 70 factor was observed in annealed samples when they were compared with no annealed samples. • At doses lower than 0.6 kGy, dose response is linear and sublinear at doses higher than 0.6 kGy. • The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400 °C and 600 °C.

  7. Activity of the Recommended and Optimized Rates of Pyridate on Chickpea - Mesorhizobium mediterraneum Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi PARSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop-rhizobium symbiosis can be influenced by leaching of herbicides which is unavoidable after their application. Due to an adjuvant which might help to develop the low-use-rate of herbicide, an experiment was carried out to compare the impact of the recommended rate (1200 g active ingredient ha-1 and the optimized rate (282.15 g active ingredient ha-1 of pyridate on the biological properties of eight chickpea cultivars inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, grown in pots. Based on the required rate of herbicide to give 95% control of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. value, the efficacy of pyridate improved up to 3.87-fold by adding methylated rapeseed oil to spray solution. The ‘Desi’ cultivar had significantly higher nodulation than ‘Kabuli’ cultivar. In general, toxicity of the recommended rate was higher than the optimized rate. With the exception of root dry weight, all of the measured parameters were significantly affected by the recommended rate of pyridate in varying degrees. The symbiotic properties of chickpea cultivars were affected more than 10% at the recommended dose. The reduced nodulation ranged from 29% to 73% among cultivars exposed to pyridate at the recommended dose. The ‘Desi’ cultivar was more sensitive than the ‘Kabuli’ to the recommended rate of pyridate. We may conclude that effective low-use-rate of pyridate via applying of activator adjuvants should be noted.

  8. Induced mutations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) II. frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations induced by two physical (gamma rays, fast neutrons) and two chemical mutagens (NMU, EMS) in relation to the effects in M1 plants and induction of mutations in M2 was made in four chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties, two desi (G 130 & H 214) one Kabuli (C 104) and one green seeded (L 345). The treatments included three doses each of gamma rays (400, 500 & 600 Gy) and fast neutrons (5, 10 & 15 Gy) and two concentrations with two different durations of two chemical mutagens, NMU [0.01% (20h), & 0.02% (8h)] and EMS [0.1% (20h) & 0.2% (8h)]. The frequencies and spectrum of three different kinds of induced chlorophyll mutations in the order albina (43.5%), chlorina (27.3%) and xantha (24.2%) were recorded. Chemical mutagens were found to be efficient in inducing chlorophyll mutations in chickpea. Highest frequency of mutations was observed in green seeded var. L 345 (83% of M1 families and 19.9/1000 M2 plants). Kabuli var. C 104 was least responsive for chlorophyll mutations

  9. Assessment the effects of different tillage methods on chickpea yield and some yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah KASAP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods on crop yield and some yield components in chickpea cultivation. For this reason, experimental trials were performed in Çayköy and Güzelpınar in Tokat-Kazova during 2008, 2009 and 2010. In this trials Gökçe cultivar of chickpea was used. Six different soil tillage methods were applied which were, mouldboard plough tillage in fall + cultivator in the spring + tooth harrow (Method A, mouldboard plough tillage in spring + cultivator + tooth harrow (Method B, rotary tiller in the spring (Method C, chisel in the spring + disc harrow and slider (Method D, strip tillage with router rotary hoe (Method E and direct seeding (Method F. Trials were set up in completely randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated that the highest average plant and seed yield per square meter was obtained with method A (470.74 g and 260.63 g and followed by method B (459.43 g and 254.18 g and method D (447.82 g and 247.23 g. In terms of factors evaluated; A, B and D methods were superior compared to the other methods.

  10. Liste des illustrations hors texte

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Premier cahier 1. Le jeune Bara mort 2. Parade des orangistes 3. El Coyote 4. Les héros mystifiés 5. Pocahontas 6. Pocahontas 7. Nelson Mandela 8. Mère Teresa 9. Statue de bois de l’évêque Henry 10. La statue de Lalli 11. Le capitaine Dragan 12. L’élaboration de l’image de Cola di Rienzo 13. Affiche de propagande 14. Illustration d’un cahier d’école pour enfants 15. L’image de « Mère Danemark » 16. La « Mère Norvège » 17. Israélien regardant à l’intérieur du Lion rugissant 18. Un tee-shirt av...

  11. Illustrating the practice of statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Christina A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The practice of statistics involves analyzing data and planning data collection schemes to answer scientific questions. Issues often arise with the data that must be dealt with and can lead to new procedures. In analyzing data, these issues can sometimes be addressed through the statistical models that are developed. Simulation can also be helpful in evaluating a new procedure. Moreover, simulation coupled with optimization can be used to plan a data collection scheme. The practice of statistics as just described is much more than just using a statistical package. In analyzing the data, it involves understanding the scientific problem and incorporating the scientist's knowledge. In modeling the data, it involves understanding how the data were collected and accounting for limitations of the data where possible. Moreover, the modeling is likely to be iterative by considering a series of models and evaluating the fit of these models. Designing a data collection scheme involves understanding the scientist's goal and staying within hislher budget in terms of time and the available resources. Consequently, a practicing statistician is faced with such tasks and requires skills and tools to do them quickly. We have written this article for students to provide a glimpse of the practice of statistics. To illustrate the practice of statistics, we consider a problem motivated by some precipitation data that our relative, Masaru Hamada, collected some years ago. We describe his rain gauge observational study in Section 2. We describe modeling and an initial analysis of the precipitation data in Section 3. In Section 4, we consider alternative analyses that address potential issues with the precipitation data. In Section 5, we consider the impact of incorporating additional infonnation. We design a data collection scheme to illustrate the use of simulation and optimization in Section 6. We conclude this article in Section 7 with a discussion.

  12. Selection for quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, J K; Bohn, M O; Lutz, J D; Richter, P M

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Stewart's wilt resistance from a mapping population derived from a sweet corn hybrid that is highly resistant to Pantoea stewartii and to determine if marker-based selection for those QTL could substantially improve Stewart's wilt resistance in a population derived from a cross of resistant lines and a highly susceptible sweet corn inbred. Three significant QTL for Stewart's wilt resistance on chromosomes 2 (bin 2.03), 5 (bin 5.03), and 6 (bin 6.06/6.07) explained 31% of the genetic variance in a population of 110 F(3:4) families derived from the sweet corn hybrid Bonus. The three QTL appeared to be additive in their effects on Stewart's wilt ratings. Based on means of families that were either homozygous or heterozygous for marker alleles associated with the resistance QTL, the QTL on chromosomes 2 and 6 appeared to have dominant or partially dominant gene action, while the QTL on chromosome 5 appeared to be recessive. A population of 422 BC(2)S(2) families was derived from crosses of a sweet corn inbred highly susceptible to Stewart's wilt, Green Giant Code 88 (GG88), and plants from two F(3:4) families (12465 and 12467) from the Bonus mapping population that were homozygous for marker alleles associated with Stewart's wilt resistance at the three QTL. Mean Stewart's wilt ratings for BC(2)S(2) families were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for families that were homozygous for the bnlg1902 marker allele (bin 5.03) from resistant lines 12465 or 12467 than for families that were heterozygous at this marker locus or homozygous for the bnlg1902 marker allele from GG88. Resistance associated with this QTL was expressed only if F(3:5) or BC(2)S(2) families were homozygous for marker alleles associated with the resistant inbred parent (P(1)). Marker alleles identified in the F(3:5) mapping population that were in proximity to the resistance QTL on chromosomes 2 and 6 were not polymorphic in

  13. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  14. A comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs for gene discovery and marker development in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Ramamurthy; Xiao Yongli; Vadez Vincent; Deokar Amit A; Balaji Jayashree; Kashiwagi Junichi; Lekha Pazhamala; Hiremath Pavana J; Varshney Rajeev K; Gaur Pooran M; Siddique Kadambot HM; Town Christopher D; Hoisington David A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an important grain legume crop of the world is seriously challenged by terminal drought and salinity stresses. However, very limited number of molecular markers and candidate genes are available for undertaking molecular breeding in chickpea to tackle these stresses. This study reports generation and analysis of comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity-responsive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene-based markers. Results A total of...

  15. Experience the beauty of fashion illustration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, fashion illustration is one of the new form of painting, fashion illustration compared to the previous illustration, it tends to be more professional and meticulous. Fashion illustration is often used in commercial ad-vertising, fashion magazines, packaging design, etc. Fashion illustrator for its strong contrast vivid colors and strong deco-rative effect, become the carrier of designers chasing with feelings of fashion .

  16. DNA methylation and physio-biochemical analysis of chickpea in response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakei, Aida; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Ranjbar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress (CS) signals are translated into physiological changes as products of direct and/or indirect of gene expression regulated by different factors like DNA methylation. In this study, some of these factors were comparatively studied in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold-tolerant genotype, and ILC533, cold susceptible one) under control (23 °C) and days 1, 3, and 6 after exposing the seedlings to CS (4 °C). Under CS, tolerant genotype prevented H2O2 accumulation which led to a decrease in damage indices (malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage index) compared to susceptible one. The significant activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase) along with a significant proportion of change in DNA methylation/demethylation patterns were often effective factors in preserving cell against cold-induced oxidative stress. Chickpea cells in response to CS changed access to their genome as the number of bands without change from day 1 to day 6 of exposure to CS particularly in tolerant genotype was decreased. During CS, the methylation level was higher compared to demethylation (29.05 vs 19.79 %) in tolerant genotype and (27.92 vs 22.09 %) in susceptible one. However, for prolonged periods of CS, changes in demethylated bands in tolerant genotype were higher than that of in susceptible one (9.24 vs 4.13 %), indicating higher potential for activation of CS responsive genes. Such a status along with higher activity of antioxidants and less damage indices could be related to cold tolerance (CT) mechanisms in chickpea. Sequencing analysis confirmed the important role of some specific DNA sequences in creating CT with possible responsive components involved in CS. Thus, dynamic assessment using multi-dimensional approaches allows us to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events in creating CT, to comprehend better the

  17. Tomato spotted wilt virus glycoproteins exhibit trafficking and localization signals that are functional in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, M.; Verschoor, A.; Kormelink, R.; Rottier, P.; Goldbach, R.

    2001-01-01

    The glycoprotein precursor (G1/G2) gene of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was expressed in BHK cells using the Semliki Forest virus expression system. The results reveal that in this cell system, the precursor is efficiently cleaved and the resulting G1 and G2 glycoproteins are transported from th

  18. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  19. Breeding and genetics of lettuce against race 2 of Verticillium wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, is a destructive disease of lettuce in California. Verticillium resistance 1 (Vr1) confers resistance to race 1 isolates but is defeated by race 2 isolates, which are predicted to increase in prevalence. Three Plant Introductio...

  20. Silage of white oat under nitrogen fertilization and pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zamarchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forage conservation as silage is a way to provide good quality forage during grazing scarcity periods, in this way, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-wilting and nitrogen fertilization on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of white oat silage, in two harvest stages. The experiment was conducted in 2011 at UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos-PR, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks with two factorial arrangement and three replicates. The main treatments were six nitrogen doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1, and secondary the stages of cutting for silage: early flowering with and without pre-wilting, and at blooming without pre-wilting. It was observed that nitrogen fertilization promoted a reduction in pH and mineral content of the silage, reducing fiber content and increasing crude protein content (CP, when made at oat early flowering. The effect of pre-wilting in early flowering inhibits the production of effluents and has higher levels of CP, without any effect on the fermentation and nutritional value. The silage at blooming stage features better standards of fermentation, with lower pH and buffering capacity, but with lower nutritional value.

  1. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  2. Cultivation of the Pine Wilt Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Axenic Culture Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Jordan, W

    1982-01-01

    The pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been cultured axenically in vitro on soy peptone/yeast extract or modified Caenorhabditis medium supplemented with cholesterol and hemoglobin. Although growth, development and reproduction were best in soy peptone/yeast extract medium, satisfactory population size increases were observed in the chemically defined Caenorhaditis medium.

  3. The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular wilt pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadeta, K.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular wilts are among the most destructive plant diseases that occur in annual crops as well as in woody perennials. These diseases are generally caused by soil-borne bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that infect through the roots and enter the water-conducting xylem vessels where they proliferate a

  4. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium caro...

  5. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  6. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  7. Purified tomato spotted wilt virus particles support both genome replication and transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, van I.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purified Tomato spotted wilt virus particles were shown to support either genome replication or transcription in vitro, depending on the conditions chosen. Transcriptional activity was observed only upon addition of rabbit reticulocyte lysate, indicating a dependence on translation. Under these cond

  8. Analysis of the transcription initiation mechanism of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijsings, D.M.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Genome replication and transcription of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, genus Tospovirus ) follows in most aspects the general rules for negative strand RNA viruses with segmented genomes. One common feature is the occurrence of "cap snatching" during transcription initiation. During this process,

  9. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  10. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  11. Dynamics of genetic diversity of Tomato spotted wilt virus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among known tospoviruses, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) continues to be the major viral disease affecting a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Like many other RNA viruses, TSWV is known to maintain heterogeneous and divergent popul...

  12. Tomato spotted wilt virus nucleocapsid protein interacts with both viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc in planta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, D.M.O.G.; Borst, J.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) Gn and Gc glycoproteins were shown to induce the formation of (pseudo-) circular and pleomorphic membrane structures upon transient expression in plant cells. Furthermore, when singly expressed, Gc retains in the ER, while Gn is able to further migrate

  13. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  14. Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two host with laurel wilt: swampbay vs. avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of tre...

  15. Genome sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  16. APPLICATION OF PROPICONAZOLE IN MANAGEMENT OF LAUREL WILT DISEASE IN AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.) TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of Lauraceous plants caused by a fungus (Raffaelea spp.) that is carried by a recently introduced, nonnative ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease is devastating to Persea species including redbay (Persea borbonia) and avocado (Persea americana) trees i...

  17. Development and use of genic molecular markers (GMMs) for construction of a transcript map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujaria, Neha; Kumar, Ashish; Dauthal, Preeti; Dubey, Anuja; Hiremath, Pavana; Bhanu Prakash, A; Farmer, Andrew; Bhide, Mangla; Shah, Trushar; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Cook, Douglas R; May, Greg D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2011-05-01

    A transcript map has been constructed by the development and integration of genic molecular markers (GMMs) including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genic microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and intron spanning region (ISR)-based markers, on an inter-specific mapping population of chickpea, the third food legume crop of the world and the first food legume crop of India. For SNP discovery through allele re-sequencing, primer pairs were designed for 688 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of chickpea and 657 genes/ESTs of closely related species of chickpea. High-quality sequence data obtained for 220 candidate genic regions on 2-20 genotypes representing 9 Cicer species provided 1,893 SNPs with an average frequency of 1/35.83 bp and 0.34 PIC (polymorphism information content) value. On an average 2.9 haplotypes were present in 220 candidate genic regions with an average haplotype diversity of 0.6326. SNP2CAPS analysis of 220 sequence alignments, as mentioned above, provided a total of 192 CAPS candidates. Experimental analysis of these 192 CAPS candidates together with 87 CAPS candidates identified earlier through in silico mining of ESTs provided scorable amplification in 173 (62.01%) cases of which predicted assays were validated in 143 (82.66%) cases (CGMM). Alignments of chickpea unigenes with Medicago truncatula genome were used to develop 121 intron spanning region (CISR) markers of which 87 yielded scorable products. In addition, optimization of 77 EST-derived SSR (ICCeM) markers provided 51 scorable markers. Screening of easily assayable 281 markers including 143 CGMMs, 87 CISRs and 51 ICCeMs on 5 parental genotypes of three mapping populations identified 104 polymorphic markers including 90 markers on the inter-specific mapping population. Sixty-two of these GMMs together with 218 earlier published markers (including 64 GMM loci) and 20 other unpublished markers could be integrated into this genetic map. A genetic map developed here

  18. Evaluation of bacterial wilt resistance in tomato lines nearly isogenic for the Mi gene for resistance to root-knot

    OpenAIRE

    Deberdt, P.; Olivier, J; Thoquet, P; Quénéhervé, Patrick; Prior, P

    1999-01-01

    Resistance to bacterial wilt, caused by #Ralstonia solancearum$, in tomato lines CRA 66 and Caraïbo is reported to be decreased by root-knot nematode galling and by introduction of the #Mi$ gene for nematode resistance. The #Mi$ gene is located on tomato chromosome 6, which also carries a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to bacterial wilt. Bacterial wilt resistance was evaluated in F3-progenies derived from two crosses between near-isogenic lines Caraïbo x Carmido and CRA 6...

  19. Effects of stage of maturity at harvest, wilting and LAB inoculant on aerobic stability of wheat silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Z.G.; Khanal, Prabhat; Chen, Y.;

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study effects of cultivar, stage of maturity at harvest, wilting, and addition of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) inoculant at ensiling, and their interactions, on the aerobic stability of wheat silages. Wheat of two cultivars, harvested at the flowering or the milk stage...... to the results with cultivar, stage of maturity, wilting and inoculant as main effects, as well as their interactions. Cultivar and LAB inoculant had effects on silage composition and aerobic stability, with stage of maturity having an effect on aerobic losses, whereas wilting did not have effects on aerobic...

  20. Effect of Chitinase-Producing Strain V-8 on 3ontrolling Cotton Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen endophytic bacteria which is antag- onistic to cotton Fusarium wilt. [Method] Fresh cotton plants collected from cotton- growing areas in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province were used as experimental materials to isolate endophytic bacteria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-or- ganisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, antagonistic strains to cotton Fusarium wilt were screened. [Result] A total of 83 bacterial isolates were obtained from cotton plants grown in the fields, six of which were chitinase-productive bacte- ria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-organisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, strain V-8 which had the strongest antagonistic effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was screened. Strain V-8 had a wider anti- fungal spectrum with certain inhibitory effect on all the six important pathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum; it colonized stably in the rhizospheric soil of cotton, with a colonization density of up to 6.2x10s cfu/g fifty days after inoc- ulation; the relative effect on controlling cotton Fusarium wilt in pot test was 73.2%. The Findings of this study suggested that strain V-8 had great potential for biological control of cotton Fusarium wilt and could be taken as a substantial material for the cloning of chitinase genes. [Conclusion] The results from this study provides bases for the control of cotton fusarium wilt, as well as the exploitation of endophytic bac- teria resources in cotton and the development of novel biological pesticides.

  1. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Omari, Halima El; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    -conventional water resources such as saline/brackish water and treated waste water for irrigation. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to investigate the effect of irrigation with saline water on a local variety of chickpea. Irrigation with water of different salinity levels...... was carried out on pot experiments. Differences in water uptake and plant growth; as well as proline, soluble sugar, and Na+ and K+ contents of the plant were quantified. The results showed a negative relationship between increasing water salinity and most of the measured plant growth parameters. Irrigation...... these threshold values one may expect the crop yield parameters to be affected. The quantified responses also indicate the rate of change of yield parameters in response to the irrigation water salinity level. This could help in avoiding significant yield reduction when deciding on the irrigation water salinity...

  2. Exploring Western Ghats microbial diversity for antagonistic microorganisms against fungal phytopathogens of pepper and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. RAMKUMAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Newly isolated microbial cultures from Western Ghat soil samples of Kerala region in India were screened for antagonistic activity by well diffusion and dual culture plating against Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctonia solani, infecting pepper and chickpea, respectively. Bioactive samples were made by varying solvent extraction of the culture broths of the potent isolates belongs to Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Trichoderma. The efficacy of the isolates to produce other potent antifungal metabolites such as cell wall degrading enzymes, HCN and volatile compounds were also checked. Treatment with antagonistic isolates in vivo under greenhouse conditions revealed significant reduction of the disease intensity of foot rot disease of black pepper and collar rot of chick pea.

  3. Effect of irradiation and germination on trypsin inhibitor and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of irradiation (0.005-0.20 kGy) and subsequent germination on trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and protein content of chickpea, was studied. The results revealed a significant linear relation (r = -0.981 to -0.992) between the loss of TIA and germination time, and the rate of TIA destruction increased with irradiation dose (p < 0.05). Maximum destruction (43.8%) of the TIA occurred on germination for 120 hr of 0.20 kGy sample (from 330.0 to 185.3 TIU/g). Initially protein content was 21.7% and the value significantly increased to maximum levels of 27.5% and 27.9% in distilled and tap water respectively during germination for 120 hr of 0.10 kGy sample (p < 0.05). Protein contents were not affected by irradiation

  4. Changes in the inorganic status and enzyme activities in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekkhar V. Murumkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the level of some inorganic constituents and the activities of some important enzyme systems in senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been studied. In senescent leaves, a marked decline in the potassium and phosphorus contents was evident which was accompanied by the accumulation of calcium, silicon, chloride and manganese. Leaf senescence was accompanied by a great increase in hydrolytic processes, as revealed by the increase in the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ATPase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and 3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of nitrogen metabolism enzymes, namely nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase and alanine aminotransferase, and of photorespiratory enzymes -- phosphoglycolate phosphatase, glycolate oxidase and catalase, were lower in senescent leaves. Leaf senescence was further associated with an increase in the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, a considerable depression in pyruvate kinase activity, and a slight elevation in aldolase activity.

  5. Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ''bottle-neck'' to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome

  6. Modulation in radiation-induced changes in peroxidase activity with gibberellic acid in seedling's growth in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the effects of gamma irradiation (10 to 110 Kr) with gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) for peroxidase activity, in relation to early days of seedling's growth in Kabulic chickpea cultivar, Noor-91, were evaluated. Stimulation in peroxidase activity over control was recorded at all the irradiation treatments from 3rd to 8th day of seedling's development. Increase in peroxidase activity at 10 and 20 Kr was due to the increase in metabolic activity, while higher doses of gamma radiation account for the damaging action and production of peroxy radicals. However, stimulation in fresh weight was observed only at 10 Kr of gamma irradiation. Postmutagenic application of Ga/sub 3/ protect the seedlings from radiation injury, by increasing the peroxides activity, and increased the fresh weight of chickpea seedlings. (author)

  7. Genetic diversity studies and identification of SSR markers associated with Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum) resistance in cultivated pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. K. Singh; V. P. Rai; R. Chand; R. P. Singh; M. N. Singh

    2013-08-01

    Genetic diversity and identification of simple sequence repeat markers correlated with Fusarium wilt resistance was performed in a set of 36 elite cultivated pigeonpea genotypes differing in levels of resistance to Fusarium wilt. Twenty-four polymorphic sequence repeat markers were screened across these genotypes, and amplified a total of 59 alleles with an average high polymorphic information content value of 0.52. Cluster analysis, done by UPGMA and PCA, grouped the 36 pigeonpea genotypes into two main clusters according to their Fusarium wilt reaction. Based on the Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA and simple regression analysis, six simple sequence repeat markers were found to be significantly associated with Fusarium wilt resistance. The phenotypic variation explained by these markers ranged from 23.7 to 56.4%. The present study helps in finding out feasibility of prescreened SSR markers to be used in genetic diversity analysis and their potential association with disease resistance.

