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Sample records for chickens gallus gallus

  1. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  2. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Genome-wide expression analysis of roxarsone-stimulated growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Li, Changlu; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Gengyu; Wu, Changxin; Li, Ning

    2011-09-01

    Roxarsone is a commonly used additive in chicken (Gallus gallus) industry. However, little is known on the intrinsic molecular mechanism via which the growth performance of birds improves. This study was therefore performed to investigate the expression profiles of genes induced by roxarsone. Fifty-six broiler chickens were divided into two groups, namely treated and untreated with roxarsone. The treated group was provided a diet of 45.4mg/kg roxarsone medication and the other group acted as control. Data analysis showed that roxarsone consistently and significantly (Proxarsone could be mainly to modify the expression levels of cell growth, immunity/defense and energy metabolism associated genes, as a result promoting animal growth. Further research on these genes should help to increase the knowledge of improving animal productivity safely and effectively.

  4. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2015-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results reve...

  5. Altered development and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) by corticosterone.

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    Dong, H; Lin, H; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Zhao, J P; Jiang, K J

    2007-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on protein metabolism and the amino acid composition in muscle tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In Trial 1, two groups of 30 broiler chickens were subjected to control or CORT treatment (30 mg/kg diet) from 28 to 39 days of age. In Trial 2, three groups of chickens of 28 days of age were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 7 days: CORT (30 mg/kg diet), pair-fed (maintaining the same feed intake as CORT treatment) and control treatments. The body mass gain and feed efficiency was significantly decreased by CORT treatment, while the food intake was decreased. The breast and thigh masses (% body mass) were significantly suppressed by CORT treatment, while the abdominal fat and liver masses (%) were obviously increased. The plasma levels of glucose, urate and total amino acid were significantly elevated by CORT treatment. The capacity for protein synthesis, estimated by RNA:protein ratio, were significantly suppressed by CORT in M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris. The 3-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in both M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris of CORT chickens, compared to control but not the pair-fed chickens. The amino acid composition of M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris was not significantly affected by CORT treatment. In conclusion, the arrested growth in skeletal muscles induced by CORT administration has tissue specificity. The CORT treatment retards the growth of skeletal muscle by suppressed protein synthesis and augmented protein catabolism.

  6. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

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    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  7. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

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    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  8. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  9. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in Phayao province, northern Thailand

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    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%, Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%, Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%, Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%, Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%, Raillietina tetragona (57.5%, Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%, Raillietina sp. (35.8%, Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2% and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%. The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  10. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

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    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  11. Differential sex-specific walking kinematics in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for different body size.

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    Rose, Kayleigh A; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-08-15

    The differing limb dynamics and postures of small and large terrestrial animals may be mechanisms for minimising metabolic costs under scale-dependent muscle force, work and power demands; however, empirical evidence for this is lacking. Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly dimorphic: males have greater body mass and relative muscle mass than females, which are permanently gravid and have greater relative intestinal mass. Furthermore, leghorns are selected for standard (large) and bantam (small) varieties and the former are sexually dimorphic in posture, with females having a more upright limb. Here, high-speed videography and morphological measurements were used to examine the walking gaits of leghorn chickens of the two varieties and sexes. Hindlimb skeletal elements were geometrically similar among the bird groups, yet the bird groups did not move with dynamic similarity. In agreement with the interspecific scaling of relative duty factor (DF, the proportion of a stride period with ground contact for any given foot) with body mass, bantams walked with greater DF than standards, and females walked with greater DF than males. Greater DF in females than in males was achieved via variety-specific kinematic mechanisms, associated with the presence/absence of postural dimorphism. Females may require greater DF in order to reduce peak muscle forces and minimise power demands associated with lower muscle to reproductive tissue mass ratios and smaller body size. Furthermore, a more upright posture observed in the standard, but not bantam, females, may relate to minimising the work demands of being larger and having proportionally larger reproductive tissue volume. Lower DF in males relative to females may also be a work-minimising strategy and/or due to greater limb inertia (as a result of greater pelvic limb muscle mass) prolonging the swing phase.

  12. Learning of Monotonic and Nonmonotonic Sequences in Domesticated Horses ("Equus Callabus") and Chickens ("Gallus Domesticus")

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    Kundey, Shannon M. A.; Strandell, Brittany; Mathis, Heather; Rowan, James D.

    2010-01-01

    (Hulse and Dorsky, 1977) and (Hulse and Dorsky, 1979) found that rats, like humans, learn sequences following a simple rule-based structure more quickly than those lacking a rule-based structure. Through two experiments, we explored whether two additional species--domesticated horses ("Equus callabus") and chickens ("Gallus domesticus")--would…

  13. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus

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    Ramnath V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days. The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, and serum reduced glutathione (GSH in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress.

  14. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

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    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  15. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus, GLUT12.

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    Edouard Coudert

    Full Text Available In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity. An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state. Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.

  16. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12.

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    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.

  17. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus in Brazil

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    M.A Orsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3% were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks.

  18. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Cai, Guoqing; Mo, Chunheng; Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  19. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

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    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  20. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2 in Chickens (Gallus gallus.

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    Guoqing Cai

    Full Text Available Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2 in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89 and cCART1(49-89, which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98% with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91 with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s, were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  1. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel ...

  2. Polymorphism analysis of the hsp70 stress gene in Broiler chickens (Gallus gallus of different breeds

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    Carmen Maria Mazzi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region and the beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 stress gene were analysed in broiler chickens of a commercial breed (Hubbard-Pettersen, a breed selected for weight gain (PP1 and a non-selected breed (naked-neck Label Rouge. The naked neck gene (Naked neck, Na, which reduces feathering in birds and is thus related to heat resistance, was present in both PP1 and Label Rouge breeds. Genomic DNA was restricted with PstI and Southern blotting analysis of the samples revealed the absence of polymorphic sites for that enzyme in the promoter region and beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 gene of studied birds. PCR-SSCP analysis of these regions, however, indicated the presence of polymorphisms in the beginning of the coding region and the sequencing of the PCR products confirmed and identified two polymorphic sites in this region: a transition A ® G in position +258 and a transversion C ® G in position +276. Both mutations were considered to be silent, since they did not modify the aminoacid sequence of the protein Hsp70. The promoter region of the hsp70 gene was identical in all studied birds, indicating that the regulation pattern of this gene must be the same in all birds at the promoter region. Three different alleles (hsp70-1, hsp70-2 and hsp70-3 were identified for the hsp70 gene from the observed mutations. The allele hsp70-3 was detected in only two breeds, Hubbard-Pettersen and PP1, but at a low frequency (0,016 and 0,006, respectively.

  3. Microarray analysis revealed that immunity-associated genes are primarily regulated by roxarsone in promoting broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C L; Wang, X L; Li, N; Wu, C X

    2012-12-01

    Addition of roxarsone can significantly improve the growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Nevertheless, this application will lead to the contamination of the environment as well as animal products. Understanding the response of genes to roxarsone may bring about the discovery of new, safer substitutes. In this study, we monitored the expression of 8,935 genes in chicken breast muscle using microarrays. Analysis showed that 30 genes, such as the interleukin 3 regulated nuclear factor (NFIL3), the regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein (RFXANK), the cleavage and polyadenylation-specific factor 3 (CPSF3), and the FK506 binding protein 9 (FKBP9), have consistently up or downregulated (fold change ≥1.5 or ≤0.6, P roxarsone can improve the immunity of chickens through regulating the expression of associated genes, and as a result contribute to the growth promotion. Further research on the encoded proteins of the differentially expressed genes should provide more evidence for the potential mechanism.

  4. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  5. Low number of mitochondrial pseudogenes in the chicken (Gallus gallus nuclear genome: implications for molecular inference of population history and phylogenetics

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    Baker Allan J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts. Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts, some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragments and thus may have been inadvertently included in population genetic and phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial DNA. Birds have smaller genomes relative to mammals, and the genome-wide frequency and distribution of Numts is still unknown. The release of a preliminary version of the chicken (Gallus gallus genome by the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University, St. Louis provided an opportunity to search this first avian genome for the frequency and characteristics of Numts relative to those in human and plants. Results We detected at least 13 Numts in the chicken nuclear genome. Identities between Numts and mitochondrial sequences varied from 58.6 to 88.8%. Fragments ranged from 131 to 1,733 nucleotides, collectively representing only 0.00078% of the nuclear genome. Because fewer Numts were detected in the chicken nuclear genome, they do not represent all regions of the mitochondrial genome and are not widespread in all chromosomes. Nuclear integrations in chicken seem to occur by a DNA intermediate and in regions of low gene density, especially in macrochromosomes. Conclusion The number of Numts in chicken is low compared to those in human and plant genomes, and is within the range found for most sequenced eukaryotic genomes. For chicken, PCR amplifications of fragments of about 1.5 kilobases are highly likely to represent true mitochondrial amplification. Sequencing of these fragments should expose the presence of unusual features typical of pseudogenes, unless the nuclear integration is very recent and has not yet been mutated. Metabolic selection for compact genomes with reduced repetitive DNA and gene-poor regions where Numts occur may explain their low incidence in birds.

  6. Alterations in eicosanoid composition during embryonic development in the chorioallantoic membrane of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Theresa M; Bowden, John A; Scott, Jacob; Pérez-Viscasillas, Jimena B; Huncik, Kevin; Guillette, Matthew P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-11-01

    Eicosanoids are signaling lipids known to regulate several physiological processes in the mammalian placenta, including the initiation of parturition. Though all amniotes construct similar extraembryonic membranes during development, the composition and function of eicosanoids in extraembryonic membranes of oviparous reptiles is largely unknown. The majority of effort placed in eicosanoid investigations is typically targeted toward defining the role of specific compounds in disease etiology; however, comprehensive characterization of several pathways in eicosanoid synthesis during development is also needed to better understand the complex role of these lipids in comparative species. To this end, we have examined the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) during development. Previously, our lab has demonstrated that the CAM of several oviparous species shared conserved steroidogenic activity, a feature originally attributed to mammalian amniotes. To further explore this, we have developed a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method that is used here to quantify multiple eicosanoids in the CAM of two oviparous species at different stages of development. We identified 18 eicosanoids in the alligator CAM; the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway showed the largest increase from early development to later development in the alligator CAM. Similarly, the chicken CAM had an increase in COX products and COX activity, which supports the LC-MS/MS analyses. Jointly, our findings indicate that the CAM tissue of an oviparous species is capable of eicosanoid synthesis, which expands our knowledge of placental evolution and introduces the possibility of future comparative models of placental function.

  7. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

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    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  8. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, através da macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia, fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate. Cem fígados de frango foram coletados na linha de inspeção. Noventa deles tinham sido condenados por apresentarem alterações macroscópicas. Dez fígados não apresentavam alterações macroscópicas. As coletas foram feitas em dois abatedouros localizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. No laboratório, fez-se detalhada descrição das alterações macroscópicas dos fígados condenados e exames histopatológicos e bacteriológicos complementares. Para a descrição macroscópica, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: forma, coloração, tamanho, consistência, odor e presença de lesões visíveis. Foram observados fígados com alterações na cor, forma, tamanho e/ou consistência em 47/90 amostras; fígados marrom-pálidos e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas perfizeram 19/90 amostras; 5/90 fígados estavam amarelos ou amarelados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas; 19/90 fígados estavam verdes ou esverdeados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas. Os principais diagnósticos histopatológicos foram de colângio-hepatite heterofílica multifocal, degeneração e/ou necrose hepatocelular centrolobular e em ponte, hepatite necrosante aleatória, pericolangite heterofílica multifocal e peri-hepatite fibrinosa subaguda difusa acentuada. A bacteriologia foi direcionada para pesquisa de Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. e Staphylococcus sp. Utilizando-se cultivo direto das amostras de fígado em meios de cultura seletivos, isolou-se E. coli em 26/100 amostras e Staphylococcus sp. em 24/100 amostras. Para pesquisa de salmonelas, utilizou-se a metodologia convencional preconizada para esta bactéria, entretanto não houve isolamento de nenhuma espécie deste gênero. Através das avaliações realizadas pode-se confirmar o predomínio de lesões sugestivas de

  9. Screening for genes involved in antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Guan, Xiaojing; Smith, Edward J

    2015-09-01

    Antibody response, an important trait in both agriculture and biomedicine, plays a part in protecting animals from infection. Dissecting molecular basis of antibody response may improve artificial selection for natural disease resistance in livestock and poultry. A number of genetic markers associated with antibody response have been identified in the chicken and mouse by linkage-based association studies, which only define genomic regions by genetic markers but do not pinpoint genes for antibody response. In contrast, global expression profiling has been applied to define the molecular bases of a variety of biological traits through identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Here, we employed Affimetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays to identify differentially expressed genes for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) using chickens challenged with and without SRBC or chickens with high and low anti-SRBC titers. The DEGs include those with known (i.e., MHC class I and IgH genes) or unknown function in antibody response. Classification test of these genes suggested that the response of the chicken to intravenous injection of SRBC involved multiple biological processes, including response to stress or other different stimuli, sugar, carbohydrate or protein binding, and cell or soluble fraction, in addition to antibody response. This preliminary study thus provides an insight into molecular basis of antibody response to SRBC in the chicken.

  10. Epitope mapping of Campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Telli, Arife Ezgi; Jagne, Jarra F; Benson, Christopher L; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibodies against the homologous serotype. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) is an immunodominant protein that reacted strongly to sera from field chickens. In this communication, we mapped linear immunoreactive epitopes on FliD using a set of 158 synthetic peptides of 15-mer overlapping with 11 amino acid residues on peptide microarrays with sera from field chickens. The results from peptide microarrays showed (1) no cross-reactivity of the immobilized peptides with the secondary anti-chicken antibody in the control incubation, and (2) heterogeneous patterns of sera reacting to the immobilized peptides. The peptides that reacted to more than three chicken sera and had higher averages of fluorescence units were selected for further validation by the peptide ELISA. The results showed peptides 24, 91 and 92 had relatively high reactivity and less variation among 64 individual serum samples, indicating these peptides represented the shared immunodominant epitopes on the C. jejuni FliD protein. These peptides were also recognized by sera from chickens immunized with the purified recombinant FliD protein. The findings of the specific shared linear immunodominant epitopes on FliD in this study provide a rationale for further evaluation to determine their utility as epitope vaccines covering multiple serotypes for chicken immunization, and subsequently, for providing safer poultry products for human consumption.

  11. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  12. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and chicken (Gallus gallus genomes

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    Delany Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and

  13. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Henriksen, Rie; Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here.

  14. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes.

  15. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  16. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  17. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  18. Proteomic analysis of the Gallus gallus embryo at stage-29 of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, David; Agudo Garcillán, David; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Martínez-Arribas, Fernando; Delcán, José; Schneider, José; Palomar, María Angustias; Linares, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the primary models for embryological and developmental studies. In order to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the normal and abnormal development of the chicken, we used 2-DE to construct a whole-embryo proteome map. Proteins were separated by IEF on IPG strips, and by 11% SDS-PAGE) gels. Protein identification was performed by means of PMF with MALDI-TOF-MS. In all, 105 protein spots were identified, 35 of them implicated in embryo development, 10 related with some diseases, and 16, finally, being proteins that have never been identified, purified or characterized in the chicken before. This map will be updated continuously and will serve as a reference database for investigators, studying changes at the protein level under different physiological conditions.

  19. 鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎性别的DNA分子鉴定%DNA Molecular Sex Identification for Chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail (Coturnix coturnix) Hybrids Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炜; 范丽娜; 翟曼君; 赵宗胜; 李青峰; 梁耀伟; 米拉

    2013-01-01

    According to our previous research, there was an obvious relationship between the early death of chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail(Cotumix cotunux) hybrids and sex differentiation. Meanwhile, current widespread adapted methods to indentify sex differentiation stayed at RNA level, experimental steps complicated and easy to make mistakes, and RNA samples, which are needed to be measured, was quite difficult to preserved longer, but could not be simply employed. So it is necessary to find a more simple and accurate way to identify the early embryo's sexing. In this study, there were two sections for CHD (chromobox-helicase-DNA binding) gene DNA level sex determination, at first,a total of 116 chicken-quail hybrid embryos at different incubate stages (2.5~5 d) was treated as experiment group and 10 mg embryonic organs were used to DNA extraction; then the DNA extraction from blood of 60 sex-known quails (male and female were half-and-half) was regarded as control. Wpkci (W-linked protein kinase C inhibitor) for mRNA level was known as a mature method to identify sexing, and then it is used to check the result of embryos' sex determination in our research. The result showed that CHD 2550F/2718R could identify the sex of chicken-quail hybrid embryos accurately. The amplication size of male embryo tissues was 613 bp and two bands in female were 613 and 446 bp, respectively. The experimental results provide basic data for the chicken-quail hybrids sex determination mechanism.%鸡(Gallus gallus)与鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)属间杂交胚胎早期死亡与性别分化存在着一定的关系,寻找简单、准确的早期胚胎性别鉴定方法是深入研究其死亡分子机制的前提.本实验室前期使用Wpkci引物从mRNA水平对早期胚胎进行准确的性别鉴定,而RNA提取对样品质量要求较高,鉴定程序较复杂.因此需要建立更加简单快捷的方法,对鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎进行准确性别鉴定.本

  20. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  1. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

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    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  2. Neurotoxicity induced by arsenic in Gallus Gallus: Regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock protein response.

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    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Houjuan; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected. Results showed slightly histology changes were obvious in the brain tissues exposure to arsenic. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were decreased compared to the control, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased gradually along with increase in diet-arsenic. The mRNA levels of Hsps and protein expressions of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were up-regulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to arsenic induced neurotoxicity in chickens. Arsenic exposure disturbed the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Increased heat shock response tried to protect chicken brain tissues from tissues damage caused by oxidative stress. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by arsenic include oxidative stress and heat shock protein response in chicken brain tissues.

  3. The genetic link between the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and the chicken and junglefowls of the genus Gallus.

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    Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Takada, M; Ohno, S; Kondo, N

    1995-11-21

    Further comparison of mitochondrial control-region DNA base sequences of 16 avian species belonging to the subfamily Phasianinae revealed the following: (i) Generalized perdicine birds (quails and partridges) are of ancient lineages. Even the closest pair, the common quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), maintained only 85.71% identity. (ii) The 12 species of phasianine birds previously and presently studied belonged to three distinct branches. The first branch was made exclusively of members of the genus Gallus, while the second branch was made of pheasants of the genera Phasianus, Chrysolophus, and Syrmaticus. Gallopheasants of the genus Lophura were distant cousins to these pheasants. The great argus (Argusianus argus) and peafowls of the genus Pavo constituted the third branch. The position of peacock-pheasants of the genus Polyplectron in the third branch was similar to that of the genus Lophura in the second branch. Members of the fourth phasianine branch, such as tragopans and monals, were not included in the present study. (iii) The one perdicine species, Bambusicola thoracica, was more closely related to phasianine genera Gallus and Pavo than to members of other perdicine genera. The above might indicate that Bambusicola belong to one-stem perdicine lineage that later splits into two sublineages that yielded phasianine birds, one evolving to Gallus, and the other differentiating toward Pavo and its allies.

  4. Type-dependent differential expression of neuropeptide Y in chicken hypothalamus (Gallus domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important orexigenic agents in central regulation of feeding behavior, body weight and energy homeostasis in domestic chickens. To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior and body weight, we detected mRNA levels of NPY in hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (IN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area(LHA) of these two types of chickens using one-step real time RT-PCR. The meat-type chicken had more food daily (about 1.7 folds) and greater body weights (about 1.5 folds) and brain weights than the layer-type chicken at the age of 14 d. In the meat-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels of the IN and PVN were significantly greater than those of the LHA, and were not significantly different between the IN and PVN. However, in the layer-type of chicken, NPY mRNA levels were significantly greater in the IN than those in the LHA and PVN, and were not significantly different between the PVN and LHA. In all these hypothalamic regions,the layer-type of chicken had significantly higher NPY mRNA levels than the meat-type chicken did. These results suggest the expression of NPY in the hypothalamus has a type-dependent pattern in domestic chickens.

  5. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas

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    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N.caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the presen...

  6. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  7. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

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    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  8. Developmental changes of melatonin receptor expression in the spleen of the chicken, Gallus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingyun; Dong, Yulan; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Zhang, Ziqiang; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin plays an essential role in development and immunoregulation of the avian spleen through its receptors; however, the variations in the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes in the developing avian spleen are still unclear. The objective of the present study was not only to investigate the distribution patterns and development changes of the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c) in the chicken spleen but also to identify the correlation between the plasma melatonin concentration and the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes. The immunohistochemical results indicated that Mel1a was mainly distributed in the red pulp and capillaries, Mel1b was predominantly distributed in the periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) and splenic nodule, and Mel1c was widely located in the red pulp, PALS and splenic nodule. From P0 to P21, the mRNA and protein expressions of Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c in the spleen were increased (P0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Mel1b and Mel1c between P0 and P14 raised more quickly than Mel1a. The plasma melatonin concentration increased in an age-dependent manner in the chicken from P0 to P42 (Pspleen. These results suggest the existence of age-related and region-specific changes in the expression of the melatonin receptor subtypes within the spleen of the chicken, and this characteristic pattern may be involved in the development and functional maturation of the avian spleen.

  9. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  10. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.

  11. Genomic organization and molecular phylogenies of the beta (β keratin multigene family in the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata: implications for feather evolution

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    Sawyer Roger H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds are constructed of beta (β keratins. The molecular phylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, especially feathers. Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes of the chicken and zebra finch provide an opportunity not only to compare the genomic organization of their β-keratins, but to study their molecular evolution in archosaurians. Results The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5' to 3' order on microchromosome 25 in chicken and zebra finch, although the number of claw and feather genes differs between the species. Molecular phylogenies show that the monophyletic scale genes are the basal group within birds and that the monophyletic avian claw genes form the basal group to all feather and feather-like genes. Both species have a number of feather clades on microchromosome 27 that form monophyletic groups. An additional monophyletic cluster of feather genes exist on macrochromosome 2 for each species. Expression sequence tag analysis for the chicken demonstrates that all feather β-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions Similarity in the overall genomic organization of β-keratins in Galliformes and Passeriformes suggests similar organization in all Neognathae birds, and perhaps in the ancestral lineages leading to modern birds, such as the paravian Anchiornis huxleyi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that evolution of archosaurian epidermal appendages in the lineage leading to birds was accompanied by duplication and divergence of an ancestral β-keratin gene cluster. As morphological diversification of epidermal appendages occurred and the β-keratin multigene family expanded, novel β-keratin genes were selected for novel functions within appendages such as feathers.

  12. Selection for the compactness of highly expressed genes in Gallus gallus

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    Zhou Ming

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding sequence (CDS length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana, indicated that there are negative relationships between expression level and gene size, CDS length as well as intron length. Different models such as selection for economy model, genomic design model, and mutational bias hypotheses have been proposed to explain such observation. The debate of which model is a superior one to explain the observation has not been settled down. The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates. As D. Melanogaster, chicken has a larger effective population size, selection for chicken genome is expected to be more effective in increasing protein synthesis efficiency. Therefore, in this study the chicken was used as a model organism to elucidate the interaction between gene features and expression pattern upon selection pressure. Results Based on different technologies, we gathered expression data for nuclear protein coding, single-splicing genes from Gallus gallus genome and compared them with gene parameters. We found that gene size, CDS length, first intron length, average intron length, and total intron length are negatively correlated with expression level and expression breadth significantly. The tissue specificity is positively correlated with the first intron length but negatively correlated with the average intron length, and not correlated with the CDS length and protein domain numbers. Comparison analyses showed that ubiquitously expressed genes and narrowly expressed genes with the similar expression levels do not differ in compactness. Our data provided evidence that the genomic design model can not, at least in part, explain our observations. We grouped all somatic-tissue-specific genes

  13. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Xi, Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (Pstress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052) and 90 (P = 0.054) gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  14. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  15. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus.

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    Jingjing Xie

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P<0.05. However, oxidation status of lipid and protein and expression of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05 and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (P<0.05. During chronic heat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (P<0.05 and HSP 90 mRNA (P<0.05 was decreased. In the liver, oxidation of protein was alleviated during acute heat challenge (P<0.05, however, gene expression HSF2, 3 and 4 and HSP 70 were highly induced (P<0.05. HSP90 expression was increased by chronic thermal treatment (P<0.05. In the muscle, both types of heat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052 and 90 (P = 0.054 gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  16. Effect of gama irradiation (Co60 in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken (Gallus gallus heart

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    Marta Maria Braga Batista Soares Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the irradiation process in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken heart samples acquired in an industry located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using irradiation doses of 1.5 kGy, 3, 0 kGy and 4.5 kGy. These microorganisms are related to fecal contamination, and are indicators of the sanitary processing conditions of the foodstuffs. The bacteriological analyses were conducted applying the methodologies and standards recommended by Brazilian norms resolution no. 12 (BRASIL, 2001 and instruction no. 62 (BRASIL, 2003 Regarding Escherichia coli, no statistically significant difference among the four groups (control, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy was observed (p> 0.05. The Most Probable Number (MPN for Enterococci spp. was not proven in the investigated samples. Thus, the Co60 gamma irradiation process was effective in eliminating Escherichia coli, and the lowest dose, of 1.5 kGy, was enough to abolish this enteropathogen from the evaluated samples.

  17. Evolution and function of leukocyte RNase A ribonucleases of the avian species, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitto, Takeaki; Dyer, Kimberly D; Czapiga, Meggan; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we explore the evolution and function of two closely related RNase A ribonucleases from the chicken, Gallus gallus. Separated by approximately 10 kb on chromosome 6, the coding sequences of RNases A-1 and A-2 are diverging under positive selection pressure (dN > dS) but remain similar to one another (81% amino acid identity) and to the mammalian angiogenins. Immunoreactive RNases A-1 and A-2 (both approximately 16 kDa) were detected in peripheral blood granulocytes and bone marrow. Recombinant proteins are ribonucleolytically active (kcat = 2.6 and 0.056 s(-1), respectively), and surprisingly, both interact with human placental ribonuclease inhibitor. RNase A-2, the more cationic (pI 11.0), is both angiogenic and bactericidal; RNase A-1 (pI 10.2) has neither activity. We demonstrated via point mutation of the catalytic His110 that ablation of ribonuclease activity has no impact on the bactericidal activity of RNase A-2. We determined that the divergent domains II (amino acids 71-76) and III (amino acids 89-104) of RNase A-2 are both important for bactericidal activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cationic domains can function as independent bactericidal peptides without the tertiary structure imposed by the RNase A backbone. These results suggest that ribonucleolytic activity may not be a crucial constraint limiting the ongoing evolution of this gene family and that the ribonuclease backbone may be merely serving as a scaffold to support the evolution of novel, nonribonucleolytic proteins.