  8. Advances in Cotton Breeding for Resistance to Fusarium and Verticillium Wilt in the Last Fifty Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Gui-liang; MA Cun; ZHENG Chuan-lin; ZOU Ya-fei

    2003-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances in cotton breeding for resistance to fusarium andverticillium wilt in the last fifty years in China. The topics discussed include main achievements, experiences,problems and countermeasures for solving.

  9. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorp...

  10. Growth and Nitrogen Fixation in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed Chickpeas Grown under Drought and Well Watered Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Kurdali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K on plant growth, nitrogen uptake and N2-fixation in water stressed (FC1 and well watered (FC2 chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. For most of the growth parameters, it was found that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of almost all studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1 and Si50K+ (FC2 treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leave’s dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K- is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE. Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be also considered an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that the synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.

  11. Suitable gamma ray dose determination in order to induce genetic variation in kaboli chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of chickpea's use in Iran and its ability of being replaced to adjust the shortage of protein in dietary habits, yield production is very low. One of the main reasons for chickpea's low yield production is its sensitiveness to some diseases, pest and environmental stresses. Genetic variation in chickpea is very low, because of its self pollination. In breeding programs, genetic variation plays an essential role so that the induction of genetic variation in plant population is very important for the plant breeders. The induced mutation through different kinds of mutagens is one of the important ways of genetic variation. In this research, first the sensitiveness of four cultivars (ILC.486, Philip86, Bivinich, Jam) were assessed to different gamma ray doses (100, 200, 300, 400 Gy). The results showed that with an increase in gamma ray dose, the growth rate of chickpea's genotypes decreases. In this respect, the decrease of growth rate has a linear relationship with the gamma ray dose and it is independent from the genotypes. The root length is more sensitive to gamma ray doses than its shoot, and it was observed that at the low doses the root growth decreases, comparing to the shoot growth. On the other hand, in high doses of gamma ray growth abrasion (Ageotropism, Albinism and etc.) were observed. Some traits variation (such as leaf shape, leaf size, leaf color, Albinism, etc.) were seen in M2 generation, and finally to continue the project, three doses of gamma ray (150,200,250) were selected for the next year

  12. Nodulation, dry matter production and N2 fixation by fababean and chickpea as affected by soil moisture and potassium fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of three rates of K-fertilizer (0, 75, and 150 kg K2O/ha)on nodulation, dry matter production and N2 fixation by fababean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cirer arietinum L.) was evaluated in a pot experiment. The plants were subjected to three soil moisture regimes (low, 45-50%; moderate, 55-60% and high 75-80% of field capacity). 15N-isotope dilution method was employed to evaluate N2 fixation using a non-fixing chickpea genotype as a reference crop. Water restriction drastically affected dry matter production, nodulation and N2 fixation by both plant species. The negative effect of water stress on %N2 fixed was more prominent in chickpea (11-58%) than in fababean (68-81%) under low and high % of field capacity, respectively. Plant species differed in their response to K-fertilizer as a mean to enhance growth and overcome the stress conditions. The higher level of K fertilizer increased both dry matter production and total N2 fixed in fababean, but did not have any impact on chickpea. %N2 fixed, however, appeared to be unaffected by K fertilizer as a mean of alleviating drought stress in both plant species. Therefore, it appears that, under the experimental conditions, the beneficial effect of potassium on water-stressed fababean resulted from stimulation the growth rather than improving the N2-fixation efficiency. However, under well-watered plants, a high requirement of the symbiotic system to potassium is needed to ensure and optimal growth and N2-fixation. (author)

  13. Effect of some botanicals for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-inhabiting fungi infesting chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    RIZVI, Rose; MAHMOOD, Irshad; TIYAGI, Sartaj Ali; KHAN, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2009-2011 at the University Agricultural Research Farm to evaluate the efficacious nature of some botanicals such as Argemone mexicana, Calotropis procera, Solanum xanthocarpum, and Eichhornia echinulata in combination with normal as well as deep ploughing against plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-inhabiting fungi infesting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar K-850 in relation to its growth characteristics. Significant reduction was observed in the ...

  14. Role of Rhizobium Inoculation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Water Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahat Parveen; Sadiq, M.; Muzammil Saleem

    1999-01-01

    Two chickpea varieties viz., 90122 and 93081 were subjected to Rhizobium inoculation with BioPower under water stress conditions, imposed by withholding water. Stress reduced all the parameters including yield components and this effect was more pronounced by stress at reproductive stage as compared with vegetative stage. Rhizobium inoculation enhanced yield under both normal and stressed conditions, but its performance was better under normal than under stress. Rhizobium inoculation proved i...

  15. Galactinol synthase enzyme activity influences raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulation in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Kannan, Udhaya; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2016-05-01

    To understand raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) metabolism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO accumulation and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes activities were determined during seed development of chickpea genotypes with contrasting RFO concentrations. RFO concentration in mature seeds was found as a facilitator rather than a regulating step of seed germination. In mature seeds, raffinose concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 0.68 and 0.75 to 0.99 g/100 g, whereas stachyose concentrations varied from 0.79 to 1.26 and 1.70 to 1.87 g/100 g indicating significant differences between low and high RFO genotypes, respectively. Chickpea genotypes with high RFO concentration accumulated higher concentrations of myo-inositol and sucrose during early seed developmental stages suggesting that initial substrate concentrations may influence RFO concentration in mature seeds. High RFO genotypes showed about two to three-fold higher activity for all RFO biosynthetic enzymes compared to those with low RFO concentrations. RFO biosynthetic enzymes activities correspond with accumulation of individual RFO during seed development. PMID:26953100

  16. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  17. Physiological variability and in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosen, M. I.; Ahmed, A. U.; Islam, M. R.

    2010-07-01

    Physiological variability was studied in 10 isolates of Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea, collected from diverse agro climatic areas in Bangladesh. The optimum temperature and pH for the best mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea were 20 degree centigrade and 4.5, respectively. The mycelial radial growth increased with the temperature up to 20 degree centigrade thereafter it decreased gradually up to 30 degree centigrade and no growth was observed at 35 degree centigrade. Chickpea dextrose agar (CDA) medium supported the highest mycelial radial growth (79.17 mm). The quickest (in 5 days) sclerotia initiation was recorded on chickpea destrose agar and lentil dextrose agar (LDA) culture media while the highest number of spores (2.5104 mL{sup -}1) were recorded on LDA medium. The antagonist Trichoderma harzianum was found to be a good bio-control agent against B. cinerea. Among the seven fungicides Bavistin 50 WP (Carbendazim), CP-Zim 50 WP (Carbendazim), Sunphanate 70 WP (Thiophanate methyl) and Rovral 50 WP (Iprodione) were the most effective to inhibit the mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea at 500 mg L{sup -}1 concentration. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. The use of phenotypic correlations and factor analysis in determining characters for grain yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Cengiz; Ilhan Cagirgan, M

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of factor analysis in determining characters for yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate yield criteria in chickpea using phenotypic correlations and factor analysis. Factor 1 composed of biological yield, reaction to ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr.), plant height, grain yield and harvest index. Factor 2 consisted of branches and pods per plant. Factor 3 encompassed of only the grain weight. The total factors explained 92.9% of the total variance caused in the characters. The grain yield was positively and statistically significant correlated with biological yield, harvest index, plant height, branches and pods per plant, while it was negatively and statistically significant related with reaction to ascochyta blight and grain weight. Biological yield, harvest index, plant height and reaction to ascochyta blight instead of many selection criteria should previously be evaluated in selection to increase the grain yield in chickpea breeding programs. Pods per plant should be handed together with and branches per plant. Apart from the other selection criteria, the grain weight should solely be evaluated to select large grained genotypes. PMID:15198713

  19. Ralstonia solanacearum Pectin Methylesterase Is Required for Growth on Methylated Pectin but Not for Bacterial Wilt Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Tans-Kersten, Julie; Guan, Yanfen; Allen, Caitilyn

    1998-01-01

    Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum causes bacterial wilt, a serious disease of many crop plants. The pathogen produces several extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, including polygalacturonases (PGs) and pectin methylesterase (Pme). Pme removes methyl groups from pectin, thereby facilitating subsequent breakdown of this cell wall component by PGs, which are known bacterial wilt virulence factors. R. solanacearum PGs could not degrade 93% methylated pectin unless the substrate was...

  20. Comparison of Bacterial Community Structures in the Rhizoplane of Tomato Plants Grown in Soils Suppressive and Conducive towards Bacterial Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Shiomi, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Masaya; Onizuka, Tomoko; Marumoto, Takuya

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum is suppressed at the rhizoplane of tomato plants and that tomato bacterial wilt is suppressed in plants grown in a soil (Mutsumi) in Japan. To evaluate the biological factors contributing to the suppressiveness of the soil in three treated Mutsumi soils (chloroform fumigated soil; autoclaved soil mixed with intact Mutsumi soil; and autoclaved soil mixed with intact, wilt-conducive Yamadai soil) infested with R. solanacearum, we bi...

  1. mQTL-seq delineates functionally relevant candidate gene harbouring a major QTL regulating pod number in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shouvik; Singh, Mohar; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Rana, Jai C; Bansal, Kailash C; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-02-01

    The present study used a whole-genome, NGS resequencing-based mQTL-seq (multiple QTL-seq) strategy in two inter-specific mapping populations (Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46 and Pusa 256 × ILWC 46) to scan the major genomic region(s) underlying QTL(s) governing pod number trait in chickpea. Essentially, the whole-genome resequencing of low and high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals (constituting bulks) from each of these two mapping populations discovered >8 million high-quality homozygous SNPs with respect to the reference kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of the physically mapped SNPs was apparent from the identified 2,264 non-synonymous and 23,550 regulatory SNPs, with 8-10% of these SNPs-carrying genes corresponding to transcription factors and disease resistance-related proteins. The utilization of these mined SNPs in Δ (SNP index)-led QTL-seq analysis and their correlation between two mapping populations based on mQTL-seq, narrowed down two (Caq(a)PN4.1: 867.8 kb and Caq(a)PN4.2: 1.8 Mb) major genomic regions harbouring robust pod number QTLs into the high-resolution short QTL intervals (Caq(b)PN4.1: 637.5 kb and Caq(b)PN4.2: 1.28 Mb) on chickpea chromosome 4. The integration of mQTL-seq-derived one novel robust QTL with QTL region-specific association analysis delineated the regulatory (C/T) and coding (C/A) SNPs-containing one pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene at a major QTL region regulating pod number in chickpea. This target gene exhibited anther, mature pollen and pod-specific expression, including pronounced higher up-regulated (∼3.5-folds) transcript expression in high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two mapping populations especially during pollen and pod development. The proposed mQTL-seq-driven combinatorial strategy has profound efficacy in rapid genome-wide scanning of potential candidate gene(s) underlying trait-associated high-resolution robust QTL(s), thereby

  2. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  3. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Oguro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015 doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2].

  4. Thyme essential oil as a defense inducer of tomato against gray mold and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jabeur, Maissa; Ghabri, Emna; Myriam, Machraoui; Hamada, Walid

    2015-09-01

    The potential of thyme essential oil in controlling gray mold and Fusarium wilt and inducing systemic acquired resistance in tomato seedlings and tomato grown in hydroponic system was evaluated. Thyme oil highly reduced 64% of Botrytis cinerea colonization on pretreated detached leaves compared to untreated control. Also, it played a significant decrease in Fusarium wilt severity especially at7 days post treatment when it was reduced to 30.76%. To explore the plant pathways triggered in response to thyme oil, phenolic compounds accumulation and peroxidase activity was investigated. Plant response was observed either after foliar spray or root feeding in hydroponics which was mostly attributed to peroxidases accumulation rather than phenolic compounds accumulation, and thyme oil seems to be more effective when applied to the roots. PMID:26002413

  5. In vitro mutation induction for resistance to Fusarium wilt in the banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, which is one of the world's principal banana production regions, almost all production is consumed within the country. Consumers show high preference for the cultivar Maca (AAB group). However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to produce bananas of this type because of their high susceptibility to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Sexual breeding, which consists of recombination and selection, is limited in the banana because of polyploidy and sterility. Spontaneous somatic mutations are an important source of new cultirvars, and mutation breeding might be particularly important to generate genetic variation. Because of this, the mutation breeding approach has been used in Brazil. The objective of this research was to induce gamma ray mutations for resistance or to increase the level of tolerance to Fusarium wilt in the banana cultivar Maca on the basis of screening under field conditions. 4 refs

  6. An improved electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction method for the detection of Fusarium wilts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wei; Xiao Ming Zhou

    2008-01-01

    An improved electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method was developed and applied to detect Fusarium wilt. Briefly, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp Cubense (FOC) was amplified by PCR. Two universal fragments, which were complimentary to Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR) labeled probe and Biotin labeled probe, respectively, were connected to the tail of primers so that all the PCR products got universal sequences. Then biotin labeled probes and TBR labeled probes were hybridized with the PCR products at the same time. Through the specific interaction between biotin and streptavidin, the PCR products were captured by streptavidin coated magnetic bead and then detected by ECL assay. The experiment results showed that the healthy banana samples and infected ones can be discriminated by this ECL-PCR method. This improved ECL-PCR approach is useful in Fusarium wilt detection due to its high sensitivity, simplicity and stability.

  7. Fermentation and Proteolysis During the Ensilage of Wilted and Unwilted Diploid and Tetraploid Red Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary PURWIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the following factors were analyzed in the study: wilting degree, genetic form of red clover (2n – 4n, cultivars within the genetic form: 2n (Krynia, Parada, 4n (Jubilatka, Bona and DM x form, DM x 2n, DM x 4n. Fermentation and proteolysis during the ensilage of red clover were affected primarily by wilting, whereas genetic factors (genetic form, cultivar exerted a lesser effect. However, the genetic form of red clover affected the true protein content of silage and the extent of proteolysis during the ensiling process. The effect of the genetic form of red clover on the extent of proteolysis in silage (at similar levels of water-soluble carbohydrates and buffering capacity suggests that diploid and tetraploid red clover cultivars differ with respect to chemical properties (poliphenol oxidase activity, polyphenol content affecting proteolysis.

  8. Nematode Control Related to Fusarium Wilt in Soybean and Root Rot and Zinc Deficiency in Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Minton, N. A.; Parker, M. B.; Sumner, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Nematode and disease problems of irrigated, double-cropped soybean and corn, and zinc deficiency of corn were investigated. Ethylene dibromide, phenamiphos, and aldicarb were equally effective for controlling nematodes and increasing yields of corn planted minimum-till and soybean planted in a moldboard plow prepared seedbed. The residual effects on yields of nematicides applied to the preceeding crop occurred during 3 years for soybean and 1 year for corn. Fusarium wilt symptoms of soybean t...

  9. Silage of white oat under nitrogen fertilization and pre-wilting

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Zamarchi; Paulo Sergio Pavinato; Luis Fernando Glasenapp Menezes; Thomas Newton Martin

    2014-01-01

    The forage conservation as silage is a way to provide good quality forage during grazing scarcity periods, in this way, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-wilting and nitrogen fertilization on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of white oat silage, in two harvest stages. The experiment was conducted in 2011 at UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos-PR, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks with two factorial arrangement and three replicates. The main treatmen...

  10. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia; Dery Sylvester Kuuna; Philippe René; Baudouin Luc; Nipah Joseph Owusu; Nkansah-Poku Joe; Arthur Ransford; Dare Daniel; Yankey Egya Ndede; Pilet Fabian; Dollet Michel

    2009-01-01

    The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD) is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY) and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD) and Vanuatu Tall (VTT), have shown high resistance to the diseas...

  11. Recent Trends in Control Methods for Bacterial Wilt Diseases Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliar,; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomy...

  12. Use of additives and pre-wilting in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage production

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Abbado Neres; Paula Regina Hermes; João Paulo Ames; Maximilliane Alavarse Zambom; Deise Dalazen Castagnara; Leiliane Cristine de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The use of tropical grasses silage has become common in ruminant feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, nutritional value, pH, fermentative capacity, ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (NH3N/total N) of Tifton 85 bermudagrass grass silage with different additives and wilting. The treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before silage, use of inoculant-enzymatic addition of soybean hulls, corn grits addition and use of salt in the surface lay...

  13. Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects, resulting in severe economical losses. Among the plant viruses, TSWV and the other tospoviruses form a distinct group. Taxonomically, they surprisingly do not belong to a plant virus family, but to a virus family which further consists of animal-infe...

  14. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M. The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogenic isolates caused root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants. All tested antioxidant compounds reduced damping-off, root rot/wilt and area under root rot/wilt progress curve when used as seed soaking, seedling soaking, and soil drench especially at 200 ppm under greenhouse and field conditions compared with untreated plants. All chemicals increased fresh and dry weight of seedling grown in soil drenching or seed treatment with any antioxidants. At the same time, all tested chemicals significantly increase plant growth parameters i.e plant length, plant branching, and total yield per plant in case of seedling soaking or soil drench. In general, propylgalate at 200 ppm was more efficient in reducing infection with damping-off, root rot and wilt diseases as well as increasing the seedling fresh weight, dry weight, plant length, plant branching, number of pod plant-1 and pod yield plant-1. On the other hand, all tested antioxidants had less or no effect on mycelial dry weight and mycelial leaner growth. On the contrary, all chemicals much reduced spore formation in both Fusarium species at 100 or 200 ppm and the inhibitory effect of antioxidants increased with increasing their concentrations.

  15. Induced resistance to Fusarium wilt of banana by exogenous applications of indoleacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Falcón, Marino; Borges, Andrés A.; Borges-Pérez, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, is a soliborne systemic disease which occludes host vascular system. We report here two experiments on resistance induction with banana plants (cv. Dwarf Cavendish) carried out in glass greehouse with different indoleacetic acid treatments, which are capable of inducing resistance to Panama disease. The results obtained in these experiments suggest that the exogenous application of indoleacetic acid to banan...

  16. Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM; Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The test...

  17. Efficacy of resistance selection to Verticillium wilt in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jadwiga I. Żebrowska

    2012-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. causes economic losses in crops in temperate regions of the world and hence is the most studied species. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) belongs to plant species susceptible to Verticillium dahliae, although the response to infection caused by this pathogen is varied and depends on the cultivar. Due to a lack of efficient methods in Verticillium wilt elimination, the selection of genetically resistant plant material is a prior...

  18. Herbicide-induced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cotton and Gossypol Production of Host Cells

    OpenAIRE

    CANIHOŞ, Yeter

    2000-01-01

    Pretreating cotton seeds with some herbicidies used in cotton-growing areas of the Çukurova region markedly increased cotton resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Haloxyfob and linuron reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen in both solid and liquid cultures. However, prometryn was more effective in plant development than linuron and haloxyfob. Synthesis of Phytoalexin gossypol was significantly produced in inoculated cotton plants compared with u...

  19. Routine mapping of Fusarium wilt resistance in BC1 populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C Diener

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Six RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (FOM) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the F1 hybrid (BC1). In particular, ...

  20. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-09-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  1. Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Hwang, In Cheon; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Beom Seok

    2012-04-01

    A number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of Trapa japonica. Of these, strain KPE62302H, which had a 16S rDNA sequence identical to that of Streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. Treatment of seeds with strain KPE62302H induced a significant reduction in the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. An antifungal substance (FP-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain KPE62302H using C18 flash and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III. FP-1 inhibited the mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria mali, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Diaporthe citiri, Fusarium oxysporum at 1-10 μg ml(-1) and also markedly inhibited the development of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants by treatment with 10 μg ml(-1) under greenhouse conditions. The efficacy of FP-1 against Fusarium wilt was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide benomyl. An egfp -tagged strain of KPE62302H confirmed its ability to colonize tomato plants. PMID:22460913

  2. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  3. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  4. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  5. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  6. Effects of soil application of fly ash on the fusarial wilt on tomato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.R.; Singh, W.N. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Plant Protection, Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Institute of Agricultural Science

    2001-07-01

    A study was carried out in microplots to evaluate the effect of fly ash on the plant growth and yield of tomato cultivars, Pusa Ruby, Pusa Early Dwarf and New Uday, and on wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Fly ash was applied to soil by broadcast or in rows at the rate of 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg ash m{sup -2} in place of inorganic fertilizers. In control plots, NPK (about 40 : 20 : 20 kg acre{sup -1}) and compost were added in place of fly ash. Ash application greatly increased the soil contents of P, K, B, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, carbonates, bicarbonates and sulphates. Plants grown in the ash-treated plots, especially at 3 or 4 kg dose, showed luxuriant growth and greener foliage, and plant growth and yield of the three cultivars were significantly increased in comparison with the plants grown in plots without fly ash. The wilt fungus, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersiciat the inoculum level of 2 g plant{sup -1} caused significant suppression of growth and yield in all three cultivars. Application of fly ash, however, checked the suppressive effect of the fungus, leading to a significant increase in the considered variables compared with the inoculated control. Soil population of the fungus gradually decreased with an increase in ash dose. Row application was found to be relatively more effective in enhancing the yield of tomato cultivars and suppressing the wilt disease.

  7. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

  8. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Joseph R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an arti...

  9. Relationships between transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in chickpea (C. arietinum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kashiwagi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse pot experiments were carried out in 2004 to check if there are any variations available for carbon isotope discrimination (d13C, to investigate the relationship between d13C and transpiration efficiency (TE, and to ascertain the possibility of using d13C as a surrogate for TE measurements. Ten chickpea genotypes (Annigeri, ICC 10448, ICC 13219, ICC 14199, ICC 1882, ICC 283, ICC 4958, ICC 5337, ICC 5680 and ICC 8261 with contrasting growth duration, type (desi or kabuli, growth habit and root system were used. In the well-watered pots (control, the water lost in a day was added back, whereas in the water stress-imposed pots the water, which is equivalent to 70-90% of daily transpiration, was given to avoid the rapid build up of soil water stress. There were significant differences in d13C among the 10 genotypes and the d13C in stress condition was significantly higher than that in the well-wateredcontrol. Genotype ICC 5337 showed the highest d13C (-26.0% in the stress condition. ICC 4958, a well-known drought-resistant cultivar, had superior d13C value than the other genotypes. ICC 4958 ranked second (-27.2% under stress condition and the first (-28.4% in the well-watered control condition. The genotype by irrigation (G x I interaction was significant for d13C. Among 10 genotypes, a significant difference in TE was observed in both irrigated and stress conditions. Genotype ICC 5337 showed the highest TE irrespective of irrigations of 3.9 g/kg under stress and 2.8 g/kg under well-watered control. The TE under stress was significantly higher than the TE under the control. There was a significant correlation in TE between the stress and control conditions and there was no G x I interaction observed. A significant positive correlation between d13C and TE was observed under the stress condition. However, no significant correlation was observed between d13C and TE when the plants were grown under well-watered conditions. The results shows

  10. Remobilisation of carbon and nitrogen supports seed filling in chickpea subjected to water deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Mediterranean-type environment of south-western Australia, pod filling of chickpea occurs when net photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation is low as a result of the onset of terminal drought. Remobilization of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from vegetative parts to developing seed may be an important alternative source of C and N for seed filling. The contribution of stored pre-podding C and N to seed filling was studied by labelling the vegetative tissues with the stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, prior to podding and following their subsequent movement to the seed. In ICCV88201, an advanced desi breeding line, 9% of the C and 67% of the N in the seed were derived from pre-podding C and N in well-watered plants compared with 13% of the seed C and 88% of the seed N in water-stressed plants. Furthermore, the contribution of pre-podding C and N was higher for earlier set compared with later set seeds. Pre-podding C and N were derived predominantly from the leaves with relatively little from the stems, roots, and pod walls. Genotypic variation in remobilization ability was identified in contrasting desi (Tyson) and kabuli (Kaniva) cultivars. In well-watered Tyson, 9% of the seed C and 85% of the seed N were remobilised from vegetative tissues compared with 7% of the seed C and 62% of seed N in well-watered Kaniva. Water deficit decreased the amount of C remobilized by 3% in Tyson compared with 66% in Kaniva, whereas the total amount of N remobilized was decreased by 11% in Tyson and 48% in Kaniva. This was related to the maintenance of greater sink strength in Tyson, in which the number of filled pods was reduced by 66% in stressed plants compared with a 91% decrease in Kaniva. This indicates that better drought tolerance in desi genotypes is partly a consequence of better remobilization and higher pod number. These studies show that C and N assimilated prior to podding can supplement the supply of current assimilates to the filling seed in both well-watered and water

  11. Assessment of the estrogenic activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) sprout isoflavone extract in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong MA; Jie WANG; Hong-xue QI; Yan-hua GAO; Li-juan PANG; Yi YANG; Zhen-hua WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is a traditional Uighur herb.In this study we investigated the estrogenic activities of the isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) in ovariectomized rats.Methods:Ten-week-old virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX).The rats were administered via intragastric gavage 3 different doses of ICS (20,50,or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) for 5 weeks.Their uterine weight and serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured.The epithelial height,number of glands in the uterus,and number of osteoclasts in the femur were histologically quantified,and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed immunohistochemically.Bone structural parameters,including bone mineral density (BMD),bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured using Micro-CT scanning.Results:Treatments of OVX rats with ICS (50 or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced significant estrogenic effects on the uteruses,including the increases in uterine weight,epithelial height and gland number,as well as in the expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.The treatments changed the secretory profile of ovarian hormones and pituitary gonadotropins:serum E2 level was significantly increased,while serum LH and FSH levels were decreased compared with the vehicle-treated OVX rats.Furthermore,the treatments significantly attenuated the bone loss,increased BMD,BV/TV and Tb.Th and decreased Tb.Sp and the number of osteoclasts.Treatment of OVX rats with the positive control drug E2 (0.25 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced similar,but more prominent effects.Conclusion:ICS exhibits moderate estrogenic activities as compared to E2 in ovariectomized rats,suggesting the potential use of ICS for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.

  12. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  13. Children as Illustrators: A Transcultural Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Al

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses his cross cultural study of the painting styles of 9- to 12-year-old children in Australia, New Zealand, and South Korea. He compares their art products--all illustrations of the Noah's Ark story. A sample of the drawings illustrates the text. (SJL)

  14. Illustrating Reports. Publication No. 82.61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Nancy Baenen

    The Austin Independent School District, Office of Research and Evaluation presents several types of illustrations it has used to make reports more attractive and inviting to readers: (1) clip art collection, (2) other illustration collections, (3) student art, (4) photographs, and (5) press-on lettering and pictures. Suggestions for obtaining and…

  15. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the CaNAC family members in chickpea during development, dehydration and ABA treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Van Ha

    Full Text Available The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control, dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought.

  17. Natural incidence of aflatoxins, mycological profile and molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic strains in chickpea flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%). (author)

  18. Response of rainfed chickpea (cicer arietnum L.) to tween row spatial arrangement at multiple densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant density and arrangement are important factors affecting rainfed chickpea yield. A field experiment was conducted under the Eastern Mediterranean conditions for two consecutive growing seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011) to evaluate the effects of plant density (20, 25, 35 and 55 plants per m 2) and spatial configuration (conventional single 36-cm row width vs 18-cm twin rows spaced 72-cm between paired-rows). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Light interception (LI) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by plant density. Twin-row arrangement had higher light interception efficiency (LIE) than the single-row. Plants grown in the higher plant densities had greater LAI and LI; however, they had inefficient use of incident solar radiation. The number of primary branches was significantly affected by both planting patterns and plant densities, but the number of secondary branches was significantly affected only by the plant densities. The number of pods and seeds/plant decreased with the increasing plant density. The highest seed weight/plant was recorded at the lowest density (20 plants/m2) while the lowest one was recorded at the highest plant density (55 plants/m2). Seed weight and harvest index in the twin row were significantly higher in tween row than in the single row. (author)

  19. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-11-15

    The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from ∼ 66.5 mN m(-1) for CPI to ∼ 59.1 m Nm(-1) for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from -27.55 mV to -16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values. PMID:25977033

  20. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  1. Physicochemical and structural evaluation of alkali extracted chickpea starch as affected by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-08-01

    In this study, starch isolated from chickpea was exposed to gamma-irradiation at 0, 4, 8 and 12kGy doses. The irradiated starches were evaluated for their physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties. The results revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in apparent amylose content, swelling power, turbidity, syneresis, L (lightness) value, and pasting parameters whereas solubility and b (yellowness) value increased with increase in irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction showed C-type of crystallographic pattern. Relative crystallinity (RC) of irradiated starches was different at different irradiation doses. Prominent changes were recorded in the FT-IR spectra of irradiated starch samples with respect to intensity and shifting of major bands in specific regions. Analysis of O - H and C - H stretches, bending mode of water and glycoside bonds of irradiated starches revealed marked decrease in their absorbance intensities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracking and clumping of starch granules at elevated doses of gamma-irradiation. Radiation doses were negatively correlated to swelling power, pasting parameters (peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity and pasting temperature), turbidity, syneresis and apparent amylose content except solubility. PMID:27132882

  2. Assimilatory potential of Helicoverpa armigera reared on host (Chickpea) and nonhost (Cassia tora) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; Gupta, Vidya S; Slade, Susan E; Giri, Ashok P

    2011-11-01

    Adaptation to plant allelochemicals is a crucial aspect of herbivore chemical ecology. To understand an insect ecology, we studied an effect of nonhost Cassia tora seed-based diet (Ct) on growth, development, and molecular responses in Helicoverpa armigera. We employed a comparative approach to investigate the proteomic differences in gut, hemolymph, and frass of H. armigera reared on a normal (chickpea seed-based, Cp) and Ct diet. In this study, a total of 46 proteins were identified by nano-LC-MS(E). Among them, 17 proteins were up-regulated and 29 proteins were down-regulated when larvae were exposed to the Ct diet. Database searches combined with GO analysis revealed that gut proteases engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification were down-regulated in the Ct fed larvae. Proteins identified in H. armigera hemolymph were found to be involved in defense mechanisms. Moreover, proteins found in frass of the Ct fed larvae were observed to participate in energy metabolism. Biochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of selected candidate proteins showed differential gene expression patterns and corroborated with the proteomic data. Our results suggest that the Ct diet could alter expression of proteins related to digestion, absorption of nutrients, adaptation, defense mechanisms, and energy metabolism in H. armigera. PMID:21936543

  3. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-01-01

    Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt). The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates), Fusarium solani (4 isolates) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates). The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. �Giza 3�. Response of chickpea cvs. �Giza 1�, �Giza 2�, �Giza 3�, �Giza 4�, �Giza 88�, �Giza 195�, �Giza 531� to infection by the tested fungi...

  4. Production of indole acetic acid by Pseudomonas sp.: effect of coinoculation with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer on nodulation and plant growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Deepak K.; Sindhu, Satyavir S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and green gram (Vigna radiata) were found to produce significant amount of indole acetic acid (IAA) when grown in a LB medium broth supplemented with L-tryptophan. Seed bacterization of chickpea cultivar C235 with different Pseudomonas isolates showed stunting effect on the development of root and shoot at 5 and 10 days of seedling growth except the strains MPS79 and MPS90 that showed stimulation of root growt...

  5. IAA-producing rhizobacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) induce changes in root architecture and increase root biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Coronado, Rosario Alicia; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco Roberto; García-Pérez, Luz María; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobacteria promote and have beneficial effects on plant growth, making them useful to agriculture. Nevertheless, the rhizosphere of the chickpea plant has not been extensively examined. The aim of the present study was to select indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of chickpea plants for their potential use as biofertilizers. After obtaining a collection of 864 bacterial isolates, we performed a screen using the Salkowski reaction for the presence of auxin compounds (such as IAA) in bacterial Luria-Bertani supernatant (BLBS). Our results demonstrate that the Salkowski reaction has a greater specificity for detecting IAA than other tested auxins. Ten bacterial isolates displaying a wide range of auxin accumulation were selected, producing IAA levels of 5 to 90 μmol/L (according to the Salkowski reaction). Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA partial sequences: 9 isolates belonged to Enterobacter, and 1 isolate was classified as Serratia. The effect of BLBS on root morphology was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana. IAA production by rhizobacteria was confirmed by means of a DR5::GFP construct that is responsive to IAA, and also by HPLC-GC/MS. Finally, we observed that IAA secreted by rhizobacteria (i) modified the root architecture of A. thaliana, (ii) caused an increase in chickpea root biomass, and (iii) activated the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by the DR5 promoter. These findings provide evidence that these novel bacterial isolates may be considered as putative plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria modifying root architecture and increasing root biomass. PMID:25231840

  6. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Microbial Biomass N in the Rhizosphere of Chickpea as Estimated by 15N Isotope Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiment was carried out with chickpea that cultivated in virgin sandy soil and inoculated with Rhizobium (Rh), mycorrhizea (VAM) and mixture of both. The objective of this work is the estimation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and microbial biomass N (MBN) contribution as affected by inoculation and N and P fertilizers levels under chickpea plants. Nitrogen gained from air (Ndf A) was determined using 15N isotope dilution technique, while the MBN was detected through the fumigation-extraction method. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied at three levels, 0; 10 ppm N and 3.3 ppm P and 20 ppm Nand 6.6 ppm P in the form of (15NH4)2SO4 and super-phosphate, respectively. The effect of inoculation and chemical fertilizers on dry matter (DM), N and P uptake (shoot and grain), BNF and MBN were traced. The obtained data revealed that the highest DM and N uptake by chickpea shoot were recorded with the dual inoculation (Rh + VAM) at the moderate level of N and P fertilizers, while the highest DM, N and P uptake by grain were recorded with Rh solely at the same rate of fertilizers. It was clear that inoculation with Rh either alone or in combination with VAM substituted considerable amounts of N via BNF process. In this respect, dual inoculation is still superior over single inoculation. Percentages of N2-fixed was ranged from 45% to 73% in shoot while it was 27% to 69% in grain according to inoculation and fertilization treatments. Fixed N utilized by shoot was positively affected by increasing the N fertilizer rate while that derived by grain was not affected. The fluctuation in the soil microbial biomass N did not gave us a chance to recognize, exactly, the impact of inoculation and/or fertilization levels. (Authors)

  7. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed. PMID:22476900

  8. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the watershed.

  9. Allelopathic potential of Euphorbia helioscopia L. against wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)

    OpenAIRE

    TANVEER, Asif; REHMAN, Aqeel; JAVAID, MUHAMMAD MANSOOR; ABBAS, Rana Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating the allelopathic effect of root, stem, leaf, and fruit water extracts and infested soil of Euphorbia helioscopia L. on the seed germination and seedling growth of wheat, chickpea, and lentil were conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. Water extracts of root, stem, leaf, and fruit were prepared by soaking dried plant parts of E. helioscopia in water (1:20 w/v) for a period of 24 h. Seedling emergence, seedling vigor index, and total dry weight of...

  10. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  11. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:26250808

  12. Effect of a rock dust amendment on disease severity of tomato bacterial wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Gang; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Nutrients are important for growth and development of plants and microbes, and they are also important factors in plant disease control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rock dust used as a fertilizer in maintaining health of soil and tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. Four treatments-including M (commercial organic fertilizer), A (rock dust soil amendment), M + A (commercial organic fertilizer + rock dust soil amendment) and CK (blank control)--were examined for their effect on soil properties, soil enzymatic activity, plant growth and control efficacy against tomato bacterial wilt. Treatments A and M + A were significantly better than other treatments in changing soil pH, increasing it from acidic (pH 5.13) to nearly neutral (pH 6.81 and 6.70, respectively). Enzymatic activities in soil were notably influenced by the different treatments--particularly treatment M + A, which increased the activities of alkaline phosphatase, urease, catalase and sucrase to a greater extent in soil. There was no significant difference (P effects of treatments A and M + A on tomato plant height, stem diameter and biomass. The effect of the four treatments on the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate (in decreasing order) were M + A, A, M and CK. The replicate greenhouse experiments showed that the control efficacies of treatments M + A, A, and M against bacterial wilt were respectively 89.99, 81.11 and 8.89 % in first experiment and with the efficacies of 84.55, 74.36, and 13.49 % in the replicate; indicating that rock dust played a key role in the plant-soil interaction. The raised soil pH and Ca content were the key factors for the rock dust amendment controlling bacterial wilt under greenhouse conditions. PMID:22847260

  13. Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Liu, Xin; Li, Chunyu; Tian, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R. solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R. solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil. PMID:24632400

  14. Improved horticultural practices against leaf wilting, root rot and nutrient uptake in mango (mangiferaindica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor plant health condition due to various known biotic and abiotic stresses; becoming a disaster in each mango growing country of the world including Pakistan. On the basis of previous researches on the identification of pathogen and several abiotic factors; Soil drenching and foliar spray of various concentrations of Topsin M (TMIC), Aliette (ATP) and Ridomil Gold (ACE) in combination with CuSO/sub 4/(Copper sulphate) was done on mango plants of cv. S.B. (Samar Bahist) Chaunsa showing wilting of leaves and shoots. Foliar application of micro-nutrients (Fe, B and Zn) (Iron, Boron and Zinc) was also practiced to improve general health of experimental plants Month-wise emergence of flushes was significantly higher in all treated plants compared with control. Percentage of wilted leaves and root rot in plants, which received drenching and foliar treatments, was significantly reduced (50%) compared with untreated plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P and K) levels in leaves were significantly improved in treated plants compared with control. Sigmoid relatioship was observed between fungicides and copper sulphate concentrations and uptake of N, P and K in treated plants. Application of 250g ATP fungicide by foliar spray plus 125g by soil drench, each along with 50g CuSO/sub 4/proved to be the best against leaf wilting and it improved the N and P level in leaves. While, application of 250g TMIC by foliar spray and 125g by soil drench, each with 50g CuSO/sub 4/, was found to be the best to reduce the spread of root rot in experimental plants. Preliminary spray of TMIC along with Copper sulphate is effective to improve plant health of mango cv. S.B. Chounsa. (author)

  15. Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

  16. Effect of Compost Amendment on Soil Microbial Community and Pathogen Cansing Fusarium Wilt Disease of Spinach

    OpenAIRE

    Escuadra, Gina M. Edurise; Usami, Toshiyuki; Amemiya, Yoshimiki; 宇佐見, 俊行; 雨宮,良幹

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different composts on soil microflora, pathogen and the development of Fusarium wilt of spinach caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, was assessed under three successive cultivations in the greenhouse. Composts of wheat bran, wheat bran and sawdust, coffee grounds, chicken manure and the mixture of composts with or without 5rabshell were applied into the infested soil at 5% (w/w) 30 days before the first cultivation and additional 2.5 0x1.56854bfff7acp-505fter the secon...

  17. Alleviating Effect of Phenol Compounds on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; ZHANG Chun-lan; SHEN Qi-rong

    2003-01-01

    The amount of phenol compounds in the soil increased after adding organic material into the soil. It was found that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and frulic acid alleviated Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the alleviating effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was the best, followed by p-coumaric acid and frulic acid. The total amount of bacterial, actinomyces and fungus in high phenol compounds treatment decreased than that of control treatment, while the microorganisms' amount in low phenol compounds treatment increased. Phenol compounds inhibit the growth of pathogen.

  18. Root and crown rot and wilt of tomatoes caused by fungal diseases in Ankara province.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan, S.; Maden, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ayaş, Beypazarı and Nallıhan districts of Ankara province during May-November 2003-2004 in order to detect fungal pathogens of tomato, and to find out the incidence, prevalence and occurrence times of these pathogens. It is detected that wilt and root rot pathogens causes important yield losses in tomato fields in Ankara. The incidences of the fungi isolated roots and crowns were 17.2 %, 0.96 %, 0.32 %, 0.91 %, 2.95 %,% 0.52 for Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, Fusa...

  19. Mutation breeding for resistance to downy mildew and ergot in Pennisetum and to Ascochyta in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutational rectification of the susceptible male steriles of otherwise food yield, and the pollen parents in pearl millet of the released hybrids has been completed successfully. The reconstituted hybrids were tested in National Coordination trials and one of them (NHB5) has been released for All-India cultivation during 1975. They were also tested in more than 2000 trials all over India in farmers' fields. The yield level of the released hybrid (NHB5) based on trials during the past four seasons is 19.2 Q/ha in 232 trials as compared to 14.5 Q/ha of HB-3 (old) based on 221 trials. Biochemical analysis of seedlings of the mutant male steriles resistant to downy mildew and their normal counterparts indicated larger peroxidase activity of high electrophoretic mobility in the resistant ones. In the trials of the reconstituted hybrids along with their normal counterparts the new hybrids proved at least as good in yield even in the absence of the disease in virulent form. Mutational rectification of the male sterile lines and pollen parents could be shown to provide resistance with wide adaptation. Nearly 400 tons of hybrid seed from mutational rectified parents has replaced the earlier hybrids and will cover an area of 80,000 ha in 1976 alone. The low incidence of downy mildew in the male sterile developed from the mutation breeding is likely to be horizontal resistance of greater stability. The M2 generation of chickpea showed appropriate skewed distribution of means for several of the 17 characters studied, including flowering time and yield

  20. Improvement of Chickpea Growth and Biological N Fixation under Water Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work had been carried out under greenhouse conditions of IAM-Bari, aimed at evaluating the effects of water and soil salinity on growth, yield and nitrogen fixation by chickpea plants inoculated with selected Rhizobium strains. Isotope dilution approach (15N) was applied for quantification of biological N fixation and portions derived from fertilizer and soil (Ndff and Ndfs, respectively). Number of pods was decreased gradually with increasing water salinity levels. High levels of salinity negatively affected shoot, root dry matter, seed yield and N accumulated in shoots and roots. A slight difference in seed N was noticed between fresh water and 9 dS/m treatments. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer by shoots was slightly increased with 3, 6 and 9 dS/m treatments, while they were notably higher than the fresh water control. More than 80% and 70% of N accumulated in shoots and seeds, respectively were derived from fixation. Portions of N2-fixed in shoots was decreased with the level of 3 dS/m as compared to the fresh water, then tended to increase with both 6 and 9 dS/m treatments. Stability of %Ndfa with increasing salinity was noticed with seeds-N. Soil-N came next as a fraction of nitrogen demand, where it increased with increasing water salinity levels. Under adverse conditions of salinity, the plants offered some of their N requirements from the other two N sources. Application of the suitable Rhizobium bacteria strains could be profits for both of the plant growth and soil fertility via N2 fixation. (Authors)

  1. IMPROVMENT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF AND ROOT ROT/WILT OF FABA BEAN BY SALICYLIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser F. Abdel-Monaim

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fields in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenici...

  2. Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate content, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) activities in three varieties of chickpea (drought tole

  3. Large-scale transcriptome analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an orphan legume crop of the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop in the semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa. Gains in crop productivity have been low however, particularly due to biotic and abiotic stresses. To help enhance crop productivity using molecular breeding techniques, next generation sequencing ...

  4. Optimization of energy consumption and environmental impacts of chickpea production using data envelopment analysis (DEA and multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Elhami

    2016-09-01

    In this study, optimization of energy consumption and environmental impacts of chickpea production was conducted using data envelopment analysis (DEA and multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA techniques. Data were collected from 110 chickpea production enterprises using a face to face questionnaire in the cropping season of 2014–2015. The results of optimization revealed that, when applying MOGA, optimum energy requirement for chickpea production was significantly lower compared to application of DEA technique; so that, total energy requirement in optimum situation was found to be 31511.72 and 27570.61 MJ ha−1 by using DEA and MOGA techniques, respectively; showing a reduction by 5.11% and 17% relative to current situation of energy consumption. Optimization of environmental impacts by application of MOGA resulted in reduction of acidification potential (ACP, eutrophication potential (EUP, global warming potential (GWP, human toxicity potential (HTP and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TEP by 29%, 23%, 10%, 6% and 36%, respectively. MOGA was capable of reducing the energy consumption from machinery, farmyard manure (FYM diesel fuel and nitrogen fertilizer (the mostly contributed inputs to the environmental emissions by 59%, 28.5%, 24.58% and 11.24%, respectively. Overall, the MOGA technique showed a superior performance relative to DEA approach for optimizing energy inputs and reducing environmental impacts of chickpea production system.