  18. 原鸡与不同品种家鸡杂交F1代生长发育研究%Study on the Growth and Development of F1 Generation between Gallus gallus and Different Varieties of Gallus domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先才; 彭章华; 雷胜辉; 周杰珑

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to discuss the growth and development laws of hybnd offspring from Gallus gallus and different local chicken varieties. [Method] Gallus gallus spadiceus (male) and different Gallus domesticus varieties (female) (Chuxiong Ma Chicken, Chahua Chicken, Green-ear Black-bone Chicken,Gallus gallus) were used as study objects to determine the growth and development indices of 0-22 week-old chicken. Using three typical nonlinear growth curve models (Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy), the growth models of hybrid F1 generation were fit. Meanwhile, the optimal regression equation was established by using stepwise regression method. [Result] The effect degree or indices of the body traits of hybrid F1 generation between Gallus gallus and different local chicken varieties on the body weight had some differences. The fitting degree of the regression equation of Logistic and Gompertz models were both more than 0. 99, which better fit the growth and development laws of F1 hybrid generation of Gallus gallus. [Conclusion] This research provided scientific basis and reference for the preservation, utilization of genetic resources of Gallus gallus, and the breeding and improvement of local domestic chicken varieties.%[目的]探讨原鸡与不同地方品种家鸡杂交后代的生长发育规律.[方法]以原鸡(♂)与不同地方鸡种(♀)(楚雄麻鸡、茶花鸡、绿耳乌骨鸡、原鸡)杂交组合F1代(♂)为研究对象,测定其0~22周龄的生长发育指标.运用Logistic、Gompertz和Bertalanffy3种典型的非线性生长曲线模型分别对其进行拟合分析,同时利用逐步回归法建立最优回归方程.[结果]原鸡与不同家鸡杂交F1代(♂)体尺性状对体重影响程度或指标存在一定差异.Logistic和Gompertz模型回归方程的拟合度都达到0.99以上,很好地模拟了原鸡杂交代F1的生长发育规律.[结论]该研究为原鸡遗传资源的保存、利用和地方家

  19. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

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    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  20. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of Hybro PG lineage hens (Gallus gallus

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    Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial vessels and their branches which irrigated the cloacal bursas of 30 hens (Gallus gallus of the Hybro PG lineage. First of all, the left isquiadic artery from the samples was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”; then, we continued the experiment with dissection whose results confi rmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the left and right internal pudendal arteries and bursocloacal arteries in 100% of the cases, varying only in terms of the numbers and disposition of their branches. There were also some branches from the median caudal artery (23% and left external pudendal (3.33%. The total number of branches varied from 1 to 4 and their distribution was unique in each sample.

  1. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls.

  2. Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta in Gallus gallus from isolated and mixed backyard rearing systems Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta em Gallus gallus de criações de fundo de quintal isoladas e mistas

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    Ana Clara Gomes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus, in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31% and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%, in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de malófagos em diferentes regiões do corpo de Gallus gallus, sob os sistemas de criação isolado e misto e determinar a dinâmica e estrutura da população. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 100 e 35% para as aves no sistema de criação isolado e misto, respectivamente. As espécies identificadas foram: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae e Lipeurus caponis. As aves mantidas isoladas apresentaram maior parasitismo do que

  3. What are the similarities between stress, sudden cardiac death in Gallus gallus and sudden unexpected death in people with epilepsy Similaridades entre stress, morte súbita cardíaca na espécie Gallus gallus e morte súbita em epilepsia

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    Fulvio A Scorza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with epilepsy are at higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, responsible for 7.5% to 17% of all deaths in epilepsy. Many factors are current associated with SUDEP and possible effect of stress and cardiac arrhythmia are still not clear. Sudden death syndrome (SDS in chickens is a disease characterized by an acute death of well-nourished and seeming healthy Gallus gallus after abrupt and brief flapping of their wings, similar to an epileptic seizure, with an incidence estimated as 0.5 to 5% in broiler chickens. A variety of nutritional and environmental factors have been included: but the exactly etiology of SDS is unknown. Studies had suggested that the hearts of broiler chickens are considerably more susceptible to arrhythmias and stress may induce ventricular arrhythmia and thus, sudden cardiac death. In this way, SDS in Gallus gallus could be an interesting model to study SUDEP.Indivíduos com epilepsia têm maior risco de sofrer morte súbita e inexplicada em epilepsia (SUDEP, responsável por 7,5% a 17% de todas as mortes em epilepsia. Diversos fatores têm sido associados com SUDEP e um possível efeito do stress e das arritmias cardíacas ainda não é claro. A síndrome da morte súbita (SDS em galinhas é uma situação caracterizada por uma morte aguda em Gallus gallus bem nutridos e aparentemente saudáveis após um evento curto e abrupto de bater de asas, semelhante a uma crise epiléptica, com incidência de 0,5 a 5% em granjas. Uma ampla variedade de fatores nutricionais e ambientais tem sido considerada, mas a causa exata da SDS é desconhecida. Estudos têm sugerido que o coração das galinhas criadas em granjas é mais sensível a arritmias cardíacas e que o stress poderia levar a arritmias cardíacas e, portanto, a morte súbita cardíaca. Assim, SDS em Gallus gallus pode ser considerado um interessante modelo de SUDEP.

  4. 京海黄鸡繁殖性状与29个多态位点的关联性%Association Between Reproduction Traits and 29 Loci in Jinghai Yellow Chicken(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊庆灿; 王金玉; 张跟喜; 张涛; 王文浩; 顾玉萍; 王永娟

    2014-01-01

    为了寻找影响鸡(Gallus gallus)繁殖性状的候选基因,本研究利用单核苷酸多态(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)芯片分型技术,利用已报道的影响鸡繁殖性状的29个位点对396只京海黄鸡母鸡的29个位点直接进行SNP分型,并对11个繁殖性状进行关联分析.结果发现,29个SNP中,有12个SNP与至少1个繁殖性状关联显著(P<0.05),其中有7个SNP同时与2个繁殖性状关联显著(P<0.05).所有繁殖性状中,与京海黄鸡开产体重关联显著的SNP有1个,与京海黄鸡462 d产蛋数关联显著的SNP有2个,与蛋重关联显著的SNP有6个,与开产体重关联显著的SNP有6个,与综合选择指数关联显著的SNP有2个,与后代健雏率关联显著的SNP有1个,没有发现与300 d产蛋数、300~462 d产蛋数和后代孵化率关联显著的SNP.同时,根据这些位点的群体遗传参数发现,12个SNP的平均多态信息含量偏低,说明京海黄鸡有持续选育提高的可能性和必要性.大部分有利基因型为纯合基因型,但有部分基因型为杂合基因型.对与12个SNP最近的功能基因犰狳(Priodontes maximus)重复基因(armadillo repeat gene deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome,ARVCF)、集落刺激因子3受体基因(colony stimulating factor 3 receptor,CSF3R)和ODZ同源物2基因(odz,odd Oz/ten-m homolog 2,ODZ2)的功能探讨发现,这些基因可以通过不同的途径影响鸡的繁殖性状.本研究为鸡繁殖性状候选基因的进一步研究提供了基础资料.

  5. Soroprevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em galinhas (Gallus gallus domesticus de criações domésticas, oriundas de propriedades rurais do Norte do Paraná, Brasil Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in back yard chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus from rural properties in North region of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Garcia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário que pode infectar todos os animais homeotérmicos. No presente trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em galinhas de criações domésticas (fundo de quintal, oriundas de propriedades rurais localizadas no município de Jaguapitã, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Estudos prévios demostraram que o parasita está amplamente disseminado nas diferentes espécies de animais domésticos, de companhia e no homem nessas mesmas propriedades. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta, sendo a positividade considerada para àqueles títulos maiores ou iguais a 16. Foram estudados 155 soros , sendo que 16 (10,3% foram reagentes à toxoplasmose, e 139 (89,7% não reagentes. Os títulos mais freqüentes foram de 64 (5/31,2%, 16 e 1024 (ambos com 4/25% e o maior t��tulo encontrado foi de 1024 (4/25%. A soroprevalência do T. gondii não foi influenciada pelo sexo da ave (Exato de Fisher p = 0,12, pela finalidade da criação (corte ou postura, Exato de Fisher p = 0,39, pela percentagem de felinos sororeagentes na propriedade (r = -0,19 p = 0,27, nem pelo número de felinos sororeagentes (r = -0,09 p = 0,60. Através do presente trabalho, demostrou-se uma ocorrência elevada da resposta sorológica ao T. gondii em aves domésticas oriundas de propriedades rurais neste município, conseqüentemente esses animais podem representar risco de infecção para o homem e para outros animais quando consumidos crus ou mal cozidos.Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that can infect all homeothermic animals. The occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii in back yard chicken, from rural properties of Jaguapitã county, Paraná State, Brazil was studied, serun samples were analysed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA. Titers higher or equal to 16 were considered positives. A total of 155 sera were studied, 16 (10.3% of which were positive to T. gondii, whereas 139 (89.7% were non

  6. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-07-28

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  7. Biosecurity State in Gamecock (Gallus gallus Breeding Farms in Yacuanquer, Nariño, Colombia

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    Juan Manuel Astaíza Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Colombia is sanitarily controlled and regulated; therefore, gamecock breeding farms should be regulated, but to this moment there are no studies about the biosecurity measurements implemented, which is a growing concern due to the sanitary impact this might have on the poultry industry. The goal of this work was to assess the knowledge and application of biosecurity norms in gamecock (Gallus gallus breeding farms from the Yacuanquer municipality, in Nariño, Colombia, as regulated by Resolution 3642 of August 21st of 2013, issued by the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. 157 breeders were surveyed, from which 88.54% does not recognize the biosecurity concept and does not control the entrance of people not related to the farm; 61.15% does not disinfect locations; 100% does not keep a pediluvium at the entrance of the farm nor do they carry out disinfection procedures for their vehicles; only 23.57% does a sanitary break inside their breeding farms and 63.7% does not put a quarantine period in place for the new specimens they acquire; 64.33% does not vaccinate and 98.09% does not have any veterinary advice. In conclusion, it was established that gamecock breeders in Yacuanquer do not know and have not implemented biosecurity measurements, which represents a risk factor for the poultry industry of the region.

  8. Metabolic and organ mass responses to selection for high growth rates in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewski, M; Gavin, A; McDevitt, R; Wallis, I R

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should either lower the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a trade-off between the costs of growth and maintenance or increase RMR because of a buildup of metabolic machinery. Furthermore, some suggest that higher rates of postembryonic development in birds should reduce peak metabolic rate (PMR) through delayed tissue maturation and/or an increased energy allocation to organ growth. We studied this by comparing metabolic rates and organ sizes of fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) with those of birds from a laying strain, which grow much slower. During the first week of life, despite growing six times faster, the RMR of the broiler chickens was lower than that of birds of the laying strain. The difference between strains in RMR disappeared thereafter, even though broilers continued to grow twice as fast as layers. The differences between strains in growth rate during the first week after hatching were not reflected in similar differences in the relative masses of the heart, liver, and small intestine. However, broilers had heavier intestines once they reached a body mass of 80 g. In contrast, broilers had relatively smaller brains than did layers. There was a positive correlation, over both strains, between RMR and the masses of leg muscles, intestine, and liver. Furthermore, despite delayed maturation of muscle tissue, broilers exhibited significantly higher PMR. We hypothesize that a balance between the larger relative muscle mass but lower muscle maturation level explains this high PMR. Another correlation, between leg muscle mass and PMR, partly explained the positive correlation between RMR and PMR.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of 100 Salmonella strains isolated from Gallus gallus in 4 wilayas of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounar-Kechih, S; Hamdi, T M; Mezali, L; Assaous, F; Rahal, K

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at identifying serotypes and surveying the antimicrobial resistance and plasmid support of resistance of 100 Salmonella strains, which were isolated from 96 out of 506 (18.97%) samples taken from different production farms in the wilayas (i.e., Algerian states) of Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Bejaïa, and Boumerdes in 2007. The highest percentage of Salmonella (48%) was recorded in Bouira. Thirteen serotypes were identified among the 100 Salmonella strains used in this study. The most prevalent ones were Salmonella Heidelberg (24%), Salmonella Enteritidis (20%), Salmonella Albany (16%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9%). The strains showed resistance to 8 of the 34 antibiotics tested. Fifty-three percent of strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, among which 15.09% were multiresistant. The most frequently observed resistance was to quinolones (58.49%), with a contribution of 94.74% of Salmonella Heidelberg resistant strains. The plasmid transfer performed on 53 strains showed that only 11 exhibited one or more markers of resistance, the most frequent being ampicillin, followed by tetracycline, then cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides, and kanamycin, in that order. The tetracycline characteristics were present in 72.72% of transconjugants, those of the β-lactams and sulphonamides in 27.27% each and those of the aminosides in 9.09%. The incompatibility groups of plasmids belong to the F1me and Com1 classes, and the molecular weight of the plasmid DNA was greater than 100 kb. The phenotypic and genotypic results indicate a clonal dissemination in the Gallus gallus species in this particular study; this phenomenon could generate resistant bacteria and transferable genes of resistance to humans.

  10. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

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    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  11. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...

  12. Observaçoes sobre o parasitismo de Gallilichus hiregoudari D'souza & Jagannath (Acari: Syringobiidae em Gallus gallus (L. em infestações naturais

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    João Luiz Horacio Faccini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of Gallilichus hiregoudari D'Souza e Jagannath in Gallus gallus (L. is widespread in Brazil. All life stages of the mite can be found within the quills of primaries and secondaries of the flight feathers. Nymphal heteromorphism, imbalanced sex ratio toward females and thanatochresis are common features. Damage of the pulp caps and raquis are common pathological findings.

  13. Ammonia Production In Poultry Houses And Its Effect On The Growth Of Gallus Gallus Domestica Broiler Chickens A Case Study Of A Small Scale Poultry House In Riverside Kitwe Zambia

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    Patrick Sipalo Maliselo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chickens deaminate excess amino acids and excrete the derived nitrogen in the urine mainly as uric acid which is readily converted to ammonia. This gas has adverse effects on the health of chickens and air quality. Production of ammonia and its effect on the growth of chickens was monitored at a poultry house of House Number 5743 Mukuba Road in Riverside Kitwe from 21st August 2013 to 6th June 2014. Two batches of fifty day old hybrid broiler chicks were bred in house A and B 5 m x 7 m under the same management system in three phases. House A chicks were fed on Novatek feed only while those in house B were fed on Novatek feed blended with 0.5 0.7 and 0.9 ww bamboo charcoal of amp8804600m particle size. Weekly mass recording by the use of a weighing scale provided a measure of growth rate while analysis of the excreta using Kjeldahl method at the Copperbelt University and Nkana Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kitwe provided a means of monitoring the amount of ammonia generated. Chickens in house B showed a slightly faster growth rate from 28 to 42 days than those in house A. The f-test results from the study showed that there was a significant effect of ammonia concentration on chicken growth rate P0.05. The results obtained from excreta-litter mixture analysis showed a significant adsorption of ammonia by bamboo charcoal P0.05. The study further indicated a direct dependency of ammonia concentration in excreta on chicken age moisture content and pH.

  14. Effects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S; Everaert, N; Métayer-Coustard, S; Rideau, N; Berri, C; Joubert, R; Temim, S; Collin, A; Tesseraud, S

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized.

  15. Muscles of the pelvic outlet in the fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) with special reference to their nerve supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, K; Sakamoto, H; Sato, T

    1992-11-01

    The manner of innervation of the pelvic outlet muscles in fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was examined in detail in four male pelvic halves. The segmental arrangement of the nerve supply in the sacral and pudendal plexuses was compared to that of Lacertilia and Urodela as a basis for a morphological analysis of the pelvic outlet muscles. From the viewpoint of innervation, the pelvic outlet muscles of fowl are classified into two groups: a sphincter muscle group and a levator muscle group. These two groups are closely related to the ventral muscles of the pelvic limb. In contrast to the morphology of pelvic outlet muscles in lacertilians, in fowl the caudal muscle element does not contribute to the formation of these muscles.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli Strain Isolated from a Gallus gallus Broiler Producing the Novel CTX-M-166 Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lurdes; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the CTX-M-166-harboring O6:H16 sequence type 48 (ST48)-fimH34 Escherichia coli strain recovered from a Gallus gallus broiler. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an IncI1/ST103-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-166-orf477 plasmid region and of diverse antibiotic resistance and virulence-acquired genes.

  17. A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing t...

  18. 砂烫鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺研究%The best Cooked hot Sand Gallus Gallus Domesticus Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伶佳; 贾天柱

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Gallus gallus domesticus processing methods on the hot sand to study to measure and filter out the sand hot processing methods the best processing technolog. Methods: Evaluation of protein content, choose the amount of sand,dry time,dry temperature factors for the study,using orthogonal design L9 (34) ,The best processing technology preferred Gallus gallus domesticus. Results:According to orthogonal experiment results, Health products Gallus gallus domesticus as the best processing technology ,The amount of sand per 30kg Gallus gallus domesticus 1200kg,In the bottom of the pot temperature of 200 -210 ℃ ,Frying 60s when the protein content of the highest,2. 0875%. Conclusion:Health products Gallus gallus domesticus 30kg of sand per volume of 1200kg, at the bottom of the pot temperature of 200 -210 ℃, Chaozhi 60s as the best cooked condition.%目的:对鸡内金炮制方法进行研究,测定并筛选出鸡内金砂烫炮制方法的最佳炮制工艺.方法:以可溶性蛋白质含量为评价指标,选择砂量,炒制时间,炒制温度为考察因素,采用正交设计L9(34),优选鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺.结果:根据正交试验的结果,生品鸡内金的最佳炮制工艺为,每30kg鸡内金用砂量1200kg,在锅底温度为200~210℃,炒制60s时的可溶性蛋白质含量最高,为0.706%.结论:生品鸡内金每30kg用砂量1200kg,在锅底温度为200~210℃,炒制60s为最佳炮制条件.

  19. Effects of dietary nucleic acid on the level of serum uric acid in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken%饮食核酸对SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车会莲; 管春梅; 陈文华; 王宗涛; 李蓉

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨饮食核酸对 SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响. 方法:选 30日龄 SPF级家鸡按血尿酸水平随机分成急性、亚急性和亚慢性研究 3组,各组再按血尿酸水平随机分成 5个亚组,在常规饲料基础上,分别饲以添加不同剂量酵母 RNA的饮食.动态监测血尿酸水平;分期脱颈椎处死实验动物,测定胸腺、法氏囊和肝脏、脾脏的脏器指数,并进行病理学观察. 结果:各添加酵母 RNA实验组动物的体质量、脏器指数和病理组织学观察与 0剂量添加组相比均无统计学差异( P >0.05);饮食中添加酵母 RNA引起 SPF家鸡血尿酸水平升高至 0.41 mmol/L的急性作用阈剂量和亚急性作用阈剂量为 6.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 180倍;其亚慢性作用阈剂量为 8.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 240倍. 结论:饮食核酸可影响血尿酸水平;成人日补充量 2 g/d是安全的,不会引起血尿酸水平的异常持续性升高而产生高尿酸血症和痛风.%AIM:To explore the effect of dietary nucleic acid on the serum uric acid level in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken. METHODS:The SPF class gallus domesticated chickens aged 30 d were randomly divided into three groups according to the level of serum uric acid: acute,subacute and subchronic groups.Then each group was randomly divided again into five subgroups,which were fed feedstuff and applied different doses of yeast RNA.We monitored the changes in serum uric acid level and body mass periodically,and then the histopathological changes of their spleen,liver,thymus and bursa of Fabricius. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in body mass,visceral indexes and pathological observation between different dose groups(P >0.05). The threshold dose that dietary yeast RNA caused hyperuricemia in SPF chickens in acute and subacute tests was 6.0 g/(kg· d) and 8.0 g/(kg· d) in subchronic test,which were equal to 180 and 240 times in

  20. Arterial supply to the cloacal bursa of the Lhoman White LSL lineage fowl (Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Primo Bombonato

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the origin, number and disposition of the arterial branches supplying the cloacal bursas of 30 female fowl (Gallus gallus of the Lhoman White LSL lineage, aged between eight and ten weeks. The right isquiadic artery was cannulated and injected with a 50% colored solution of Neoprene latex “450”. Next, the samples were fixed with a 10% formalin solution through deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracavitary injections for a period of at least 48 hours. Dissections confirmed that the cloacal bursa was supplied by direct branches from the right bursocloacal arteries in 29 cases (96.67%, the left bursocloacal arteries in 28 cases (93.33%, the right cloacal arteries in 13 cases (43.33%, and the left cloacal arteries in 15 cases (50%. The number of branches from the arteries, independent of their origin, varied from two to six. There were two branches in 5 cases (16.67%, three branches in 14 cases (46.67%, four branches in 3 cases (10%, five branches in 6 cases (20%, and six branches in 1 case (3.33%. The distribution of the vessels was unique in each sample.

  1. Imunidade de aves (Gallus gallus) para Salmonella enterica subesp. enterica Sorovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum

    OpenAIRE

    Acelas Díaz, Silvia Juliana [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The fowl typhoid is a systemic disease of chickens caused by Salmonella enteric subsp. enteric serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum. This bacterium is highly pathogenic for chickens at any age, causing mortality even in adult birds. The progress of clinical signs differs among different lines of chickens. White lines of chickens are considered resistant and hardly mortality is observed. Chickens of brown lines are more susceptible and develop severe clinical signs with high mortality rates. T...

  2. Investigation of Serotype, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistant Mechanisms of Salmonella Isolated from Chickens(Gallus domesticus)%鸡源沙门氏菌的血清型、耐药性和耐药机制调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹明; 魏蕊蕊; 张纯萍; 徐士新; 张启迪; 唐潘

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the serotype distribution,antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant mechanisms of Salmonella isolated from chickens(Gallus domesticus),110 Salmonella from Beijing and Shanxi were studied.The results of serotyping indicated that S.enteritidis(76.58%) was the predominant serotypes.The susceptibility of 110 Salmonella isolates to 13 kinds antimicrobials was determined by microbroth dilution method.The highest resistant rate was observed by polymyxin E(41.82%),followed by sulfisoxazole (31.82%),ampicillin(29.09%) and doxycycline(20.91%).Resistant rates to other antimicrobials were under 20%.Resistant mechnisms of isolates were detected,and the results showed that integron Ⅰ mainly harbored the resistance genes to aminoglycosides,sulfonamides,lincosamides,which might play a critical role in spresding drug resistance.This study provides basic data for prevalence investigation of Salmonella from chickens and the rational use of antimicrobials for Salmonella infection control in veterinary practice.%沙门氏菌(Salmonella)是一种重要的食源性致病菌,为了解不同地区鸡源沙门氏菌的血清型、耐药性和耐药机制,本研究对从北京和陕西地区分离的110株鸡(Gallus domesticus)源沙门氏菌进行了分析.血清型结果表明,沙门氏菌流行株为肠炎沙门氏菌(S.enteritidis),占76.58%.微量肉汤稀释法检测110株沙门氏菌对13种抗菌药物的耐药性,结果显示对多粘菌素E的耐药性最强,耐药率为41.82%,其次依次为磺胺异噁唑(31.82%)、氨苄西林(29.09%)和多西环素(20.91%),对其余9种药物的耐药率均低于20%.耐药机制研究结果表明,相关耐药基因在耐药菌株中的携带率较高,Ⅰ类整合子主要携带氨基糖苷类、磺胺类、林可胺类等药物的耐药基因,该整合子在沙门氏菌耐药性的传播方面具有重要作用,本研究为鸡源沙门氏菌的流行性分析以及兽医临床沙

  3. High bioavailablilty iron maize (Zea mays L. developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro (Caco-2 model and in vivo (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tako Elad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron (Fe deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L. lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High. Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate. Chicks (Gallus gallus were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P  Conclusions We conclude that the High Fe-bioavailability maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency.

  4. Alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos de Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Alterations in hematological parameters of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Borrelia anserina

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    Raquel S. Lisbôa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Borreliose aviária é uma doença septicêmica aguda, cosmopolita, que acomete diferentes espécies aviárias, sendo causada por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações hematológicas em Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por B. anserina via vetor Argas (Persicargas miniatus. Um total de 27 aves da espécie G. g. domesticus com 67 dias de vida, foram divididas em três grupos inteiramente casualizados contendo nove animais cada. Um grupo foi exposto a carrapatos infectados por B. anserina (Grupo 1; outro a carrapatos livres deste agente (Grupo 2; além de um grupo não exposto aos carrapatos (Grupo 3. Realizaram-se esfregaços sangüíneos diariamente, a partir do primeiro dia de exposição ao vetor, até o 25º dia pós-exposição (DPE. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas 3 dias antes da exposição aos carrapatos, e 3, 8 e 18 dias pós-exposição (DPE, para a realização dos hemogramas. O exame dos esfregaços das aves do Grupo 1 revelou grande número de espiroquetas. Os esfregaços sangüíneos dos Grupos 2 e 3 mantiveram-se negativos durante todo o período experimental. De acordo com os resultados das avaliações hematológicas, as aves do Grupo 1 apresentaram um quadro de anemia normocítica normocrômica em oito DPE, além de leucocitose com heterofilia e monocitose que cursaram paralelamente ao período de espiroquetemia. Concluiu-se que a infecção por B. anserina determinou nas aves do Grupo 1 alterações hematológicas compatíveis com uma infecção bacteriana de moderada gravidade, evoluindo para auto-cura, nas condições experimentais estabelecidas neste trabalho.Avian spirochaetosis is a cosmopolite acute septicemic disease of many avian species, caused by Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. The present study assesses the estimate of the hematological alterations of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with B. anserina by vector Argas

  5. Evaluación Clínica de Crema Facial a Base de Enjundia de Gallina (Gallus Gallus) para el Tratamiento de las Arrugas

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Cortez, Carlos Alejandro; Universidad Alas Peruanas

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antiarrugas de la enjundia de gallina doméstica o gallina roja (Gallus gallus), procedente de un criadero de aves de una chacra particular, ubicada en el distrito de Chaclacayo, departamento de Lima (Perú). La grasa administrada bajo la forma de crema facial demostró propiedades para el relleno de arrugas y atenuación de líneas de expresión en el rostro. El ensayo se llevó a cabo, previo consentimiento informado, en 237 voluntarios sanos de ambos sexos, con edades mayores ...

  6. Uso de Infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng y del vinagre en la crianza de pollos Acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga, Chuchuca; Sánchez Quinche, Angel; Vargas González, Oliverio; Hurtado, Flores; Quevedo Guerrero, José

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en la Granja Santa Inés, perteneciente a la Universidad Técnica de Machala, utilizando para ello 160 pollos acriollados (Gallus gallus domesticus) mejorados, los mismos que se alojaron tratando de cumplir las mejores condiciones de manejo y sanidad, sin embargo para provocar desafíos no se administró vacunas, ni antibiótico en la granja. El objetivo fue determinar la eficacia del vinagre e infusión de oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus en la crianza de pollo...

  7. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

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    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  8. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis

  9. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

  10. Genome-wide gene expression surveys and a transcriptome map in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, H.

    2010-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology, evolutionary research, and agricultural science. The completeness of the draft chicken genome sequence provided new possibilities to study genomic changes during evolution by comparing the chic

  11. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %).

  12. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobian resistance of Escherichia coli isolated of healthy hens (Gallus gallus).

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Adriano Sakai [UNESP; Andreatti Filho,Raphael Lucio; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio [UNESP; Rocha, Ticiana Silva

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota of the chickens is composed by many species of bacteria that benefit the host in many ways during its life. When the host is submitted to inadequate treatments with antibiotics, this microbiota suffers a selection trial, becoming resistant to these drugs. It was evaluated the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from intestine of healthy posture hens to the antibiotics. From 100 samples analyzed, 83 showed resistance to more than three antibiotics, and two wer...

  14. Modulatory antibacterial activity of body fat from Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Coutinho; Pedro Aquino; Jéssica Leite; Livia Leandro; Fernando Figueredo; Edinardo Matias; Tássia Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Based on the popular belief ,which uses fat from G. g. domesticus. (domestic chicken), to combat infectious and inflammatory processes, this work aims to evaluate the antibacterial action of lipids in adipose tissue of these animals besides verifying association with antibiotics observing the modulating effect of natural products against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and multiresistant of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates. We evaluated the antibacte...

  15. Early life in a barren environment adversely affects spatial cognition in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Tahamtani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task, however the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  16. Isolation of Microsporum gallinae from a fighting cock (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako

    2013-02-01

    A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country.