  5. Prebiotic Function of Alpha-Galactooligosaccharides from Chickpea Seeds%鹰嘴豆α-低聚半乳糖的肠道益生功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晋艳; 张芸; 李伟; 孙怡; 曾晓雄

    2011-01-01

    Crude chickpea extract was obtained from chickpea seeds by extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution by shaking and purified by medium-pressure activated carbon-diatomite column chromatography to obtain chickpea α-galactooligosacchardies(α-GOS) with different purities.The prebiotic function of α-GOS was evaluated by anaerobic fermentation method in vitro against human fecal bacteria and fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH).The results demonstrated that α-GOS in chickpea was an efficient proliferation factor to beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp.and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.,and an inhibitory factor to harmful bacteria such as Bacteroides prevotella group and Clostridium histolyticum group.During the anaerobic fermentation in vitro,the bacterial composition was affected by the addition of chickpea α-GOS.However,total bacterial number had no difference.In addition,the sample with the highest content of α-GOS(90%) showed the highest prebiotic index(PI,2.00).The PI of samples containingα-GOS at the content of 70%—80% and 80%—90% and crude chickpea extract were 1.39,1.73 and 0.89,respectively,while the PI of the control sample without saccharide addition was-0.29.Therefore,α-GOS in chickpea had an excellent prebiotic function.%以鹰嘴豆为材料,通过提取与活性炭-硅藻土柱层析分离纯化,制备鹰嘴豆粗提物和不同纯化程度的鹰嘴豆α-低聚半乳糖(α-GOS)样品。采用体外厌氧粪样混合培养与荧光原位杂交技术,评价鹰嘴豆α-GOS的益生功能。结果表明:鹰嘴豆α-GOS对肠道有益菌(双歧杆菌、乳酸菌)有较好的增殖作用,而对有害菌(拟杆菌、梭状菌)的生长有一定的抑制作用;鹰嘴豆α-GOS只是改变了肠道内菌体的组成,而对总体菌群的数量基本没有影响;α-GOS含量高于90%的鹰嘴豆α-GOS样品的益生指数(PI)最高(2.00),α-GOS含量为70

  6. Prioritization of candidate genes in “QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sandip M; Jaganathan, Deepa; Ruperao, Pradeep; Chen, Charles; Punna, Ramu; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Katta, Mohan AVSK; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Garg, Vanika; Kishor, P B Kavi; Gaur, Pooran M; Nguyen, Henry T; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Sutton, Tim; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    A combination of two approaches, namely QTL analysis and gene enrichment analysis were used to identify candidate genes in the “QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance present on the Ca4 pseudomolecule in chickpea. In the first approach, a high-density bin map was developed using 53,223 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICC 4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought sensitive) cross. QTL analysis using recombination bins as markers along with the phenotyping data for 17 drought tolerance related traits obtained over 1–5 seasons and 1–5 locations split the “QTL-hotspot” region into two subregions namely “QTL-hotspot_a” (15 genes) and “QTL-hotspot_b” (11 genes). In the second approach, gene enrichment analysis using significant marker trait associations based on SNPs from the Ca4 pseudomolecule with the above mentioned phenotyping data, and the candidate genes from the refined “QTL-hotspot” region showed enrichment for 23 genes. Twelve genes were found common in both approaches. Functional validation using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated four promising candidate genes having functional implications on the effect of “QTL-hotspot” for drought tolerance in chickpea. PMID:26478518

  7. Potential of recycling gamma-irradiated sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer: a study on chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated sludge were found to be significantly reduced. This inhibition in growth was found to be nullified when plants were grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge, suggesting that gamma radiation induced inactivation of toxic substance(s) in sludge. The protein content of plants grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge was also found to be significantly increased compared to those grown with unirradiated or no sludge, after 45 days. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiated sludge on shoot length, total soluble sugars, starch content and yield of chickpea plants. The results obtained suggest that the sludge tested, and obtained from the digester of a conventional domestic sewage treatment plant, is inhibitory to several growth parameters. Gamma irradiation of sewage resulted in removal of this inhibition. This suggests a possibility of beneficial and safe recycling of gamma-irradiated sludge for agricultural uses. (author)

  8. Phospholipid mediated activation of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1 from chickpea: a new paradigm of regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Dixit

    Full Text Available Phospholipids, the major structural components of membranes, can also have functions in regulating signaling pathways in plants under biotic and abiotic stress. The effects of adding phospholipids on the activity of stress-induced calcium dependent protein kinase (CaCDPK1 from chickpea are reported here. Both autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of the added substrate were enhanced specifically by phosphatidylcholine and to a lesser extent by phosphatidic acid, but not by phosphatidylethanolamine. Diacylgylerol, the neutral lipid known to activate mammalian PKC, stimulated CaCDPK1 but at higher concentrations. Increase in V(max of the enzyme activity by these phospholipids significantly decreased the K(m indicating that phospholipids enhance the affinity towards its substrate. In the absence of calcium, addition of phospholipids had no effect on the negligible activity of the enzyme. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity of the CaCDPK1 protein was quenched on adding PA and PC. Higher binding affinity was found with PC (K(½ = 114 nM compared to PA (K(½ = 335 nM. We also found that the concentration of PA increased in chickpea plants under salt stress. The stimulation by PA and PC suggests regulation of CaCDPK1 by these phospholipids during stress response.

  9. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  10. effect of two rock phosphates and inoculation with VA mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the chickpea-rhizobium symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted tracing the effect of two types of phosphorus applied at different rates on the release of nitrogen from fertilizer and its impact on biological nitrogen fixation . chickpea (Cicer Arietinum c v. Cicer 36-ICARDA) was inoculated with peat-based inoculum of phosphorin (Bacillus Megatherium phosphate solubilizing bacteria), Mycorrhizae (VAM) and a mixture of phosphorin and VAM. three types of P fertilizer, i.e.superphosphate, rock P1 (Safaga) and rock P2 (Abou-Trtour) were applied at rate of 25 and 50 mg Pkg-1 soil in the presence or absence of inoculum. labelled ammonium sulfate with 15N 10% atom excess was applied at rates of 15 and 30 mg N kg-1 soil for chickpea and barley (reference crop) respectively . Addition of phosphorus fertilizers, especially at the high rates, positively affected the growth and dry weight as compared to the unfertilized control. infections with VAM mixed with phosphorin under low level of rock P (Abou-tarour) gave the highest values of dry weight and N and P uptake when compared with both superphosphate-P source and control. biological N2 fixed was higher in dual inoculation treatments (i.e.phosphorin +VAM) than those receiving a single inoculum. the percentages of N2-fixed ranged from 24 to 53 according to inoculation treatments, P sources and levels

  11. INTERACTIVE VOLUME ILLUSTRATION USING WANG CUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Aidong; Ebert, David S.; Qiao, Wei; Kraus, Martin; Mora, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    To create a new, exible system for volume illustration, we have explored the use of Wang Cubes, the 3D extension of 2D Wang Tiles. We use small sets of Wang Cubes to generate a large variety of non-periodic illustrative 3D patterns and textures, and we develop a direct volume rendering framework with these cubes. With the generated patterns and textures, our framework can be used to render volume datasets effectively and a variety of rendering styles can be achieved with less storage. Specifi...

  12. Nitrogen assimilation and partitioning in rainfed grown chickpea (cicer artietinum L.) at various growth stages using 15N methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to asses the sources of N(N2 fixation, soil and fertilizer), N and P partitioning and mobilization in rainfed grown chickpea at various growth stages using 15 N technique. The A-value method, involving the application of 20 and 100 Kg N ha-1 of 15 N labelled ammonium sulphate to chickpea and wheat as a reference crop respectively used to determine the relative contribution of N for these sources. Dry matter, N and P content in shoots, roots and nodules declined rapidly after flowering. Whereas, those of pods showed considerable increases. Soil water content - as measured by neutron scattering technique - decreased severely beyond flowering. Furthermore, the crop was exposed to heat stress at pod-filling which caused a decline in N2 fixation and affected the distribution of both N and P in the plant. The peak of N2 fixation occurred between bud flower initiation and maximum flowering. It was 3 Kg N ha-1 day-1 and 41 Kg N ha-1 per growth period. N2 fixation rate peaked at flowering and declined sharply thereafter during pod-filling. Such decline was a result of changes in source-sink relationships, resulting in a greater supply of carbohydrate and phosphorus to the developing pods and a reduced supply to nodules which showed considerable senescence following flowering. There was a net mobilization of N and P from shoots and roots to developing pods beyond flowering which amounted about 81% and 70% of N and P in pods respectively. At physiological maturity, chickpea had accumulated 103 Kg N ha-1, 60% of which was derived from fixation, 35% from soil and 5% from fertilizer. After seed removal, chickpea led to a non significant residual N in soil. Methods to improve N2 fixation in rainfed grown chickpeas were discussed. (author). 38 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.

  14. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic. PMID:22101927

  15. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY GROUPS OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM, THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF VASCULAR WILT ON ROSELLE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Ooi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty strains of Fusarium oxysporvm isolated from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa showing vascular wilt symptoms in three states (Terengganu, Penang and Ipoh in the northern Malaysian Peninsula were used to investigate the vegetative co mpatibility. Nitrate-nonutilizing (nil mutants were recovered from all the strains tested and subsequently used to study vegetative compatibility groups (VCG within the population by nit mutants pairings on minimal medium. Thirteen VCGs were found and none were vegetatively compatible with those of other formae speciales (f. spp. such as asparagi and cubense, and non-pathogenic strains from paddy and oil palm. The results indicate that there is substantial genetic diversity in F. oxysporum that causes vascular wilt disease on roselle as reflected by multiple VCGs, but the distribution of strains into the VCGs is not even as there are 26 representatives in VCG-1001M, two in VCG-1003M and VCG-1013M and only one in the other VCGs. This study may provide new insight into the establishment of a new forma specialis off. oxysporum.

  16. Effect of Fertilization on Tomato Bacterial Wilt Biocontrolling and Soil Health Restoration Using FAME Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yan-fei; ZHAO Su-qing; LIAO Zong-wen; HE Cheng-xin; ZHUANG Xue-ying

    2003-01-01

    The effect of applying biological organic fertilizer (BOF) on bacterial wilt incidence of tomatoand soil microbial community under continuous cropping was studied. The results showed that all the tomatoeswere infected by bacterial wilt in the control. The infection rates of tomatoes in the treatments with un-com-posted BOF and decomposed BOF were 55 and 50% respectively. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysisindicated soil microbial community changed sensitively after applying BOF. Soil FAME total content, relativefungi content and ratio of fungi to bacteria were significantly increased in both BOF treatments. The soil odd-number fatty acid proportion changed after applying BOF, aC15: 0, iC17 . 0 decreased, while cyC17 . 0 in-creased in soil odd-number fatty acid proportion. BOF application would strengthen soil health and diseasesuppression. The content of C16: 111c in soil microbial community was obviously increased after decomposedBOF application. It indicated that the growth of AM fungi could be enhanced with decomposed BOF applica-tion. FAME microbial biomarkers could be used for an indicator of soil health and disease suppression. Odd-number fatty acid proportion was a sensitive indicator of the effect of applying un-composted and decomposedBOF respectively on soil health regulating.

  17. Induction of systemic resistance of benzothiadiazole and humic Acid in soybean plants against fusarium wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy; Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

  18. Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Komy, Mahmoud H; Saleh, Amgad A; Eranthodi, Anas; Molan, Younes Y

    2015-03-01

    The use of novel isolates of Trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. We evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of T. asperellum against 4 different isolates of FOL. The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied to assess the genetic variability among the T. asperellum isolates. All of the T. asperellum isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of FOL isolates but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a correlation between the antagonistic capacity of T. asperellum isolates towards FOL and their lytic enzyme production. Isolates showing high levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities strongly inhibited the growth of FOL isolates. RAPD analysis showed a high level of genetic variation among T. asperellum isolates. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that T. asperellum isolates could not be grouped by their anta- gonistic behavior or lytic enzymes production. Six isolates of T. asperellum were highly antagonistic towards FOL and potentially could be used in commercial agriculture to control tomato wilt. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that understanding the genetic variation within Trichoderma isolates and their biochemical capabilities are required for the selection of effective indigenous fungal strains for the use as biocontrol agents. PMID:25774110

  19. Successful strategy for the selection of new strawberry-associated rhizobacteria antagonistic to Verticillium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G; Kurze, S; Buchner, A; Wellington, E M; Smalla, K

    2000-12-01

    In order to isolate and characterize new strawberry-associated bacteria antagonistic to the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., rhizobacterial populations from two different strawberry species, Greenish Strawberry (Fragaria viridis) and Garden Strawberry (F. x ananassa) obtained after plating onto King's B and glycerol-arginine agar, were screened for in vitro antagonism toward V. dahliae. The proportion of isolates with antifungal activity determined in in vitro assay against V. dahliae was higher for the Garden Strawberry than for the Greenish Strawberry. From 300 isolates, 20 isolates with strong antifungal activity were selected characterized by physiological profiling and molecular fingerprinting methods. Diversity among the isolates was characterized with molecular fingerprints using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and the more discriminating BOX-PCR fingerprint method. The physiological profiles were well correlated with molecular fingerprinting pattern analysis. Significant reduction of Verticillium wilt by bacterial dipping bath treatment was shown in the greenhouse and in fields naturally infested by V. dahliae. The relative increase of yield ranged from 117% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 344% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P10) in greenhouse trials, and 113% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 247% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6) in field trials. Evaluation resulted in the selection of three effective biocontrol agents (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6, P10, and Streptomyces diastatochromogenes S9) antagonistic to the Verticillium wilt pathogen. PMID:11142403

  20. "Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum", a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ing-Ming; Bottner, Kristi D; Secor, Gary; Rivera-Varas, Viviana

    2006-07-01

    Potato purple top wilt (PPT) is a devastating disease that occurs in various regions of North America and Mexico. At least three distinct phytoplasma strains belonging to three different phytoplasma groups (16SrI, 16SrII and 16SrVI) have been associated with this disease. A new disease with symptoms similar to PPT was recently observed in Texas and Nebraska, USA. Two distinct phytoplasma strain clusters were identified. One belongs to the 16SrI phytoplasma group, subgroup A, and the other is a novel phytoplasma that is most closely related to, and shares 96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with, a member of group 16SrXII. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel PPT-associated phytoplasma strains, previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' organisms and other distinct unnamed phytoplasmas indicated that the novel phytoplasma, termed American potato purple top wilt (APPTW) phytoplasma, represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with stolbur phytoplasma, "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", "Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum", "Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae", bindweed yellows phytoplasma (IBS), "Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae" and "Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis". On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, it is proposed that the APPTW phytoplasma represents "Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum", with APPTW12-NE as the reference strain. PMID:16825635

  1. Screening, selection and evaluation of irradiation-induced mutants of spearmint for resistance to Verticillium wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhizomes of 'Scotch' spearmint (Mentha cardiaca var. Scotch) were irradiated with gamma rays to induce mutations for resistance to Verticillium wilt. All primary, most secondary, and many tertiary shoots that grew from irradiated rhizomes were inoculated by immersing their cut ends in a spore suspension (5x105 spores/ml) of a virulent isolate of Verticillium dahliae. Intense selection pressure was obtained by using controlled inoculations and ideal conditions for disease development. Selections received a second, and sometimes a third vegetative cycling, inoculation and selection. From these greenhouse tests, 19 selections showing resistance were field-tested in 1975, and an additional 141 selections were field-tested in 1976 at two locations heavily inoculated with V. dahliae. Several selections were highly resistant at both locations in 1976. Many selections contained obviously mixed resistant and susceptible individuals and some selections were infected on only one side of the plant, indicating their chimeral nature. Possibly two or three pure mutants for wilt resistance have been identified. (author)

  2. Detection of Goss's Wilt Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis in Maize by Loop-Mediated Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; de Silva, Asoka; Heuchelin, Scott A; Chaky, Jennifer L; Alvarez, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    The Goss's wilt pathogen, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, can cause considerable losses in maize (Zea mays) production. Diagnosis of Goss's wilt currently is based on symptomology and identification of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, following isolation on a semiselective medium and/or serological testing. In an effort to provide a more efficient identification method, a loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP)-type C4-dicarboxylate transport system large permease component and tested using strains of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, all other C. michiganensis subspecies and several genera of nontarget bacteria. Only strains of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis reacted positively with the LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was then used to identify bacterial isolates from diseased maize. 16S rDNA and dnaA sequence analyses were used to confirm the identity of the maize isolates and validate assay specificity. The Cmm ImmunoStrip assay was included as a presumptive identification test of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis at the species level. The Cmn-LAMP assay was further tested using symptomatic leaf tissue. The Cmn-LAMP assay was run in a hand-held real-time monitoring device (SMART-DART) and performed equally to in-lab quantitative polymerase chain reaction equipment. The Cmn-LAMP assay accurately identified C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and has potential as a field test. The targeted sequence also has potential application in other molecular detection platforms. PMID:26595113

  3. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  4. 48 CFR 9905.502-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Statement must be amended for the proposed changes in accounting practices. (2) An educational institution... for the proposed changes in accounting practices. (b) Illustrations of costs which are not incurred... cost pool which is allocated to contracts. Both of these accounting practices were previously...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of applications of cost accounting practices which are deemed to be consistent. Practices used in... illustrative of application of cost accounting practices which are deemed not to be consistent. Practices used... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Statement must be amended for the proposed changes in accounting practices. (2) Contractor normally... for the proposed changes in accounting practices. (b) Illustrations of costs which are not incurred... allocated to contracts. Both of these accounting practices were previously disclosed to the...

  7. Jarzynski's Equality Illustrated by Simple Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijar, Humberto; Ortiz de Zarate, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The Jarzynski theorem is perhaps the most recently discovered simple general formula in elementary statistical physics. In this paper, written with a pedagogical aim, we illustrate the physical concepts under the Jarzynski and related results by a detailed calculation with a representative example. The physics of the model is sufficiently…

  8. The "Illustrated" Souls of Black Folk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, W. E. B.

    2004-01-01

    Richly illustrated, this special edition of Du Bois's seminal work includes historical woodcuts and engravings, photos and documents. Most of the photos, engravings, and documents are from the 19th and early 20th century and depict American slavery and its legacy, African-American life, and the prominent figures and events associated with the…

  9. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  10. 48 CFR 9904.418-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418-60 Illustrations. (a) Business Unit A has various... with the requirements of 9904.418-50(a)(1). (b) Business Unit B has a fabrication department, employees.... These employees are grouped by labor skills and are interchangeable within the skill grouping....

  11. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Joseph R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images.

  12. The Communicative Power of Advertising Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Thomas A.; Long, Eugene, Jr.

    This experimental and exploratory study sought to measure the effectiveness of illustrations in selected magazine advertisements. Twenty ads from general interest consumer magazines were systematically selected and photographed on 35mm slides. The subjects for the study were juniors and seniors in journalism and psychology classes at the…

  13. 48 CFR 9904.408-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completed in that month. At the end of its cost accounting period, Company A adjusts its estimated liability... illustrates one method of estimating Company A's liability at the end of its cost accounting period, December... accounting period with a high degree of accuracy, it has no liability for payment for unused sick...

  14. Master Cup 2011: The 2nd Master Cup International Illustration Biennial, Master Illustrators Federation, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Master Illustrators Federation, Beijing Ziteng Gallery with joint hosts Beijing Yingbao Printmaking House, Beijing Cartoon Centre, Caijing Visual Arts Center, Sachen Publishing House and Red Man Art International. International cartoon and illustration biennial with theme Noah's Ark: New World, New Age, New Hope. World entry winner, best work prize for illustration, honorary prize, excellent prize and selected prize. Best work is awarded a medal and a cash prize. Prize judges: Duchhuan Xia, C...

  15. Quantitative trait locus analysis of Verticillium wilt resistance in an introgressed recombinant inbred population of Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahlia Kleb. The availability of VW-resistant cultivars is vital for control of this economically important disease, but there is a paucity of Upland cotton breeding lines and cul...

  16. Control of wilt disease of lentil through bio control agents and organic amendments in Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkoti, Ankita; Kumar, Vijay; Tripathi, H S

    2014-11-01

    The present work aimed at evaluating the efficacy of bioagents and organic amendments against lentil wilt pathogen. Field trials were carried out consecutively during Rabi 2010-11 and 2011-12 crop seasons in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications, using 'Pant L-639' a popular cultivar. The plot size was 3.0 x 1.5 m2 with row spacing of 30 cm. Effect of selected bioagents and organic amendments on disease incidence, 1000 grain weight and yield kg ha' of lentil was recorded. It was observed that seed treatment with Trichoderma harizanum + Pseudomonas fluorescens significant by reduced 1.73% (2010-11) and 1.93% (2011-12) in Fusarium wilt disease incidence and increase in grain yield 507.6 kg ha(-1) and 496.0 kg ha(-1) respectively during both crop seasons. Among organic amendments, minimum wilt disease incidence of 1.69% (2010-11) and 1.81% (2011-12) and maximum grain yield 496.3 kg ha(-1) (2010-11) and 484.0 kg ha(-1) (2011-12) were observed in farm yard manure + spent compost treated plots. This indicates that these treatments have important roles in biologically based management strategies for controling Fusarium wilt disease under organic mode of lentil cultivation in Uttarakhand State. PMID:25522507

  17. Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

  18. Fifteen years of verticillium wilt of lettuce in america’s salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation and abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable that is globally cultivated. The US ranks second in production, with coastal California producing half of the US supply. In 1995, Verticillium wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae was identified as a disease of lettuce in coastal California, ...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  20. Redbay ambrosia beetle/Laurel wilt: Overview of projects at the USDA-ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of avocado and other trees in the Lauraceae, is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). First detected near Savannah, GA in 2002, the beetle and its obligatory pathogen have since spread to South Carolina and Florida. Currently, t...

  1. Detection and management of Xyleborus glabratus and other vectors of laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redabay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, carries a phytopathogenic symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of some Lauraceae species. Both X. glabratus and R. lauricola are natives of Asia that recently invaded much of the coastal plain of the sout...

  2. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  3. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting, Boggs (intermediate in wilting; and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF, nitrogen assimilation (NA, and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (-2.00 MPa than in the SLW genotypes (-1.68 MPa. Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance.

  4. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  5. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paço

    Full Text Available The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials. The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants

  6. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F; Oliveira, Solange

    2016-01-01

    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  7. Analyses of Fusarium wilt race 3 resistance in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Alisher A; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom B; Egamberdiev, Sharof Sh; Kuryazov, Zarif; Glukhova, Ludmila A; Adilova, Azoda T; Rizaeva, Sofiya M; Ulloa, Mauricio; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represents a serious threat to cotton (Gossypium spp.) production. For the last few decades, the FOV pathogen has become a significant problem in Uzbekistan causing severe wilt disease and yield losses of G. hirsutum L. cultivars. We present the first genetic analyses of FOV race 3 resistance on Uzbek Cotton Germplasm with a series of field and greenhouse artificial inoculation-evaluations and inheritance studies. The field experiments were conducted in two different sites: the experimental station in Zangiota region-Environment (Env) 1 and the Institute of Cotton Breeding (Env-2, Tashkent province). The Env-1 was known to be free of FOV while the Env-2 was known to be a heavily FOV infested soil. In both (Env-1 and Env-2) of these sites, field soil was inoculated with FOV race 3. F2 and an F3 Upland populations ("Mebane B1" × "11970") were observed with a large phenotypic variance for plant survival and FOV disease severity within populations and among control or check Upland accessions. Wilt symptoms among studied F2 individuals and F3 families significantly differed depending on test type and evaluation site. Distribution of Mendelian rations of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) phenotypes were 1S:1R field Env-1 and 3S:1R field Env-2 in the F2 population, and 1S:3R greenhouse site in the F3 population. The different segregation distribution of the Uzbek populations may be explained by differences in FOV inoculum level and environmental conditions during assays. However, genetic analysis indicated a recessive single gene action under high inoculum levels or disease pressure for FOV race 3 resistance. Uzbek germplasm may be more susceptible than expected to FOV race 3, and sources of resistance to FOV may be limited under the FOV inoculum levels present in highly-infested fields making the breeding process more complex. PMID:25896369

  8. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli-type chickpeas, which are

  9. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  10. Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, P; Vyas, P; Sharma, S; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-06-01

    The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhibited the multiple plant growth promoting attributes of solubilization of inorganic phosphate substrates, production of phytase and siderophores, and biosynthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA)-like auxins. The fungal inoculum significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry matter in the test plants of maize, pea and chickpea over the uninoculated control under the controlled environment. The plant growth promoting attributes have not been previously studied for the fungus. The fungal strain with its multiple plant growth promoting activities appears attractive towards the development of microbial inoculants. PMID:23100761

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro. PMID:26516115

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBODY TO RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM AND ITS APPLICATION FOR DETECTION OF BACTERIAL WILT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YADI SURYADI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The serological assay for the detection of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (RSwas able to provide information regarding the presence of the pathogen in plant materials. Theresearch is was aimed to develop polyclonal antibody (PAb for RS detection. Bacterial wholecells of RS isolates mixed with glutaraldehyde were used to immunize New Zealand femalewhite rabbit. The titre of antibody in culture supernatant was 1: 1024. The PAb developed froma ground nut RS isolates reacted with infected plant samples from various locations. It was ableto detect RS antigen of crude extract and pure cultures from tomato and potato plant samples4-5using dot blot ELISA; however, the minimum detectable concentration of RS antigen was 10cells/ml. The PAb obtained in this study is sensitive enough to detect RS isolates in routineserological assay

  13. Possible involvement of eEF1A in Tomato spotted wilt virus RNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a negative-strand RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae and propagates in both insects and plants. Although TSWV can infect a wide range of plant species, host factors involved in viral RNA synthesis of TSWV in plants have not been characterized. In this report, we demonstrate that the cell-free extract derived from one of the host plants can activate mRNA transcriptional activity of TSWV. Based on activity-guided fractionation of the cell-free extract, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A as a possible host factor facilitating TSWV transcription and replication. The RNA synthesis-supporting activity decreased in the presence of an eEF1A inhibitor, suggesting that eEF1A plays an important role in RNA synthesis of TSWV. PMID:25151062

  14. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  15. Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut in Ghana: surveillance and management of disease spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkansah-Poku Joe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. Aerial and/or ground surveys were undertaken to assess the current status of the disease spread. The survey showed that the spread of the disease for the past 5 years has mainly been the expansion of existing foci. However, new outbreaks were identified at Glidzi in the Volta, Bawjiase and Efutu Breman in Central regions. After the resurgence in the Volta region in 1995, the Woe-Tegbi-Dzelukope corridor has remained endemic, but less aggressive. Pockets of healthy groves remain along all the coastline and inland of known disease zones. Eradication of diseased palms at Ampain focus lying just about 60 km to the Ivorian border, and disease situations on new replanting with MYD × VTT hybrid are discussed.

  16. Nitrogen and water contribution of lentil, chickpea, wheat and fallow to the subsequent wheat crop in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneficial effects of fallow have been attributed to soil water conservation and to increase of available nitrogen by mineralization. Benefits of fallow in the Middle Eastern Countries, regarding water conservation, is very low and almost all the water conserved in the root zone is lost through evaporation during summer. Studying nitrogen and water contribution of lentil, chickpea, wheat, and fallow to the subsequent wheat crop has not been previously measured in Jordan using 15N-labelled fertilizer and soil moisture neutron gauges. It was shown under 6 experimental treatments and 2 cropping seasons that (i) there were no significant differences between the treatments with respect total evapotranspiration; (ii) soil water depletion from the whole solid profile was highest for wheat fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1 (WWF2), whereas the lowest soil depletion was for chickpea fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 (CWF1); (iii) the results show that the different treatments had no significant effect on %Ndff. This insignificant effect shows that the residual effect of the legumes is not effective, and the subsequent wheat did not benefit from it. This could be attributed to the following reasons: a) drought condition usually prevails in the region during flowering stage of lentil when most of the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) takes place. Due to these adverse conditions it is anticipated that little BNF would take place; b) since the surface soil layers are most effected by drought conditions and since the nodules are concentrated on the upper part of the root zone it is expected that BNF would be minimal. To overcome this problem it is advised to examine new lentil varieties which can flower during early winter seasons. (author). 3 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum steep liquor as a leavening agent: Effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough fermentation is one of the oldest process in food technologies. It has been recently intensively studied for its impact on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked products. The goals of this work were to investigate chickpea steep liquor (CSL as a dough-leavening agent and to study the effect of CSL on the dough rheology and sensory properties of leavened bread. CSL was prepared by submerging chickpea seeds in boiled distilled water (1:2, w/v for 24 h at 37оC, and then obtained liquor was filtered and freeze-dried to obtain CSL. The addition of CSL to wheat flour (WF brought changes in the dough mixing behavior as measured by the farinograph. An increase in the farinograph water absorption of WF dough was observed when 4.5% CSL and 1.5% yeast was added, while arrival time was not affected. Addition of CSL to the dough at a content of 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 g CSL/300 g WF caused an increase in dough stability. The CSL addition also increased mechanical tolerance index, dough weakening and mixing time. Dough development time for all blends was higher than the control (1.2-1.5 min, while between the CSL samples no significant difference was observed. The loaf weight slightly increased from 146.2 g for control to 152.2 g for CSL fermented bread, whereas the loaf volume and specific volume of CSL-fermented bread were lower than the control. The combination of yeast and CSL increased the acceptability of bread with the increasing level of both leavening agents’. The results show that CSL could be used as an alternative to yeast for syngas fermentation. On the other hand, CLS is rich in nutrients and lower in cost compared to yeast.

  18. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Under Semi-arid Conditions: II. Seed Imbibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oksel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., it could not combated with weeds and easiliy caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass Labr. disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009 and (2009/2010 in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = ½ Tap Water + ½ Humic acid (HA, A3 = Full HA, as w/w and seven yield components Plant Height (PH, Number of Branches per Plant (NBP, Number of Pods per Plant (NPP, First Pod Height (NFP, Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP, Seed Weight per Plant (SWP and 100-Seed weight (HSW were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system’s development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  19. Induced mutations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) I. comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical & chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic effectiveness usually means the rate of mutation as related to dose. Mutagenic efficiency refers to the mutation rate in relation to damage. Studies on comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of two physical (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and two chemical mutagens (NMU and EMS) on two desi (G 130 & H 214), one kabuli (C 104) and one green seeded (L 345) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been reported. The treatments included three doses each of gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and fast neutrons (5, 10 and 15 Gy) and two concentrations with two different durations of two chemical mutagens, NMU 0.01% 20h and 0.02% 8h) and EMS (0.1% 20h and 0.2% 8h). Results indicated that chemical mutagens, particularly NMU are not only more effective but also efficient than physical mutagens in inducing mutations in chickpea. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency showed differential behaviour depending upon mutagen and varietal type. Chemical mutagens were more efficient than physical in inducing cholorophyll as well as viable and total number of mutations. Among the mutagens NMU was the most potent, while in the physical, gamma rays were more effective. Out of four mutagens, NMU was the most effective and efficient in inducing a high frequency and wide spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in the M2 followed by fast neutrons. While gamma rays showed least effectiveness, EMS was least efficient mutagens. Major differences in the mutagenic response of the four cultivars were observed. The varieties of desi type were more resistant towards mutagenic treatment than kabuli and green seeded type

  20. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions. PMID:22816177

  1. Primary metabolism of chickpea is the initial target of wound inducing early sensed Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri race I.

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    Sumanti Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotrophic interaction between host and pathogen induces generation of reactive oxygen species that leads to programmed cell death of the host tissue specifically encompassing the site of infection conferring resistance to the host. However, in the present study, biotrophic relationship between Fusarium oxysporum and chickpea provided some novel insights into the classical concepts of defense signaling and disease perception where ROS (reactive oxygen species generation followed by hypersensitive responses determined the magnitude of susceptibility or resistant potentiality of the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microscopic observations detected wound mediated in planta pathogenic establishment and its gradual progression within the host vascular tissue. cDNA-AFLP showed differential expression of many defense responsive elements. Real time expression profiling also validated the early recognition of the wound inducing pathogen by the host. The interplay between fungus and host activated changes in primary metabolism, which generated defense signals in the form of sugar molecules for combating pathogenic encounter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed the limitations of hypersensitive response mediated resistance, especially when foreign encounters involved the food production as well as the translocation machinery of the host. It was also predicted from the obtained results that hypersensitivity and active species generation failed to impart host defense in compatible interaction between chickpea and Fusarium. On the contrary, the defense related gene(s played a critical role in conferring natural resistance to the resistant host. Thus, this study suggests that natural selection is the decisive factor for selecting and segregating out the suitable type of defense mechanism to be undertaken by the host without disturbing its normal metabolism, which could deviate from the known classical defense mechanisms.

  2. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  3. Autoimmune pancreatitis: An illustrated guide to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains one of the rarer forms of pancreatitis but has become increasingly well recognized and widely diagnosed as it is an important differential, particularly due to the dramatic response to appropriate therapy. It is now best considered as part of a multisystem disease and the notion of “IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease” has become widely recognized as the number of extra-pancreatic associations of AIP grows. More recently AIP has been classified into two subtypes: lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) with distinct geographical, age and sex distributions for the two subtypes, in addition to different pathological characteristics. The role of imaging is crucial in AIP and should be considered in conjunction with clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to make the diagnosis. Radiologists are uniquely placed to raise the possibility of AIP and aid the exclusion of significant differentials to allow the initiation of appropriate management and avoidance of unnecessary intervention. Radiological investigation may reveal a number of characteristic imaging findings in AIP but appearances can vary considerably and the focal form of AIP may appear as a pancreatic mass, imitating pancreatic carcinoma. This review will illustrate typical and atypical appearances of AIP on all imaging modes. Emphasis will be placed on the imaging features that are likely to prove useful in discriminating AIP from other causes prior to histopathological confirmation. In addition, examples of relevant differential diagnoses are discussed and illustrated

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOSTRIDIUM ISOLATES ON AEROPONICALLY CULTIVATED POTATO TO PROTECT AGAINST RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM (BACTERIAL WILT) AND PCR DETECTION ON LATEN INFECTION ON TUBERS.

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin.

    2012-01-01

    Aeroponic technology was used to optimize production of potato mini tubers. Several adventage was the production 5-10 times higher and tuber size was bigger than covensional methods, but unfortunatelly some times yield loss was present caused by bacterial wilt Ralstonia solanacearum. Although not all of plants were died and some of plants still produce tubers, but laten infection of bacterial wilt was occured. Early observation on microbes diversity on healthy and on infected plants ...

  5. Electrophoretic Analysis on the Enzyme Hydrolysis of Chickpea Protein%鹰嘴豆分离蛋白酶解过程的电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we determined the degree of hydrolysis(DH) of the chickpea protein with three proteolytic enzymes of alcalase,papain and bromelain(domestic)at different times,and analysed the electrophoretic pattern of the hydrolytic products. The result shows that after treated with the proteases for three hours,the chickpea proteins were mostly hydrolysed into oligopeptides,and the DH value(35.42%)of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases above-mentioned under each optimum conditions respectively in order was much higher than that of the DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases simultaneously.%  对国产碱性蛋白酶降解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解过程及酶解产物的水解度和电泳结果进行了分析研究.结果表明,国产蛋白酶可有效降解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白为小分子蛋白肽;使用碱性蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、菠萝蛋白酶顺序酶解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白3 h 时的水解度可达到35.42%以上,此时绝大多数鹰嘴豆分离蛋白被降解为小分子肽.实验结果为鹰嘴豆蛋白的开发利用与鹰嘴豆的精深加工提供了科学依据.

  6. Investigation of genes encoding calcineurin B-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Meena

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics.

  7. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  8. Membrane-associated proteomics of chickpea identifies Sad1/UNC-84 protein (CaSUN1), a novel component of dehydration signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Poonam; Subba, Pratigya; Rathi, Divya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration affects almost all the physiological processes including those that result in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn elicits a highly conserved signaling, the unfolded protein response (UPR). We investigated the dehydration-responsive membrane-associated proteome of a legume, chickpea, by 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 184 protein spots were significantly altered over a dehydration treatment of 120 h. Among the diff...

  9. Synthesis of Electromagnetic Metasurfaces: Principles and Illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Achouri, Karim; Gupta, Shulabh; Lavigne, Guillaume; Salem, Mohamed Ahmed; Caloz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents partial overview of the mathematical synthesis and the physical realization of metasurfaces, and related illustrative examples. The synthesis consists in determining the exact tensorial surface susceptibility functions of the metasurface, based on generalized sheet transition conditions, while the realization deals with both metallic and dielectric scattering particle structures. The examples demonstrate the capabilities of the synthesis and realization techniques, thereby showing the plethora of possible metasurface field transmission and subsequent applications. The first example is the design of two diffraction engineering birefringent metasurfaces performing polarization beam splitting and orbital angular momentum multiplexing, respectively. Next, we discuss the concept of the "transistor" metasurface, which is an electromagnetic linear switch based on destructive interferences. Then, we introduce a non-reciprocal non-gyrotropic metasurface using a pick-up circuit radiator (PCR) archite...

  10. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Accelerating Science TRIZ inventive methodology in illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Seraia, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a powerful tool widely used in engineering community. It is based on identification of a physical contradiction in a problem, and based on the corresponding pair of contradicting parameters selecting a few of suitable inventive principles, narrowing down the choice and leading to a much faster solution of a problem. It is remarkable that TRIZ methodology can also be applied to scientific disciplines. Many of TRIZ inventive principles can be post factum identified in various in scientific inventions and discoveries. However, additional inventive principles, more suitable for scientific disciplines, should be introduced and added to standard TRIZ, and some of the standard inventive principles need to be reformulated to be better applicable to science - we call this extension Accelerating Science TRIZ. In this short note we describe and illustrate the AS-TRIZ inventive principles via scientific examples, identifying AS-TRIZ inventive principles in discoveries and inv...

  12. Uncertainty relation and probability. Numerical illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty relation and the probability interpretation of quantum mechanics are intrinsically connected, as is evidenced by the evaluation of standard deviations. It is thus natural to ask if one can associate a very small uncertainty product of suitably sampled events with a very small probability. We have shown elsewhere that some examples of the evasion of the uncertainty relation noted in the past are in fact understood in this way. We here numerically illustrate that a very small uncertainty product is realized if one performs a suitable sampling of measured data that occur with a very small probability. We introduce a notion of cyclic measurements. It is also shown that our analysis is consistent with the Landau-Pollak-type uncertainty relation. It is suggested that the present analysis may help reconcile the contradicting views about the 'standard quantum limit' in the detection of gravitational waves. (author)

  13. Pre-sowing static magnetic field treatment for improving water and radiation use efficiency in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Nilimesh; Chattaraj, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Debashis; Anand, Anjali; Aggarwal, Pramila; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2016-09-01

    Soil moisture stress during pod filling is a major constraint in production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a fundamentally dry land crop. We investigated effect of pre-sowing seed priming with static magnetic field (SMF) on alleviation of stress through improvement in radiation and water use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse and open field conditions with desi and kabuli genotypes. Seeds exposed to SMF (strength: 100 mT, exposure: 1 h) led to increase in root volume and surface area by 70% and 65%, respectively. This enabled the crop to utilize 60% higher moisture during the active growth period (78-118 days after sowing), when soil moisture became limiting. Both genotypes from treated seeds had better water utilization, biomass, and radiation use efficiencies (17%, 40%, and 26% over control). Seed pre-treatment with SMF could, therefore, be a viable option for chickpea to alleviate soil moisture stress in arid and semi-arid regions, helping in augmenting its production. It could be a viable option to improve growth and yield of chickpea under deficit soil moisture condition, as the selection and breeding program takes a decade before a tolerant variety is released. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:400-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27442612

  14. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations. PMID:26338202

  15. SCREENING OF OSMOTIC WATER STRESS TOLERANT CHICKPEA GENOTYPES (CICER ARIETINUM L. ON THE BASIS OF GERMINATION PARAMETERS AND ACCUMULATED SOLUBLE SUGARS AND PROLINE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Boubaker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight kabuli chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. Beja1, Amdoun1, Nayer, Kasseb, Bochra, FLP96-114C, FLP88-42C and Chetoui were germinated, in vitro culture, on Whatman n° 2 filter paper media at four osmotic water pressures: -0,33; -4, -6 and -8 bars as induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Osmotic water stress negatively affected germination parameters and enhanced soluble sugars and proline accumulation. Broad genotypic variability of the chickpea cultivars was revealed with respect to osmotic water stress. At -0,33 bars, germination occurred at a high rate and exhibited elevated germinative energy. On the other hand, OWP -8 bars proved too high, as it completely inhibited chickpea germination. Soluble sugars and proline accumulation were proportional to osmotic water pressures. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that under high OWP (-6 bars, genotypes Beja1, Amdoun1, Nayer, FLIP96-114C and Chetoui were sensitive to the osmotic water stress; whereas, Kasseb, Bochra and FLIP88-42C were tolerant.

  16. Promoter of CaZF, a chickpea gene that positively regulates growth and stress tolerance, is activated by an AP2-family transcription factor CAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    Full Text Available Plants respond to different forms of stresses by inducing transcription of a common and distinct set of genes by concerted actions of a cascade of transcription regulators. We previously reported that a gene, CaZF encoding a C2H2-zinc finger family protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum imparted high salinity tolerance when expressed in tobacco plants. We report here that in addition to promoting tolerance against dehydration, salinity and high temperature, the CaZF overexpressing plants exhibited similar phenotype of growth and development like the plants overexpressing CAP2, encoding an AP2-family transcription factor from chickpea. To investigate any relationship between these two genes, we performed gene expression analysis in the overexpressing plants, promoter-reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A number of transcripts that exhibited enhanced accumulation upon expression of CAP2 or CaZF in tobacco plants were found common. Transient expression of CAP2 in chickpea leaves resulted in increased accumulation of CaZF transcript. Gel mobility shift and transient promoter-reporter assays suggested that CAP2 activates CaZF promoter by interacting with C-repeat elements (CRTs in CaZF promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay demonstrated an in vivo interaction of CAP2 protein with CaZF promoter.

  17. ±Genetic structure of the oak wilt vector beetle Platypus quercivorus: inferences toward the process of damaged area expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozaki Ai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, is the vector of oak wilt, one of the most serious forest diseases in Japan. Population genetics approaches have made great progress toward studying the population dynamics of pests, especially for estimating dispersal. Knowledge of the genetic structuring of the beetle populations should reveal their population history. Using five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, 605 individuals from 14 sampling sites were assessed to infer the ongoing gene flow among populations as well as the processes of expansion of damaged areas. Results Population differentiation (FST = 0.047, G'ST = 0.167 was moderate and two major clusters were detected by several methods, dividing the samples into north-eastern and south-western populations, a similar genetic divergence was reported in host oak trees. Within the north-eastern populations, the subgroups mostly corresponded to differences in the collection period. The genetic characteristics of the population might have changed after 2 years due to the mixing of individuals between populations with enhanced migration related to population outbreaks. Because isolation by distance was detected for whole populations and also within the north-eastern populations, migration was considered to be limited between neighbouring populations, and most populations were suggested to be in genetic equilibrium of genetic drift and gene flow. Recent bottlenecks were found in some populations with no geographical bias; however, they were all from newly emerged oak wilt forests. The emergence of oak wilt should have induced intense fluctuations in the beetle population size. Conclusions Because the genetic boundaries coincide, we suggest that the geographical structuring of the beetle was formed by co-evolution with the host species. Our findings indicate the oak wilt expansion process.

  18. ±Genetic structure of the oak wilt vector beetle Platypus quercivorus: inferences toward the process of damaged area expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozaki Ai; Okada Mitsuhiro; Saito Shoichi; Shoda-Kagaya Etsuko; Nunokawa Kouichi; Tsuda Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, is the vector of oak wilt, one of the most serious forest diseases in Japan. Population genetics approaches have made great progress toward studying the population dynamics of pests, especially for estimating dispersal. Knowledge of the genetic structuring of the beetle populations should reveal their population history. Using five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, 605 individuals from 14 sampling sites were assessed to infe...

  19. Efficacy of Micro Nutrients on Banana fusarium Wilt. (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and it's Synergistic Action with Trichoderma viride

    OpenAIRE

    K. SANJEEV; Eswaran, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigations, efficacy of micro nutrients viz., (calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, copper sulphate, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, borax, ferrous sulphate and zinc sulphate) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense causing panama wilt of banana were studied. The results of experiment revealed that among the micro nutrients used, borax @ 500 and 750 ppm completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense followed by zinc sulphate (47.3, 42.7,...

  20. Induction of Systematic Resistance in Soybean Plants against Fusarium Wilt Disease by Seed Treatment with Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM; Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH), humic acid (HA) and their combination when used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Both inducers and their combination were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i. e Minia and New Valley ...

  1. Comparison of Crop Rotation for Verticillium Wilt Management and Effect on Pythium Species in Conventional and Organic Strawberry Production

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna V Subbarao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on population densities of Verticillium dahliae and Pythium spp. in soil and on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) growth, yield, and Verticillium wilt were evaluated in conventional and organic production systems in California for 2 years. Under both management systems, strawberry was planted after two successive crops of broccoli or lettuce. The control treatment in the conventional field was strawberry planted in soils fumigated with methyl bromi...

  2. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Nimusiima; Martina Köberl; John Baptist Tumuhairwe; Jerome Kubiriba; Charles Staver; Gabriele Berg

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect,...

  3. Fluctuation of Fusarium distribution in soil and the role of the forecrop in the control of Fusarium wilt of flax

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zarzycka

    2015-01-01

    The influence of crop rotation and wheather conditions on the Fusarium population in soil and on Fusarium wilt of flax was examined in the Institute of Native Natural Fibres in 1968-1975. The experiments were carried out in various regions of flax planting in Poland during 8 years. Crop rotation had a significant influence on the process of biological soil disinfestation. Fusarium population in soil increased after planting flax, wheat, barley and sugar-beet, and decreased or did not change a...