  17. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

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    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  18. Isolation of dermatophytes and related species from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Sano, Ayako; Hiruma, Midori; Murata, Michiko; Kaneshima, Takashi; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Touyama, Hidemi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nakazato, Yasutomo; Uehara, You; Hirakawa, Morihiko; Imura, Yoshimi; Terashima, Yoshie; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keji; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Hiruma, Masataro; Murakami, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 793 bird combs [645 chickens and 148 fighting cocks (Shamo)] to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The targeted fungal species were recovered from 195 of the 793 examined birds (24.6 %). Prevalence ratios were compared in temperate (the mainland) and subtropical (Nansei Islands) areas, genders, strains, breeding scale (individual and farm), and housing system (in cage and free ranging). The frequency of the fungal species in the mainland, males, fighting cocks, breeding scale by individual nursing, and free-range housing system exhibited significantly higher positive ratios than that in the other groups. A total of 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated, including 101 Arthroderma (Ar.) multifidum, 83 Aphanoascus (Ap.) terreus, five Uncinocarpus queenslandicus, two U. reesii, two Ap. pinarensis, one Amauroascus kuehnii, one Ar. simii, one Gymnoascus petalosporus, one Microsporum gallinae, and 28 Chrysosporium-like (Chrysosporium spp.) isolates, which were identified using internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The predominant fungal species in the mainland was Ap. terreus and that in the Nansei Islands was Ar. multifidum. Pathogenic fungal species to humans and animals were limited to M. gallinae and Ar. simii, which corresponded to 0.025 % of the isolates in this study.

  19. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  20. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  2. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barriers such as the health related ones, that could be an obstacle for free trade. The industrial-type poultry industry (broilers, layers, breeders, grandmothers, turkey is one of the leading sectors of the country’s livestock production. Other types of exploitation such as the breeding of fighting cocks, backyard poultry, farm ostrich and quail, among others, represent another important part of this sector. However, a big concern related to these types of practices is the movement of birds and the potential risk of these as distributors of diseases that could potentially affect the national poultry industry.The Newcastle (ENC is among the most important diseases. This is one of the easily transmitted pathologies that causes great economic impact to the poultry industry due to its costs associated to high morbidity and mortality, low in production, high costs of treatment of secondary infections and significant investments in programs targeting its control and eradication. Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies of the disease in fighting cocks (Gallus gallus in Saboyá, Boyacá. The technique of hemagglutination inhibition was used for this matter. Prior to the study, a census was conducted to determine the population of (N = 1.500 animals. The health, manipulation and biosecurity standards of the subject population were assessed through the use of an epidemiological survey. The size of the study sample which was n

  3. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  4. Gallus Heat shock cognate protein 70, a novel binding partner of Apoptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV infection of newly hatched chickens induces generalized lymphoid atrophy and causes immunosuppressive. VP3, also known as Apoptin, is non-structural protein of CAV. Apoptin specifically induces apoptosis in transformed or tumor cells but not in normal cells. In particular, there are no known cellular homologues of Apoptin hindering genetic approaches to elucidate its cellular function. Although a number of Apoptin-interacting molecules have been identified, the molecular mechanism underlying Apoptin's action is still poorly understood. To learn more about the molecular mechanism of Apoptin's action, we searched for Apoptin associated proteins. Results Using yeast two-hybrid and colony-life filter approaches we got five positive yeast clones. Through sequencing and BLASTed against NCBI, one of the clones was confirmed containing Gallus heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70. Hsc70 gene was clone into pRK5-Flag plasmid, coimmunoprecipitation assay show both exogenous Hsc70 and endogenous Hsc70 can interact with Apoptin. Truncated Apoptin expression plasmids were made and coimmunoprecipitation were performed, the results show the binding domain of Apoptin with Hsc70 is located between amino acids 30-60. Truncated expression plasmids of Hsc70 were also constructed and coimmunoprecipitation were performed, the results show the peptide-binding and variable domains of Hsc70 are responsible for the binding to Apoptin. Confocal assays were performed and results show that under physiological condition Hsc70 is predominantly distributed in cytoplasm, whereas Hsc70 is translocated into the nuclei and colocalized with Apoptin in the presence of Apoptin in DF-1 cell. Functional studies show that Apoptin markedly down-regulate the mRNA level of RelA/p65 in DF-1 cell. To explore the effect of Hsc70 on Apoptin-mediated RelA/p65 gene expression, we have searched two Hsc70 RNAi sequences, and found that all of them

  5. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  6. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  7. Development of a new duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of dicer in G. gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Qi; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Yongqiang; Qin, Liting; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence showing that cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virus-host interactions. Numerous studies have focused on analyses of the expression profiles of cellular miRNAs, but the expression patterns of Dicer, which is responsible for the generation of miRNAs, have only rarely been explored in Gallus gallus. We developed a duplex realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) assay for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of Dicer and beta-actin in G. gallus. To apply this method, the expression of Dicer in avian cells after infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was detected using our established duplex real-time RT-PCR. The duplex realtime RT-PCR assay is sufficiently sensitive, specific, accurate, reproducible, and cost-effective for the detection of Dicer in G. gallus. Furthermore, this study, for the first time, demonstrated that ALV-J can induce differential expression of Dicer mRNA in the ALV-J-infected cells.

  8. Efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas (Gallus domesticus Effect of cortico-cancellous bone grafting in osteogenisis of cortical ulnar failure of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Balthazar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas. Foram utilizadas 18 galinhas, com aproximadamente 70 semanas de idade e peso corpóreo médio de 2,5kg. Criou-se uma falha óssea na porção diafisária média da ulna em ambas as asas, sendo a direita utilizada como grupo-controle (grupo I e a esquerda como grupo-tratado (grupo II. As aves foram subdivididas aleatoriamente em quatro subgrupos de acordo com o período de observação (14, 35, 60 e 90 dias. No grupo II, dois fragmentos ósseos da carena do esterno foram retirados, seccionados e implantados na falha óssea. Ao término do período de observação de cada subgrupo, as aves foram abatidas com tiopental sódico para realização dos exames histopatológico e radiográfico post-mortem, com classificação dos resultados em escala semiquantitativa (escore. O grupo II demonstrou osteogênese mais evidente aos 35 e 90 dias de pós-cirúrgico (PThe aim of this survey was to evaluate the effect of cortico-cancellous bone grafting in osteogenesis in cortical ulnar failure in domestic chickens. Eighteen chickens weighing 2.5kg with approximately 70 weeks of age were used. A bone defect in the middle portion of the ulna shaft was created in both wings; the right wing in the control group (Group I and the left in the treated group (Group II. The birds were randomly divided into four subgroups according to the observation period (14, 35, 60 and 90 days. In group II, two bone fragments of the keel of the sternum were removed, sectioned and implanted in the bone defects. At the end of the observation period for each subgroup, the birds were euthanaized with sodium thiopental to perform the histopathological and radiographic postmortem, with ranking of results in a semi-quantitative scale (score. Group II showed a more evident osteogenisis at 35 and 90 days after surgery (P<0.05. In comparing both groups

  9. Nest-site Characteristics of Red Jungle Fowl, Gallus gallus jabouillei%原鸡海南亚种的巢址特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玲; 张春兰; 张海; 符海豪; 林贤梅; 符运南; 符明利; 胡慧建

    2009-01-01

    选择适宜的巢址对降低巢捕食风险,提高繁殖成效有重要意义.2008年3-7月,在海南省大田国家级自然保护区,采用随机样线法结合访问法在各种生境类型中系统地寻找原鸡海南亚种(Gallus gallus jabouillei)的巢,并在野外追踪观察基础上用样方法对原鸡的巢址选择进行研究.共记录到原鸡的巢16个,以巢为中心选取样方并测量反映巢址的13个特征生境参数,同时分析16个对照样方以进行比较,并通过主成分分析探讨影响巢址选择的主导因子.结果表明:(1)原鸡的巢位于密集的丛生草本下或低矮的灌木丛基部.营巢背景多样,其中位于草本植物下10个(62.5%);灌草丛5个(31.3%):灌木下1个(6.25%).(2)Mann-Whitney U检验的结果显示,原鸡偏好于比较开阔、地面落叶稀少而靠近的小道和林缘的位置营巢.(3)主成分分析表明,植被盖度因子和空间位置因子贡献率最大,在降低巢捕食风险中有重要价值,是影响原鸡巢址选择的主要因素.

  10. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Katajamaa, Rebecca; Altimiras, Jordi; Jensen, Per

    2015-09-01

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

  11. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Ascaridia galli infections on behaviour and health of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, O.; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Permin, A.

    2005-01-01

    1. The effect of infections with Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite or chicken mite) and Ascaridia galli (roundworm) on the behaviour and health of laying hens was investigated. 2. Six groups of 15 pullets (Isa Brown) were kept in indoor pens from 18 weeks of age. Two groups were artificially...... infected with D. gallinae, two groups with A. galli and two groups were kept as uninfected controls. The hens were observed for behavioural reactions and physiological changes (weight gain and various blood variables) to the parasitic infections. 3. Infections with D. gallinae resulted in reduced weight...... gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. 4. A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables...

  12. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2014-04-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova.

  13. Estudo comparativo entre sevofluorano, halotano e isofluorano em Gallus domesticus Comparite evaluation with sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane in Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dambrosio Guimarães

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 30 frangos com 20 semanas de idade, pesando em média 2,90 ± 0,65kg divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. A indução da anestesia foi realizada com máscara facial artesanal conectada ao sistema de Maggil Modificado, utilizando entre 3,0 e 3,5 vezes a dose anestésica mínima (DAM de cada agente e fluxo diluente de O2 de 2l/min, sendo que posteriormente os animais foram intubados e mantidos com valores de aproximadamente 1,7DAM durante 65 minutos. O isofluorano causou maior depressão respiratória e hipotensão; o halotano proporcionou maiores valores de pressão arterial e temperatura corporal e o sevofluorano, menor depressão respiratória e hipotensão em relação ao grupo do isofluorano, sendo considerado o agente mais indicado para a utilização em aves. A indução e recuperação foram mais rápidas com o sevofluorano, embora sem diferença significativa estatisticamente.For the comparison 30 twenty-week-old chicken were used. They weigh na averdage of 2.90 ± 0.65kg aleatorily divided into 3 groups. The anesthetic induction was accomplished with a home-made facial mask connected with the modified circuit of Maggil using values between 3.0 e 3.5 a minimal anesthetic dose (MAD for each agent. Posteriorly, the animals were intubated and anesthesia was maintained with values approximately 1.7DAM during 65 minutes. Isoflurane caused further respiratory depression and hypotension when it is compared to the other two anesthetic agents. The group of halothane presented higher values of blood pressure and body temperature and the group of sevoflurane, lower respiratory depression and hypotension in relation to the group of isoflurane. The induction and recuperation were faster with the sevoflurane, although without expressive diference statistically. The sevoflurane is the most indicated anesthetic agent.

  14. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saborni Roy; Tapas C Nag; Ashish Datt Upadhyay; Rashmi Mathur; Suman Jain

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and visual perceptual learning and synaptic plasticity, as evident by synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, were done at posthatch days (PH) 1, 2 and 3. The number of responders was significantly higher in the music stimulated group as compared to controls at PH1 in both auditory and visual preference tests. The stimulated chicks took significantly lesser time to enter and spent more time in the maternal area in both preference tests. A significantly higher expression of synaptophysin and PSD-95 was observed in the stimulated group in comparison to control at PH1-3 both in the auditory cortex and visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest facilitation of postnatal perceptual behaviour and synaptic plasticity in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal stimulation with complex rhythmic music.

  15. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  16. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, M.; Robertson, L.B.; Tempest, H.G.; Langley, E.J.; Ioannou, D.; Fowler, K.E.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, w

  17. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone leve

  18. Evaluation of the i-STAT portable clinical analyzer in chickens (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, H W; Vogt, R.; Kästner, S; Riond, B.; Hatt, J M

    2007-01-01

    The i-STAT portable clinical analyzer (PCA) was evaluated for performance in avian species. With the EG7+ cartridge, which provided results for hydrogen ion concentration, oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, hematocrit, and various calculated parameters, analytical accuracy and precision were tested by comparing obtained values to those of established traditional blood gas and chemistry analyzers. Deming's regression and bias plots were used to compare ...

  19. Tuberculosis en Rhea Americana y Gallus Sp. en cautiverio Tuberculosis in ratites and ornamental birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis aviar tiene, distribución mundial y afecta a las aves domésticas y silvestres. El agente etiológico es Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. El potencial zoonótico de esta enfermedad ha adquirido relevancia con la pandemia de HIV por ello todas las maniobras que involucren la manipulación de microorganismos viables, deben ser llevadas a cabo con adecuadas medidas de bioseguridad. La fuente primaria de infección es el ambiente contaminado con este agente. La presentación clínica es variable y el método definitivo para confirmar la infección es el aislamiento. El objetivo fue identificar mediante histopatología, bacteriología y biología molecular la etiología de lesiones compatibles con tuberculosis en una raza ornamental de Gallus sp. (sedosa del Japón y Rhea americana (ñandú. En la necropsia se observaron granulomas que presentaron centro caseonecrótico no mineralizado con bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en la histopatología. Se confirmó la presencia de M. avium subsp. avium por bacteriología y por PCR en las cepas aisladas. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico combinando técnicas y describir por primera vez en la Argentina un caso de tuberculosis en ñandú.Avian tuberculosis is worldwide distributed and affects domestic and wild birds. Aetiological agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Its zoonotic potential has acquired importance since HIV pandemia, that is why the manipulation of viable microorganism should be done with careful biosecurity measures. Primary source of infection is the environment contaminated with these microbes. Clinical signs are not uniform and the confirmation of the disease is by bacteriologycal isolation. The purpose was to identify by histopathologycal, bacteriologycal and molecular biology methods the aetiology from tuberculosis like lesions found in an ornamental race of Gallus sp. (Japanese Silkie and Rhea americana. At post-mortem examination granulomas were

  20. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  1. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte.

  2. Early host gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the intestine of chickens with different genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smith, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    So far the responses of chickens to Salmonella have not been studied in vivo on a whole genome-wide scale. Furthermore, the influence of the host genetic background on gene expression responses is unknown. In this study gene expression profiles in the chicken (Gallus gallus) intestine of two genetic

  3. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  4. Macroscopic morphology and arterial vascular supply of thymus in fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of Red Bro Cou Nu lineag - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8529

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mauricio Mendes de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Red Bro Cou Nu lineage were studied. They were about 35 days old and had their arteries filled with Neoprene Latex 450", aqueous solution at 50%, stained with specific pigment (Globo S/A, Tintas e Pigmentos, and then fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. The present study aimed to quantify the thymic lobes and identify the main arteries responsible for the blood supply of these lobes and their frequencies. The number of thymic lobes on the right antimere varied from two to 11, with a greater frequency of 8 lobes; and the left antimere showed a variation from one to eight, with a greater frequency of five lobes. The arteries destined to the thymus were composed by direct and indirect branches of the following arteries: left and right common vagus nerve, left and right cranial thyroid, left and right caudal thyroid, left and right ascending esophageal, right ingluvial, left and right cutaneous, and right common carotid. The right thymic lobes, regardless their origin, received from eight to 27 vascular branches, and the left thymic lobes, from eight to 24 branches.  

  5. 羟基肉桂酸锗氮桥环化合物在乌鸡饲料中的应用%The Application of Germatranes of Hydroxyl Substituted Cinnamic Acid Compounds in the Diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 陈晓东

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] By using germatranes of hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid compounds as additives, the effects of adding it in the diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson on biochemical indexes were studied. [ Method] Adding germatranes of p - ,o - ,m - hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid to the diet with 40 mg/kg for each,their weight,melanin content, fat content were measured when chickens are at 30,60,75,90,120 day old age. [ Result ] Adding cinnamic acid germanium in the diet of Gallus domesticus Brisson could improve weight, increase melanin content, decrease fat content,while germatranes of p - ,o - ,m - hydroxyl substituted cinnamic acid have no significant differences. [ Conclusion] .The study will provide theoretical basis for the application of germanium addictives in Gallus domesticus Brisson production.%[目的]以羟基肉桂酸锗氮桥环化合物为添加剂,研究将其添加于乌鸡日粮中对乌鸡生化指标的影响.[方法]以邻、对、间羟基肉桂酸锗各40 mg/kg添加到日粮中,分别在30、60、75、90、120日龄时,测定乌鸡的体重、黑色素含量、脂肪含量.[结果]在乌鸡饲料中添加肉桂酸锗均能提高乌鸡体重,增加黑色素含量,降低脂肪含量,而邻、对、间羟基肉桂酸锗之间无显著差异.[结论]该研究为锗添加剂在乌骨鸡生产中的应用提供了理论依据.

  6. Alterações bioquímicas, anatômicas e histopatológicas em fígado de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. Cepeda

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espiroquetose aviária é uma enfermidade septicêmica de curso agudo, cosmopolita, que acomete diversas espécies aviárias, causada por Borrelia anserina e transmitida pelo carrapato Argas miniatus. O experimento teve como objetivos avaliar as alterações bioquímicas e anátomo-histopatológicas no fígado de Gallus gallus, causadas pela infecção experimental por B. anserina. Quarenta aves da espécie G. gallus foram divididas em quatro grupos inteiramente casualizados com 10 animais cada: G1 - inoculado com soro infectado com B. anserina; G2 - inoculado com soro fisiológico a 0,9%; G3 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus infectados por B. anserina; G4 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus livres de B. anserina. As aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 manifestaram no 3º e 6º dias pós-inoculação (DPI respectivamente, sintomatologia característica da doença como inapetência, perda de peso, sonolência, diarreia esverdeada, mucosas hipocoradas, penas arrepiadas e hipertermia. Os níveis de ALT do Grupo 1 mostraram-se significativamente mais elevados apenas no 12ºDPI e 24ºDPI em relação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 2 e no Grupo 3 esses níveis se mantiveram elevados até o 20º DPI em comparação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 4. Os níveis da enzima AST pouco oscilaram nos grupos experimentais, embora tenham sido encontradas elevações no 12ºDPI nos Grupos 1 e 3. Os fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 apresentaram à necropsia, moderada hepatomegalia, congestão, superfície irregular e coloração vermelha a cianótica; constataram-se ainda pequenos pontos esbranquiçados na superfície. A histopatologia do fígado revelou congestão, infiltrados inflamatórios mononucleares, focos de necrose fibrinoide, dilatação dos sinusoides e vacuolização de hepatócitos. A coloração de Warthin-Starry revelou, nos fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3, a presença de espiroquetas compatíveis com B. anserina

  7. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillier, L.W.; Miller, W.; Birney, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Aerts, J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome—composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence a

  8. Genetics of ascites resistance and tolerance in chicken: A random regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kause, A.; Dalen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two complementary mechanisms to reduce the detrimental effects of parasites, pathogens, and production diseases on host performance. Using body weight and ascites data on domesticated chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, we demonstrate the use of random regression animal mo

  9. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  10. Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two spec

  11. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  12. Molecular characterization of Saudi local chicken strains using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, H A; Ramadan, H A I; Baeshen, Nabih A; Sadek, Mahmoud Abdel; Abou Alsoud, M E

    2015-08-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate and estimate the genetic diversity of native breeds based on cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of mitochondrial DNA information. The obtained sequences of cyt-b gene segment have TAA as a stop codon at 488 position with no insertions or deletion in all individuals of both native chicken strains. The blast results showed that no variation was found among individuals within both native chicken strains, but when a comparison was established among them and other species of genus Gallus the variation is exploring, additionally many mutant sites were detected as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different sites. The phylogenetic trees exhibited three different groups. The results revealed that the native chicken strains were closely related to the cluster of Gallus gallus and subspecies of Gallus, suggesting that they may be separated from the same origin. According to this result and previously studies, the native chicken strains are genetically closer to Gallus gallus and it could be successfully distinguished from the other wild types of Gallus chicken based on cyt-b gene information. We recommended that the governmental concerns for native chicken strain should be enhanced to screen its genetic structure for large scale in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S.; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A.; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Stephen; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data.RESULTS: An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integr...

  14. A simple two step procedure for purification of the catalytic domain of chicken tryptophan hydroxylase 1 in a form suitable for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte R.; Munch, Astrid;

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1 in Escheri...

  15. Epitope mapping of campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (gallus gallus domesticus) sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibod...

  16. Analysis of chromatin compaction and determination of the storage time and distribution of a rooster’s (Gallus gallus spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules of hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Nunes Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to elucidate alterations in the compaction of sperm chromatin during storage in the sperm storage tubules of fowl hens, to observe the storage time, and to estimate the variation in the amount of stored spermatozoa in the cranial, medium and caudal sections of the uterovaginal junction over a period of 23 days. For the analysis of the spermatozoa during storage in the sperm storage tubules of hens, 48 thirty-six-week-old meat chickens of the Cobb Avian 48 strain were used. Samples from the uterovaginal junction of the hens were collected for 23 days after the mating with the roosters, and six hens were euthanized every four days for the production of histological microscope slides. Spermatozoa were found throughout the area of the sperm storage tubules. Most of them were gathered in the medium section of the uterovaginal junction. There was no meaningful statistical difference in the amount of sperm in the sperm storage tubules over the days of the experiment. A greater amount of sperm cells were observed up to the 23rd day of assessment. Therefore, the storage of spermatozoa in hens lasts at least 23 days.

  17. A New Chicken Genome Assembly Provides Insight into Avian Genome Structure

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    Wesley C. Warren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3, built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb, including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized. Of the 1.21 Gb genome, we include three previously missing autosomes, GGA30, 31, and 33, and improve sequence contig length 10-fold over the previous Gallus_gallus-4.0. Despite the significant base representation improvements made, 138 Mb of sequence is not yet located to chromosomes. When annotated for gene content, Gallus_gallus-5.0 shows an increase of 4679 annotated genes (2768 noncoding and 1911 protein-coding over those in Gallus_gallus-4.0. We also revisited the question of what genes are missing in the avian lineage, as assessed by the highest quality avian genome assembly to date, and found that a large fraction of the original set of missing genes are still absent in sequenced bird species. Finally, our new data support a detailed map of MHC-B, encompassing two segments: one with a highly stable gene copy number and another in which the gene copy number is highly variable. The chicken model has been a critical resource for many other fields of study, and this new reference assembly will substantially further these efforts.

  18. Bone protein “extractomics”: comparing the efficiency of bone protein extractions of Gallus gallus in tandem mass spectrometry, with an eye towards paleoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R. Schroeter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of bone require specialized extraction protocols to demineralize and solubilize proteins from within the bone matrix. Although various protocols exist for bone protein recovery, little is known about how discrete steps in each protocol affect the subset of the bone proteome recovered by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Characterizing these different “extractomes” will provide critical data for development of novel and more efficient protein extraction methodologies for fossils. Here, we analyze 22 unique sub-extractions of chicken bone and directly compare individual extraction components for their total protein yield and diversity and coverage of bone proteins identified by MS. We extracted proteins using different combinations and ratios of demineralizing reagents, protein-solubilizing reagents, and post-extraction buffer removal methods, then evaluated tryptic digests from 20 µg aliquots of each fraction by tandem MS/MS on a 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. We compared total numbers of peptide spectral matches, peptides, and proteins identified from each fraction, the redundancy of protein identifications between discrete steps of extraction methods, and the sequence coverage obtained for select, abundant proteins. Although both alpha chains of collagen I (the most abundant protein in bone were found in all fractions, other collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g., apolipoprotein, osteonectin, hemoglobin were differentially identified. We found that when a standardized amount of extracted proteins was analyzed, extraction steps that yielded the most protein (by weight from bone were often not the ones that produced the greatest diversity of bone proteins, or the highest degree of protein coverage. Generally, the highest degrees of diversity and coverage were obtained from demineralization fractions, and the proteins found in the subsequent solubilization fractions were highly redundant with those in the previous

  19. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Raillietina spp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) from Domestic Chickens in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (I...

  20. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  1. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  2. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  3. Eta vs. sigma: review of past results, Gallus-Klemp test, and large-scale wind skill in ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of switching between the eta and the sigma coordinate in numerical weather prediction involving topography, five sets of tests were performed. The eta version did better in all of them particularly with precipitation scores and more accurate placement of storms. However, a problem of flow separation in the lee of the bell-shaped topography discovered by Gallus and Klemp seemed to many to suggest the eta coordinate to be ill suited for high-resolution models. Flow separation is shown not to occur following a refinement of the eta discretization. Trying to identify a primary cause of the improvement in 250 hPa winds previously demonstrated in Eta ensemble members over their ECMWF driver members, ten of the Eta members were run switched to sigma. At a critical time, the Eta members in eta mode showed a tendency for more accurate tilt of a 250 hPa trough than the members run in sigma mode. The experiment was rerun for a more recent and higher resolution ECMWF ensemble, and for an increased number of members. The advantage of the Eta over ECMWF is seen again, even though this time, the Eta resolution during the first 10 days of the experiment was about the same as that of driver members. Rerunning the Eta ensemble switched to sigma showed an advantage in the Eta/eta 250 hPa wind scores used, again associated with an upper-air trough's movement across the Rockies. Better positioning of lee lows ahead of these troughs using Eta/eta is suggested to be making significant contributions to its better precipitation scores. Implications of experiments done for regional climate modeling are discussed as well.

  4. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  5. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  6. Eimeria tenella (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A. E.

    1962-01-01

    Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445

  7. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  8. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep d

  9. Spatiotemporal mapping of the muscular activity of the gizzard of the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Reynolds, G; de Loubens, C; Hulls, C; Janssen, P W M; Ravindran, V

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of spatiotemporal mapping of the spontaneous actions of component muscles of the gizzard and associated structures in ex vivo preparations with combined superfusion and vascular perfusion. Ongoing spontaneous contraction of cranial and caudal thin muscles occurred at a frequency of 2.2 ± 0.1 cycles per minute. Contractions of M. tenuis craniodorsalis with mean duration of 2.8 ± 0.2 s commenced ventrally adjacent to the distal limit of the proventriculus and progressed dorsally at 2.02 ± 0.03 mm•s(-1) in a concerted front. Near simultaneous contraction of M. tenuis caudoventralis of mean duration of contraction of 4.7 ± 0.7 s commenced dorsally and progressed ventrally at a similar rate (2.1 ± 0.1 mm•s(-1)) and in a similar manner. Contraction of the caudoventralis preceded that of craniodorsalis (mean 1.1 ± 0.15 s). Contraction of the 2 tenuis muscles was synchronous with the first component peak of the cyclic increase in lumen pressure and with distension of the crassus musculature. Contraction of the M. crassus caudodorsalis muscle coincided with the second component peak and was followed by distension of the tenuis musculature. The latter commenced before the relaxation of the tenuis muscles. Contractions of the crassus muscle propagated rapidly at right angles to the orientation of the muscle fibers at a faster velocity than that of the tenuis musculature. The durations of the component peaks in lumen pressure indicated that the duration of crassus contraction was similar to that of the tenuis musculature.

  10. Morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of Cajal's "centrifugal neurons": the cells of origin of the tectoventrogeniculate pathway in pigeon (Columba livia) and chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of these cells by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double-label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs.

  11. The Genome of the Chicken DT40 Bursal Lymphoma Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Janos; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya

    2014-01-01

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell...... chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations...

  12. Orexin and orexin receptor like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of Gallus domesticus: An immunohistochemical survey on presence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcamone, N; D'Angelo, L; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C; Pelagalli, A; Castaldo, L

    2014-04-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization and distribution of orexin A and B-like and their receptors-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of chicken. The immunoreactivity is distributed in endocrine cells, nerve fibers and neurons, both in the stomach and intestine, and shows a discrete conformity with the data till now reported for Mammals. Our study suggests a possible participation of orexin-like peptides in the modulation of chicken gastroenteric activities and the preservation of their main distribution compared to Mammals. Western blot analysis has confirmed the presence of prepro-orexin and both receptors in the examined tissues. This survey represents the first evidence of the presence of orexin-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of non mammalian species, and the results could help to better understand the alimentary control and body weight in domestic birds, which are of relevance to determine the productive factors in breeding animals. This study might also serve as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non mammalian Vertebrates.

  13. Bursa of Fabricius--mitotic index in the follicles of immunized and non-immunized chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, F; Borella, M I

    1979-01-01

    The mitotic index in the cortical compartment of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius from chicks immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) is always higher when compaired with non-immunized ones. This mitotic index reachs its maximum 6 days after the SRBC injection, coincident with the highest serum antibody titer. The mitotic activity in the cortex of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius is always higher than that of the medulla during the postembryonic development of chickens (PROCHAZKA, RODAK, KREJCI 1967). Otherwise it is almost established that the cortex is a zone of continuous lymphocyte proliferation, not occuring the same with the medulla. In addition these bursal histological structures are considered as 2 distinct compartments (GROSSI et al. 1974). The purpose of this paper is to study the response in the mitotic index of the cortical and medullary compartments of the follicles of the bursa of immunized and non-immunized chicks. To correlate possible changes in the mitotic index with circulating antibody levels, the serum antibody titer from the same birds was also recorded.