  4. Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR)

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Rupesh K.; Pandey, Brajesh K.; Muthukumar, M.; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characteriz...

  5. 佛肚竹枯萎病的研究%A STUDY ON THE WILT DISEASE OF BAMBUSA VENTRICOSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋漳; 林毓银

    2001-01-01

    The wilt disease of Bambusa ventricosa was a serious disease occured in Nanping city, Fujian Province. Thesymptoms of the disease, identification, inoculation, biological characteristics of the causal organism and bionomics of thewilt disease were studied. The species was identified as Nectria ditissirna Tul. at sexual phase, and as Fusarium semitec tum Berk. &Rav. at anamorphic state. The causal organism of wilt disease grew vigorously on the PSA and PSA + 10%decoction of culm media, and formed white coloured colonies. After incubation of 7 days at 28℃ , a great amount of macro-conidia was produced, no stroma and perithecia were formed after 30 days. The stroma and ascospore were only producedunder natural condition. The preference temperature for mycelia growth was between 25 ~ 28 ℃ , and the optimum pH val-ues was at 6 ~ 7. The optimum temperature for conidia and ascospores germination was between 25 ~ 28℃, and the opti-mum pH values was at 6 ~ 7. The high relative humidity ( RH 96.1% ~ 100% ) was necessary for the germination ofconidia and ascospores. The results of experiments showed that the pathogen of the wilt disease overwintered on the soil,and disseminated by winds and rains to infect the wounded stem base of Bambusa ventricosa. The primary infection occurredfrom the last ten days of February or the first days of March. The peak infection occurred from the first ten days of Marchto the second ten days of April during early summer rains. The infection ceased from the second ten days or the last tendays of May. The freeze injury was possibly important factor to induce infection of the wilt disease.

  6. Constitutive expression of a novel antimicrobial protein, Hcm1, confers resistance to both Verticillium and Fusarium wilts in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Jun; Ding, Lingyun; Zou, Lifang; Li, Yurong; Chen, Gongyou; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium and Verticillium wilts, two of the most important diseases in cotton, pose serious threats to cotton production. Here we introduced a novel antimicrobial protein Hcm1, which comprised harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), and the chimeric protein, cecropin A-melittin, into cotton. The transgenic cotton lines with stable Hcm1 expression showed a higher resistance to Verticillium and Fusarium wilts both in greenhouse and field trials compared to controls. Hcm1 enabled the transgenic cotton to produced a microscopic hypersensitive response (micro-HR), reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, and caused the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in response to biotic stress, indicating that the transgenic cotton was in a primed state and ready to protect the host from pathogenic infection. Simultaneously, Hcm1 protein inhibited the growth of Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) and Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) in vitro. The spread of fungal biomass was also inhibited in vivo since the V. dahliae biomass was decreased dramatically in transgenic cotton plants after inoculation with V. dahliae. Together, these results demonstrate that Hcm1 could activate innate immunity and inhibit the growth of V. dahliae and F. oxysporum to protect cotton against Verticillium and Fusarium wilts. PMID:26856318

  7. Overexpression of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena) NAC Family Transcription Factor SmNAC Suppresses Resistance to Bacterial Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chen; Shuanghua, Wu; Jinglong, Fu; Bihao, Cao; Jianjun, Lei; Changming, Chen; Jin, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is a serious disease that affects eggplant (Solanum melongena) production. Although resistance to this disease has been reported, the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified a NAC family transcription factor (SmNAC) from eggplant and characterized its expression, its localization at the tissue and subcellular levels, and its role in BW resistance. To this end, transgenic eggplant lines were generated in which the expression of SmNAC was constitutively up regulated or suppressed using RNAi. The results indicated that overexpression of SmNAC decreases resistance to BW. Moreover, SmNAC overexpression resulted in the reduced accumulation of the plant immune signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and reduced expression of ICS1 (a gene that encode isochorismate synthase 1, which is involved in SA biosynthesis). We propose that reduced SA content results in increased bacterial wilt susceptibility in the transgenic lines. Our results provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial wilt resistance in eggplant. PMID:27528282

  8. Two rhizobacterial strains, individually and in interactions with Rhizobium sp., enhance fusarial wilt control, growth, and yield in pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Morang, Pranjal; Kumar S, Nishanth; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, RRLJ 04, and a Bacillus cereus strain, BS 03, were tested both individually and in combination with a Rhizobium strain, RH 2, for their ability to enhance plant growth and nodulation in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) under gnotobiotic, greenhouse and field conditions. Both of the rhizobacterial strains exhibited a positive effect on growth in terms of shoot height, root length, fresh and dry weight, nodulation and yield over the non-treated control. Co-inoculation of seeds with these strains and Rhizobium RH 2 also reduced the number of wilted plants, when grown in soil infested with Fusarium udum. Gnotobiotic studies confirmed that the suppression of wilt disease was due to the presence of the respective PGPR strains. Seed bacterization with drug-marked mutants of RRLJ 04 and BS 03 confirmed their ability to colonize and multiply along the roots. The results suggest that co-inoculation of these strains with Rhizobium strain RH 2 can be further exploited for enhanced growth, nodulation and yield in addition to control of fusarial wilt in pigeon pea. PMID:25224506

  9. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  10. Differential Sensitivity of Macrocarpa and Microcarpa Types of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Water Stress: Association of Contrasting Stress Response with Oxidative Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harsh Nayyar; Smita Singh; Satwinder Kaur; Sanjeev Kumar; Hari D. Upadhyaya

    2006-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is particularly sensitive to water stress at its reproductive phase and, under conditions of water stress, will abort flowers and pods, thus reducing yield potential. There are two types of chickpea: (i) Macrocarpa ("Kabuli"), which has large, rams head-shaped, light brown seeds; and (ii)Microcarpa ("Desi"), which has small, angular and dark-brown seeds. Relatively speaking, "Kabuli" has been reported to be more sensitive to water stress than "Desi". The underlying mechanisms associated with contrasting sensitivity to water stress at the metabolic level are not well understood. We hypothesized that one of the reasons for contrasting water stress sensitivity in the two types of chickpea may be a variation in oxidative injury. In the present study, plants of both types were water stressed at the reproductive stage for 14 d. As a result of the stress, the "Kabuli" type exhibited an 80% reduction in seed yield over control compared with a 64% reduction observed for the "Desi" type. The decrease in leaf water potential (Ψw) was faster in the "Kabuli" compared with the "Desi" type. At the end of the water stress period, Ψ was reduced to -2.9 and -3.1 MPa in the "Desi" and "Kabuli" types, respectively, without any significant difference between them. On the last day of stress, "Kabuli" experienced 20% more membrane injury than "Desi". The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were significantly greater in "Desi"compared with "Kabuli". The malondialdehyde and H2O2 content were markedly higher at the end of the water stress in "Kabuli" compared with "Desi", indicating greater oxidative stress in the former. Levels of anti-oxidants, such as ascorbic acid and glutathione, were significantly higher in "Desi" than "Kabuli".Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ significantly between the two types of chickpea,whereas on the 10th day, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione

  11. Physiological mechanisms involved in resistance to cotton verticillium wilt induced by AM fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing-jiang; LIU Run-jin

    2004-01-01

    @@ It was proved that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi played an important role in increasing plant resistance to soilborne pathogens, especially when plants were pre-inoculated with AM fungi.Mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet well understood. On the basis of the former experiment results in our lab, effects of AM fungi on cotton Verticillium wilt and the mechanisms of increasing disease resisitance by the tested fungi were studied in pot culture under greenhouse conditions. Two cotton cutivars Litai 8 and 86-1 which are susceptible to Verticillium dahliae were pre-inoculated with Glomus fasiculatum, and Gigaspora margarita, then inoculated with the strain of Verticillium dahliae, namely "An-Yang" (belong to intermediate virulent type) 30 days after the former inoculation. Results showed that AM fungi could improve the growth and development of cotton plants, increase plants dry mass, decrease incidence and disease index of Verticillium wilt of cotton plants, inhibit the infection and development of V. dahliae to different extent in the rhizosphere of cotton pre-inoculated with AM fungi, while the colonization and spore numbers of AM fungi were not reduced significantly by this pathogen. The defence enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were induced, and their activities and peak increased by AM fungi in roots and leaves, and the increasing speed and peak of the enzyme activity were higher in treatment with AM fungus preinoculation than the inoculation with only V. dahliae, which suggested that defense response was activated by AM fungi, and then made the cotton to react strongly and rapidly to the infection of V. dahliae. In addition, AM fungi decreased the content of malondiadehyde (MDA) in cotton roots and leaves,protected membrane system and alleviated the damage caused by the pathogen. The AM fungus,Glomus fasiculatum showed the superior effects of biological

  12. Murcha bacteriana no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Bacterial wilt in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalee A. Coelho Netto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1998 e 2000, a incidência de murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum foi registrada em 25 municípios do estado do Amazonas. A bactéria foi encontrada nas seguintes espécies vegetais: Capsicum annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, Cucumis sativus, Heliconia sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, Melanthera discoidea, Moringa oleifera, Musa sp., Solanum melongena, S. gilo, e S. nigrum. Em tomateiros (Lycopersicon esculentum, a murcha bacteriana estava presente em todos os plantios. Em bananeiras (Musa spp., a incidência do Moko foi menor nas várzeas dos rios Madeira e Negro do que nas dos rios Solimões e Amazonas. Caracterizaram-se 320 isolados de R. solanacearum, obtidos no levantamento, com relação a raça e a biovar. A biovar 1 predominou em todos os hospedeiros, com exceção de C. annuum e C. chinense, onde estirpes da biovar 3 foram maioria. Apenas 7,8% das estirpes foram da biovar N2. A sensibilidade de 56 estirpes da raça 1 a 23 bacteriocinas foi avaliada. As estirpes da biovar 3 apresentaram uma menor variabilidade, na sensibilidade a bacteriocinas do que as estirpes das biovares 1 e N2.A survey for bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum was conducted in 25 counties in the state of Amazonas during the years 1998 and 2000. Ralstonia solanacearum was found in the following species: Capsicum annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, Cucumis sativus, Heliconia sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, Melanthera discoidea, Moringa oleifera, Musa sp., Solanum melongena, S. gilo, and S. nigrum. In tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum, bacterial wilt was present in all fields. In banana (Musa spp., the incidence of Moko disease was lower in the flooded areas of the Madeira and Negro Rivers than in the Solimões and Amazonas Rivers. In this survey the race and biovar of 320 R. solanacearum isolates was determined. The biovar 1 strains predominate in almost all hosts. In C. annuum and C. chinense, however, biovar 3 was more common. Only 7

  13. Pattern of Flushing, Cherelle Wilt, and Accuracy of Yield Forecasting of Some Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly observation of cocoa flushing, number of cherelle wilt (CW, number of small, medium and large pods of 6 clones was conducted for two years to study its dynamics for one year. A study was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, 45 m asl. and D rainfall type (according to Schmidt & Ferguson, using ICS 13, ICS 60, TSH 858, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165 clones of 8 years old. Each clone was planted intermittently in separate rows, replicated 6 rows. Correlation and regression analysis were done between variables and with rainfall data. The parallel research was conducted in the similar station to assess the accuracy of production estimation method by identify percentage of small pods (length 1—10 cm, medium (11—15 cm and large pods (>15 cm to grow until harvested. The study used 15th years old trees of Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 165, KKM 22, ICS 13 and DR 2 clones. Each clones was replicated 5 times. The result showed that intensive flushing (>50% occured during January, March, September and November meanwhile no flushing during December and February. Correlation between rainfall and flushing was positive (r=0.27. Effect of clones on flushing frequency was similar but for flushing intensity was significant. KW 165 tended to be the lowest but TSH 858 tend to be the highest. CW occured for a year-round but the height level during May and June. Effect of clones was significant, KW 165 showed highest followed by Sulawesi 2. CW level showed positive correlation with number of medium (r=0.71 and big pods (r=0.55, except showed negative correlation with flushing intensity (r=-0.37 and rainfall (r=-0.51. High pod setting happened during May to November and low pod setting during December to March. In this aspect effect of clones were significant, the productive clones were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165, but ICS 60 was the less. CW level during 1st semester was lower than at 2nd semester and clone effect was significant. The

  14. Efficacy of resistance selection to Verticillium wilt in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. tissue culture

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    Jadwiga I. Żebrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. causes economic losses in crops in temperate regions of the world and hence is the most studied species. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. belongs to plant species susceptible to Verticillium dahliae, although the response to infection caused by this pathogen is varied and depends on the cultivar. Due to a lack of efficient methods in Verticillium wilt elimination, the selection of genetically resistant plant material is a priority direction in breeding programs. Efficacy of resistance selection to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in strawberry tissue culture was examined on the basis of response to in vitro infection by this pathogenic fungus in two tissue cultured strawberry cultivars, i.e. 'Filon' and 'Teresa'. Culture was conducted for 16 months in an environmentally controlled growth room at 18-20°C, 60-70% relative humidity and light intensity of 100 µm E × m-2 × s-1 on a 16h light / 8h dark cycle. Subcultures were proliferated every 6 weeks on modified Murashige and Skoog medium. Four hundred microplants from each tissue cultured cultivar were inoculated under in vitro conditions at the 4-leaf stage with a homogenate of liquid mycelium of Verticillium dahliae serving as the selecting agent. Disease symptoms were observed at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75th days post inoculation. The extent of leaf chlorosis was rated on a scale of 0-4. At day 75th post inoculation, the percentage of totally chlorotic plants in micropropagated cv. Teresa reached the value of 76.27%, whereas the proportion of such plants in inoculated tissue cultured cv. Filon reached the value of 89.40%. Also, the index of infection calculated for very severe disease symptoms in the subclone 'Teresa' reached the mean value lower when compared with that calculated for subclone 'Filon' (0.0962 and 0.1150, respectively. These results suggested that the micropropagated cv. Teresa exhibited higher genetic resistance to the

  15. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the resistance of banana plants to Fusarium wilt potentiated by silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antonio; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; do Nascimento, Kelly Juliane Teles

    2012-10-01

    Silicon amendments to soil have resulted in a decrease of diseases caused by several soilborne pathogens affecting a wide number of crops. This study evaluated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that may have increased resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, after treatment with silicon (Si) amendment. Plants from the Grand Nain (resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and "Maçã" (susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) were grown in plastic pots amended with Si at 0 or 0.39 g/kg of soil (-Si or +Si, respectively) and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Relative lesion length (RLL) and asymptomatic fungal colonization in tissue (AFCT) were evaluated at 40 days after inoculation. Root samples were collected at different times after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to determine the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed as equivalents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids), total soluble phenolics (TSP), and lignin-thioglycolic acid (LTGA) derivatives; the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyases glucanases (PALs), peroxidases (POXs), polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), β-1,3-glucanases (GLUs), and chitinases (CHIs); and Si concentration in roots. Root Si concentration was significantly increased by 35.3% for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. For Grand Nain, the root Si concentration was significantly increased by 12.8% compared with "Maçã." Plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" in the +Si treatment showed significant reductions of 40.0 and 57.2%, respectively, for RLL compared with the -Si treatment. For the AFCT, there was a significant reduction of 18.5% in the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The concentration of MDA significantly decreased for plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" supplied with Si compared with the -Si treatment while the

  16. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt. The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates, Fusarium solani (4 isolates and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates. The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. �Giza 3�. Response of chickpea cvs. �Giza 1�, �Giza 2�, �Giza 3�, �Giza 4�, �Giza 88�, �Giza 195�, �Giza 531� to infection by the tested fungi was significantly varied. �Giza 1� was the most resistant one followed by �Giza 531�, while the other tested cvs. were highly susceptible. Seven biocontrol agents, namely Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. cereus, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. isolated from chickpea rhizosphere, were tested for their antagonistic action against the tested pathogens. B. subtilis isolate BSM1, B. megaterium isolate TVM5, T. viride isolate TVM2 and T. harzianum isolate THM4 were the most antagonistic ones to the tested fungi in vitro, while the other isolates were moderate or weak antagonists. The most antagonistic isolates as well as the commercial biocide Rhizo-N were applied as seed treatment for controlling damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases caused by the tested fungi under greenhouse conditions. The obtained data showed that all tested antagonistic isolates were able to cause significant reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases in chickpea plants. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 proved to be the most effective isolates for controlling the diseases. Under field condition, the obtained data indicated that all the tested antagonistic isolates significantly reduced damping-off, root and/or stem rot. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 recorded the highest reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot in all sowing dates. Sowing of

  17. IMPROVMENT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF AND ROOT ROT/WILT OF FABA BEAN BY SALICYLIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

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    Montaser F. Abdel-Monaim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fields in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40 causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride, Bacillus megaterium and chemical inducers (salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promotion of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi.Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA+ B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/ wilt severity and increased survival of plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and dry weights of the survived plants in pots compared with control.  The combination of biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than using them individually and SA+ T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and No. of branches plant-1 and yield components (No. of pods and seedsplant-1, weight of 100 seeds and total yield feddan-1 and protein content in both seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Faba bean seeds soaked in SA+ T. viride and SA+ B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination of biocontrol agents and

  18. Illumina-based analysis of the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants grown in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianhan; Yang, Guo; Wang, Yun; Wu, Xiukun; Zhao, Xia; Hao, Haiting; Li, Yuyao; Xie, Zhongkui; Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Ruoyu

    2016-06-01

    Lanzhou lily (Liliumdavidii var. unicolor) is the best edible lily as well as a traditional medicinal plant in China. The microbes associated with plant roots play crucial roles in plant growth and health. However, little is known about the differences of rhizosphere microbes between healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants. The objective of this study was to compare the rhizosphere microbial community and functional diversity of healthy and wilted plants, and to identify potential biocontrol agents with significant effect. Paired end Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicons was employed to study the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil of Lanzhou lily plants. BIOLOG technology was adopted to investigate the microbial functional diversity. Our results indicated that there were major differences in the rhizosphere microbial composition and functional diversity of wilted samples compared with healthy samples. Healthy Lanzhou lily plants exhibited lower rhizosphere-associated bacterial diversity than diseased plants, whereas fungi exhibited the opposite trend. The dominant phyla in both the healthy and wilted samples were Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, i.e., 34.45 and 64.01 %, respectively. The microbial functional diversity was suppressed in wilted soil samples. Besides Fusarium, the higher relative abundances of Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Penicillium, and Ilyonectria (Neonectria) in the wilted samples suggest they may pathogenetic root rot fungi. The high relative abundances of Bacillus in Firmicutes in healthy samples may have significant roles as biological control agents against soilborne pathogens. This is the first study to find evidence of major differences between the microbial communities in the rhizospheric soil of healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily, which may be linked to the health status of plants. PMID:27116961

  19. Response of chickpea (cicer arietinum L.) to various levels of phosphorus and rhizobium inoculation under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorus (P) levels and Rhizobium inoculation on yield-components and grain-yield of (chickpea c.v. NIFA-88) under rain fed conditions at Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, during 2003- 04. The treatments consisted of P levels; 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-I, with and without inoculum. A basal dose of 20 kg ha-l nitrogen was applied just before sowing, at the time of seedbed preparation. The experiment was laid out according to the randomized complete block design, with three replications. The results showed significant variation in number of pods per plant, 1000 seed weight and grain yield, with the application of P and Rhizobium inoculum. The maximum number of pods per plant (25.00) was recorded in the plots receiving 60 kg P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/ h a/sup -l/ plus inoculum, but was statistically at par with the pods produced by the treatment of 90 kg P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/ ha-l plus inoculum (24.67). Phosphorus levels plus inoculum gave 11.87 percent increased number of pods per plant over mere P levels. Similarly, the maximum 1000 seed weight of 197.0 g was recorded at the rate 90 and 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha-1 plus inoculum and 90 kg P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/ ha-l alone. The highest grain-yield of 1,317 kg ha/sup -l/ was obtained from the treatments where P was applied at the rate 90 and 60 kg ha-I with inoculum. The grain yield was increased 8.54 percent when P levels were applied with inoculums, as compared to Palone, on average basis. Hence, it can be concluded from the study that (I) Rhizobium inoculum application alone can increase yield, and (II) 60 kg P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/ ha-l is the most economical dose to be used with Rhizobium inoculum for obtaining higher grain-yield of chickpea. (author)

  20. [Molecular identification and sequence analysis of broad bean wilt virus 2 isolates from atractylodes macrocephala Koidz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanbing; Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ximei; Zhao, Huiqi; Zhao, Baojia

    2015-01-01

    To identity the pathogen that causes the mosaic and yellowing symptoms on Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz in Jiangxian, Shanxi province, biological inoculation, sequence-independent amplification (SIA),RT-PCR and other identification methods were used. The results showed that the chlorotic and necrosis symptoms occurred in the indicator plant Chenopodium quinoa after it was infected with the pathogen,and the same symptoms appeared after the reinoculation of healthy Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz; this reflected that the disease was likely to be caused by a virus. The results of SIA and sequencing showed that Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) was present in severely mosaic Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz leaves. To further characterize the BBWV2 isolate from Atractylodes macrocephala (BBWV2-Am), the polyprotein partial gene encoded by BBWV2-Am RNA2 was cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed that the nucleotide sequence identity of BBWV2-Am SCP and LCP genes ranged from 79.3% to 87.2% and from 80.1% to 89.2% compared to other BBWV2 strains,respectively; the deduced amino acid sequence similarities of the two gene products ranged from 91.2% to 95.7% and from 89.44 to 95.5%, respectively,compared to those of other BBWV2 strains. Phylogenetic comparisons showed that BBWV2-Am was most likely to be related to BBWV2-Rg,but formed an independent branch. This is the first report of BBWV2 in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. PMID:25997332

  1. Genetics of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and Efficacy of Associated SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepu; Sinha, B.; Rai, V. P.; Singh, M. N.; Singh, D. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) disease caused by Fusarium udum was investigated in pigeonpea using four different long duration FW resistant genotypes viz., BDN-2004-1, BDN-2001-9, BWR-133 and IPA-234. Based on the F2 segregation pattern, FW resistance has been reported to be governed by one dominant gene in BDN-2004-1 and BDN-2001-9, two duplicate dominant genes in BWR-133 and two dominant complimentary genes in resistance source IPA-234. Further, the efficacy of six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers namely, ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148, ASSR-229, ASSR-363 and ASSR-366 reported to be associated with FW resistance were also tested and concluded that markers ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148 will be used for screening of parental genotypes in pigeonpea FW resistance breeding programs. The information on genetics of FW resistance generated from this study would be used, to introgress FW resistance into susceptible but highly adopted cultivars through marker-assisted backcross breeding and in conventional breeding programs. PMID:27147929

  2. Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2 on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79% out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%, GS-II (3.9% and GS-III (56.9%. BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.

  3. Status of tobacco viruses in Serbia and molecular characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, I; Bulajić, A; Vučurović, A; Ristić, D; Milojević, K; Berenji, J; Krstić, B

    2011-01-01

    In a four-year survey to determine the presence and distribution of viruses in tobacco crops at 17 localities of the Vojvodina Province and Central Serbia, 380 samples were collected and analyzed by DAS-ELISA. Out of the seven viruses tested, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), potato virus Y (PVY), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) were detected in 37.9, 33.4, 28.7, 23.9, and 15.5% of the total tested samples, respectively. TSWV was the most frequently found virus at the localities of Central Serbia, while PVY and CMV were the most frequent viruses in the Vojvodina Province. Single infections were prevalent in years 2005-2007 and the most frequent were those of PVY. A triple combination of those viruses was most frequent mixed infection type in 2008. The presence of all five detected viruses was confirmed in selected ELISA-positive samples by RT-PCR and sequencing. The comparisons of obtained virus isolate sequences with those available in NCBI, confirmed the authenticity of serologically detected viruses. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial nucleocapsid gene sequences revealed a joint clustering of Serbian, Bulgarian and Montenegrin TSWV isolates into one geographic subpopulation, which was distinct from the other subpopulation of TSWV isolates from the rest of the European countries. The high incidence of viruses in Serbian tobacco crops highlights the importance of enhancing farmers knowledge towards better implementation of control strategies for preventing serious losses. PMID:22149499

  4. Expression analysis of fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon by real-time quantitative pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melon Actin gene was used as a reference gene, to explore the gene expression profiles of the Fom-2 gene in roots, stems, and leaves of melon MR-1 under induction by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Monitoring using real-time quantitative PCR showed similar accumulation patterns of Fom-2 in roots, stems, and leaves over the observation period of 1 to 11 days; the expression level in stems was the highest. The expression of the Fom-2 gene was strengthened by the prolongation of induction time. In stems, the expression of Fom-2 was 5.737 times higher than in the control at three days; in roots, expression of Fom-2 was 5.617 times higher than in the control at five days. Similarly, the expression of Fom-2 in leaves obviously increased. It was 4.441 times higher than in the control at 5 days. The expression of Fom-2 was non-tissue specific, up-regulated under induction by Fusarium, and related to early resistance to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  5. Search for alternate hosts of the coconut Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankey Egya Ndede

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lethal Yellowing disease locally called Cape Saint Paul wilt disease (CSPWD is the bane of the coconut industry in Ghana and is caused by a phytoplasma. In Ghana, there are areas where the disease has re-infected re-plantings long after decimating all the palms in the area. This brings to the fore the possibility of alternate hosts in the spread of the disease because the pathogen is an obligate parasite. In this work, a number of plants were screened for their host status to the CSPWD pathogen. The presence of phytoplasmas in these plants was tested by polymerase chain reaction analysis using universal phytoplasma primers P1/P7 and CSPWD-specific primers G813/GAKSR. Although Desmodium adscendens tested positive to the CSPWD-specific primers, cloning and sequencing did not confirm it as an alternate host. The identification of alternate hosts will help us to evolve sound control strategies against the spread of the disease.

  6. Infection Trace of Pine Wilt Disease Based on Terahertz Spectroscopic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the terahertz spectroscopic features of pine needle infected by pine wilt disease during different infection stages by applying terahertz spectroscopic techniques. We measure the absorption variation of the pine needle samples with infection time by Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS. The absorption intensity in the frequency region of 0-2.5 THz increases gradually with infection time. While the pine wood is infected above four months, the absorption intensity reaches to maximum. However, the calculated relative refractive index compared with the reference signal of PET powder reduces with infection time. The higher frequency measurement by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR doesn’t show the absorption variation of the samples due to huge signal attenuation in the transmission path of the samples. This study demonstrates that the relation of absorption intensity and refractive index of the pine needle sample with the infection time. We can trace the infection extent of the pine wood by measuring its terahertz spectroscopic property

  7. Induced genetic variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) II. Comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) were studied in two desi (Pb2000 and C44), one kabuli (Pb1) and one desi x kabuli introgression line (CH40/91) of chickpea. The treatments included two doses each of gamma rays and EMS calculated on the basis of their LD30. The results revealed that EMS was almost seven times more effective and its efficiency was two times higher than that of gamma rays. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were found to depend upon mutagen type and the genotype and both were higher at lower doses of EMS in three genotypes except in desi genotype C44. The overall trend of mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in both gamma radiation and EMS was in the order i.e. CH40/91 greater than Pb2000 greater than Pb1 greater than C44. The introgression line desi x kabuli genotype was found to be most resistant towards mutagenic treatments than desi and kabuli types

  8. Molecular Marker-assisted Selection for Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)%陆地棉抗黄萎病性状分子标记辅助选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-jin ZHU; Wei-ping FANG; Dao-fan JI

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium wilt is a global important disease of cotton, which threatens the development of cotton production seriously. Recent years,because of the change in climate and cropping pattern, Verticillium wilt was broke out in cotton production areas in China, which became one of the most important factors restricting the continuant development of cotton production.

  9. 鹰嘴豆淀粉与玉米淀粉性质的比较%Comparative Study on Properties of Chickpea Starch and Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾楠; 刘美艳; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    研究了新疆产鹰嘴豆淀粉的一些基本性质,并与玉米淀粉进行比较,发现鹰嘴豆淀粉中直链淀粉质量分数为31.8%,高于玉米淀粉的直链淀粉质量分数(26.6%);通过电镜扫描发现鹰嘴豆淀粉颗粒表面光滑,形状多数为椭圆形、鹅卵石状,少数为圆形,而玉米淀粉颗粒多为圆形,呈多角状;粒度分析表明鹰嘴豆淀粉的粒径范围是6.39 ~41.80 μm,体积平均粒径是16.77 μn,而玉米淀粉粒径范围是4.02~33.35 μm,体积平均粒径是14.60 μm;鹰嘴豆淀粉持水力、溶解度优于玉米淀粉,透光率低于玉米淀粉;差示扫描量热( DSC)分析发现鹰嘴豆淀粉糊化温度为60.6 ~71.8℃,相变热焓值为7.12 J/g;玉米淀粉糊化温度为65.4~75.1℃,相变热焓值为10.61 J/g.%In this paper, some basic properties of Xinjiang chickpea starch was researched, and then compared with those of corn starch. It has been found that the mass fraction of amylose starch in chickpea starch was 31. 8% , which was higher than that (26.6% ) of the corn starch; by scanning starch granules with an electron microscopy,it was found that chickpea starch grain was smooth in surface, mainly in the form of oval and cobblestone and rarely in round,while the corn starch grain was mainly round with multiple angles. The particle size analysis showed that the particle size of chickpeas starch ranged from 6.39 to 41.80μm,and the volume average particle size was 14.60μm, while those of the corn starch were from 4.02 ~ 33.35μm and 14.60μm respectively. Besides,the water holding capacity and solubility of chickpea starch were better than those of the corn starch, of which the light transmittance was lower than that of the corn starch. The differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) analysis showed that the gelatinization temperature of the chickpea starch was between 60. 6℃ and 71. 8 ℃,and the phase transition enthalpy value was 7. 12 J/g, while those of the corn starch was

  10. 西瓜枯萎病土壤拮抗菌的筛选%Screening of Soil Antagonistic Bacteria for Watermelon Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芹; 张洪斌; 苏晓飞

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to screen bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt from soil and investigate the biological control of watermelon fusarium wilt by applying the antagonistic bacteria strains into soil. [Method] Actinomycete strains, fluorescent bacteria strains and bacillus strains were isolated from soil samples by the dilution-plate method, then its resistance was screened respectively by the improved confront culture method after colonies were purified. Finally, bacteria strains with better antagonistic effect were identified. [Result] 29 bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt were screened from 39 soil samples, which contained 15 fluorescent bacteria strains, 5 bacillus strains and 9 actinomycete strains. Furthermore, three antagonistic bacteria strains of FM2, FM3 and FM4 with the strongest antagonism were identified primarily. [Conclusion] According to cultural characteristics, morphological observation, biochemical and physiological tests, FM2 belongs to bacillus subtilis, while FM3 and FM4 belong to micrococcus.

  11. Isolation, identification of antagonistic rhizobacterial strains obtained from chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) field and their in-vitro evaluation against fungal root pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are associated with roots, found in the rhizosphere and can directly or indirectly enhance the plant growth. In this study soil was collected from rhizosphere of chickpea fields of different areas of Rawalpindi division of Pakistan. PGPR were isolated, screened and characterized. Eight isolates of rhizobacteria (RHA, RPG, RFJ, RC, RTR, RT and RK) were isolated from Rawalpindi division and were characterized. The antagonistic activity of these PGPR isolates against root infecting fungi (Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium spp.,) was done and production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and P-solubilization was evaluated. The isolates RHA, RPG, RFJ, RC, RRD and RT were found to be positive in producing siderophore, IAA and P-solubilization. Furthermore, most of the isolates showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, and Verticillium spp. The rhizobacterial isolates RHA, RPG, RFJ, RC, RRD, RTR, RT and RK were used as bio-inoculants that might be beneficial for chickpea cultivation as the rhizobacterial isolates possessed the plant growth promoting characters i.e. siderophore, IAA production, phosphate solubilization. In in vitro tests, Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus spp. inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungal root pathogens. The isolates (RHA and RPG) also significantly increased (60-70%) seed germination, shoot length, root length of the chickpea. The incidence of fungi was reduced by the colonization of RHA and RPG which enhanced the seedling vigor index and seed germination. The observations revealed that isolates RHA and RPG is quite effective to reduce the fungal root infection in greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly. These rhizobacterial isolates appear to be efficient yield increasing as well as effective biocontrol agent against fungal root pathogen. (author)

  12. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N V P R; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C; Sheshashayee, M S; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance. PMID:24801366

  13. Interaction between seed size and NaCl on germination and early seedling growth of some Turkish cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muharrem KAYA; Gamze KAYA; Mehmet Demir KAYA; Mehmet ATAK; Sevil SAGLAM; Khalid Mahmood KHAWAR; Cemalettin Yasar CIFTCI

    2008-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop of Turkey and is largely grown for human consumption on low moisture or salt-affected soils.The objective of the study was to find the effects of NaCl stress at electrical conductivities of 4.5,8.6,12.7 and 16.3 dS/m and seed sizes (7,8 and 9 mm) on germination and early seedling growth of three popular chickpea cultivars (AKN-97,Gokce and Uzunlu-99).Mean frequency of germination,germination time,germination index,root length,shoot length and seedling fresh weight showed seed size-dependent responses of cultivars to salt stress.In general,small seeds germinated and grew more rapidly compared to medium and large seeds of the same cultivars against all levels of salt stress,with the best results in cultivar Uzunlu-99.No effect of NaCl treatments was observed on frequency of germination; however,a drastic decrease in early seedling growth was recorded at increased NaCl concentrations.Regression analysis results showed a significantly positive rela-tionship (P<0.01) between seed size and mean germination time,whereas a significantly negative relationship was recorded between seed size and germination index,root length,shoot length.Moreover,linear regression values apparently confirmed that increased seed size in each cultivar affected decreased germination index,root and shoot lengths with enhanced mean germination time.Thus,it was concluded that the use of small seeds could considerably reduce the production costs of chickpea in salt-affected soils.

  14. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia. Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20 was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs, both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs] and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70 was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci in Sweet Corn Associated with Partial Resistance to Stewart's Wilt, Northern Corn Leaf Blight, and Common Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A F; Juvik, J A; Pataky, J K

    2001-03-01

    ABSTRACT Partial resistance to Stewart's wilt (Erwina stewartii, syn. Pantoea stewartii), northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) (Exserohilum turcicum), and common rust (Puccinia sorghi) was observed in an F(2:3) population developed from a cross between the inbred sweet corn lines IL731a and W6786. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with partial resistance using restriction fragment length polymorphic markers. Phenotypic data were collected for 2 years for Stewart's wilt, NCLB, and common rust but, due to significant family-environment interaction, analysis was conducted individually on data from each year. In 2 years of evaluation for the three diseases, a total of 33 regions in the maize genome were associated with partial resistance describing from 5.9 to 18% of the total phenotypic variability. Of six regions common in both years, three were associated with partial resistance to Stewart's wilt (chromosomes 4:07, 5:03, and 6:04), one was associated with NCLB (chromosome 9:05), and two were associated with common rust (chromosomes 2:04 and 3:04). The rust QTL on 3S mapped to within 20 cM of the rp3 locus and explained 17.7% of the phenotypic variability. Some of the QTL associated with partial resistance to the three diseases have been reported previously, and some are described here for the first time. Results suggest it may be possible to consolidate QTL from various elite backgrounds in a manner analogous to the pyramiding of major resistance genes. We also report here on two QTL associated with anthocyanin production on chromosomes 10:6 and 5:03 in the general location of the a2 gene. PMID:18943349

  16. A study of interaction between Verticillium wilt Verticillium dahliae and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedizadeh, Ayatollah; Kheiri, Ahmad; Zad, Javad; Etebarian, Hasan Reza; Bandani, Ali Reza; Nasiri, Mohammad Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Second stage juvenile (J2) of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and microsclerotia of verticillium wilt, Verticillium dahliae, were used as the source of inoculum for nematode and fungus respectively. One-year-old seedlings of olive cultivars, Zard, Roghani, Koroneiki and Manzanilla, were transplanted to pots containing 2000g of sterilized sandy loam soil. Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 32 treatments and five replications. Treatments were as follows: control, nematode alone, fungus alone and fungus + nematode. Pots were inoculated with (0, 2000, 3000, 4000) J2 of nematode and/or (10 no/g soil) microsclerotia of fungus according to the treatments. Experiment was terminated after 10 months and fallowing parameters were determined i.e., fresh weight of root and stem, number of galls and egg masses per root system, and percentage of incidence of symptom on aerial parts, browning of vascular tissue, decrease of seedling height and stem/root tissue colonization by fungus. Results showed that presence of nematode caused reduction on colonization of the fungus in the root and stem and vice versa i.e. presence of fungus caused reduction on number of galls and egg masses produced by the nematode. Severe fungus wilt on aerial parts of Manzanilla cultivar was observed when both pathogens were inoculated and mild fungus wilt was observed in fungus alone treatments of Koroneiki cultivar. Galling and egg mass production in root system were reduced in cvs Manzanilla, Zard, Roghani and Koroneiki, respectively (p Manzanilla, respectively (p < or = 0/05). PMID:20222619

  17. Microarray Analysis of the Transcriptome for Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun HWANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum causes one of the most common soil-borne vascular diseases of diverse plant species, including many solanaceous crops such as tomato and pepper. The resulting disease, bacterial wilt (BW, is devastating and difficult to control using conventional approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate the differentially expressed genes in pepper root systems in response to infection by R. solanacearum. DNA microarray (Capsicum annuum 135K Microarray v3.0 Gene Expression platform analyses were performed using a susceptible genotype, ‘Chilbok’, and a resistant genotype, ‘KC350’, at 3 time points (1, 3, and 6 days post inoculation. It has been identified 115 resistance-specific genes (R-response genes and 109 susceptibility-specific genes (S-response gene, which were up-regulated in 1 genotype, but down-regulated in the other genotype. Gene Ontology (GO analysis for functional categorization indicated that many R-response genes were related to genes that function in xyloglucan biosynthesis and cell wall organization, while S-response genes were involved in the response to stress and cell death. The expression of genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH and β-galactosidase were verified by real-time RT-PCR at an early time point of R. solanacearum infection. The results supported the idea that rapidly induced XTH expression in ‘KC350’ may play an important role in the restructuring and reinforcement of the cell wall and restrict bacterial movement in xylem vessels. In addition, induced expression of β-galactosidase in R. solanacearum-infected ‘Chilbok’ implied that degradation of the cell wall structure in vascular tissues by β-galactosidase might be an important factor facilitating R. solanacearum invasion of and movement in susceptible host plants.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, N.; Garmendia, I.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Aguirreolea, J.

    2010-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a vascular pathogen that alters water status and growth of pepper plants and causes drastic reductions in yield. Its control is difficult because it can survive in field soil for several years. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against V. dahliae is an alternative to the use of chemicals which, in addition, is more respectful with the environment. The establishment of the mutualistic association of plant roots and AMF involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts that includes the pre activation of plant defense responses that may enhance the resistance or tolerance of mycorrhizal plants to soil-borne pathogens. Some AMF can improve the resistance of Capsicum annuum L. against V. dahliae. This is especially relevant for pepper cultivars (i.e. cv. Piquillo) that exhibit high susceptibility to this pathogen. Compared with non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal pepper can exhibit more balanced antioxidant metabolism in leaves along the first month after pathogen inoculation, which may contribute to delay both the development of disease symptoms and the decrease of photosynthesis in Verticillium-inoculated plants with the subsequent benefit for yield. In stems, mycorrhizal pepper show earlier and higher deposition of lignin in xylem vessels than non mycorrhizal plants, even in absence of the pathogen. Moreover, AMF can induce new isoforms of acidic chitinases and superoxide dismutase in roots. Mycorrhizal-specific induction of these enzymatic activities together with enhanced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in roots may also be involved in the bio protection of Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper by AMF. (Author) 81 refs.

  19. Use of additives and pre-wilting in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tropical grasses silage has become common in ruminant feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, nutritional value, pH, fermentative capacity, ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (NH3N/total N of Tifton 85 bermudagrass grass silage with different additives and wilting. The treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before silage, use of inoculant-enzymatic addition of soybean hulls, corn grits addition and use of salt in the surface layer of the silo. The experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Plants of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with 38 days of growth were ensiled in experimental silos with Bunsen valve type with packing densities of 236 kg of silage per m³ for Tifton 85 bermudagrass pre-dried in the sun and 294 kg of silage per m³ for the other treatments. The proportions of soybean hulls and corn grits added to the silage were calculated based on the initial DM content of Tifton 85 bermudagrass order to obtain MS 320 g kg-1 for the material to be ensiled. The buffering capacity did not differ between treatments in getting 29.56 (meqHCl/100gMS. It was found that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen did not differ between silages and remained low (3.22 g kg-1, the pH after silo opening was also similar with an average of 4.09 getting above 4.2 only in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage without pre-treatment. The crude protein was higher in silages Tifton 85 bermudagrass and Tifton 85 bermudagrass with soybean hulls (17.48 g kg-1. The use corn grits caused a reduction in the values of NDF. The use of salt on the surface the layer reduced the production of latic and acetic acid.

  20. Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-01-01

    In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

  1. ''In vitro'' mutation breeding methodology for Fusarium wilt resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Besides ''in vivo'' methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA/USP is also using ''in vitro'' methods for mutation breeding to obtain resistance to Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense in the banana cultivar ''Maca''. A protocol has been established for the ''in vitro'' development of shoot tips, obtained from plants in the field or already cultivated under in vitro'' conditions. For both cases, only one culture medium was used during all steps of ''in vitro'' cultivation. New buds were formed and these buds grew and developed to form roots. The medium was composed of macro and micro nutrients, with added Morel vitamines, BAP (5 mg/l), saccharose (30 g/l) and agar (6.5 g/l), at pH 5.7. Cultures were allowed to grow in a controlled environment at 27 deg. C and 16 h illumination. Shoot tips which originated from ''in vitro'' plantlets, were cut longitudinally down the middle. This was done to avoid a tendency of regeneration of the original tissue instead of the formation of new lateral buds. To resolve the chimerism resulting when mutagenic treatment is applied to shoot tips, there is a need of vegetative propagation of new lateral buds. Selection can then be done at M1V4 generation. Once the protocol was established, the gamma ray sensitivity was determined. The dose that produced a 50% decrease in the number of new lateral buds was around 40 Gy and this dose will be utilised. The methodology was completed by soil inoculation with Fusarium of young plants 15 cm in height, obtained from ''in vitro'' cultures. After 3 weeks all inoculated plants showed symptoms of wilt, demonstrating the possibility of screening. The method is now being utilised on a large scale in an attempt to induce a resistant mutant. (author)

  2. 鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解工艺研究%Study on the Enzyme Hydrolysis of Chickpea Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓飞; 李锋; 周伏忠; 孙玉飞; 陈国参

    2013-01-01

    To increase the DH of chickpea protein, and provide the basis for industrialization of the enzymatic production of chickpea producing oligopeptides, the optimal condition for alcalase hydrolysis of chickpea protein was studied. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined according to the pH-state method. Through a single-factor test and an orthogonal designed experiment, the alcalase hydrolysis of chickpea protein was systematically studied. Then, the three proteases of alcalase,papain and bromelain commonly hydrolyzing chickpea protein was carried out to increase the DH of chickpea protein. The results showed that the obtained optimum hydrolysis with alcalase condition was pH 8.5, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%. Under this condition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 27.86%. Under each optimum conditions of the three proteases respectively (The obtained optimum hydrolysis condition of alcalase was pH 8.5, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%. The obtained optimum hydrolysis condition of papain and bromelain was pH 7.2, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%), the chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the alcalase, papain and bromelain in turn was carried out, and the DH could reach 34.64%. The DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases above-mentioned under each optimum condition respectively in turn was much higher than that of the DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases simultaneously. Furthermore, the yield of oligopeptides was significantly improved.%研究鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解工艺,提高鹰嘴豆蛋白水解度,为鹰嘴豆酶解生产短肽的产业化提供依据。用pH-state法计算蛋白水解度,首先通过单因素试验和正交试验,得出碱性蛋白酶水解鹰嘴豆蛋白的最佳反应条件,

  3. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012–13 and 2013–14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. str...

  4. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Semi-arid Conditions: I. Effect of Powder Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    N. Bayraktar; Ulukan, H; N. Kocak

    2012-01-01

    Due to slow growth and weakness of the first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plant could not combatted with weeds and easily get caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease; esp. under the late sowing and semi-arid conditions, due to effect of biotic and abiotic stress factors, significant yield losses could be arised. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate the first development of this crop. So, one of the best solutions is to use ...

  5. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Semi-arid Conditions: II. Seed Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oksel; N. Bayraktar; Ulukan, H; Gursoy, M; N. Kocak

    2012-01-01

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easiliy caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical...