  14. Environ: E00525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00525 Chicken stomach lining Galli stomachichum corium Crude drug Gallus gallus [T...AX:9031] Phasianidae Gallus gallus stomach lining (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Birds E00525 Chicken stomach lining ...

  15. Tapeworms of rock dove and domestic chicken in Taif area, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrani, Mohammad R; Ashour, Ameen A; Shobrak, M Y

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the tapeworms that parasitize the rock dove Columba livia palastinae and domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus in Taif governorate, Saudi Arabia. A total of 115 rock doves and 105 domestic chicken have been examined. Birds were brought in from the wells and farms inside and outside the city of Taif. In rock doves, the percentage of infection was recorded as Cotugnia digonopora 5.21%, Hymenolepis carioca 10.43%, Raillietina echinobothrida 27.82%, Raillietina tetragona 22.6%. The prevalence of infection recorded in Municipal chicken with different types of tapeworms was Cotugnia digonopora 7.61%, Choanotaenia infundibulum 12.38%, Amoebotaenia sphenoides 7.61%, Raillietina echinobothrida 11.42%, Raillietina tetragona 8.57%, Raillietina (Paroniella) kashiwarensis 4.76%. The overall percentage of infected rock pigeons Columba livia palastinae with tapeworms was 66.1% while the percentage of infected chicken Gallus gallus domestica was 52.3%. The study defined and described this species as classification keys in place.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  17. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, LaDeana W.; Miller, Webb; Birney, Ewan; Warren, Wesley; Hardison, Ross C.; Chris P Ponting; Bork, Peer; Burt, Peer; Martien A M Groenen; Delany, Mary E.; Dodgson, Jerry B; Chinwalla, Asif; Cliften, Paul F; Sandra W Clifton; Delehaunty, Kimberly D

    2004-01-01

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance bet...

  18. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Kathryn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  19. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken...... Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information...

  20. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  1. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  2. Genetic Effect of Tyrosinase (TYR), Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) and Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) Genes on Melanin Deposition of White Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)%酪氨酸酶(TYR)、小眼畸形相关转录因子(MITF)和刺鼠信号蛋白(ASIP)基因对白绒乌骨鸡黑色素沉积的遗传效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑嫩珠; 李丽; 辛清武; 缪中纬; 朱志明; 陈黎; 刘凤辉; 吴剑飞; 黄勤楼

    2015-01-01

    为研究白绒乌骨鸡(Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)黑色素沉积分子机制,本研究采用实时荧光定量PCR(quantitative Real-time PCR,qRT-PCR)的2-△△Ct检测酪氨酸酶(tyrosinase,TYR)、刺鼠信号蛋白(agouti signaling protein,ASIP)和小眼畸形相关转录因子(microphthalmia-associated transcription factor,MITF)基因在乌骨鸡皮肤、肌肉、肝脏、肾脏和肌胃的表达情况,采用紫外分光光度法测定不同组织黑色素含量,探索3个基因在不同组织中mRNA表达量与黑色素沉积之间的关系.结果表明,TYR、MITF和ASIP在所有组织中均有表达,且各基因mRNA相对表达量在各组织间差异极显著(P<0.01),其中MITF和TYR mRNA表达量依次为皮肤>肾脏>肌胃>肝脏>肌肉,与乌骨鸡各组织黑色素沉积规律基本一致;ASIP基因表达量则与其相反,表现为肌肉>肝脏>肌胃>肾脏>皮肤.相关性分析表明,TYR和MITF基因在各个组织中的表达量与其黑色素含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05),ASIP基因表达量与其呈显著负相关(P<0.05).由此提示,TYR、MITF和ASIP与白绒乌骨鸡黑色素沉积均具有一定的相关性,其中TYR和MITF基因的高表达可能促进乌骨鸡黑色素沉积,ASIP则相反.本研究为进一步阐明黑色素沉积的遗传调控机制提供了理论基础.

  3. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  4. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  5. Quantifying the effects of genetic selection and genetic variation for body size, carcass composition, and meat quality in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, D A; Nute, G R; Hocking, P M

    2009-05-01

    A multistrain experiment was conducted to quantify the extent of genetic differences in carcass and muscle yields, muscle quality, support organs, and taste panel assessments of cooked breast muscle of 296 birds from 37 lines of commercial broiler, layer, and traditional chickens. The birds were reared as broilers and 4 males from each line were slaughtered at 6 and 10 wk of age. The extent of genetic variation was measured as the intraclass correlation. The intraclass correlation for live weight; carcass yields; breast, drum, and wing portions; and associated muscle yields were high, whereas those for the thigh portion and yield were low. Broilers had more breast and thigh muscle but similar drum muscle as a proportion of carcass weight compared with layer and traditional lines. Genetic variation for muscle quality (plasma creatine kinase activity) was high; that for muscle color (L, a, and b) and hemorrhage score were moderate in size and were greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler lines had greater creatine kinase activity indicative of greater muscle pathology; breast muscle was lighter, less red and yellow in color, and had a greater hemorrhage score than muscle from layer and traditional lines, which were similar. Intraclass correlations for taste panel scores were low and generally not significant except for texture, chicken flavor intensity, flavor liking, and overall liking at 6 wk of age. Significantly greater scores from broiler compared with layer and traditional lines for texture, chicken flavor intensity, and overall liking were observed. At 10 wk of age, chicken flavor intensity did not differ between broiler or layer birds but was significantly greater in both groups than traditional birds. Genetic variation for relative weight of abdominal fat, spleen, and heart was moderately high and greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler carcasses had a relatively high proportion of abdominal fat and smaller spleen and heart weights.

  6. Identification of goose, mule duck, chicken, turkey, and swine in foie gras by species-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Mayoral, Belén; López-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2003-03-12

    A specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been developed for the identification of goose (Anser anser), mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata), chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) in foie gras. A forward common primer was designed on a conserved DNA sequence in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA), and reverse primers were designed to hybridize on species-specific DNA sequences of each species considered. The different sizes of the species-specific amplicons, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed clear identification of goose, mule duck, chicken, turkey, and swine in foie gras. Analysis of experimental mixtures demonstrated that the detection limit of the assay was approximately 1% for each species analyzed. This genetic marker can be very useful for the accurate identification of these species, avoiding mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution in foie gras.

  7. 免疫应激对肉鸡肠道微生物区系的影响%Effects of Different Immune Status on the Variation of Intestinal Microflora Community in Broiler Chickens(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯焱; 杨小军; 胡雄兵; 刘烨; 尹瑞卿; 覃定奎; 姚军虎

    2012-01-01

    微生物区系的平衡是确保肠道健康的重点,本研究对不同免疫状态下肉仔鸡消化道内微生物变化规律进行了研究.选用180只AA肉公鸡随机分4个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复9只肉公鸡.实验分为无免疫组、常规免疫组、免疫亢进和免疫抑制4个处理组.于21、28、35和42日龄肠段的内容物,提取总DNA,并以此为模板获得反映肠道微生物群落结构特征的肠杆菌基因间重复序列-PCR(ERIC-PCR)指纹图谱,比较各DNA样品指纹图谱的相似性指数.ERIC-PCR扩增产物大部分为200~2 000 bp的基因片段,聚类分析显示,各日龄阶段,处理组间十二指肠细菌种群结构的相似性最高(75%),其次是盲肠(40%),回肠(39%)和空肠(38%)的相似性较低.图谱的条带数目为十二指肠>回肠>盲肠>空肠.28和35日龄,十二指肠和空肠脂多糖(LPS)组条带都低于21日龄,而回肠和盲肠的未见显著变化.21日龄,回肠环磷酰胺(CYP)组的条带低于其他处理组.不同免疫状态影响回肠、空肠和盲肠道微生物区系,42日龄,不同免疫状态对微生物数量和种群的影响不明显.%It focuses on the intestinal health that balances in microbial flora. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of gastrointestinal tract microflora in broilers raised under different immune status. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) was conducted to evaluate this effect in broilers. Treatments consisted of a negative control, general vaccination, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) + general vaccination and cyclophosphamide (CYP )+ general vaccination. On the age of 21, 28, 35 and 42 d, digesta of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected to assay for gut microflora. The results showed that the DNA fingerprinting of ERIC-PCR had high stability and repetition. The molecular weights of gene fragment were almost from 200 to 2 000 bp after ERIC-PCR amplification. Different immune stress affected gut microflora to different degrees, and as age varied, the dominant microflora correspondingly changed. The diversity of cecal microflora was mostly obvious in LPS+ general vaccination treatment and CYP+ general vaccination treatment. In the present study, based on cluster analysis, the similarity of gut microflora in negative control was relatively stable, and among all treatments, the similarity of duodenal microflora was up to 75%, followed by cecum (40%), jejunum (38%) and ileum (39%). Under different immune status, between LPS group and no vaccination group, the microbial number and distribution in jejunum were different, but there were no significant difference in ileum and cecum between LPS group and CYP group.

  8. Klf7 modulates the differentiation and proliferation of chicken preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhang; Haixia Wang; Yingning Sun; Hui Li; Ning Wang

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 7 (Klf7) has been extensively studied in the mammalian species,but its function in avian species is unclear.The objective of this study was to reveal the function of chicken Klf7 (Gallus gallus Klf7,gKlf7) in adipogenesis.The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the relative mRNA level of chicken Klf7 (gKlf7/gβ-Actin) in the abdominal adipose tissue was significantly associated with the abdominal fat content and the age of broilers (P <0.05),and gKlf7 was more highly expressed in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P< 0.05).In addition,Oil red O staining showed that gKlf7 inhibited chicken preadipocyte differentiation,and MTT assay indicated that gKlf7 overexpression promoted preadipocyte proliferation.Additionally,luciferase assays showed that gKlf7 overexpression suppressed the chicken CCAAT/enhancerbinding protein α (C/ebpα),fatty acid synthase (Fasn),and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) promoter activities (P < 0.05),and gKlf7 knockdown increased the chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ),C/ebpα and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) promoter activities (P < 0.05).Together,our study demonstrated that chicken Klf7 inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and promotes preadipocyte proliferation.

  9. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  10. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  11. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Scofield, R. Paul; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-08-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773-1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period.

  12. A Dual-marker Vector for Constant RNAi and Rapid Selection of Stable RNAi Clones in Gallus Cells%鸡源细胞基因沉默及快速筛选的实用型双标记RNAi载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培培; 游雷鸣; 罗俊; 鄂魏; 蒋志政; 郅玉宝; 张改平; 王爱萍

    2011-01-01

    利用人H1 RNA启动子、EGFP基因及Neomycin抗性基因,构建用于禽类细胞基因持续沉默和快速筛选的实用型RNAi载体.在将pCDNA3.1(+)载体上的SV40启动子替换为鸡源的β-actin 启动子后,装入EGFP基因表达框以及用于驱动外源shRNA转录的人H1 RNA启动子,构建成同时具有EGFP和Neomycin抗性双标记的RNAi载体,并为载体引入独特设计的含媒介序列的多克隆位点以方便外源shRNA编码小片断插入后的快速筛选,载体设计非常实用.插入靶向EGFP和sIgMλ基因的shRNA编码序列后分别瞬时转染DF-1和DT40细胞,结果显示靶基因表达得到了明显抑制.联用EGFP和Neomycin双标记快速筛选sIgMλ轻链基因稳定沉默的DT40细胞克隆的结果也证实,H1启动子转录shRNA的干扰效果是高效的,双标记筛选策略不仅有效而且方便、快捷.%A practical vector, termed as pAnGH1, designed for constant RNAi and rapid selection of stable RNAi clones in gallus cells was constructed. It replied on the well-know interference of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to target gene expression, and choosed the EGFP gene as a visual marker, and neomycin resistance gene controlled by the endogenous chicken β-actin promter as a selection marker to faciliate the visual and rapid selection of stable RNAi clones. Also, the specially designed cassete under human HI RNA promoter contained BglII and /firedIII sites that were spaced by an additional 50bp intermediary sequence, which enabled the rapid PCR-scanning of recombinant clones containing the shRNA-coding insert in that the insertion of foreign shRNA-coding fragment resulted in the loss of the priming sites in intermediary sequence. The shRNA-mediated transient interference of EGFP and slgM \\ were performed in the chicken embryo fibroblast cells DF-I and the chicken B-lymphocyte cells DT40 respectively, which exhibited the remarkable inhibition of target expression. In addtiton, the selection of stable s

  13. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available he Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced for a total of 335 individuals from Indonesian native chicken. The individuals were drawn from sixteen populations of native chicken and three individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius. Indonesian native chicken populations were: Pelung Sembawa, PL (n = 18, Pelung Cianjur, PLC (n = 29 and Arab Silver, ARS (n=30, Cemani, CM (n = 32, Gaok, GA (n = 7, Kedu Hitam, KDH (n = 11, Wareng, T & TW (n = 10, Cemani, CMP (n = 2, Kedu, KD (n=26, Kedu Putih, KDP (n = 15, Sentul Jatiwangi, STJ (n = 27, Ayam Kate, KT (n = 29, Ayam Sentul, STC (n = 15, Arab Golden, ARG (n = 26, Ayam Merawang, MR (n = 28, Kedu Putih Jatiwangi, KDPJ (n=6 and Kapas, KPS (n = 21. Green jungle fowls were: two individuals from Flores island (FL5 and FL57 and one individual (BD42 from Sumbawa island. The sequences of the first 530 nucleotides were used for analysis. Eighty two haplotypes were identified from 78 polymorphic sites for the 335 individuals. Seventy nine haplotypes were identified in native chicken from 57 polymorphic sites while three were of jungle fowls. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian native chicken can be grouped into five clades (Clade I, II, IIIc, IIId and IV of the previously identified seven clades (Clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId and IV in Asian domestic chicken. Haplotypes CM10 and CM32 fall to a different category while STC12 is also on its own. Interestingly STC12 clusters together with Gallus gallus gallus (GenBank accession No. SULANDARI et al. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences 296 AB007720. When CM10 (same as CM14, CM32 and STC12 were removed, 77 haplotypes of domestic chicken were identified from 53 polymorphic sites. All the green jungle fowls are clustered to one clade of their own. The clades of domestic chicken are: Clade I which has three haplotypes, Clade II has 52

  14. Associated Analysis on Polymorphisms of UCP Genotypes, Reactive Oxygen Species Contents and Birth Weight with Three Chicken Breeds%鸡解耦联蛋白基因型与活性氧含量、初生重的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程甲; 程曦; 朱庆鸿; 赵兴波

    2011-01-01

    为了研究解耦联蛋白基因(uncoupling protein,UCP)对鸡(Gallus gallus)初生重及活性氧含量的影响,本实验通过对3个品种鸡初生重、UCP C353T多态位点基因型以及肌肉组织活性氧(ROS)含量的测定,发现丝羽乌鸡ROS值显著低于白莱航、寿光鸡,UCPTT基因型ROS值显著高于CT和CC基因型,而ROS含量与雏鸡初生重之间存在着正向的相关性(r=0.5011),UCPTT基因型的初生重显著高于CT和CC基因型.实验结果揭示了鸡UCP基因型对初生重性状具有选择效应.%In order to explore the effect of uncoupling protein gene (UCP) on birth weight and content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chickens (Gallus gallus), the birth weight, UCP C353T mutation genotyping and muscle ROS contents from three chicken breeds were analyzed.The results indicated Silky chicken had higher ROS contents than that of White Leghorn and Shouguang chickens, and ROS contents for genotype TT of UCP appeared notably higher than that of CT and CC genotypes.ROS contents presented a positive correlation with chicken birth weight (r=0.5011).The birth weight for genotype TT of UCPdemonstrated notably higher than that of CT and CC genotype.The findings showed UCP genotypes can impact chicken birth weight for selections.

  15. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Li, J; Li, J; Li, R X; Lv, C F; Li, S; Mi, Y L; Zhang, C Q

    2016-07-01

    The Paneth cells are highly specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine of many vertebrate species. These cells reside at the base of crypts of the Lieberkühn and contain abundant secretory granules. Previous studies suggesting the existence of Paneth cells in the chicken (Gallus gallus) remained controversial. Here we seek to identify the Paneth cells in the chicken small intestine through morphological examination and specific gene expression. Histological staining and transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of granulated secretory cells at the base of the crypts in the chicken small intestine. Western blotting experiment also manifested the expression of lysozyme protein, which is specifically secreted by the Paneth cells in the small intestine. Moreover, lysozyme c and lysozyme g mRNAs were expressed in the small intestine of chickens at different ages. Lysozyme c mRNA, in particular, was located at the base of the small intestinal crypts as displayed by in situ hybridization. Collectively, we provide evidences that the Paneth cells indeed exist in the small intestine of the chicken.

  16. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  17. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-03

    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  18. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  19. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  20. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  1. Histomoniasis outbreak in free-range chickens in semiarid Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeann Leal Araújo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an outbreak of histomoniasis in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Juvenile chickens aged approximately 48 days showed disease over a 15-day period. Seven of 16 chickens showed yellow, watery stool, anorexia, lethargy, and death within 3-5 days of clinical illness. The mortality rate was 43.7%. The chickens were raised in a backyard with 12 adult birds that remained healthy. None of the chickens were vaccinated or dewormed. A necropsy on one deceased bird showed lesions confined to the cecum and liver. The left cecum was distended and had yellow, slightly elevated areas on the serosa. The liver was reddened with centrally depressed areas surrounded by a pale halo, which were distributed throughout the capsular surface and extended deep throughout the parenchyma. Microscopically, typhlitis and pyogranulomatous necrotizing hepatitis associated with numerous intralesional Histomonas trophozoites was observed. The birds were administered metronidazole and albendazole, which effectively controlled the histomoniasis. Although histomoniasis is rare in free-range poultry, it can occur and cause high mortality and significant economic losses.

  2. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  3. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  4. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  5. East African origins for Madagascan chickens as indicated by mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Michael B.; Thomson, Vicki A.; Wadley, Jessica J.; Piper, Philip J.; Sulandari, Sri; Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Gongora, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50–500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar). In contrast to the linguistic and human genetic evidence indicating dual African and Southeast Asian ancestry of the Malagasy people, we find that chickens in Madagascar only share a common ancestor with East Africa, which together are genetically closer to South Asian chickens than to those in Southeast Asia. This suggests that the earliest expansion of Austronesian-speaking people across the Indian Ocean did not successfully introduce chickens to Madagascar. Our results further demonstrate the complexity of the translocation history of introduced domesticates in Madagascar.

  6. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test......Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... for marginal symmetry, Proportion of agreement P-0, P-, P-, and Odds Ratio. The highest agreement was found between the 2 types of sock sampling, while the lowest agreement was found by comparing 60 faecal samples with 5 pairs of socks. Two pairs of socks analysed as one pool appeared to be just as effective...

  7. RNA sequencing based analysis of the spleen transcriptome following the infectious bronchitis virus infection of chickens selected for different mannose-binding lectin serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria;

    2016-01-01

    in strategies to control IB. To this end, two chicken lines, selected for high and low serum concentration of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern recognition receptor, were studied. In total, 32 animals from each line (designated L10H for high and L10L for low MBL serum concentration) were used....... Sixteen birds from each line were infected with IBV on day 1 and birds were euthanized at 1 week and 3 weeks post infection, 8 uninfected controls and 8 infected birds from each line at each occasion. RNA sequencing was performed on spleen samples from all 64 birds used in the experiment. Differential...... was performed using Gene Ontology (GO) Immune System Process terms specific for Gallus gallus.ResultsComparing uninfected L10H and L10L birds, we identified 1698 and 1934 differentially expressed (DE) genes at week 1 and week 3, respectively. For the IBV infected birds 1698 and 1934 DE genes were identified...

  8. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Gallus IL-2 Gene and Prediction of Protein Structure%鸡IL-2基因的克隆、序列分析及蛋白结构预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昆; 蒋成砚; 胡俊杰; 全舒舟; 宋银银

    2011-01-01

    According to GenBank in the IL-2 cDNA sequences, using Premier 5.0 software design a pairs of specific primer, the local Dorking inject 100 μg/ml Con A, total RNA was extracted from feeding 24 hours lymphocyte from spleen, by RT-PCR cloning colony IL-2 cDNA fragment. The DNA fragments were analyzed use DNAStar software between different species identity for comparison. Sequence analysis showed that IL-2 gene has an open reading frames for 432 nucleotide acids, encoding 143 amino acids and most of signal peptide, compared with published on Genbank, the nucleotide identity was 98.8%、 31.2%、 28.2%、 27.3%、30.6%、 26.2%、 31.7%、 30.1%、 30.8%、 26.6%、 30.6%. compared with published on Genbank, the Amino acids was 95.8%, 7.6%、 7.6%、 9.7%、 7.6%、 6.9%、 10.4% 11.8%, 7.6%, 9.0%, 7.6%, 10.4% with cattle, horse, cat,sheep, bovine, canis, people, capra, mice, cow of IL-2 sequence comparison The gallus IL-2 gene was successfully cloned, there is a species-specific. And construct a based on further study the biological effects of IL-2 gene in particular the use of IL-2 enhance the immune effect of DNA vaccine.%根据GenBank中已发表的鸡白细胞介素2(IL-2)mRNA基因序列,利用Premier 5.0软件设计一对特异性引物,采用RT-PCR技术,以ConA刺激的鸡外周血淋巴细胞为材料,从总RNA中扩增出鸡IL-2基因.经琼脂糖凝胶电泳显示扩增片段约为432 bp,分离纯化片段,克隆入pMD-18T载体,转化DH5α感受态细胞,获得阳性重组质粒,经酶切鉴定,测序结果显示,该基因全长432 bp,含有一个432bp的开放阅读框,编码143个氨基酸.生物软件分析结果表明该序列与GenBank中发表的鸡的IL-2的核苷酸序列同源性为98.8%,与黄牛、马、鸡、绵羊、牛、犬、人、山羊、鼠、水牛的核苷酸同源性分别为31.2%、28.2%、273%、30.6%、26.2%、31.7%、30.1%、30.8%、26.6%、30.6%.与GenBank中发表的鸡IL-2编码

  9. Comparison of pretectal genoarchitectonic pattern between quail and chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma eMerchán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization of the central nervous system is controlled by local networks of transcription factors that establish and maintain the identities of neuroepithelial progenitor areas and their neuronal derivatives. The conserved cerebral Bauplan of vertebrates must result essentially from conserved patterns of developmentally expressed transcription factors. We have previously produced detailed molecular maps for the alar plate of prosomere 1 (the pretectal region in chicken (Ferran et al., 2007, 2008, 2009. Here we compare the early molecular signature of the pretectum of two closely related avian species of the family Phasianidae, Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail and Gallus gallus (chicken, aiming to test conservation of the described pattern at a microevolutionary level. We studied the developmental pretectal expression of Bhlhb4, Dbx1, Ebf1, Gata3, Gbx2, Lim1, Meis1, Meis2 Pax3, Pax6, Six3, Tal2, and Tcf7l2 (Tcf4 mRNA, using in situ hybridization, and PAX7 immunohistochemistry. The genoarchitectonic profile of individual pretectal domains and strata was produced, using comparable section planes. Remarkable conservation of the combinatorial genoarchitectonic code was observed, fundamented in a tripartite anteroposterior subdivision. However, we found that at corresponding developmental stages the pretectal region of G. gallus was approximately 30% larger than that of C. japonica, but seemed relatively less mature. Altogether, our results on a conserved genoarchitectonic pattern highlight the importance of early developmental gene networks that causally underlie the production of homologous derivatives in these two evolutionarily closely-related species. The shared patterns probably apply to sauropsids in general, as well as to more distantly related vertebrate species.

  10. Expression and functional analyses of Krüppel-like factor 3 in chicken adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Yan; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Studies in mammalian species showed that Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) regulated adipose tissue development. However, it was not reported in chicken. In the current study, we found that during the growth and development of abdominal fat tissue, chicken KLF3 (Gallus gallus KLF3, gKLF3) was consecutively expressed, and its transcripts were higher at 7 weeks of age and lower at 10 weeks of age in lean broilers than in fat broilers. In addition, gKLF3 overexpression suppressed chicken CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter activities, but increased chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) promoter activity. Additionally, point mutagenesis analysis showed that the substitution of Asp by Gly within the Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Thr (PVDLT) motif of gKLF3 significantly reduced the ability of gKLF3 to regulate the promoter activities of FABP4, FASN, LPL, C/EBPα, and PPARγ.

  11. Dietary mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal improves growth and increases muscle weights in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Yoshimoto, Yu; Inui, Mariko; Fukui, Kensuke; Yonemoto, Hiroko; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The utilization of copra meal as a feed ingredient is limited because it contains a high level of mannan. However, recent findings indicate that the effect of copra meal on growth performance in broiler chickens can be improved by the supplementation of mannanase in the diet. In the present study, we examined the effect of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MCM) on growth performance and muscle protein metabolism in growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty 8-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups (four birds in each pen, five replicates) and fed either a commercial diet (as a control diet) or a diet containing MCM at 0.2% until 22 days of age. Dietary MCM significantly increased the weights of body, breast muscle, and thighs in chickens, whereas the weights of abdominal adipose tissue and liver were not affected. Cumulative feed intake was significantly increased by MCM. Dietary MCM significantly decreased plasma 3-methylhistidine level. The messenger RNA and protein levels of muscle protein metabolism-related factors were not altered by MCM. These findings suggest that the growth-promoting effect of MCM is related to the suppression of muscle proteolysis in growing broiler chickens.

  12. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16...... access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when...

  13. Occurrence and seasonality of Somotricus unifasciatus (Dejean, 1831 associated with raising Gallus gallus domesticus

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    Diego Moscarelli Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence and population fluctuation of Somotricus unifasciatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae, an exotic predatory species. The insects were collected once per week for 12 months, using traps, at the aviary of the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça (CAVG, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. During the study, 1158 specimens of S. unifasciatus were captured. The highest occurrence period was in February (472, when the monthly average temperature was 24.7ºC, while the lowest occurrence periods were in July (01, April (0 and June (0. The population density of the coleopteron varied throughout the year, with the largest capture averages obtained during months with higher average temperatures (December, January, February and March.

  14. Fusions within the mandible of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D A

    1983-05-01

    The articulations formed within the mandible of the domestic fowl by its constituent elements have been described and illustrated. The sutures identified were suturae angulosplenialis, angulosupra-angularis, articulare/pre-articulo-angularis, articulare/pre-articulosupra-angularis, dento-angularis, dentosplenialis, dentosupra-angularis and supra-angulosplenialis. Some degree of fusion was found to occur in all sutures except sutura supra-angulosplenialis. The range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each site was studied in a flock of Golden Comet pullets. Mean fusion times varied from 45-119 days post-hatching.

  15. Tick fauna of Malaysian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus in Bangi, Malaysia

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    M. Konto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to manmade encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tickborne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. Results: 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63% for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. Conclusion: This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick.

  16. Estudios sobre terapia fágica contra S. enterica en Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Bardina Fons, Carlota

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica es una enterobacteria zoonótica que reside en el intestino de los animales. Normalmente genera infecciones asintomáticas en animales de granja. Las serovariedades no tifoideas causan brotes asociados a alimentos siendo S. Enteritidis y S. Typhimurium las que presentan una mayor prevalencia a nivel mundial. La principal vía de transmisión de este patógeno a humanos se produce a través del consumo de alimentos contaminados de origen animal. Es por ello que, actualmente, se e...

  17. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections.

  18. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  20. The "silver" Japanese quail and the MITF gene: causal mutation, associated traits and homology with the "blue" chicken plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin'ichi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene has been investigated in mice and various vertebrates but its variations and associated effects have not yet been explored much in birds. The present study describes the causal mutation B at the MITF gene responsible for the "silver" plumage colour in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, and its associated effects on growth and body composition, and tests its allelism with the "blue" plumage colour mutation Bl in Gallus gallus. Results The semi dominant B mutation results from a premature stop codon caused by a 2 bp deletion in exon 11 of MITF. Homozygous "white" (B/B quail which have a white plumage also show a slightly lower growth, lower body temperature, smaller heart, and lighter pectoralis muscles but more abdominal adipose tissue than the recessive homozygous "wild-type" (+/+ and heterozygous "silver" (B/+ quail. Similar observations on cardiac and body growth were made on mice (Mus musculus homozygous for mutations at MITF. The production of chicken-quail hybrids with a white plumage obtained by crossing Bl/+ chicken heterozygous for the blue mutation with B/B white quail indicated that the mutations were allelic. Conclusion The "silver" Japanese quail is an interesting model for the comparative study of the effects of MITF in birds and mammals. Further investigation using a chicken family segregating for the "blue" plumage and molecular data will be needed to confirm if the "blue" plumage in chicken results from a mutation in MITF.

  1. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a novel parvovirus isolated from chickens in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Huang, Li; Fan, Qin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Leyi

    2016-11-01

    A previously unidentified chicken parvovirus (ChPV) strain, associated with runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), is now endemic among chickens in China. To explore the genetic diversity of ChPV strains, we determined the first complete genome sequence of a novel ChPV isolate (GX-CH-PV-7) identified in chickens in Guang Xi, China, and showed moderate genome sequence similarity to reference strains. Analysis showed that the viral genome sequence is 86.4 %-93.9 % identical to those of other ChPVs. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly emergent GX-CH-PV-7 is closely related to Gallus gallus enteric parvovirus isolate ChPV 798 from the USA, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. The complete DNA sequence is 4612 bp long with an A+T content of 56.66 %. We determined the first complete genome sequence of a previously unidentified ChPV strain to elucidate its origin and evolutionary status.

  2. Exploring the molecular mechanism of acute heat stress exposure in broiler chickens using gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q B; Song, X Y; Ji, C L; Zhang, X Q; Zhang, D X

    2014-08-10

    The process of heat regulation is complex and its exact molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, to investigate the global gene regulation response to acute heat exposure, gene microarrays were exploited to analyze the effects of heat stress on three tissues (brain, liver, leg muscle) of the yellow broiler chicken (Gallus gallus). We detected 166 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain, 219 in the leg muscle and 317 in the liver. Six of these genes were differentially expressed in all three tissues and were validated by qRT-PCR, and included heat shock protein genes (HSPH1, HSP25), apoptosis-related genes (RB1CC1, BAG3), a cell proliferation and differentiation-related gene (ID1) and the hunger and energy metabolism related gene (PDK). All these genes might be important factors in chickens suffering from heat stress. We constructed gene co-expression networks using the DEGs of the brain, leg muscle and liver and two, four and two gene co-expression modules were identified in these tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment of these gene modules revealed that various functional clusters were related to the effects of heat stress, including those for cytoskeleton, extracellular space, ion binding and energy metabolism. We concluded that these genes and functional clusters might be important factors in chickens under acute heat stress. Further in-depth research on the newly discovered heat-related genes and functional clusters is required to fully understand their molecular functions in thermoregulation.

  3. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Raillietina spp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) from Domestic Chickens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-12-01

    Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene were employed for precise identification and phylogenetic relationship studies of Raillietina spp. Four Raillietina species, including R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus, and Raillietina sp., were recovered in domestic chickens from 4 districts in Phayao province, Thailand. LM and SEM observations revealed differences in the morphology of the scolex, position of the genital pore, number of eggs per egg capsule, and rostellar opening surface structures in all 4 species. Phylogenetic relationships were found among the phylogenetic trees obtained by the maximum likelihood and distance-based neighbor-joining methods. ITS2 and ND1 sequence data recorded from Raillietina sp. appeared to be monophyletic. The query sequences of R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus, and Raillietina sp. were separated according to the different morphological characters. This study confirmed that morphological studies combined with molecular analyses can differentiate related species within the genus Raillietina in Thailand.

  4. Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Pippa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC, eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken.

  5. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  6. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  7. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-32 45% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  8. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0424 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-34 50% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  9. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 1e-18 37% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  10. Gene : CBRC-GGAL-35-0200 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pituitary/hypothalamus/pineal cDNA library (pgp2n) Gallus gallus cDNA clone pgp2n.pk008.a12 5' similar to g...CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] 6e-14 47% gnl|UG|Gga#S15646949 pgp2n.pk008.a12 Normalized chicken

  11. Evidence of balanced diversity at the chicken interleukin 4 receptor alpha chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podisi Baitsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα, a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF, grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded.

  12. Genome-wide association study identified a narrow chromosome 1 region associated with chicken growth traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS, we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5-175 Mb of chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome (GGA 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW at 0-90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW, leg muscle weight (LMW and wing weight (WW at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22-48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29-42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22-42 d.

  13. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus.

  14. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

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    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available The yellow fever (YF 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system.

  15. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  16. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Labas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC–MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ and seminal plasma (SP. We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  17. The genome of the chicken DT40 bursal lymphoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, János; Póti, Ádám; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnády, Gábor E; Szallasi, Zoltan; Csabai, István; Szüts, Dávid

    2014-09-15

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell line using whole genome shotgun sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array hybridization. The results indicate that wild-type DT40 has a relatively normal karyotype, except for whole chromosome copy number gains, and no karyotype variability within stocks. In a comparison to two domestic chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a typical transformed cell line with a relatively intact genome; therefore, it is well-suited to the role of a model system for DNA repair and related processes. The sequence data generated by this study, including a searchable de novo genome assembly and annotated lists of mutated genes, will support future research using this cell line.

  18. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  19. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  20. Green tea polyphenols alleviate obesity in broiler chickens through the regulation of lipid-metabolism-related genes and transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbao; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2013-09-11

    The current study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on lipid metabolism and its mechanisms using broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 36 male chickens (35 days old) had been subjected to an oral administration of GTPs at a dosage of 0, 50 (low), and 100 (high) mg/kg of body weight for 20 days. Our results showed that GTPs significantly decreased the abdominal and subcutaneous fat masses of broilers and reduced the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those of the control. Furthermore, the expression levels for lipid anabolism genes were significantly downregulated, while the expression levels of fat transportation and catabolism-related genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT-I), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in liver, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in abdominal fat, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscles, were notably upregulated. Our data have revealed that GTPs alleviate obesity and serum lipid levels in broiler chickens by suppressing fatty acid synthesis and stimulating lipolysis.

  1. Genetic evidence from Indian red jungle fowl corroborates multiple domestication of modern day chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakati RD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication of chicken is believed to have occurred in Southeast Asia, especially in Indus valley. However, non-inclusion of Indian red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus murghi in previous studies has left a big gap in understanding the relationship of this major group of birds. In the present study, we addressed this issue by analyzing 76 Indian birds that included 56 G. g. murghi (RJF, 16 G. g. domesticus (domestic chicken and 4 G. sonneratii (Grey JF using both microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D-loop sequences. We also compared the D-loop sequences of Indian birds with those of 779 birds obtained from GenBank. Results Microsatellite marker analyses of Indian birds indicated an average FST of 0.126 within G. g. murghi, and 0.154 within G. g. domesticus while it was more than 0.2 between the two groups. The microsatellite-based phylogenetic trees showed a clear separation of G. g. domesticus from G. g. murghi, and G. sonneratii. Mitochondrial DNA based mismatch distribution analyses showed a lower Harpending's raggedness index in both G. g. murghi (0.001515 and in Indian G. g. domesticus (0.0149 birds indicating population expansion. When meta analysis of global populations of 855 birds was carried out using median joining haplotype network, 43 Indian birds of G. g. domesticus (19 haplotypes were distributed throughout the network sharing haplotypes with the RJFs of different origins. Conclusion Our results suggest that the domestication of chicken has occurred independently in different locations of Asia including India. We found evidence for domestication of Indian birds from G. g. spadiceus and G. g. gallus as well as from G. g. murghi, corroborating multiple domestication of Indian and other domestic chicken. In contrast to the commonly held view that RJF and domestic birds hybridize in nature, the present study shows that G. g. murghi is relatively pure. Further, the study also suggested that the chicken

  2. Analisis D-loop DNA Mitokondria untuk Memposisikan Ayam Hutan Merah dalam Domestikasi Ayam di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current poultry is a domesticated chickens used for both meat and egg production. Pedigree investigation is an important part to understand the process of chicken domestication in Indonesia. Molecular DNA approach using D-loop Mitochondrial DNA marker (hypervariable 1 segment was used in this analysis. The objective of the study was to construct the pedigree analysis of Indonesian chicken. Four hundreds and eighty four (434 samples belonging to 15 breeds of Indonesian local chicken (Cemani, Kedu, Kedu Putih, Pelung, Sentul, Wareng, Merawang, Kapas, Kate, Arab Silver, Arab Gold, Gaok, Nunukan, Kalosi and Tolaki and 9 samples of Red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus gallus were extracted, PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. Four sequence references from GeneBank, Gallus gallus (NCBI, accession number AB0986688. G. gallus (GenBank accession number AB098668, G. gallus spadiceus (GenBank accession number AB007721, and G. gallus bankiva (GenBank accession number AB007718 were included in this analysis. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. The results show that 72 haplotypes were identified from 56 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Indonesian chicken have a close relationship with 2 subspecies of Gallus gallus (G. gallus gallus and G. gallus spadiceus. Our results suggest that D-loop region is highly variable in Indonesian chicken with large number of haplotypes.

  3. Influences of environment and personality on cognitive judgment bias in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes include biases, such as cognitive judgment bias. Cognitive judgment bias influences how the surrounding is interpreted, and this can differ between individuals. However, thus far no formal framework exists to understand how cognitive judgment bias works. Here I investigated how environmental factors and personality influence cognitive judgment bias in Gallus gallus chicks. First I investigated how two environmental factors affected the cognitive judgment bias of laying hen...

  4. Irrigação do timo em aves da linhagem Paraíso Pedrês (Gallus gallus domesticus Irrigation of thymus in Paraiso Pedres lineage (Gallus gallus domesticus birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Santana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A vascularização arterial do timo (número, origem e ordenação bem como a distribuição parenquimal dos ramos penetrantes foram estudadas em 40 aves da linhagem Paraíso Pedrês. Trinta aves foram injetadas com látex e dissecadas, enquanto 10 aves tiveram seus sistemas arteriais injetados com resina (metil metacrilato e mercox para a preparação de moldes vasculares. A principal fonte de irrigação encontrada foi a associação dos ramos oriundos das artérias comuns do nervo vago, tireóideas e ingluviais, sendo que seus ramos penetravam o parênquima dos lobos, principalmente pelas suas extremidades cranial e caudal. A partir da penetração, os ramos tímicos apresentavam distribuição predominante para a periferia do lobo, formando uma trama capilar poligonal, com espaços irregulares, característica de um órgão linforreticular.The thymus arterial vascularization (number, origin and organization as well as the parenchymal distribution of the penetrative branches were studied in 40 birds of Paraiso Pedres lineage birds. From this total, 30 were injected with latex and dissected, while 10 had their arterial vessels injected with resin (methylmethacrylate and mercox for the vascular matrix preparation. The main source of irrigation found was the association of branches originated from the common arteries of the vago nerve, thyroid and ingluvial, and their branches penetrated in the parenchyma of the lobes especially through the caudal and cranial endings. From this penetration, the thymic branches showed most of their distribution to the lobe periphery, creating a polygonal capilar web with irregular, spaces which is a characteristic of a linforeticular organ.

  5. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 is responsible for the tyrosinase-independent recessive white (mo(w and mottled (mo plumage phenotypes in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kinoshita

    Full Text Available A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo, which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mo(w for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mo(w /mo(w chicken and the panda (s/s mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 gene, showed a mo(w/mo(w chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2 in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3-EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration.

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies Loci and candidate genes for body composition and meat quality traits in Beijing-You chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranran Liu

    Full Text Available Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW, eviscerated weight (EW, dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW and percentage (BrP, thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM and compressed mixed linear (MLM models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E-6 have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome 4 (GGA4, including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1, were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated chicken Stra8 gene knockout and inhibition of male germ cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qisheng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Fei; Ji, Yanqin; Jin, Jing; Lu, Zhenyu; Wang, Man; Zhang, Chen; Li, Bichun

    2017-01-01

    An efficient genome editing approach had been established to construct the stable transgenic cell lines in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) at present. Our objectives were to investigate gene function in the differentiation process of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs). Three guides RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the Stra8 gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in domestic chicken cells using cleavage activity of in vitro transcription of gRNA, Luciferase-SSA assay, T7 endonuclease I assay(T7E1) and TA clone sequence. In addition, the Cas9/gRNA plasmid was transfected into ESCs to confirm the function of Stra8. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-1 and gRNA- 2 was higher than that of gRNA-3. TA clone sequencing showed that the knockdown efficiency was 25% (10/40) in DF-1 cells, the knockdown efficiency was 23% (9/40) in chicken ESCs. T7E1 assay indicated that there were cleavage activity for three individuals, and the knockdown efficiency was 12% (3/25). Cell morphology, qRT-PCR, immunostaining and FCS indicated that Cas9/gRNA not only resulted in the knockout of Stra8 gene, but also suggested that the generation of SSCs was blocked by the Stra8 gene knockdown in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system could mediate stable Stra8 gene knockdown in domestic chicken’s cells and inhibit ECSs differentiation into SSCs. PMID:28234938

  8. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  9. Relationship between plasma and tissue corticosterone in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): implications for stress physiology and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Hemsworth, P H; Leury, B J; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    This study directly compared the dynamics of change in plasma corticosterone concentration with the dynamics of change in tissue corticosterone concentration in laying hens. In concert, we measured the rate of gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. We evaluated these changes acutely, over 3 h in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection, and chronically, over 24 h in response to food and water deprivation. In response to ACTH injection, there was a significant (P physiology under acute and chronic conditions. Our data suggest that extending our evaluation of stress to the site of corticosterone action, that is, the target tissue, may enhance our ability to evaluate stress and the welfare of laying hens.

  10. The effect of frustrative non-reward on vocalisations and behaviour in the laying hen, Gallus gallus domesticus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, P.H.; Koene, P.

    1998-01-01

    Laying hens are thought to express an expectation of a rewarding event through a specific vocalisation, the gakel-call. It has been suggested that the gakel-call is related to frustration, i.e. the thwarting of behaviour. We investigated if frustrative nonreward (nonreinforcement in a situation that

  11. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...... for the establishment of the Community target for reduction of Salmonella in laying hens in accordance with Article 4 of Regulation No 2160/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the control of salmonella and other specified food-borne zoonotic agents. Although the final report will not be published...... until October 2006, key data such as the prevalence levels of salmonella in laying hens is not foreseen to change significantly with the publication of the final report which will contain the full analyses and results from the study. As the European Commission intends to set targets prior to publication...

  12. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus) from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca; Juliette Natalia Rodríguez Ruiz; Sandra Paola Rodríguez González

    2012-01-01

    Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barrie...

  13. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos...... was calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and then slowing down between 16 and 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. HE...... followed the pattern of gas exchange, with a mean around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19. The main source of HE was oxidized fat. In addition to respiration experiments chemical analyses were carried out on 60 eggs from RO and 60 from LA. Prior to chemical analyses...

  14. Extra-pituitary prolactin (PRL) and prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) in chickens and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guixian; Liang, Xiaomeng; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-09-01

    It is generally believed that in vertebrates, prolactin (PRL) is predominantly synthesized and released by pituitary lactotrophs and plays important roles in many physiological processes via activation of PRL receptor (PRLR), including water and electrolyte balance, reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, immuno-modulation, and behavior. However, there is increasing evidence showing that PRL and the newly identified 'prolactin-like protein (PRL-L)', a novel ligand of PRL receptor, are also expressed in a variety of extra-pituitary tissues, such as the brain, skin, ovary, and testes in non-mammalian vertebrates. In this brief review, we summarize the recent research progress on the structure, biological activities, and extra-pituitary expression of PRL and PRL-L in chickens (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) from our and other laboratories and briefly discuss their potential paracrine/autocrine roles in non-mammalian vertebrates, which may promote us to rethink the broad spectrum of PRL actions previously attributed to pituitary PRL only.

  15. Acute heat stress impairs performance parameters and induces mild intestinal enteritis in broiler chickens: role of acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Rodrigues, M V; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2012-06-01

    Studies on the environmental consequences of stress are relevant for economic and animal welfare reasons. We recently reported that long-term heat stressors (31 ± 1°C and 36 ± 1°C for 10 h/d) applied to broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from d 35 to 42 of life increased serum corticosterone concentrations, decreased performance variables and the macrophage oxidative burst, and produced mild, multifocal acute enteritis. Being cognizant of the relevance of acute heat stress on tropical and subtropical poultry production, we designed the current experiment to analyze, from a neuroimmune perspective, the effects of an acute heat stress (31 ± 1°C for 10 h on d 35 of life) on serum corticosterone, performance variables, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity in chickens. We demonstrated that the acute heat stress increased serum corticosterone concentrations and mortality and decreased food intake, BW gain, and feed conversion (P 0.05). Increases in the basal and the Staphylococcus aureus-induced macrophage oxidative bursts and a decrease in the percentage of macrophages performing phagocytosis were also observed. Finally, mild, multifocal acute enteritis, characterized by the increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the lamina propria of the jejunum, was also observed. We found that the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was responsible for the negative effects observed on chicken performance and immune function as well as for the changes in the intestinal mucosa. The data presented here corroborate with those presented in other studies in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  16. Characterization of the expression profiles of adipogenesis-related factors, ZNF423, KLFs and FGF10, during preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal adipose tissue development in chickens.

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    Matsubara, Yusuke; Aoki, Michiru; Endo, Tonami; Sato, Kan

    2013-07-01

    Adipogenesis is controlled by a complicated process involving certain transcriptional events. In chicken adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal fat accumulation. However, in a recent study in mammals, some novel factors related to regulation of adipogenesis, including preadipocyte differentiation, were identified in mammals. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the expression profiles of these mammalian adipogenesis-related factors, such as zinc-finger protein 423 (ZNF423), Krüppel-like factor -2, -5, and -15 (KLF-2, -5, -15), and FGF10, in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Specifically, we analyzed their expression in primary preadipocyte differentiation in vitro and also analyzed their tissue distribution and their temporal expression in adipose tissue development in vivo. During chicken adipocyte differentiation, the gene expression of ZNF423, KLF-2, KLF-5 and FGF10 was found to rapidly decrease in the early stage of preadipocyte differentiation. Expression of ZNF423 then increased in the late stage of differentiation. KLF-15 expression increased in a time-dependent manner for 48 h. Protein expressions of these factors were reflected by Western blot analysis. High levels of aP2, PPARγ and FGF10 mRNA were found in adipose tissue. In addition, aP2, PPARγ and ZNF423 mRNA levels in the adipose tissue were elevated at days 10 and 20. These expression profiles of the adipogenesis-related factors in chicken are, in part, different from mammalian adipogenesis but this seems to reflect the differences in the regulation of adipogenesis and in adipose tissue functions between avians and mammals.

  17. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of chicken melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) and chicken melanocortin-2 accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlock, Travis K; Gehr, Deshae T; Dores, Robert M

    2014-09-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells when chicken melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1) is co-expressed. The transiently transfected CHO cells responded in a robust manner to stimulation by hACTH(1-24) (EC50 value=2.7 × 10(-12)M +/- 1.3 × 10(-12)), but the transfected CHO cells could not be stimulated by NDP-MSH at concentrations as high as 10(-7)M. Incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with alanine substituted analogs of hACTH(1-24) at amino acid positions F(7) or W(9) completely blocked stimulation of the transfected cells. Similarly, incubation of cMC2R/cMRAP1 transfected cells with an analog of hACTH(1-24) with alanine substitutions at amino acid positions R(17)R(18)P(19) resulted in a 276 fold shift in EC50 value relative to the positive control (pHFRW motif and KKRRP motif of hACTH(1-24), and both motifs are required for full activation of the receptor. While previous studies had shown that Anolis carolinensis MC2R and Xenopus tropicalis MC2R could be functionally expressed in CHO cells that co-expressed mouse MRAP1, co-expression of these non-mammalian tetrapod MC2Rs with cMRAP1 resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to hACTH(1-24), as measured by EC50 value, for A. carolinensis MC2R (p<0.005) and X. tropicalis MC2R (p<0.007). The implications of these observations are discussed.

  18. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

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    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  19. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

  20. Outbreak of type C botulism in chickens in Pancas city, Espírito Santo state, BrazilSurto de botulismo tipo C em frangos na cidade de Pancas, Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to describe an outbreak of botulism in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus, in Pancas City, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The birds were derived from a subsistence property with approximately 150 domestic fowls. The owner reported finding some birds lying on the floor and others exhibiting limited mobility. Ten animals in agony were euthanized, necropsied and had their blood serum collected. About 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs, 144 (96% animals of the creation had already died. No postmortem changes were found at necropsies. Clostridium botulinum type C toxins were detected in the sera of euthanized chickens by mice neutralization tests. The observation of clinical signs, absence of post-mortem lesions and the result of mouse neutralization tests confirmed the diagnosis of botulism caused by C. botulinum type C. Unfortunately, the source of toxins was not found. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever um surto de botulismo em aves domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus, ocorrido na cidade de Pancas, estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. As aves eram oriundas de uma propriedade de subsistência com aproximadamente 150 frangos domésticos. O proprietário relatou encontrar algumas aves caídas no chão e outras apresentando dificuldade de locomoção. Dez animais em estado agônico foram eutanasiados, submetidos à necropsia e coleta de soro sanguíneo. Em 72 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos, 144 (96% animais da criação já haviam vindo a óbito. Nenhuma alteração post-mortem foi encontrada durante a necropsia. Foi possível detectar a toxina botulínica tipo C por soroneutralização em camundongos no soro dos animais eutanasiados. A observação da sintomatologia clínica, ausência de lesões à necropsia e o resultado da soroneutralização permitem confirmar o diagnóstico de botulismo por Clostridium botulinum tipo C.

  1. Validation of the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens by using cat and mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Laurin, E; Kwowk, O C H

    2016-03-01

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) is one of the most commonly used tests for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human sera. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the MAT and bioassay in free-range/backyard (FR) chickens (Gallus domesticus). Previously-published T. gondii test results from 2066 chickens from 19 countries were compiled for the present study. The frequency of isolation of T. gondii increased for MAT titres between 1:5 and 1:160, and ranged from 61 to 75% for antibody titres of 1:160, 1:320, and ⩾1:640. Twenty-three cats fed pooled hearts from a total of 802 FR seronegative (MAT, <1:5) chickens from several countries did not excrete oocysts, indicating a high negative predictive value of MAT because FR chickens would have been exposed to many microbes; cats are the most sensitive indicators of T. gondii infection in tissues and can excrete millions of oocysts after ingesting even a few bradyzoites. Of the 29 cats in this study, six cats, fed hearts pooled from 15-122 FR chickens, excreted oocysts; but these identifications were likely related to misidentification or prozone. Results of the present study support the validity of MAT for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  2. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens.

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    Molee, A; Kongroi, K; Kuadsantia, P; Poompramun, C; Likitdecharote, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study.

  3. The chicken miR-150 targets the avian orthologue of the functional zebrafish MYB 3'UTR target site

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    Guillon-Munos Audrey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The c-myb proto-oncogene is the founding member of a family of transcription factors involved principally in haematopoiesis, in diverse organisms, from zebrafish to mammals. Its deregulation has been implicated in human leukaemogenesis and other cancers. The expression of c-myb is tightly regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms involving microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small, highly conserved non-coding RNAs that inhibit translation and decrease mRNA stability by binding to regulatory motifs mostly located in the 3'UTR of target mRNAs conserved throughout evolution. MYB is an evolutionarily conserved miR-150 target experimentally validated in mice, humans and zebrafish. However, the functional miR-150 sites of humans and mice are orthologous, whereas that of zebrafish is different. Results We identified the avian mature miRNA-150-5P, Gallus gallus gga-miR-150 from chicken leukocyte small-RNA libraries and showed that, as expected, the gga-miR-150 sequence was highly conserved, including the seed region sequence present in the other miR-150 sequences listed in miRBase. Reporter assays showed that gga-miR-150 acted on the avian MYB 3'UTR and identified the avian MYB target site involved in gga-miR-150 binding. A comparative in silico analysis of the miR-150 target sites of MYB 3'UTRs from different species led to the identification of a single set of putative target sites in amphibians and zebrafish, whereas two sets of putative target sites were identified in chicken and mammals. However, only the target site present in the chicken MYB 3'UTR that was identical to that in zebrafish was functional, despite the additional presence of mammalian target sites in chicken. This specific miR-150 site usage was not cell-type specific and persisted when the chicken c-myb 3'UTR was used in the cell system to identify mammalian target sites, showing that this miR-150 target site usage was intrinsic to the chicken c-myb 3'UTR. Conclusion Our

  4. Differentiation state-specific mitochondrial dynamic regulatory networks are revealed by global transcriptional analysis of the developing chicken lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauss, Daniel; Basu, Subhasree; Rajakaruna, Suren; Ma, Zhiwei; Gau, Victoria; Anastas, Sara; Brennan, Lisa A; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Menko, A Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2014-06-13

    The mature eye lens contains a surface layer of epithelial cells called the lens epithelium that requires a functional mitochondrial population to maintain the homeostasis and transparency of the entire lens. The lens epithelium overlies a core of terminally differentiated fiber cells that must degrade their mitochondria to achieve lens transparency. These distinct mitochondrial populations make the lens a useful model system to identify those genes that regulate the balance between mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination. Here we used an RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approach to identify the transcript levels of all genes expressed by distinct regions of the lens epithelium and maturing fiber cells of the embryonic Gallus gallus (chicken) lens. Our analysis detected more than 15,000 unique transcripts expressed by the embryonic chicken lens. Of these, more than 3000 transcripts exhibited significant differences in expression between lens epithelial cells and fiber cells. Multiple transcripts coding for separate mitochondrial homeostatic and degradation mechanisms were identified to exhibit preferred patterns of expression in lens epithelial cells that require mitochondria relative to lens fiber cells that require mitochondrial elimination. These included differences in the expression levels of metabolic (DUT, PDK1, SNPH), autophagy (ATG3, ATG4B, BECN1, FYCO1, WIPI1), and mitophagy (BNIP3L/NIX, BNIP3, PARK2, p62/SQSTM1) transcripts between lens epithelial cells and lens fiber cells. These data provide a comprehensive window into all genes transcribed by the lens and those mitochondrial regulatory and degradation pathways that function to maintain mitochondrial populations in the lens epithelium and to eliminate mitochondria in maturing lens fiber cells.

  5. Histological analyses demonstrate the temporary contribution of yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow to hematopoiesis during chicken development.