  6. New Mexico and the southwestern US are affected by a unique population of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J M; Goldberg, N P; Randall, J J; Hanson, S F

    2016-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an important pathogen of many ornamental, greenhouse and agronomic crops worldwide. TSWV also causes sporadic problems in a number of crops in New Mexico (NM). Nucleocapsid gene sequences obtained from six different crop species across the state over four different years were used to characterize the NM TSWV population. This analysis shows that NM is affected by a unique TSWV population that is part of larger independent population present in the southwestern US. This population likely arose due to geographic isolation and is related to other TSWV populations from the US, Spain, and Italy. PMID:26721573

  7. QTL Analysis of Fiber Yield and Quality and Resistance to Verticillium Wilt Using Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense Advanced Backcross Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-guo; WANG Tao; YUAN You-lu; LIU Guang-ping; ZHANG Bao-cai; LI Jun-wen; SHI Yu-zhen; LIU Ai-ying; YANG Ze-mao; LIU Zhi; YU Xiao-nan

    2008-01-01

    @@ To introgress elite QTL alleles of Gossypium barbadense L.for fiber yield and quality and resistance to Verticillium wilt into G.hirsutum L.,enlarge the genetic base of G.hirsutum,and provide new germplasm resources for the variety development,the cultivars Zhongmiansuo 36,G.hirsutum,and Hai 1,G.barbadense,were used as recurrent and donor parent,respectively,to produce BC1 F1,BC1S1,and BC2F1 populations.QTL analyses of fiber quality,yield-related,Key words: interspecific backcrosss; AB-QTL; fiber quality; yield; Verticillium wilt resistance

  8. Characterization of an RTX-Like Toxin and an Alpha-2-Macroglobulin in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Wilt of Sweet Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kayla Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii DC283, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt, is an important bacterial pathogen of sweet corn. P. stewartii colonizes the apoplastic space and xylem tissue, resulting in characteristic water-soaked (WS) lesions and wilting. A gene encoding a putative RTX-like toxin, rtx2, has been identified in P. stewartii. RTX toxins belong to the pore-forming toxin family and have lytic properties in animal systems. Little is known about the role of RTX toxins in plant path...

  9. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogen...

  10. Evaluation of some chemical and technological properties of induced erect chickpea mutant lines developed under drought stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the chickpea variety Flip 99-47 C were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 50 and 75 Gy and sown in the winter season of 2004/2005 to raise M1 generation under ordinary (normal) irrigation conditions. Bulked seeds from each treatment were planted in the subsequent growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 to advance M2 and M3 generations, respectively under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stress condition. In the third generation, three erect mutant lines were derived from 75 Gy mutagenic treatment under drought stress compared to semi spreading growth habit of the initiated variety Flip 99-47 C. In the winter season of 2007/2008, M4 bulked seeds from the three erect lines as well as unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation (2152.5 m3/fad.) or drought (1159.2 m3/fad.) conditions were analyzed for the chemical composition and nutritional values. Obtained results indicated that there were slight decreases in protein and fat contents accompanied with marginal increases in both ash and carbohydrates in seed samples of the erect mutant developed under drought stress as compared to unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation treatment. An opposite trend was noticed between seed samples derived from the erect lines compared to seeds of the parent variety developed under drought condition. Negligible changes in levels of the minerals (iron, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were detected between seeds of the erect lines and the original variety that grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought conditions. Cooking time (min) and hydration coefficient values did not much differ between the three tested seed samples. Marginal differences in essential and non-essential amino acids were detected between seeds of the erect mutants and those of the initial variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stressed conditions

  11. From chickpeas to oil. The keys to fifteen years of hispanic-mexican economic relations (1977-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Forcada

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyse the evolution of economic relations between Spain and Mexico from the reestablishment of diplomatic relations taking into account both the keys to this evolution and its changes. The authors highlight three distinct periods : a boom between 1977 and 1981 ; a relapse between 1982 and 1986 and a recovery between 1987 and 1992. This division into periods takes note of an initial spectacular increase in which bilateral exchanges were multiplied up to 33 times. A five year period in which oil replaced chickpeas as the main product bought in Mexico (up to four-fifths of the total volume and in which Spanish exports multiplied themselves ten times over. Already from this first phase, the commercial balance was clearly in favour of Mexico, a fact more striking during the second period, during which Spanish imports fell up to 50% but whileher exports were reduced by two-thirds. The key was the fall in the price of oil. The continuity of Spanish oil buying in Mexico however precipitated the recovery of the third period which coincided with the signing of the General Friendship and Cooperation Agreement between both countries. In 1992 Spain regained second place as a customer of Mexico behind the United States while the joint political policies coincide in pointing out that these are two reciprocal pathways to both the EC and US markets. The authors however, sustain that the global evolution of economic blocks does not favour this vision bearing in mind that the composition of and leadership in trade between such blocks will be governed, basically, by the strategies deployed by transnational companies.

  12. Control of Wilt and Blight Diseases of Cumin through Antagonistic Fungi under in Vitro and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. DEEPAK

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to assess their possible use as bio-agents for several antagonistic fungi on growth of two cumin fungal pathogens under in vitro and field conditions. Under in vitro conditions maximum inhibition (82.86% of radial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini was observed with the treatment of Trichoderma harzianum strain I, whereas maximum inhibition (85.45% of the mycelial growth of Alternaria burnsii was observed in the presence of Trichoderma harzianum strain II. The antagonists who showed maximum inhibition of the pathogen in laboratory conditions were applied in field conditions as soil treatment/seed treatment or as foliar spray. The incidence of wilt disease was found to be lowest (PDI 27.40% when soil was treated with Trichoderma harzianium strain I at the rate of 24g / 6m2 (weight of fungus with sorghum seeds. Minimum blight disease incidence was observed when T. harzianum strain II was applied to the soil at the rate of 24g / 6m2 (36.15% or when 10% spore suspension of T. harzianum strain II was applied as seed treatment at the time of sowing and as spray at the time of flowering (PDI 35.10%. Thus treatments of Trichoderma harzianum strain I for wilt and Trichoderma harzianum strain II for blight diseases of cumin under both the conditions @ 24g / 6m2 or 40kg / ha seems promising for sustainable management of crop diseases.

  13. Improvements in seed yield, oil quality and tolerance to sesame wilt disease pathogens using induced mutation and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air dried seeds of two Egyptian local sesame cultivars were exposed to a wide range (100 to 800 Gy) of gamma ray doses from a 60Co source. The dose rate at the time of irradiation was 1 Gy/s. Irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were immediately sown in the experimental field and selection of plants with morphological changes was practised up to the M2 generation. Superior mutant lines that surpassed their mother type in one or more character(s) related to seed yield were tested in on-farm trials. To improve early maturity, seed shattering and seed yield, superior mutant lines were crossed with local and introduced germplasm. Selection for disease tolerance to wilt and root rot fungi causing sesame wilt was practised by artificial inoculation of the soil with a single fungus. A new method for inoculum preparation and soil infestation in pot and field experiments was adopted; all the selected lines raised from the mutation programme or from the crossing block had to pass this pathological test for three successive seasons and to be highly tolerant to sesame fungal diseases. 2 tabs

  14. Comparison of fungal community in black pepper-vanilla and vanilla monoculture systems associated with vanilla Fusarium wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qirong eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard and vanilla monoculture system were compared through the deep pyrosequencing. The results showed that the black pepper-vanilla system revealed a significantly higher fungal diversity than the vanilla monoculture system in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The UniFrac-weighted PCoA analysis revealed significant differences in bulk soil fungal community structures between the two cropping systems, and fungal community structures were seriously affected by the vanilla root system. In summary, the black pepper-vanilla system harboured a lower abundance of F. oxysporum in the vanilla rhizosphere soil and increased the putatively plant-beneficial fungal groups such as Trichoderma and Penicillium genus, which could explain the healthy growth of vanilla in the soil of the long-term continuously cropped black pepper field. Thus, cropping vanilla in the soil of continuously cropped black pepper fields for maintaining the vanilla industry is executable and meaningful as an agro-ecological system.

  15. Induction of Systematic Resistance in Soybean Plants against Fusarium Wilt Disease by Seed Treatment with Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH, humic acid (HA and their combination when used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Both inducers and their combination were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i. e Minia and New Valley governorates. The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except number of branches plant-1, and seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 + HA (4 g/l was the most potent in this respect treatment. Soybean seed soaking in BTH+ HA recorded the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. Whereas, HA treatment was recorded the lowest increased of these oxidative enzymes. Also, similar results were obtained in case of total phenol but HA increased the total phenol more than BTH in all tested cultivars.

  16. Evaluation of the gene encoding the enzyme βHPMEH for the bacterial wilt inhibition caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease that attacks important agricultural crops such as potato, tomato, banana, among others, causing serious yield losses. Control of R. solanacearum is difficult because of its wide range of alternate hosts, its long survival in soil, its biological and genetic variation, the lack of natural resistance sources and the insufficiency of the appropriate chemical control measures. Quorum sensing is the term that describes the phenomenon whereby the accumulation of molecules allows bacteria to know the number of bacteria found in the environment (population density. R. solanacearum has a quorum sensing system for the regulation of the expression of virulence genes; the molecule 3-OH-PAME is the self-regulatory signal. The molecule ΒHPMEH hydrolyzes 3-OH-PAME nullifying the signal of virulence, and thus, the quorum sensing communication in R. solanacearum. In order to evaluate the βhpmeh gene we designed two vectors that express this gene under the control of two different promoters. Both vectors were verified by restriction analysis and sequencing. Agroinfiltration assays were used to analyze gene expression and the effect against R. solanacearum in potato (Solanum tuberosum leaves. The results of the transient expression experiments showed that the expression of gene βhpmeh caused a delay in the appearance of symptoms of bacterial wilt and thus is a good candidate for whole genetic plant transformation.

  17. Effect of root exudates of different resistant varieties of cucumber on fusarium wilt and preliminary studies on their resistance mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benli HUANG; Yundong XU; Ye WU; Shunqi ZHANG; Xuchao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of root exudates of cucumber varieties, Jinyan 4 (susceptible variety), Jinchun 4 (resistant variety) and Yinnan Black seed squash on fusa-rium wilt. The results showed that fusarium wilt occurrence of plants treated with the root exudate of Jinyan 4 was earlier. The infection rate was significantly higher 15 days after inoculation, but similar to the control 20 days after inocula-tion. In contrast, the infection rate of plants treated with the root exudate of Jinchun 4 was significantly lower than that of the control. The plant height and fresh weight of Jinyan 4 treated with its own root exudate were lower than those of the control, and the root vigor decreased but the conductance increased. There was no significant effect of the root exudates from Jinchun 4 and Black seed squash on plant height and fresh mass of Jinyan 4. We found that the root exudate of susceptible cucumber variety stimulated the growth of Fusarium oxysporum pathogen, in contrast, that of resistance variety and Black seed squash suppressed the growth.

  18. Induced resistance by cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methyl methylbenzoic acid) against wilt disease of melon and cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid) was proved be active in controlling wilt diseases of melon and cotton plants grown in the house. Soil drench with 200-1000 ppm cresotic acid induced 62-77 %, 69-79 % and 50-60 % protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp melonis (FOM) in melon, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) and Verticillium dahliae in cotton, respectively. Since no inhibitory effect of cresotic acid on mycelial growth of these three fungual pathogens was observed in vitro, it is suggested that control of these wilt diseases with cresotic acid resulted from induced resistance. Cresotic acid induced resistance in melon plants not only against race 0, race 1, race 2 and race 1,2, but also against a mixture of these four races of FOM, suggesting a non-race- specific resistance. Level of induced resistance by cresotic acid against FOM depended on inoculum pressure applied to melon plants. At 25 day after inoculation with FOM, percentage protection induced by cresotic acid under low inoculum pressure retained a level of 51 %, while under high inoculum pressure percentage protection decreased to only 10 %. High concentrations of cresotic acid significantly reduced plant growth. Reduction in fresh weight of melon (36-51%) and cotton (42-71%) was obtained with 500-1000 ppm cresotic acid, while only less than 8% reduction occurred with 100-200 ppm. (author)

  19. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed. PMID:25496301

  20. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  1. Purification, crystallization and X-ray characterization of a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor protein from the seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification, characterization and crystallization of a trypsin inhibitor protein isolated from chickpea seeds are reported. A Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor protein (CPTI) purified from chickpea seeds was estimated to have a molecular mass of 18 kDa on SDS–PAGE. The IC50 value of CPTI was determined to be 2.5 µg against trypsin. The inhibitory activity of CPTI is 114 TIU (trypsin inhibitory units) per milligram of protein, which is high compared with those of other known Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors from legumes. CPTI crystallized in three different orthorhombic crystal forms: P21212 form A, P21212 form B and P212121. The crystals of P21212 form A, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 41.2, c = 104.6 Å, diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the home source and to 1.4 Å on beamline BM14 at the ESRF. Data were also collected from crystals grown in the presence of iodine. The Matthews coefficient for these crystals was calculated to be 2.37 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to a solvent content of 42%. The other two crystal forms (P21212 form B and P212121) diffracted comparatively poorly

  2. Development and application of sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), banana (Musa spp.) and their major pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA markers of various kinds have found widespread application in many facets of plant breeding and plant pathogen control. Yet another marker type, sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers, provides the markers of choice for nearly every crop because of their co-dominant nature, reliability, ease of application and high polymorphic information content. We report here on the development of a whole set of STMS markers and the respective, selected primer sequences for two important crops, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and banana (Musa acuminata), and for their most devastating fungal pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, respectively. These markers were generated either by direct screening of size-selected genomic libraries with microsatellite-complementary oligonucleotides, or by enrichment of DNA fragments containing microsatellite sequences. A total of 69 markers for chickpea, 15 markers for M. acuminata, 19 markers for A rabiei and 11 markers for M. fijiensis, selected on the basis of their high information content and ease of use are presented here. These can be applied for mapping of the respective genomes, for various population studies, and cultivar and isolate identification. We further demonstrate that several of these markers can potentially be applied across species boundaries and thus could increase the marker repertoire also for other species of the genus Cicer, Musa and for Ascochyta-type pathogens of bean, and potentially also of lentil and pea. (author)

  3. Illustrated glossary of terms used in foraminiferal research

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    An illustrated glossary of terms used in the analysis of the shells of recent and fossil foraminifera supplemented by a rigorous selection of terms that facilitate an understanding of their biology and their use in ecology and biostratigraphy. The glossary includes some 650 entries illustrated by 83 - often composite – figures many of which are stereographs or 3D models. A taxonomic index lists the 140 taxa illustrated.

  4. Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both

  5. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1) and Si50K+ (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K-) is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si100) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing higher spike's N yield. Solely

  6. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  7. The nucleoprotein of Tomato spotted wilt virus as protein tag for easy purification and enhanced production of recombinant proteins in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Ribeiro, S.G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Upon infection, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that consist of nucleoprotein (N) and viral RNA. These aggregates result from the homopolymerization of the N protein, and are highly stable in plant cells. These properties feature the N protein as a potential

  8. First report of Fusarium decemcellulare causing inflorescence wilt, vascular and flower necrosis of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), longan (Dimocarpus longan) and mango (Mangifera indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, mango and rambutan are very important fruit crops in Puerto Rico. During a disease survey in Puerto Rico conducted from 2008 to 2010, 50% of the inflorescences were affected with inflorescence wilt, flower and vascular necrosis at 70% of the fields of rambutan and longan at the USDA-ARS Rese...

  9. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...... 2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56......·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α-tocopherol...

  10. Evaluation of commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi to manage the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of Laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  11. Using a Simple Contest to Illustrate Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Calvin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a simple classroom activity that illustrates how economic theory can be used for mechanism design. The rules for a set of contests are presented; the results typically obtained from these contests illustrate how the prize structure can be manipulated in order to produce a particular outcome. Specifically, this activity is…

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative Management Reports B Appendix B to Part 363 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ANNUAL INDEPENDENT AUDITS AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Pt. 363, App. B Appendix B to Part 363—Illustrative Management Reports Table...

  13. 茄子白绢病、猝倒病、根腐病、黄萎病和枯萎病的识别与防治%ldentification and Control Methods of Eggplant Southern Blight, Damp-ing-off, Root Rot, Verticil-lium Wilt and Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕; 郑丹丹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了茄子白绢病、猝倒病、根腐病、黄萎病和枯萎病的危害症状、发病特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面总结了各病害的综合防治方法。%The symptom and disease characteristics of eggplant southern blight, damping-off, root rot, verticillium wilt and fusarium wilt were introduced. Then the integrated control methods were put forward, which contained measures of agricultural control, chemical control and so on.

  14. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii exhibits surface motility, which is a critical aspect of Stewart's wilt disease development on maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carmen M; Koutsoudis, Maria D; Wang, Xiaolei; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2008-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes Stewart's vascular wilt in maize. The organism is taxonomically described as aflagellated and nonmotile. We recently showed that P. stewartii colonizes the xylem of maize as sessile, cell-wall-adherent biofilms. Biofilm formation is a developmental process that generally involves some form of surface motility. For that reason, we reexamined the motility properties of P. stewartii DC283 based on the assumption that the organism requires some form of surface motility for biofilm development. Here, we show that the organism is highly motile on agar surfaces. This motility is flagella dependent, shown by the fact that a fliC mutant, impaired in flagellin subunit synthesis, is nonmotile. Motility also requires the production of stewartan exopolysaccharide. Moreover, surface motility plays a significant role in the colonization of the plant host. PMID:18785831

  15. Analysis of Pineapple Mealybug Wilt Associated Virus -1 and -2 for Potential RNA Silencing Suppressors and Pathogenicity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore K. Dey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants use RNA silencing to defend against viral infections. As a counter defense, plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA silencing. Mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP, an important disease of pineapple, has been associated with at least three distinct viruses, Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus -1, -2, and -3 (PMWaV-1, -2, and -3. Selected open reading frames (ORFs of PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2 were screened for their local and systemic suppressor activities in Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays using green fluorescent protein (GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana. Results indicate that PMWaV-2 utilizes a multiple-component RNA silencing suppression mechanism. Two proteins, p20 and CP, target both local and systemic silencing in N. benthamiana, while the p22 and CPd proteins target only systemic silencing. In the related virus PMWaV-1, we found that only one of the encoded proteins, p61, had only systemic suppressor activity. Of all the proteins tested from both viruses, only the PMWaV-2 p20 protein suppressed local silencing induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, but only when low levels of inducing dsRNA were used. None of the proteins analyzed could interfere with the short distance spread of silencing. We examined the mechanism of systemic suppression activity by investigating the effect of PMWaV-2-encoded p20 and CP proteins on secondary siRNAs. Our results suggest that the PMWaV-2 p20 and CP proteins block the systemic silencing signal by repressing production of secondary siRNAs. We also demonstrate that the PMWaV-2 p20 and p22 proteins enhanced the pathogenicity of Potato virus X in N. benthamiana.

  16. Effect of Seed Treatment by Cold Plasma on the Resistance of Tomato to Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacterial Wilt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiafeng; Lu, Yufang; Li, Jiangang; Li, Ling; He, Xin; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold plasma seed treatment on tomato bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum), and the regulation of resistance mechanisms. The effect of cold plasma of 80W on seed germination, plant growth, nutrient uptake, disease severity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and activities of peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) were examined in tomato plants. Plasma treatment increased tomato resistance to R. solanacearum with an efficacy of 25.0%. Plasma treatment significantly increased both germination and plant growth in comparison with the control treatment, and plasma-treated plants absorbed more calcium and boron than the controls. In addition, H2O2 levels in treated plants rose faster and reached a higher peak, at 2.579 µM gFW−1, 140% greater than that of the control. Activities of POD (421.3 U gFW−1), PPO (508.8 U gFW−1) and PAL (707.3 U gFW−1) were also greater in the treated plants than in the controls (103.0 U gFW−1, 166.0 U gFW−1 and 309.4 U gFW−1, respectively). These results suggest that plasma treatment affects the regulation of plant growth, H2O2 concentration, and POD, PPO and PAL activity in tomato, resulting in an improved resistance to R. solanacearum. Consequently, cold plasma seed treatment has the potential to control tomato bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. PMID:24840508

  17. Assessment of Tolerance Level of some Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine KARADEMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the tolerance level of some cotton varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. disease. Verticillium wilt is one of the major constraint diseases of cotton production worldwide and also in Turkey. The study was carried out at the Southeastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute’s naturally infected experimental area during 2004-2006. In this study, 10 different commercial cotton varieties were used as plant material. The experimental design was a randomized complete-block with four replications. During the cotton growing season, foliar disease index (FDI, vascular disease index (VDI and vascular disease rate (VDR were observed in addition to seed cotton yield and some fiber quality characteristics. According to the results, it was determined that with regards to FDI, VDI and VDR, the most tolerant varieties were ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’, while the most sensitive varieties were ‘Maraş 92’, ‘Sayar 314’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. The other varieties had moderate tolerance levels. The highest seed cotton yield and lint yield were obtained from ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. These results showed that some sensitive varieties had high yield; the reason for this situation may be related with early or late occurrence of the disease. The result of this study indicated that ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’ varieties must be preferred for infected areas; on the other hand, ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’ can be recommended and grown in uninfected areas. Additionally, ‘Carmen’, ‘GW-Teks’ and ‘GW-Golda’ varieties can be used as material for improving disease resistance in cotton breeding programs.

  18. Effect of seed treatment by cold plasma on the resistance of tomato to Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacterial Wilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafeng Jiang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of cold plasma seed treatment on tomato bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum, and the regulation of resistance mechanisms. The effect of cold plasma of 80W on seed germination, plant growth, nutrient uptake, disease severity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration and activities of peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2 and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 were examined in tomato plants. Plasma treatment increased tomato resistance to R. solanacearum with an efficacy of 25.0%. Plasma treatment significantly increased both germination and plant growth in comparison with the control treatment, and plasma-treated plants absorbed more calcium and boron than the controls. In addition, H2O2 levels in treated plants rose faster and reached a higher peak, at 2.579 µM gFW-1, 140% greater than that of the control. Activities of POD (421.3 U gFW-1, PPO (508.8 U gFW-1 and PAL (707.3 U gFW-1 were also greater in the treated plants than in the controls (103.0 U gFW-1, 166.0 U gFW-1 and 309.4 U gFW-1, respectively. These results suggest that plasma treatment affects the regulation of plant growth, H2O2 concentration, and POD, PPO and PAL activity in tomato, resulting in an improved resistance to R. solanacearum. Consequently, cold plasma seed treatment has the potential to control tomato bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum.

  19. Illustrating Chemical Concepts through Food Systems: Introductory Chemistry Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E., IV; Setser, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations involving foods that illustrate chemical concepts are described, including vaporization of liquids and Graham's law of diffusion, chemical reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration. (CS)

  20. Educational Software for Illustration of Drainage, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that developed a software package for illustrating drainage, evapotranspiration, and crop yield as influenced by water conditions. The software is a tool for depicting water's influence on crop production in western Kansas. (DDR)