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    Priscila Tavares Guedes

    Full Text Available The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3 and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO WenBin; CHEN GuoHong; LI BiChun; WU XinSheng; SHU JingTing; WU ShengLong; XU Qi; Steffen WEIGEND

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspe-cies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86±6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708±0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds' distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds' genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steffen; WEIGEND

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 568 individuals of two red jungle fowl subspe- cies (Gallus gallus spadiceus in China and Gallus gallus gallus in Thailand) and 14 Chinese domestic chicken breeds were evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within population and genetic differentiation among population were estimated, and then genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed among red jungle fowls and Chinese domestic fowls. A total of 286 alleles were detected in 16 population with 29 microsatellite markers and the average number of the alleles observed in 29 microsatellite loci was 9.86±6.36. The overall expected heterozygosity of all population was 0.6708±0.0251, and the number of population deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium per locus ranged from 0 to 7. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population, measured as FST value, was 16.7% (P<0.001), and all loci contributed significantly (P<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.015) (P<0.01). Reynolds’ distance values varied between 0.036 (Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair) and 0.330 (G. gallus gallus-Gushi chicken pair). The Nm value ranged from 0.533 (between G. gallus gallus and Gushi chicken) to 5.833 (between Xiaoshan chicken and Luyuan chicken). An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and the Reynolds’ genetic distance. The heavy-body sized chicken breeds, Luyuan chicken, Xiaoshan chicken, Beijing Fatty chicken, Henan Game chicken, Huainan Partridge and Langshan chicken formed one branch, and it had a close genetic relationship between Xiaoshan chicken-Luyuan chicken pair and Chahua chicken-Tibetan chicken pair. Chahua chicken and Tibetan chicken had closer genetic relationship with these two subspecies of red jungle fowl than other domestic chicken breeds. G. gallus spadiceus showed closer phylogenetic

  8. Genetic analysis of local Vietnamese chickens provides evidence of gene flow from wild to domestic populations

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    Chi C Vu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens. This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï. Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60 was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9. No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively

  9. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity on macro- and microchromosomes in chicken

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    Muir William M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken (Gallus gallus, like most avian species, has a very distinct karyotype consisting of many micro- and a few macrochromosomes. While it is known that recombination frequencies are much higher for micro- as compared to macrochromosomes, there is limited information on differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype diversity between these two classes of chromosomes. In this study, LD and haplotype diversity were systematically characterized in 371 birds from eight chicken populations (commercial lines, fancy breeds, and red jungle fowl across macro- and microchromosomes. To this end we sampled four regions of ~1 cM each on macrochromosomes (GGA1 and GGA2, and four 1.5 -2 cM regions on microchromosomes (GGA26 and GGA27 at a high density of 1 SNP every 2 kb (total of 889 SNPs. Results At a similar physical distance, LD, haplotype homozygosity, haploblock structure, and haplotype sharing were all lower for the micro- as compared to the macrochromosomes. These differences were consistent across populations. Heterozygosity, genetic differentiation, and derived allele frequencies were also higher for the microchromosomes. Differences in LD, haplotype variation, and haplotype sharing between populations were largely in line with known demographic history of the commercial chicken. Despite very low levels of LD, as measured by r2 for most populations, some haploblock structure was observed, particularly in the macrochromosomes, but the haploblock sizes were typically less than 10 kb. Conclusion Differences in LD between micro- and macrochromosomes were almost completely explained by differences in recombination rate. Differences in haplotype diversity and haplotype sharing between micro- and macrochromosomes were explained by differences in recombination rate and genotype variation. Haploblock structure was consistent with demography of the chicken populations, and differences in recombination rates between micro

  10. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  11. Análise morfométrica da parede intestinal e dinâmica de mucinas secretadas no íleo de frangos infectados por Toxoplasma gondii Morphometric analysis of the intestinal wall and the dynamic of mucins secreted in the chicken ileum infected with Toxoplasma gondii

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    Celina Sayuri Shiraishi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar os efeitos da toxoplasmose sobre a morfometria da parede intestinal e a dinâmica de mucinas secretadas no íleo de frangos. Foram utilizados 16 frangos de corte machos (Gallus gallus da linhagem Cobb, com 26 dias de idade. As aves foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos (G1, G2 e G3. O G1 não recebeu nenhum inóculo caracterizando o grupo controle, o G2 foi inoculado com cistos teciduais da cepa ME49 de Toxoplasma gondii, e o G3 foi inoculado com oocistos da cepa M7741 de T. gondii. Após 60 dias da inoculação, os animais foram mortos, e coletou-se o íleo, o qual foi submetido à rotina de processamento histológico. Cortes transversais de 4mm foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2,5 e Alcian Blue (AB pH 1,0. Nos animais do G2, observou-se aumento da parede intestinal, sobretudo a túnica muscular, muscular da mucosa e túnica mucosa, além de aumento na secreção de mucinas neutras. Já nos animais do G3, houve uma atrofia da parede intestinal, sobretudo para a túnica mucosa, e aumento na secreção de mucinas neutras.The effects of toxoplasmosis on the intestinal wall morphometry and the dynamic of mucins secreted in the chicken ileum were analyzed. Sixteen 26-day-old, male, Cobb broiler chicks (Gallus gallus were used and randomly divided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. G1 received no inoculum characterizing the control group, G2 was inoculated with tissue cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii, and G3 was inoculated with oocytes of M7741 strain of T. gondii. After 60 days of inoculation, the animals were killed and had their ileum collected and submitted to histological processing. Tranversal cuts (4mm were stained with Hematoxilin-Eosine (HE, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Alcian Blue pH 2.5 and Alcian Blue (AB pH 1.0. Intestinal wall increase was noticed for the animals from G2 - mostly the muscle tunic, the muscularis mucosae, and the mucous tunic

  12. The effect of hypoxia on facial shape variation and disease phenotypes in chicken embryos

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    Francis Smith

    2013-07-01

    Craniofacial anomalies can arise from both genetic and environmental factors, including prenatal hypoxia. Recent clinical evidence correlates hypoxia to craniofacial malformations. However, the mechanisms by which hypoxia mediates these defects are not yet understood. We examined the cellular mechanisms underlying malformations induced by hypoxia using a chicken (Gallus gallus embryo model. Eggs were incubated in either hypoxic (7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 or 19% O2 or normoxic (21% O2 conditions. Embryos were photographed for morphological analysis at days 3–6. For analysis of skeletal development, 13-day embryos were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. Quantitative analysis of facial shape variation was performed on images of embryos via geometric morphometrics. Early-stage embryos (day 2 were analyzed for apoptosis via whole-mount and section TUNEL staining and immunostaining for cleaved caspase-3, whereas later-stage embryos (days 4–6 were sectioned in paraffin for analysis of cell proliferation (BrdU, apoptosis (TUNEL and metabolic stress (phospho-AMPK. Results demonstrate that survival is reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Hypoxic embryos displayed a spectrum of craniofacial anomalies, from mild asymmetry and eye defects to more severe frontonasal and cephalic anomalies. Skull bone development was delayed in hypoxic embryos, with some skeletal defects observed. Morphometric analysis showed facial shape variation relative to centroid size and age in hypoxic groups. Hypoxia disrupted cell proliferation and, in early-stage embryos, caused apoptosis of neural crest progenitor cells. Hypoxic embryos also displayed an increased metabolic stress response. These results indicate that hypoxia during early embryonic craniofacial development might induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to apoptosis of the neural crest progenitor cells that are crucial to normal craniofacial morphogenesis.

  13. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria oocysts protects chickens against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Klopp, Spangler; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.

  14. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  15. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32 %) chickens, 130 (38.92 %) ducks and 97 (31.09 %) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (Pcaged and free-range chickens was 7.54 % and 29.63 %, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (Pcaged and free-range ducks was 26.13 % and 45.29 %, respectively (Pbirds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent.

  16. Genetic diversity of native chicken based on analysis of D-Loop mtDNA marker

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    Tike Sartika

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Production was carried out using control region/D-loop mtDNA marker. The base population of native chicken was selected from subpopulation at Cianjur, Jatiwangi, Depok, Bogor I, and Bogor 2. Samples from each population was 10 heads and 2 samples Green Jungle Fowl (Gallus various from East Java as out Group samples. Two primers binding conserved tRNA Phenylalanine gene and tRNA Glutamine gene were DNA Heavy stranded HI255 (5'-CATCTTGGCATCTTCAGTGCC-3' and DNA Light stranded Ll6750 (5'-AGGACTACGGCTTGAAAAGC-3' was used to amplify D-Ioop mtDNA chicken. PCR-RFLP methods with 6 restriction enzymes 4 cutter such as, Alul (AG↓CT, Hpall (C↓CGG, Mbol (↓GATC, Rsal (GT↓AC, NlaIII (CATG↓ and HaeIII (GG↓CC were used to detect polymorphism within and between subpopulation. Result of experiment show that mtDNA which was amplified by PCR was 1320 bp, consist of 1227 bp control region/D-loop, 45 bp tRNA Glutamine gene and 48 bp tRNA Phenylalananine gene. PCR product which were digested from 6 endonucleases enzyme show that native chicken within and between population was monomorphic and if its compare with Green Jungle Fowl was polymorphic.

  17. Structures and Functions Prediction and Expression Profiles of Calreticulin as Calcium Binding Chaperones in Chicken%鸡钙离子结合分子伴侣Calreticulin的结构与功能预测及组织表达特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 李楠; 曹嫦妤; 龚都强; 于东; 王伟; 李金龙

    2014-01-01

    内的终端非还原性α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷残基的水解,作用于α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷、含(1,3)和/或(1,5)糖苷键的阿拉伯聚糖、阿拉伯木聚糖和阿拉伯半乳聚糖,能与糖类分子及Ca2+特异性结合,可监控糖蛋白组装折叠及Ca2+调控,且在消化系统中发挥重要作用。%[Objective] The aim of the current study is to reveal the evolutionary relationships, and investigate the protein structure and functions and the expression profiles of calreticulin (CRT) as a key Ca2+ binding molecular chaperone within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of chicken.[Method]The nucleotides and amino acids of CRT in 12 species of vertebrates recorded in Gene bank were analyzed for evolutionary relationships by Laser Gene, and the structures and functions of CRT protein in chicken were predicted by bioinformatics, and the expression profiles of CRT in 30 organizations of chicken was analyzed by real-time PCR.[Result]Results of homology analysis showed that compared with the other 11 species of nucleotide sequences of CRT gene in chicken, gallus gallus and oryctolagus cuniculus had the highest nucleotide sequence homology, which was 78.7%, in addition, gallus gallus and oncorhynchus mykiss had the lowest homology, which was 70.5%. In the homology of amino acid sequences, the relationship between gallus gallus and crotalus adamanteus cadam is the closest by 85.0%, and the furthest relationships with gallus gallus is oncorhynchus mykiss which was 69.0% in amino acid sequence, besides, the homology of gallus gallus with cricetulus griseus, macaca mulatta, homo sapiens, oryctolagus cuniculus, sus scrofa, bos taurus, and xenopus (silurana) tropicalisis relatively close to almost above 80.1%. The protein structure and function prediction revealed that the CRT of chicken was constitute with 404 amino acids, and had a relative molecular mass of 46.8802 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.41, moreover, the negative charge

  18. Investigation of Leptin gene in broiler and layer chicken lines Investigação do gene da Leptina em linhagens de aves de corte e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Ninov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a polypeptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, plays an important role in feed intake regulation, energy metabolism and reproduction in several species. Its function has been intensively studied in mammals; however, in birds limited information is available. The cDNA sequence for chicken leptin has been reported, and high hepatic expression levels of leptin were associated with fat deposition in selected bird lines. However, controversies still remain concerning to the chicken leptin gene and several authors failed to amplify this gene from genomic DNA or cDNA. In view of this controversy and the importance of this gene, the present study aimed to investigate the leptin gene in a population of birds developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center (Brazil. First of all, the sequences of Gallus gallus leptin gene (GenBank AF012727 and Mus musculus (GenBank NM_008493 were aligned with the objective of designing primers in conserved regions among the two species, since 94.6% of similarity is described in the literature in those species. For all four pairs of primers designed, several amplification tests were performed with both DNA and cDNA, but neither unique fragment nor expected band size was ever achieved. The leptin sequence in GenBank does not represent the sequence of the chicken leptin gene.A leptina, hormônio polipeptídico secretado principalmente pelo tecido adiposo, tem um papel importante na regulação da ingestão de alimentos, metabolismo de energia e reprodução em mamíferos. A função do gene da leptina tem sido intensamente estudada em mamíferos, porém, em aves, ainda é pouco conhecida. O cDNA deste gene foi identificado em galinhas, e a alta expressão hepática e os níveis de leptina no plasma foram associados à alta deposição de gordura presente em linhagens de aves selecionadas. Entretanto, permanecem controvérsias sobre o gene da leptina em galinhas, pois diversos autores não conseguiram

  19. Investigasi Asal Usul Ayam Indonesia Menggunakan Sekuens Hypervariable-1 D-loop DNA Mitokondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chicken taxonomy and pedigree investigation are important parts to understand the domesticationprocess occurred on chicken in Indonesia. The Indonesian native chickens have very different clade with thechickens from other Asian countries and others. This study was conducted to construct phylogeny junglefowls (red and green jungle fowls and Indonesian native chickens, in order to know their relationship.Among the available DNA marker, the region D-loop on DNA mitochondria is the most effective markerused in the investigation. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop (hypervariable-1 segment was PCR amplified andsubsequently sequenced for a total 33 individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius, 9 individuals of redjungle fowls (Gallus g. gallus from Indonesia, and 30 individuals of Indonesian native chickens (Lombok,Cemani, Kedu, Kedu Putih, Nunukan, Kate, Pelung, Gaok, Merawang, dan Sentul. Seventy two (72sequences were used for analysis. Seven (7 published reference D-loop sequences of genus Gallus fromGenBank were also included in the analysis: Gallus varius (GenBank accession number D64163 danD82912, Gallus gallus (GenBank accession number AB098668, G. gallus spadiceus (GenBank accessionnumber AB007721, Gallus gallus bankiva (GenBank accession number AB007718, Gallus lafayetti(GenBank accession number D66893, and Gallus sonneratii (GenBank accession number D66892. Phylogenyanalysis indicates that Indonesia jungle fowls can be grouped into two clades (clades of red jungle fowls/Indonesia native chicken and green jungle fowls. Monophyletic phylogeny trees of jungle fowls from Indonesiawere shown in this study for pedigree investigation of domesticated chickens.

  20. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

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    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  1. Effects of luminal nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, and intravenous parenteral alimentation on the recovery responses of duodenal villus morphology following feed withdrawal in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarachai, P; Yamauchi, K

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify which of the following three factors induces villus morphological recovery best: enteral nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, or intravenous parenteral alimentation. At 142 d, male White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were divided into eight groups of five birds each as follows: 1) access given ad libitum to a commercial layer mash diet (CP, 17.5%; ME, 2,830 kcal/kg) (control), 2) 5-d feed withdrawal (feed withdrawal), 3) 3-d feed withdrawal (3-FW), followed by refeeding the same diet as the control for 2 d (refeeding), 4) 3-FW followed by force-feeding enteral hyperalimentation (enteral), 5) 3-FW followed by force-feeding an indigestible (nonabsorbable) substance (kaolin), 6) 3-FW followed by force-feeding water for 2 d (force-fed control), 7) 3-FW followed by parenteral hyperalimentation (parenteral), and 8) 3-FW followed by no alimentation (sham control) for 2 d. In the refeeding and enteral groups, BW significantly recovered (P kaolin could not be absorbed enterally. Compared with the feed withdrawal group, villus height, cell mitosis, and villus tip surface morphology of refeeding and enteral groups exhibited rapid villus morphological recovery. Villus morphological recovery of the enteral group appears to have been caused by enteral nutrient absorption. However, villus morphology in the kaolin treatment was not different from that in the feed withdrawal group, which suggests that intraluminal physical stimulation had no effect on villus morphological recovery. On the other hand, the parenteral group showed no effect on villus morphological recovery, which suggests that the parenteral nutrient supplied to the villi via the blood could not induce villus morphological recovery; the intestinal mucosal atrophy might have been caused by the absence of enteral nutrients, and would only be stimulated by enteral nutrient absorption. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that villus morphology

  2. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphisms in Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken and their evolutionary relatedness with nine domestic Wugu breeds%东乡绿壳蛋鸡线粒体DNA控制区多态性及与9种地方乌鸡的进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章学东; 李庆海; 张成先; 陈贤惠; 楼立峰; 王欢欢

    2014-01-01

    71.4% (15 /21 ) were transitional and 28.6%(7/21) were transversional . The nucleotide diversity was 0.008 29 ± 0.001 30 . There were 73 haplotypes found in 248 samples from 10 Wugu chicken breeds . The Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken had nine haplotypes with a diversity of 0.773 ± 0.048 . Estimates of evolutionary divergence between breeds showed that the Dongxiang blueeggshell chicken was genetically closest ( 0.009 ) to the Taihe silky chicken ,which was also originally bred in Jiangxi Province . Yunxian Wugu chicken originally bred in Hubei Province had the farthest genetic distance ( 0.019 ,0.020) from Yanjin Wugu and Tengchong snow chickens originally bred in Yunnan Province . A neighbor-joining phylogeny tree revealed six original clades among 10 domestic Wugu chicken breeds .Clade B included Gallus gallus sp adiceus subspecies and had the largest number of samples ( 31.0% , 77/248) , followed by clade A(27.8% ,69 /248) . The Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken was closely related to three clades , of which clade A was the largest (64.1% ,25 /39) . It is concluded that the Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken is moderately genetically diverse and there is an apparent geographical association between domestic Wugu chicken breeds and their maternal origins , although each had individual characteristics .%采用PCR产物直接测序的方法,对39只东乡绿壳蛋鸡(♂19、♀20)的线粒体DNA(mtDNA)控制区进行遗传多态性分析;并与9个国内其他地方乌鸡种的209个个体进行序列比对和进化分析.结果显示:东乡绿壳蛋鸡mtDNA控制区534 bp序列的G+C含量为43.1%;序列共存在21个变异位点,其中转换占71.4%(15/21)、颠换占28.6%(6/21);核苷酸多样度为0.00829±0.00130.分析10个乌鸡种的248个个体共获得73种单倍型,其中东乡绿壳蛋鸡含9种单倍型,单倍型多样度为0.773±0.048.品种间进化分歧显示:东乡绿壳蛋鸡与同处江西省的泰和丝

  3. Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate. Variabel terikat berupa zona hambat pertumbuhan bakteri koliform fekal. Pengujian dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar. Pengujian daya antibakteri albumen telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dilakukan dengan mengukur diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan koloni tiap spesies bakteri koliform fekal pada medium Nutrien Agar. Data pe-nelitian adalah data hasil pengukuran diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal. Hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis varian tunggal, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT 1%. Hasil dari penelitian adalah: (1 spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pa-da cangkang telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam yaitu Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella ozaenae, dan Escherichia vulneris; dan (2 ada pengaruh perbedaan albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap daya hambat pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam.Kata kunci: albumen telur, ayam kampung, ayam kate, daya antibakteri, bakteri koliform fekal

  4. The combined application of the Caco-2 cell bioassay coupled with in vivo (Gallus gallus) feeding trial represents an effective approach to predicting Fe bioavailability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent...

  5. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey.

  6. High resolution 1H NMR-based metabonomic study of the auditory cortex analogue of developing chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) following prenatal chronic loud music and noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Sharma, Uma; Mewar, Sujeet; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2014-10-01

    Proper functional development of the auditory cortex (ACx) critically depends on early relevant sensory experiences. Exposure to high intensity noise (industrial/traffic) and music, a current public health concern, may disrupt the proper development of the ACx and associated behavior. The biochemical mechanisms associated with such activity dependent changes during development are poorly understood. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic (last 10 days of incubation), 110dB sound pressure level (SPL) music and noise exposure on metabolic profile of the auditory cortex analogue/field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Perchloric acid extracts of AuL of post hatch day 1 chicks from control, music and noise groups were subjected to high resolution (700MHz) (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate regression analysis of the concentration data of 18 metabolites revealed a significant class separation between control and loud sound exposed groups, indicating a metabolic perturbation. Comparison of absolute concentration of metabolites showed that overstimulation with loud sound, independent of spectral characteristics (music or noise) led to extensive usage of major energy metabolites, e.g., glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and ATP. On the other hand, high glutamine levels and sustained levels of neuromodulators and alternate energy sources, e.g., creatine, ascorbate and lactate indicated a systems restorative measure in a condition of neuronal hyperactivity. At the same time, decreased aspartate and taurine levels in the noise group suggested a differential impact of prenatal chronic loud noise over music exposure. Thus prenatal exposure to loud sound especially noise alters the metabolic activity in the AuL which in turn can affect the functional development and later auditory associated behaviour.

  7. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, André; da Rocha, Rozana Wendler; Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg(-1), i.m.) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg(-1) i.m. was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg(-1) of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg(-1) of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg(-1)) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg(-1) i.m. significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure.

  8. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recomm...

  9. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Marjolein S; de Haas, Elske N; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ellen, Esther D; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Olivier, Berend; Güntürkün, O; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Korte, S Mechiel

    2013-08-15

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28-60 days). Here, brain monoamine levels were measured in adult laying hens; focusing on four brain areas that are involved in emotional behavior or are part of the basal ganglia-thalamopallial circuit, which is involved in obsessive compulsive disorders. Three behavioral phenotypes were studied: Severe Feather Peckers (SFPs), Victims of SFP, and Non-Peckers (NPs). Hens (33 weeks old) were sacrificed after a 5-min manual restraint test. SFPs had higher 5-HIAA levels and a higher serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the dorsal thalamus than NPs, with intermediate levels in victims. NPs had higher 5-HT levels in the medial striatum than victims, with levels of SFPs in between. 5-HT turnover levels did not differ between phenotypes in medial striatum, arcopallium and hippocampus. DA turnover levels were not affected by feather pecking phenotype. These findings indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal thalamus and striatum of adult laying hens depends on differences in behavioral feather pecking phenotype, with, compared to non-pecking hens, changes in both SFP and their victims. Further identification of different SFP phenotypes is needed to elucidate the role of brain monoamines in SFP.

  10. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.; Haas, de E.N.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ellen, E.D.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Güntürkün, O.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Korte, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28–

  11. 清远麻鸡生长激素基因(GH)的SNPs检测及其对生长及繁殖性状的遗传效应%SNPs Detection of Growth Hormone Gene (GH) in Qingyuan Partridge Chicken and Its Genetic Effects on Growth and Reproductive Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束婧婷; 张莹; 尹平安; 韩威; 宋卫涛; 邝智祥; 李慧芳

    2011-01-01

    为了研究生长激素基因(GH)对清远麻鸡部分生长及繁殖性状的遗传效应,基于聚合酶链反应-连接酶检测反应(PCR-LDR)基因多态性并行检测系统,对清远麻鸡(Gallus gallus)生长激素(CH)基因内含子1的G662A位点和内含子4的T3094C,C3199T位点进行检测,并分析其对部分生长及繁殖性状的遗传效应.检测结果显示,清远麻鸡在3个位点上均产生了3种基因型,LDR分型结果同直接测序结果一致.G662A位点对生长及繁殖性状均不存在显着的效应;T3094C位点上,TT型个体的开产日龄显着晚于CC和CT型个体,其18周龄体重又显著高于CC和CT型个体;C3199T位点上,不同基因型个体仅在50周平均蛋重上存在显着差异,TT型个体的50周平均蛋重显着高于CC和CT型个体.3个位点的合并基因型对开产蛋重、50周平均蛋重以及生长性状均有显着的影响,且对生长性能的遗传效应更加明显,合并基因型AACTCC可以作为筛选清远麻鸡高的体重的分子标记.%In order to investigate the association single nucleotide polymorphisms in GH gene with growth and reproductive traits in Qingyuan partridge chicken, the parallel typing system based on PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDG) was established in the present study, and used to detect the polymorphisms of G662A in intron 1 and T3094C and C3199T loci in intron 4 of growth hormone (GH) gene as well as its genetic effects on growth and reproductive traits in Qingyuan partridge chicken (Gallus gallus).The results were as follows: three loci exhibited polymorphisms and were coincidence with direct sequencing.There was no significant effect on growth and reproductive traits at locus G662A; At locus T3094C, individuals with TT genotype had significant older age at first egg and significant higher body weight at the age of 18 weeks than that of CC and CT genotype birds.At locus C3199T, TT genotype birds had significant higher average egg weight at the age of 50 weeks

  12. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppy, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Colour is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, colour has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific colours of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel colours tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early colour variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries colour varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of colours and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

  13. Polymorphic microsatellites developed by cross-species amplifications in common pheasant breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratti, M.; Alberti, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veenendaal, T.; Fulgheri, F.D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability was analysed in two common breeds of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) by means of cross-species amplifications of microsatellite loci: 154 chicken, Gallus gallus and 32 turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, primers were tested for amplification of pheasant DNA. Thirty-six primers (2

  14. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-09-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-09-0012 gnl|UG|Gga#S6698203 pnl1s.pk003.f8 chicken liver cDNA library Gallus gallus cDNA clone pnl...1s.pk003.f8 5' similar to histidine-rich glycoprotein - bovine (fragments), mRNA sequence /clone=pnl

  15. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 Q92178|CAN2_CHICK Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) - Gallus gallus (Chicken) 0 ...

  16. Comparative morphometric study of shank bone in the tom (Meleagris gallopavo and local cock (Gallus banikaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Sadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 20 legs of ten adult clinically and healthy local and Tom were obtained from Mosul local market, were divided into three groups; the first and second groups were subjected to gross feature regarding to shape, position, relationship of tibiotarsal and fibula in both birds also the length and diameters of shank bone while third group study morphological of muscles, blood and nerve supply of leg. The purpose of this study, this part of the limb is popularly known as the (drum stick, the bird in lowering its body flexes knee and hock joints and this passively tenses these tendons of leg which clamp the digits about the perch, and that is the much longer than the femur and, in spite of importance study to parameters of leg are more economic to choose breed of fertilization depend on the measurement, the outcome of this investigation may served as a guide for successful study of domestic birds in Iraq. The results include in both birds, the leg is consist of tibia fuses with tarsal element, forming tibiotarsus and fiblula articulates with the femur that in contrast to mammals. In Tom the tibia has two cnemial crest in proximal extremity and the distal extremity has tendinal groove, but in local cock it has one cnemial crest of proximal extremity, and it has two tendinal groove in the distal extremity, while hock joint in the Tom and local cock is an intertarsal joint that unites the tibiotarsus with the tarsometatarsus but the stiff joint is similar to that seen in mammals. The mean length of tibiotarsal in Tom 17.99±0.44 cm and the mean length of tibiotarsal in local coke 11.74±0.31 cm, the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in Tom 3.02±0.0021 cm proximal part, 2.21±0.005 cm middle part, 1.94±0.0021 cm distal part, but the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in local coke 2.86±0.048 cm proximal part, 2.02±0.067 cm middle part, 1.51±0.0022 cm distal part. While the mean length of fibula in Tom 11.62±0.21 cm and the mean length of fibula in local coke 7.27±0.32 cm, the mean diameter of fibula in Tom 1.51±0.0021 cm proximal part, 0.81±0.0033 cm middle part, and 0.33±0.0043 cm the distal part,also the mean diameter of fibula in local coke 1.12±0.0025 cm proximal part, 0.51±0.007 cm middle part, and 0.23±0.0054 cm distal part. Tendon of muscles of shank bone in Tom generally ossification but remain that tendon in local cock. Also cranialis tibialis muscle has two head, femoral head is usually smaller than the tibial head and gastrocnimeus muscles is composed of three part into two birds which passes through the planter aspect of the tarsometatarsal joint, as soon as flexor digitorium muscle of both species can be grouped into three morphological level (superficial intermediate and deep, the muscles in turkey are very clearly distinguished are read deep color than it is rose color in local cock, blood, nerve supply and venous drainages of the shank bone in both birds by cranial tibial artery is passage with cranial tibial vein and common fibular nerve.

  17. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Luiz da C. Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6 oocistos esporulados; grupo B inoculado com 1x10(5 oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave.In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6 sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated with 1x10(5 sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

  18. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Teenu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Objective: To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Materials and Methods : Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg and high dose (20 mg/kg of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the clinical signs and symptoms, mortality, alterations in blood biochemistry, and necropsy findings. Results : The birds of Group II showed only mild symptoms of diarrhea. In Group III, 50% of birds died in between 24 and 36 h post-treatment showing the symptoms of segregatory behavior, lethargy, terminal anorexia, and severe bloody diarrhea. The birds of Group II and the surviving birds of Group III showed a significantly (P< 0.05 increased plasma uric acid, creatinine and plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (PGPT, and decreased total protein and albumin at 12 and 24 h post-treatment which returned to the normal levels at 36 h post-treatment. The dead birds of the high-dose group also showed similar pattern of biochemical changes at 12 and 24 h post-treatment and revealed extensive visceral gout with characteristic histopathological lesions in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine on post-mortem. Conclusion : The results indicate that diclofenac sodium has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and visceral gout inducing potentials in White Leghorn birds, especially at higher dose.

  19. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, P G Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds.

  20. Neural tuning characteristics of auditory primary afferents in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Primary afferent activity was recorded from the cochlear ganglion in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) at 19 days of incubation (E19). The ganglion was accessed via the recessus scala tympani and impaled with glass micropipettes. Frequency tuning curves were obtained using a computerized threshold tracking procedure. Tuning curves were evaluated to determine characteristics frequencies (CFs), CF thresholds, slopes of low and high frequency flanks, and tip sharpness (Q10dB). The majority of tuning curves exhibited the typical 'V' shape described for older birds and, on average, appeared relatively mature based on mean values for CF thresholds (59.6 +/- 20.3 dBSPL) and tip sharpness (Q10dB = 5.2 +/- 3). The mean slopes of low (61.9 +/- 37 dB/octave) and high (64.6 +/- 33 dB/octave) frequency flanks although comparable were somewhat less than those reported for 21-day-old chickens. Approximately 14% of the tuning curves displayed an unusual 'saw-tooth' pattern. CFs ranged from 188 to 1623 Hz. The highest CF was well below those reported for post-hatch birds. In addition, a broader range of Q10dB values (1.2 to 16.9) may related to a greater variability in embryonic tuning curves. Overall, these data suggest that an impressive functional maturity exists in the embryo at E19. The most significant sign of immaturity was the limited expression of high frequencies. It is argued that the limited high CF in part may be due to the developing middle ear transfer function and/or to a functionally immature cochlear base.

  1. Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed

  2. Mitogenomic analysis of a 50-generation chicken pedigree reveals a rapid rate of mitochondrial evolution and evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michelle; Ho, Simon Y W; Molak, Martyna; Barnett, Ross; Carlborg, Örjan; Dorshorst, Ben; Honaker, Christa; Besnier, Francois; Wahlberg, Per; Dobney, Keith; Siegel, Paul; Andersson, Leif; Larson, Greger

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes represent a valuable source of data for evolutionary research, but studies of their short-term evolution have typically been limited to invertebrates, humans and laboratory organisms. Here we present a detailed study of 12 mitochondrial genomes that span a total of 385 transmissions in a well-documented 50-generation pedigree in which two lineages of chickens were selected for low and high juvenile body weight. These data allowed us to test the hypothesis of time-dependent evolutionary rates and the assumption of strict maternal mitochondrial transmission, and to investigate the role of mitochondrial mutations in determining phenotype. The identification of a non-synonymous mutation in ND4L and a synonymous mutation in CYTB, both novel mutations in Gallus, allowed us to estimate a molecular rate of 3.13 × 10(-7) mutations/site/year (95% confidence interval 3.75 × 10(-8)-1.12 × 10(-6)). This is substantially higher than avian rate estimates based upon fossil calibrations. Ascertaining which of the two novel mutations was present in an additional 49 individuals also revealed an instance of paternal inheritance of mtDNA. Lastly, an association analysis demonstrated that neither of the point mutations was strongly associated with the phenotypic differences between the two selection lines. Together, these observations reveal the highly dynamic nature of mitochondrial evolution over short time periods.

  3. Short- and long-term movement patterns in complex confined environments in broiler chickens: the effects of distribution of cover panels and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, I; Mallapur, A; Miller, C; Christman, M C

    2010-04-01

    In captivity, the positioning of structural enrichment and food resources influences behavior and space use. The aim of this experiment was to examine the influence of cover panels and the positioning of food resources on the movement and space use of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Eight groups of 45 male chickens were used for this study. Each group was temporarily divided into 2 groups of 20 birds; each group was used to investigate the influence of cover panels and the effects of food resources. In the cover panel treatments, 20 birds were placed in the 10-m(2) testing enclosures that contained one 2-m cover panel in the center, four 0.5-m panels in a zigzag fashion, or had no panels (controls). In the food resource treatments, the position of the feed trays varied, with 1 feed tray in the center; 2 feed trays, one at each edge; or 4 feed trays, one at each corner of the enclosure. Locations of focal birds were collected through instantaneous scan sampling that was recorded as X,Y coordinates. From these X,Y coordinates, we calculated net and total distance moved, mean and maximum step lengths, and angular dispersion of the path of movement. To calculate long-term space use, 3 replications for each of 3 cover panel and food resource treatments were placed in nine 10-m(2) enclosures for 1 wk. Locations of focal birds in each group were collected by ad libitum scan sampling and data were used to calculate core areas by kernel estimates. Mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the distribution of cover panels and positioning of food resources on movement parameters during the study period, whereas 1-way ANOVA was used for core areas. Surprisingly, our analyses showed that long-term and short-term movement was not affected by changing the location of cover panels or food resources. Only net distance seemed to be affected to a certain degree by the presence of the cover and the distinctive availability of food resources.

  4. Ontogeny of vestibular compound action potentials in the domestic chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of -0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately -25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6-P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 microV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ.

  5. Patrones de expresión de Notch1, Serrate2 y genes diana de la vía Notch en prominencias faciales de embriones de pollo (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Belfran Alcides CARBONELL MEDINA

    2012-01-01

    La vía de señalización Notch desempeña un papel fundamental en diferentes etapas del desarrollo embrionario y está involucrada en diversos procesos celulares como apoptosis, proliferación, diferenciación, decisión de destino celular y mantenimiento de células indiferenciadas. Mutaciones en varios genes componentes de la vía Notch, como Notch1, Jagged2 (Serrate2) y Hes1 producen alteraciones en el desarrollo de estructuras craneofaciales como paladar, bóveda craneal y maxilares. El objetiv...

  6. Detection of fluoroquinolone resistance by mutation in gyrA gene of Campylobacter spp. isolates from broiler and laying (Gallus gallus domesticus hens,from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz da Silva Frasao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poultry are considered to be the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. bacteria, an important pathogen for humans. Many studies have reported a rapid selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains following the widespread use of these antimicrobials in poultry production and human medicine. The main mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter is a mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determinant Region (QRDR in the gyrA gene, which codes for the subunit of the enzyme DNA gyrase, the target for fluoroquinolone. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation in QRDR in the gyrA gene of Campylobacter strains previously isolated from broiler carcasses and feces of laying hens. Thirty-eight strains of C. jejuni and 19 C. coli strains (n=57, previously characterized as resistant to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin by the disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, were selected. For detection of the mutation, a fragment of 454pb QRDR in the gyrA gene was used for direct sequencing. All strains presented the QRDR mutation in the gyrA gene at codon 86 (Thr-86-Ile, which confers resistance to fluoroquinolones. Other known silent mutations were observed. This genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter strains has confirmed the prior phenotypic detection of the resistance. The Thr-86-Ile mutation was observed in all samples confirming that this is the predominant mutation in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistant strains of C. jejuni and C. coli.

  7. Differential effects of prenatal chronic high-decibel noise and music exposure on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of the auditory cortex analog in developing chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Nag, T C; Sharma, U; Jagannathan, N R; Wadhwa, S

    2014-06-06

    Proper development of the auditory cortex depends on early acoustic experience that modulates the balance between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) circuits. In the present social and occupational environment exposure to chronic loud sound in the form of occupational or recreational noise, is becoming inevitable. This could especially disrupt the functional auditory cortex development leading to altered processing of complex sound and hearing impairment. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic loud sound (110-dB sound pressure level (SPL)) exposure (rhythmic [music] and arrhythmic [noise] forms) on the molecular components involved in regulation of the E/I balance in the developing auditory cortex analog/Field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Noise exposure at 110-dB SPL significantly enhanced the E/I ratio (increased expression of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and glutamate with decreased expression of GABA(A) receptor gamma 2 subunit and GABA), whereas loud music exposure maintained the E/I ratio. Expressions of markers of synaptogenesis, synaptic stability and plasticity i.e., synaptophysin, PSD-95 and gephyrin were reduced with noise but increased with music exposure. Thus our results showed differential effects of prenatal chronic loud noise and music exposures on the E/I balance and synaptic function and stability in the developing auditory cortex. Loud music exposure showed an overall enrichment effect whereas loud noise-induced significant alterations in E/I balance could later impact the auditory function and associated cognitive behavior.

  8. Cyclooxygenases expression and distribution in the normal ovary and their role in ovarian cancer in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Dale Buchanan; Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann Jaen; Ansenberger, Kristine; Mahon, Cassandra; Barua, Animesh; Luborsky, Judith L; Bahr, Janice M

    2008-06-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) (PTGS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1 and COX-2, which show distinct cell-specific expression and regulation. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and the disease is poorly understood due to the lack of suitable animal models. The laying hen spontaneously develops epithelial ovarian cancer with few or no symptoms until the cancer has progresses to a late stage, similar to the human disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative expression and distribution of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovaries of normal hens and in hens with ovarian cancer. The results demonstrate that COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer and cortical interstitium, ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and postovulatory follicle (POF) of the normal ovary. In ovarian cancer, COX-1 mRNA was significantly increased and COX-1 protein was broadly distributed throughout the tumor stroma. COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle and the ovarian stroma. COX-2 mRNA expression did not change as a function of age or in ovarian cancer. There was significantly higher expression of COX-1 mRNA in the first POF (POF-1) compared to POF-2 and POF-3. COX-2 mRNA expression was not significantly different among POFs. There was no difference in COX-1 or COX-2 mRNA in the OSE isolated from individual follicles in the follicular hierarchy. The results confirm previous findings of the high expression of COX-1 in ovarian tumors further supporting the laying hen as a model for ovarian cancer, and demonstrate for the first time the high expression of COX-1 in POF-1 which is the source of prostaglandins needed for oviposition.

  9. A STUDY ON THE SEASONAL PREVALENCE OF RAILLIETINA TETRAGONA IN DOMESTIC CHICK (GALLUS DOMESTICUS) FROM WARANGAL REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH.

    OpenAIRE

    Achaiah.N; N.Vijaya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Raillietina tetragona, a helminth parasite was examined in domestic chick for a period of two annual cycles to determine the effects of seasonal variation on intensity and incidence of infection. The results show that the infection was more during summer followed by rainy and winter seasons. The infection was single or in association with other helminth parasites like Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina cesticillus and Ascardia galli. The results are discussed in relatio...

  10. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides), en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Rodríguez; Elias Carvajal; Catalina Álavarez

    2011-01-01

    El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) ha sido empleado en i...

  11. Accumulation of α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in tissues of fast- and slow-growing broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondreville, Catherine; Cariou, Ronan; Méda, Bertrand; Dominguez-Romero, Elena; Omer, Elsa; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Travel, Angélique; Baéza, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe the fate of ingested α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers, through an exposure to a dietary concentration of 50 ng α-HBCDD g(-1) feed during 42 and 84 days, respectively. Depuration parameters were assessed in SG broilers successively exposed during 42 days and depurated during 42 days. At market age, SG broilers had ingested 42% more feed than FG broilers, while their body weight gain per g of feed ingested was 34% lower. No isomerization of α- to β- or γ-HBCDD forms occurred, while OH-HBCDD was identified as a product of α-HBCDD metabolism. Irrespective of the strain, abdominal fat displayed the highest α-HBCDD concentration on a lipid weight basis, followed leg muscles and then breast muscle, liver and plasma. The accumulation ratios of α-HBCDD were slightly higher in SG (6.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 9.9 in leg muscles, breast muscle, liver and abdominal fat, respectively) than in FG broilers (5.2, 2.2, 1.1 and 8.4, respectively). The elimination half-lives in SG broilers were 20, 12 and 19 d in leg muscles, breast muscle and abdominal fat, respectively, to which dilution through growth contributed for around 50%. The overall assimilation efficiency of α-HBCDD was estimated at 58 and 50% in FG and SG broilers, respectively, while 22 and 17% of α-HBCDD ingested were estimated to be eliminated in excreta as metabolites.

  12. 原鸡与家鸡不同组合F1代屠宰性能及性状间相关性分析%Correlation Analysis between Carcass Characteristics and Body Size of the F1 Generation from Different Combinations for Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) and Gallus domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰珑; 郭子发; 万海龙; 陈粉粉; 李奇生

    2010-01-01

    [目的]为野生原鸡适时开发、家鸡遗传改良等提供实际指导意义.[方法]以原鸡滇南亚种 (♂)分别与原鸡(♀)、茶花鸡 (♀)、绿耳乌骨鸡(♀)、楚雄麻鸡(♀)不同组合的F1代(♂)为研究对象,测定其体型体尺性状、屠宰性能及进行相关性分析.[结果]体型体尺、屠宰性能在不同组合F1代间存在显著差异(P0.05),其余指标存在组间显著差异(P<0.05).就体型性状与产肉性状间的表型相关性而言,不同组合F1代间虽有不一致的表型相关系数,但总体表现为体斜长、胸骨长及胸围与产肉性状相关系数较大.[结论]体斜长、胸骨长及胸围为原鸡不同组合F1代产肉性能的主要决定因素.

  13. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Figueira Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus, previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds.A doença de Newcastle é caracterizada por manifestações respiratórias associadas a sintomas nervosos e/ou digestivos. Sua prevenção é feita pela vacinação com vacinas vivas atenuadas (cepas lentogênicas e/ou inativadas. As cepas lentog

  14. Study on the Germplasm Characteristic of Yunnan Daweishan Mini Chickens%云南屏边大围山微型鸡种质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣华; 李琦华; 贾俊静; 陈晓波; 熊保良; 万全书; 曹振辉; 陈宝定; 文生萍; 张曦; 葛长荣

    2011-01-01

    试验选用36只零日龄云南屏边大围山微型鸡进行为期14周饲养试验,对相关的种质特性进行了测定.从体形和毛色来看大围山微型鸡具有典型东南亚原鸡的外表特征.14周龄公母鸡体重分别为778.81 g和712.50 g;母鸡的胸宽、胸肌率、脂肪重和脂肪率显著地比公鸡的高(P<0.05),公鸡体尺和屠宰的其它指标均显著地比母鸡高(P<0.05).公母鸡屠宰率平均分别为88.23%及90.23%,全净膛率平均分别为66.16%及59.58%.母鸡有较高的法氏囊、胸腺重量及其指数.大围山微型鸡的生长速度比其它生态类型鸡种较慢,均属于目前所报道的我国地方鸡种中体重较轻的地方鸡种.尽管大围山微型鸡的体重较小,但从屠宰件能指标显示,该鸡具有较高的屠宰率.%Thirty-six Yunnan Pingbian Daweishan mini chickens were used to investigate the growth performance, body size, body composition and germplasm characteristic, and compared with different ecological types of other chickens.The mini chickens possess the feature with the red jungle fowl ( Gllus gallus).The weights of cock and hen were 778.81 g and 712.50 g, respectively, at the age of 14 weeks.The chest width, breast muscle and fat weigh, fat percentage in hens were significantly higher than those in the cocks ( P < 0.05) and converse observations for the other parameters of body size and carcass composition (P <0.05).The dressing percentage was 88.23% and 90.23% , respectively, for cocks and hens while eviscerated weight percentage were 66.16% and 59.58% , respectively, for cocks and hens.The hens had high bursa of fabricius weight and thymic weight.Compared with the Chinese n-ative chickens at the same age, the fowl showed the lowest growth performance, body weight and size.The body length, shank length, shank girth, chest width and depth, thoraco-bone angle and keel length of Daweishan mini chickens were the lowest, compared with the Chinese native chickens

  15. Growth enhancement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by passive immunisation against somatostatin-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...

  16. A chicken model for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-01-01

    "Invariant object recognition" refers to the ability to recognize objects across variation in their appearance on the retina. This ability is central to visual perception, yet its developmental origins are poorly understood. Traditionally, nonhuman primates, rats, and pigeons have been the most commonly used animal models for studying invariant object recognition. Although these animals have many advantages as model systems, they are not well suited for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition in the newborn brain. Here, we argue that newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) are an ideal model system for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition. Using an automated controlled-rearing approach, we show that chicks can build a viewpoint-invariant representation of the first object they see in their life. This invariant representation can be built from highly impoverished visual input (three images of an object separated by 15° azimuth rotations) and cannot be accounted for by low-level retina-like or V1-like neuronal representations. These results indicate that newborn neural circuits begin building invariant object representations at the onset of vision and argue for an increased focus on chicks as an animal model for studying invariant object recognition.

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0013 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-114 50% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0819 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0819 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-109 51% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0025 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-113 51% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-27-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-27-0002 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 0.0 99% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0391 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-154 76% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-16-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-16-0002 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-100 54% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-17-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0052 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-117 60% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-13-0068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-13-0068 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-100 54% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-05-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-05-0010 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 0.0 97% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0684 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0684 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 3e-44 55% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-08-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-08-0014 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-178 87% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0092 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0092 ref|NP_001120643.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like pro...tein [Gallus gallus] gb|ABW96907.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like protein precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001120643.1 1e-129 67% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-01-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-01-0027 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-104 58% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-22-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-22-0015 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-103 56% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0068 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-101 55% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1879 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1879 ref|NP_001120643.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like pro...tein [Gallus gallus] gb|ABW96907.1| prolactin-releasing peptide receptor-like protein precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001120643.1 1e-129 68% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-15-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-15-0002 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-100 56% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-1665 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-1665 ref|NP_001019756.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like [Ga...llus gallus] gb|AAS77862.1| prolactin releasing peptide receptor-like protein [Gallus gallus] NP_001019756.1 1e-138 69% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2792 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2792 ref|NP_001076830.1| tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, m...ember 11 [Gallus gallus] gb|ABN69113.1| tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 [Gallus gallus] NP_001076830.1 5.0 32% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 ref|NP_001001876.1| basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate pr...oteoglycan core protein [Gallus gallus] emb|CAE51322.1| basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001001876.1 3e-34 65% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0001 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 3e-64 52% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-19-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-19-0009 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 4e-69 53% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-09-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-09-0005 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-165 92% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0467 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0467 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 3e-88 61% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0312 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0312 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-123 66% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-17-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-17-0008 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-123 66% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0013 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 7e-66 51% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1006 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-137 75% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-06-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-06-0016 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-120 65% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-13-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-13-0034 ref|NP_001026387.1| retinal G-protein coupled receptor [Gallus gallus] gb|AAR02099.1| reti...nal g-protein receptor opsin [Gallus gallus] NP_001026387.1 1e-124 68% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1095 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1095 ref|XP_001231930.1| PREDICTED: similar to claudin 14b [Gallus gal...lus] ref|XP_001231960.1| PREDICTED: similar to claudin 14b [Gallus gallus] XP_001231930.1 6e-34 37% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0788 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0788 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-120 52% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0270 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0270 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-07 34% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0056 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-117 54% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-04-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-04-0017 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-122 54% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2986 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2986 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-139 70% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0296 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-119 54% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0030 ref|NP_001098428.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Ga...llus gallus] gb|ABS00398.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor precursor [Gallus gallus] NP_001098428.1 1e-113 52% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase [Gallus gallus] sp|P21872|PUR2...(GARS) (Glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase) (Phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetas...e); Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase (AIRS) (Phosphoribosyl-aminoimidazole synthetase) (AIR ...mide transformylase)] emb|CAA38120.1| glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase-amino...imidazole ribonucleotide synthetase-glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase [Gallus gallus] emb|CAA39779.1

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-10-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-10-0005 ref|NP_989870.1| hole [Gallus gallus] sp|Q8QFN3|TM121_CHICK Trans...membrane protein 121 (Protein hole) gb|AAM08318.1|AF488728_1 hole [Gallus gallus] NP_989870.1 5e-63 44% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-17-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-17-0001 ref|NP_989870.1| hole [Gallus gallus] sp|Q8QFN3|TM121_CHICK Trans...membrane protein 121 (Protein hole) gb|AAM08318.1|AF488728_1 hole [Gallus gallus] NP_989870.1 1e-122 67% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2480 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 85% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0266 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0266 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 82% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0187 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0187 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 83% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1246 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1246 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 1e-129 91% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0010 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 79% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0101 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0101 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 4e-57 36% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0549 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0549 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 84% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0028 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 85% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-02-0028 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 1e-166 84% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-02-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-02-0007 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 99% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0027 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 0.0 86% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-04-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-04-0019 ref|NP_989785.1| corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 [Gall...us gallus] emb|CAD89534.2| putative corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 [Gallus gallus] NP_989785.1 1e-173 94% ...

  10. Construction of Subtracted cDNA Library of the Early Growth Plate in Broiler Chickens with Thiram-induced Tibial Dyschondroplasia%福美双诱发肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良早期生长板消减cDNA文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁官保; 郭定宗; 田文霞; 王瑞; 覃平; 乔建钢; 李宏全; 李家奎; 毕丁仁; 潘思轶

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] An experiment was conducted to construct subtracted cDNA library for selecting time series genes differentially expressed in the TD growth plate of broiler chickens at the early stage with cDNA microarray. [Method] AVIAN (AV) broiler chicks at 7 days of age were randomly divided into two groups. After fasting overnight, they were fed with regular diet (control) or the same diet containing 100 mg/kg thiram for 48h to induce TD (thiram diet-fed). Forward and reverse-subtracted eDNA libraries were generated by suppression subtractive hybridization technology (SSH). Identification of the inserted cDNA fragments in subtractive library was done using PCR. One hundred clones were randomly selected for further DNA sequencing, blast homology analysis and function prediction. [Result] A total of 2 227 positive clones were obtained and the size of inserts was between 200 bp and 1 000 bp. There were 97 homologous gene sequences shared more than 99% identity with genes known in chicken (Gallus gallus). Non-redundancy of sequenced genes was 68.7%. Meanwhile, 3 clones were found to be novel EST as no functional clues were associated with them by bioinformatic analysis. Most of these genes are involved in matrix formation,endochondral ossification and remodelling, developmental regulation, signal transduction, electron transport in mitochondrial respiratory chain and vascularization. [ Conclusion ] Successfully produced cDNA library would make a good foundation for further printing cDNA microarray, screening differential expression genes of TD growth plates at different stages, and also may provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of TD.%[目的]为应用cDNA芯片技术筛选肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(TD)时序性差异表达基因,本研究构建了早期生长板消减cDNA文库.[方法]将7日龄AV肉鸡随机分为两组,对照组(control,C)饲以基础日粮,试验组(thiram diet-fed,T)饲以基础日粮添加福美双100 mg·kg(-1),2 d

  11. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  13. Classical Mus musculus Igκ enhancers support transcription but not high level somatic hypermutation from a V-lambda promoter in chicken DT40 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Rama Kothapalli

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR and the 3' enhancer (3'E, and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3'E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms.

  14. Zoonoses, public health, and the backyard poultry flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a small flock of poultry for eggs, meat, and possibly companionship is becoming an increasingly popular hobby in the United States. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus, forma domestica), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, forma domestica), and members of the family Anatidae including ducks, geese, and swans are commonly kept in these privately owned backyard flocks. Multiple bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases which affect poultry are known zoonotic pathogens. This article reviews these zoonoses and gives recommendations for flock biosecurity, as well as for prevention of infection in both birds and humans. Diseases associated with other gallinaceous birds are only selectively discussed.

  15. Purification of antilisterial peptide (SubtilosinA) from novel Bacillus tequilensis FR9 and demonstrate their pathogen invasion protection ability using human carcinoma cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwana Parveen Rani; Marimuthu Anandharaj; Subramani Hema; Ramasamy Deepika; Abraham David Ravindran

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on isolation, screening and characterization of novel probiotics from gastrointestinal tract of free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Fifty seven colonies were isolated and three isolates (FR4, FR9 and FR12) were selected and identified as Lactobacillus gasseri FR4, Bacillus tequilensis FR9 and L. animalis FR12 by 16S rRNA sequencing. Three strains were able to survive in stimulated acidic and bile conditions and inhibit the growth of pathogens. Especially, FR9 exh...

  16. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  17. Efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Balthazar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso na osteogênese em falha cortical ulnar de galinhas domésticas. Foram utilizadas 18 galinhas, com aproximadamente 70 semanas de idade e peso corpóreo médio de 2,5kg. Criou-se uma falha óssea na porção diafisária média da ulna em ambas as asas, sendo a direita utilizada como grupo-controle (grupo I e a esquerda como grupo-tratado (grupo II. As aves foram subdivididas aleatoriamente em quatro subgrupos de acordo com o período de observação (14, 35, 60 e 90 dias. No grupo II, dois fragmentos ósseos da carena do esterno foram retirados, seccionados e implantados na falha óssea. Ao término do período de observação de cada subgrupo, as aves foram abatidas com tiopental sódico para realização dos exames histopatológico e radiográfico post-mortem, com classificação dos resultados em escala semiquantitativa (escore. O grupo II demonstrou osteogênese mais evidente aos 35 e 90 dias de pós-cirúrgico (P<0,05. Ao comparar os grupos I e II, sem levar-se em consideração o tempo de observação, foi possível observar que houve diferença estatística significativa (P<0,05. Conclui-se que o enxerto ósseo corticoesponjoso demonstra potencial osteogênico satisfatório na espécie estudada, entretanto retarda o tempo de remodelação óssea quando aplicado sobre falhas estáveis pequenas.

  18. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K;

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  19. Caracterización parcial de inmunoglobulinas G (IGy específicas contra la lectina de Salvia bogotensis a partir de huevos de gallina (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gerardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de yemas de huevos de gallinas inoculadas con la lectina presente en Salvia bogotensis, se ensayaron seis métodos de delipidación y extracción de anticuerpos de gallina (IgY. Se escogió la metodología por dilución con agua para continuar con la purificación de anticuerpos,
    debido a la remoción total de los lípidos de la yema y la alta actividad de las IgY contra la lectina de S. bogotensis. Para la purificación de anticuerpos se utilizaron diferentes métodos cromatográficos: cromatografía de intercambio iónico (DEAE Sephacel, hidrofóbica (Fenil Sepharosa 4B, exclusión molecular (Sephacryl S-200 y S-500, tiofílica (T-gel. Se escogió la cromatografía tiofílica ya que permitió la purificación de anticuerpos, para luego continuar con la caracterización de estos (peso molecular de las IgY y sus subunidades, cantidad de carbohidratos totales, punto isoeléctrico, interacción de las IgY con diferentes lectinas de leguminosas. Los valores de peso molecular del anticuerpo y sus subunidades concordaron con los reportes de la literatura. También se determinó el título de la población de IgY con un valor bastante alto en comparación al título de anticuerpos específicos dirigidos contra otro tipo de antígeno. Debido al bajo rendimiento de la cromatografía tiofílica se realizó una cromatografía de afinidad indirecta sobre aMSB Sepharosa 4B con el fin de purificar IgY específicos y continuar con los ensayos de caracterización. Aunque se obtuvieron fracciones eluídas de esta columna no se detectó proteína. Como alternativa para la purificación de anticuerpos se utilizó un soporte de Sephacryl S-200 a alta fuerza iónica. De esta cromatografía se obtuvieron anticuerpos parcialmente puros. Con
    esta fracción de anticuerpo se determinó la cantidad de carbohidratos totales, valor que se encontróalgo alejado al reportado en literatura, mientras el punto isoeléctrico de las IgY se encontró en los rangos de pH reportados. Por ensayo de ELISA no se encontraron interacciones
    inespecíficas entre las IgY y diferentes lectinas de leguminosas. Además, se purificó lectina de S. bogotensis para los diferentes inmunoensayos realizados.

  20. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Marvin S; Blackmore, Mark S; Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen; Gottfried, Kristy; Halsey, Lawrence A; Rutledge, Roxanne; Langevin, Stanley A; Gates, Robert; Lamonte, Karen M; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert S; Blackmore, Carina G M; Loyless, Tom; Stark, Lillian; Oliveri, Robin; Conti, Lisa; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mosquito and bird involvement in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in July 2001 in Jefferson County, FL, and Lowndes County, GA. We detected 16 WNV-infected pools from Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Cx. nigripalpus, and Culiseta melanura. In Florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized WNV. Antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (Columbina passerina, 25%), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, 15%), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus, 16%), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, 11%). Antibody-positive birds were detected in nine of 11 locations, among which prevalence in chickens ranged from 0% to 100%. Seropositive chickens were detected in Georgia as well. The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region.

  1. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  2. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  3. AcEST: BP919492 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tase OS=Chlamydia pneum... 33 0.48 sp|Q5QJC2|DCR1C_CHICK Protein artemis OS=Gallus gallus GN=DCLRE1... 33 0....DREGLGYQEYV 72 >sp|Q5QJC2|DCR1C_CHICK Protein artemis OS=Gallus gallus GN=DCLRE1C PE=2 SV=1 Length = 714 Sco

  4. Prevalencija i patološke promjene uzrokovane trakavicom Raillietina cesticillus u domaće kokoši (Gallus gallus domesticus) u himalajskom području Kašmira s umjerenim podnebljem – kratko priopćenje

    OpenAIRE

    T. Salam, Sheikh; S. Mir, Masood; R. Khan, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    U radu je prikazana prevalencija trakavice Raillietina cesticillus u domaće kokoši na području Kašmirske doline u razdoblju od siječnja 2005. do prosinca 2006. Ukupno je pretraženo 478 kokoši različite dobi i spola. Kokoši su nasumično sakupljene na području 10 sela. Za svaku je kokoš zabilježen klinički, parazitološki i patoanatomski nalaz. Istraživanjem je dokazano da je 23,22% (111/478) kokoši bilo invadirano istom trakavicom. U nekih životinja osim ove trakavice dokazane su i druge trakav...

  5. The mitochondrial genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X; Silva, P; Gyenai, K B; Xu, J; Geng, T; Tu, Z; Samuels, D C; Smith, E J

    2009-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) has been little studied in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), a species for which there is no publicly available mtGenome sequence. Here, we used PCR-based methods with 19 pairs of primers designed from the chicken and other species to develop a complete turkey mtGenome sequence. The entire sequence (16,717 bp) of the turkey mtGenome was obtained, and it exhibited 85% similarity to the chicken mtGenome sequence. Thirteen genes and 24 RNAs (22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs) were annotated. An mtGenome-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that the turkey is most closely related to the chicken, Gallus gallus, and quail, Corturnix japonica. Given the importance of the mtGenome, the present work adds to the growing genomic resources needed to define the genetic mechanisms that underlie some economically significant traits in the turkey.

  6. Sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar protein changes caused by acute heat stress in broiler chicken Alterações nas proteínas sarcoplasmáticas e miofibrilares em frangos de corte causadas por estresse térmico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Castro Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute heat stress (AHS modifies the structure of myofibrils affecting functional properties of meat, mainly the water holding capacity. This experiment aimed to identify changes in proteolysis and migration between the myofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic fractions due to pre-slaughter AHS. Myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, SDS-PAGE, western blot of vinculin (WB and shear force (SF were determined. Six hundred broilers (Gallus gallus were slaughtered in three different days (ST. In each ST, groups of ten animals were placed in transport crates and submitted to AHS (35ºC, 75 - 85% RH for 2 hours. Simultaneously, the non-stressed broilers (NS were kept in thermoneutral environment (22ºC, 83 ± 6.6% RH within the crates in the same density. After slaughter, the breast muscles were kept refrigerated until the withdrawal of all samples (0, 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after slaughter. Sampling within AHS and NS birds was collected according to lightness value (normal L* 51, except for determination of MFI and SF. The lightness was used later to perform SDS-PAGE and WB analyses. MFI kinetics showed that the fragmentation rate was superior in animals NS, indicating that AHS can harm proteolysis and rate of myofibrillar fragmentation. However, the extent of fragmentation did not change, as well as SF values. SDS-PAGE for Troponin fragments indicated a differentiated pattern between AHS and NS. The WB did not show alterations in vinculin fragmentation. Modifications in sarcoplasmatic fraction are observed in meat with high L*values, independent of environmental condition.O estresse térmico agudo (ET causa alterações na estrutura das miofibrilas, afetando propriedades funcionais da carne, principalmente a capacidade de retenção de água. Identificaram-se mudanças na proteólise e migração entre as frações miofibrilar e sarcoplasmática, decorrentes do ET pré-abate, através do índice de fragmentação miofibrilar (MFI, SDS-PAGE para troponina (SDS

  7. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  8. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus nucleoprotein interacts with TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Vinod R M T; Hong Wai, Tham; Ario Tejo, Bimo; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus) lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7). Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) nucleoprotein (NP) from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1)) as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1) to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction). Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  10. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, N; Burns, J; Dean, C; Panella, N A; Dusza, S; Cherry, B

    2001-01-01

    After an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in people, horses, and wildlife in Staten Island, NY, during the summer of 2000, we surveyed the bird population of the island for evidence of infection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 59 of 257 (23.0%) resident birds and none of 96 transient (migrating) birds sampled in early October. Species with the greatest seroprevalence were northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) (69.2%) and rock dove (Columba livia) (54.5%). House sparrows (Passer domesticus) and chickens (Gallus gallus) had lower than expected seroprevalences, 8.6% and 5.5%, respectively. The geographic distribution of seropositivity suggested focal transmission at several locations on the island. The concentration of seropositive birds among resident bird populations on Staten Island supports the concept that many birds survive WNV infection and that some of these play an important role in the WNV-bird-mosquito transmission cycle.

  11. Phylogenetic conservation and physical mapping of members of the H6 homeobox gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, H S; Murray, J C; Leysens, N J; Goodfellow, P J; Solursh, M

    1995-06-01

    Homeobox genes represent a class of transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of embryogenesis and development. Here we report the identification of a homeobox-containing gene family that is highly conserved at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in a diverse number of species. These species encompass both vertebrate and invertebrate phylogenies, ranging from Homo sapiens to Drosophila melanogaster. In humans, at least two homeobox sequences from this family were identified representing a previously reported member of this family as well as a novel homeobox sequence that we physically mapped to the 10q25.2-q26.3 region of human Chromosome (Chr) 10. Multiple members of this family were also detected in three additional vertebrate species including Equus caballus (horse), Gallus gallus (Chicken), and Mus musculus (mouse), whereas only single members were detected in Tripneustes gratilla (sea urchin), Petromyzon marinus (lamprey), Salmo salar (salmon), Ovis aries (sheep), and D. melanogaster (fruit fly).

  12. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  13. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  14. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  15. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  16. Microspectrophotometrical Studies of the Hypophysis in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus) : III. Variation of PAS Positive Materials Contained in the Adenohypophysis of White Leghorn Cocks Following the Hypothalamic Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahara, Hitoshi

    1980-01-01

    It is well recognized that gonadotropic function of the adenohypophysis is regulated by the hypothalamus in the domestic fowl. The present study deals with cytological changes of the adenohypophysis and the quantitative variation of PAS positive contents in the gland following the hypothalamic lesion in the White Leghorn cocks. Adenohypophysis, testes and the accessory organ weights were markedly decreased after the electrolytic lesion involving the basal tuberal or posterior median eminence ...

  17. The mutual relations of structures in the growing bill of chick (Gallus domesticus L.) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.) Embryos. IV. The size, shape, and position of the upper and lower bills in unilaterally microphthalmic duck embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouterlood, F G

    1977-10-01

    Unilaterally microphthalmic duck (DUM) embryos studied in stage 39 were obtained by damaging the right eye in stage 17. The development between stages 19 and 39 was observed in samples. After prolonged incubation, one duck hatched and reached adulthood. In DUM embryos partial crossbeak develops. Both the upper and lower bills deviate lateralwards, the upper bill more than the lower. In stage 39 a small orbit is present on the treated side. In stained and cleared heads most of the elements of the skull (the bones surrounding the orbit, the brain-case, and the upper and lower bill elements) are translated in the direction of the rudimentary orbit on the treated side. The bills are twisted around each other at the tip. Measurements of external dimensions as well as those made in stained and cleared stage-39 DUM heads show elongation of the left part of the lower bill. Except for the crossed bills, the changes found in the embryos persisted in the adult. The findings support a hypothesis concerning the mutual influence of bills during morphogenesis. The coherence of the functional cranial components in the embryo is discussed.

  18. Caracterización morfométrica de la gallina de cuello desnudo (Gallus domesticus nudecollis en la región ch'ortí de Chiquimula, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jáuregui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfométrica, faneróptica y morfológicamente a gallinas y gallos de cuello desnudo (324 hembras y 60 machos en los cuatro municipios de la región ch’ortí de Chiquimula. Las variables evaluadas fueron 18 cuantitativas para la hembra y 16 para el macho, nueve cualitativas y ocho índices zoométricos. El análisis delas variables zoométricas se realizó a través del procedimiento análisis univariado, con medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión, y para analizar la proporcionalidad y armonía entre las diversas regiones corporales mediante la correlación de Pearson. Los resultados principales son: peso de 1.84 kg/hembra y 2.29 kg/macho; alzada 27.84 cm/hembra y 32.51 cm/macho; metatarso 10.25 cm/hembra y 11.76 cm/macho; ambos tienen más alzada que longitud, inclinados hacia adelante; en cuanto a sus perímetros, el abdominal es el mayor y curvado característica de las gallinas ponedoras y una grupa alargada con dorso plano. Sus índices corporales son aves alargadas, con capacidad reproductiva (índice pélvico 71.82% y poca formación de músculo para la producción de carne (índice compacidad 6.80%/hembra y 7.03%/macho, cabeza alargada, tórax elíptico y miembros fuertes y altos. Las características morfológicas y fanerópticas describen un ave de piel blanca, metatarso amarillo, plumas en garganta, cresta simple con barbilla y orejuelas, los colores de pluma son la combinación de marrón, negro, gris y blanco, el color de la cáscara varia del blanco al marrón claro y con una armonización corporal hasta del 61% lo que le da una homogeneidad medianamente aceptable a la morfoestructura de la gallina.

  19. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No hormones are used in the raising of chickens. Antibiotics may be used to prevent disease and increase ... a "withdrawal" period is required from the time antibiotics are administered. ... not allowed on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as ...

  20. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  1. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  2. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  3. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09224-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( AF128118 |pid:none) Mus musculus autoimmune regulator ... 46 0.002 AE013599_49(... AE013599 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromosom... 46 0.002 AF128120_1( AF128120 |pid:none) Mus musculus autoimmune...nome sequenc... 42 0.033 AF128116_1( AF128116 |pid:none) Mus musculus autoimmune ...4_1( EU030004 |pid:none) Gallus gallus autoimmune regulator... 40 0.21 EU030005_1...( EU030005 |pid:none) Gallus gallus autoimmune regulator... 40 0.21 ( Q12873 ) RecName: Full=Chromodomain-he

  5. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  6. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  7. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  8. Potencial probiótico de cepas nativas para uso como aditivos en la alimentación avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en ingles: Probiotic potential of native strains, for as feed additives for poultry Resumen: Se evaluó in vitro el potencial probiótico de cepas nativas aisladas de las heces de pollos asilvestrados (Gallus gallus pertenecientes a los géneros Lactobacillus sp, Bacillus sp y levaduras tipo saccharomyces sp; se determinó la actividad probiótica mediante pruebas de resistencia al ácido (pH  3, 4, 5, 6, 7, sales de bilis (0,05, 0,1, 0,15, 0.3 %, tolerancia al NaCl (2, 4, 7, 10 %, actividad antagónica (Salmonella sp, E. coli, determinación del tipo de fermentación, crecimiento a temperaturas (28,37,43°C y capacidad de crecimiento. Las cepas con mayor tolerancia se identificaron a través de pruebas bioquímicas y fermentación de carbohidratos. Como resultado se observó que tres microorganismos: Saccharomyces sp. (3, Bacillus sp. (7 y Lactobacillus sp. (14 poseen propiedades probióticas. Palabras claves: Gallus gallus; Saccharomyces sp.;  Bacillus sp.; Lactobacillus sp.; aditivos  microbianos. Abstract: Was evaluated in vitro the probiotic potential of native strains isolated from feces of wild chickens (Gallus gallus belonging to the genera Lactobacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and

  9. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  10. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  11. An investigation of the persistence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in an Eastern population of wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Kleven, S H; Davidson, W R

    1991-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection had been confirmed by culture and serology among wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in close association with domestic fowl on Cumberland Island, Georgia (USA) in 1980. In 1988, wild turkeys were surveyed by serologic and cultural methods for evidence of M. gallisepticum. Chickens (Gallus gallus) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) from the site where the disease was originally detected also were tested by serologic and cultural methods for M. gallisepticum infections. There was no conclusive evidence that M. gallisepticum was present in wild turkeys or guinea fowl. In contrast, most chickens were strongly seropositive for M. gallisepticum, suggesting that they had been infected, although the organism was not recovered by cultural or bioassay methods. Other species of Mycoplasma isolated were M. gallopavonis from wild turkeys, M. gallinaceum and M. pullorum from chickens, and M. gallinaceum from guinea fowl. It appears that M. gallisepticum has not persisted or spread in the wild turkey population on Cumberland Island, despite continued contact by some wild turkeys with suspected carrier chickens.

  12. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  13. Targeted capture enrichment and sequencing identifies extensive nucleotide variation in the turkey MHC-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Settlage, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is increasingly associated with disease susceptibility and resistance in avian species of agricultural importance. This variation includes sequence polymorphisms but also structural differences (gene rearrangement) and copy number variation (CNV). The MHC has now been described for multiple galliform species including the best defined assemblies of the chicken (Gallus gallus) and domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Using this sequence resource, this study applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate MHC variation in turkeys of North America (NA turkeys). An MHC-specific SureSelect (Agilent) capture array was developed, and libraries were created for 14 turkeys representing domestic (commercial bred), heritage breed, and wild turkeys. In addition, a representative of the Ocellated turkey (M. ocellata) and chicken (G. gallus) was included to test cross-species applicability of the capture array allowing for identification of new species-specific polymorphisms. Libraries were hybridized to ∼12 K cRNA baits and the resulting pools were sequenced. On average, 98% of processed reads mapped to the turkey whole genome sequence and 53% to the MHC target. In addition to the MHC, capture hybridization recovered sequences corresponding to other MHC regions. Sequence alignment and de novo assembly indicated the presence of several additional BG genes in the turkey with evidence for CNV. Variant detection identified an average of 2245 polymorphisms per individual for the NA turkeys, 3012 for the Ocellated turkey, and 462 variants in the chicken (RJF-256). This study provides an extensive sequence resource for examining MHC variation and its relation to health of this agriculturally important group of birds.

  14. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFH577 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Intestinal Lymphocyte Gallus gallus cDNA clone 1GAL_17H10 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor... 191 4e-47 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 190 7e-47 AY847462_1( AY847

  16. Dicty_cDB: SFI140 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EQCHN59 Gallus gallus cDNA clone ChEST370a22 5', mRNA sequence. 42 0.28 2 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor...genase family 7 member A1... 110 3e-23 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor

  17. Dicty_cDB: CFF324 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hocyte Gallus gallus cDNA clone 1GAL_17H10 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor...883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 222 2e-56 AK297365_1( AK297365 |pid:none) Homo sapie

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02735-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5_Sp6.1 CH261 Gallus gallus genomic clo... 46 1.5 1 ( DY772584 ) 5TH_new05_I09 Bicyclus anynana wings - 5TH ...instar... 46 1.5 1 ( DY771907 ) 5TH_new03_L08 Bicyclus anynana wings - 5TH instar... 46 1.5 1 ( AZ684495 ) E

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHM664 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R354088 |CR354088.1 Gallus gallus finished cDNA, clone ChEST371o8. 68 5e-07 1 CV511301 |CV511301.1 kc39e08.y1 Xiphinema... index CSEQDA01 Xiphinema index cDNA 5' similar to SW:KAPC_CAEEL P21137 CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KI

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0258 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0258 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 4e-96 53% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-01-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-01-0021 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-79 51% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0011 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-137 72% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0034 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-111 60% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0092 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0092 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-74 47% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0730 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0730 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 5e-17 29% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2926 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2926 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-165 80% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2892 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2892 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-106 56% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0073 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-133 69% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1035 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 3e-82 54% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-21-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-21-0009 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 0.0 95% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0041 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-145 73% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0275 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 7e-32 40% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0735 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0735 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-133 69% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-21-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-21-0008 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-104 60% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-20-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-20-0026 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-65 45% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0546 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0546 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-102 62% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-05-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-05-0010 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-108 59% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0885 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0885 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-105 61% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-18-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-18-0002 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-104 60% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-23-0128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-23-0128 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 8e-76 50% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0582 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0582 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 5e-83 51% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0072 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-105 62% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0029 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-88 61% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2261 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-95 54% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0507 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0507 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 9e-78 49% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2949 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2949 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-108 59% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0668 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0668 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-169 80% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-18-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-18-0003 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 0.0 100% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3050 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-78 49% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0030 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-138 70% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-14-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-14-0004 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 2e-91 54% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-03-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-03-0051 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-106 55% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0237 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0237 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-97 65% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0034 ref|XP_425371.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative G-protein-coupled receptor; Method: concep...tual translation supplied by author [Gallus gallus] XP_425371.1 1e-96 56% ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01-1... 38 2.8 3 ( AC151438 ) Carollia perspicillata clone 438K12, WORKING DRAF... 38 2.9 2 ( AL356122 ) Hum...603805715F1 CSEQCHN57 Gallus gallus cDNA clone Ch... 42 5.6 2 ( AC151628 ) Carollia perspicillata clone 544P

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0115 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 93% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0102 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0102 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 4e-64 51% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0281 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0281 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 1e-119 45% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0838 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0838 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 86% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-06-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-06-0012 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 1e-141 55% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0384 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0384 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 59% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-17-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0027 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 62% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0042 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0042 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 55% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-06-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-06-0014 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 2e-88 42% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0061 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 5e-50 44% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0124 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 70% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-02-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-02-0018 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 93% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-03-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-03-0017 ref|NP_990730.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [Gallus gallu...s] sp|P49578|ACM3_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 gb|AAA65961.1| M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptoor NP_990730.1 0.0 99% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-23-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-23-0011 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 71% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-25-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-25-0019 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 1e-114 48% ...

  11. MEMORY FOR THE SPATIAL POSITION OF AN IMPRINTING OBJECT IN JUNGLEFOWL CHICKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of memory for the position of an imprinting object were investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). Subjects were exposed individually and continuously to an imprinting object located in one of the two back quadrants of their home cage ('training quadrant'). Posi

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00933-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF012348 |pid:none) Gallus gallus smooth muscle gamma ... 51 1e-05 AF434716_1( AF434716 |pid:none) Frankl...iniella occidentalis actin g... 51 1e-05 ( Q93129 ) RecName: Full=Actin, cytoplasmi

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12787-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH261-106A12_Sp6.1 CH261 Gallus gallus genomic cl... 44 6.0 1 ( EC758141 ) PPE00003738 Agencourt Bioscien...ces Agen-0020 Non-n... 44 6.0 1 ( DW346154 ) PP_LEc0006P07f Peach shoot Prunus pers

  14. AcEST: DK962074 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C93|SSPO_CHICK SCO-spondin OS=Gallus gallus GN=SSPO PE=2 SV=1 31 6.4 sp|O88778|BSN_RAT Protein bassoon...QPCSGSF 4630 >sp|O88778|BSN_RAT Protein bassoon OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Bsn PE=1

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFH472 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 164 4e-39 AB178529_1( AB178529 |pid:none) Gallus gallus mRNA for DNA polymer... 163 9e-39 AB178526_1( AB178526 |pid:none) Trachem...ys scripta mRNA for DNA pol... 163 1e-38 ( P09884 ) RecName: Full=DNA polymerase al

  16. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0364 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0364 gnl|UG|Gga#S21400299 PREDICTED: Gallus gallus similar to Pro-Pol-dUTPas...e polyprotein; RNaseH; dUTPase; integrase; protease; reverse transcriptase (LOC420305), mRNA /cds=p(113,1546) /gb=XM_429751 /gi=118087429 /ug=Gga.45410 /len=2120 5e-29 96% ...

  17. AcEST: BP918949 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P+ T Sbjct: 16 PIDFSRSLIAPTAIKQESHLIPSTPGT--PTAFQPPQHANT 54 >sp|Q5F3R2|JAD1B_CHICK Histone demethylase JARI...D1B OS=Gallus gallus GN=jarid1b PE=2 SV=1 Length = 1522 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect = 7.8 Identities = 16

  18. Estimating the Public Health Impact of Setting Targets at the European Level for the Reduction of Zoonotic Salmonella in Certain Poultry Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hugas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union (EU, targets are being set for the reduction of certain zoonotic Salmonella serovars in different animal populations, including poultry populations, within the framework of Regulation (EC No. 2160/2003 on the control of zoonoses. For a three-year transitional period, the EU targets were to cover only Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (and in addition S. Hadar, S. Infantis and S. Virchow for breeding flocks of Gallus gallus. Before the end of that transitional period, the revision of the EU targets was to be considered, including the potentially addition of other serovars with public health significance to the permanent EU targets. This review article aims at providing an overview of the assessments carried out by the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards of the European Food Safety Authority in the field of setting targets for Salmonella in poultry populations (breeding flocks of Gallus gallus, laying flocks of Gallus gallus, broiler flocks of Gallus gallus and flocks of breeding and fattening turkeys and their impact in subsequent changes in EU legislation.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-01-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-01-0044 ref|NP_990807.1| Na,K-ATPase alpha-2-subunit [Gallus gallus] sp|P...K(+) ATPase alpha-2 subunit) gb|AAA48981.1| Na,K-ATPase alpha-2-subunit NP_990807.1 0.0 49% ...

  20. Gene : CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 Novel UN D UNKNOWN PGBM_HUMAN 3e-25 49% ref|NP_001001876.1| basemen...t membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein [Gallus gallus] emb|CAE51322.1| basement mem

  1. A STUDY OF BLOCKING AND OVERSHADOWING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of blocking and overshadowing in filial imprinting was investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). When subjects were exposed to a novel object in the presence of a familiar one, imprinting on the novel object was impaired in one of two experimental groups (Experiment

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15480-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 2 ( BU144629 ) 603162365F1 CSEQCHL26 Gallus gallus cDNA clone Ch... 52 5e-05 2 ( CD668990 ) eef1c.pk002.n10 eef1c Eucalyptus tereti...cornis cDN... 54 5e-05 2 ( BU332160 ) 603868889F1 CSEQCH

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05711-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus mitochondrial ... 66 2e-09 EF623984_1( EF623984 |pid:none) Crocodylus porosus mitochondrial u... 66 2e-0...) Gallus gallus mRNA for hypothetica... 61 7e-08 EF623985_1( EF623985 |pid:none) Crocody

  4. Clone XL095a10 [sequences] [XDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTED: hypothetical protein [Gallus gallus] gb|ADB11122.1115564e-06352-504245-299-1324DNA lyase [Mycosphaerella music...ola] gb|ADB11116.1116564e-06352-504228-282-1307DNA lyase [Mycosphaerella musicola] ref|XP_964325.211

  5. AcEST: DK952021 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P09648|CATL1_CHICK Cathepsin L1 (Fragments) OS=Gallus gallus ... 176 1e-43 sp|P60994|ERVB_TABDI Ervatamin-B OS=Taberna...r GN=C... 169 2e-41 sp|P83654|ERVC_TABDI Ervatamin-C OS=Tabernaemontana divaricata P... 168 2e-41 >sp|P43297

  6. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-04-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-04-0023 gnl|UG|Gga#S21397971 PREDICTED: Gallus gallus similar to chloride channel 5 (nephrolithias...is 2, X-linked, Dent disease) (LOC422285), mRNA /cds=p(1,2829) /gb=XM_420265 /gi=118089512 /ug=Gga.39350 /len=3963 4e-83 71% ...

  7. Courtship food-calling in Burmese red junglefowl .2. Sexual conditioning and the role of the female

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanKampen, HS

    1997-01-01

    Male Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) generally perform food-calling during courtship, both with edible and inedible objects. It is proposed that males perform food-calling when they want to attract, or want contact with, a female. This predicts that males are likely to perform food-

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-06-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-06-0037 ref|NP_001025936.1| cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [Gallus ga...llus] sp|P30372|ACM2_CHICK Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gb|AAB04106.1| m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor NP_001025936.1 0.0 70% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-26-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-26-0008 ref|NP_990821.1| rhodopsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28683|OPSG_CHICK Green-sensitive opsin (Gre...en cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48786.1| green sensitive cone opsin gb|AAA49036.1| PRA1 NP_990821.1 0.0 100% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0922 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0922 ref|NP_990821.1| rhodopsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28683|OPSG_CHICK Green-sensitive opsin (Gre...en cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48786.1| green sensitive cone opsin gb|AAA49036.1| PRA1 NP_990821.1 0.0 92% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-29-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-29-0011 ref|NP_990821.1| rhodopsin [Gallus gallus] sp|P28683|OPSG_CHICK Green-sensitive opsin (Gre...en cone photoreceptor pigment) gb|AAA48786.1| green sensitive cone opsin gb|AAA49036.1| PRA1 NP_990821.1 0.0 95% ...

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK062179 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062179 001-046-D07 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 1e-114 +3 ...

  13. GenBank blastx search result: AK060428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060428 001-011-A02 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 1e-113 +3 ...

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK108888 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108888 002-152-E02 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 1e-113 +3 ...

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK105049 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105049 001-041-F06 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 7e-11 +2 ...

  16. GenBank blastn search result: AK062179 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062179 001-046-D07 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 8e-11 Plus Minus ...

  17. GenBank blastn search result: AK121567 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121567 J033034P13 AY694127.1 Gallus gallus cosmid c12.1 chromosome 16 BR and TRIM27 genes,... complete cds; tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Val genes, complete sequence; and TRIM41 and guanine nucleotide binding 12.3 genes, complete cds.|VRT VRT 8e-11 Plus Minus ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05833-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AE016823_748( AE016823 |pid:none) Leptospira interrogans serovar C... 34 6.1 FJ196874_2( FJ196874 |pid:none) Gallus gallus microphth...almia-assoc... 34 6.1 AE010300_3398( AE010300 |pid:none) Leptospira interrogans ser

  19. Familiarity interferes with filial imprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanKampen, HS; deVos, GJ

    1996-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate whether and how pre-exposure to an object affects subsequent filial imprinting to that object. In Experiment 1 junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were first exposed to either a red object alone (control group), or a red and a yellow object simu

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSE427 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Gallus gallus CLE7 mRNA, complete cds. 60 6e-08 BT077052_1( BT077052 |pid:none) Caligus rogercres...seyi clone crog-e... 59 9e-08 BT076044_1( BT076044 |pid:none) Caligus rogercresse

  1. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  2. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  3. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  4. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  6. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  7. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  8. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  9. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  10. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  11. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  12. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  13. Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean birds in adipose tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B H; Leng, L; Wu, M Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xu, S S; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression levels of BMP4 transcript and protein were relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than those of lean males at 1, 2, 5, and 7 wk of age (P fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species.

  14. Molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of an avian leukosis virus isolated from avian neurofibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Akihiro; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Sayuri; Kobara, Akiko; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are rare in chickens and their etiology remains to be elucidated. In this study, a naturally occurring PNST in a Japanese native fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was pathologically examined and the strain of avian leukosis virus (ALV) isolated from the neoplasm was characterized by molecular biological analysis. The fowl presented with a firm subcutaneous mass in the neck. The mass, connected to the adjacent spinal cord (C9-14), was microscopically composed of highly cellular tissue of spindle cells arranged in interlacing bundles, streams, and palisading patterns with Verocay bodies and less cellular tissue with abundant collagen. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were divided into two types: perineurial cells positive for vimentin, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and claudin1; and Schwann cells positive for vimentin, occasionally positive for S-100 alpha/beta but negative for GLUT1. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of neurofibrosarcoma was made. The complete nucleotide sequence of an ALV strain, CTS_5371, isolated from the neoplasm was determined and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain was a novel recombinant virus from avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses previously reported. Additionally, experimental infection revealed that CTS_5371 induced the proliferation of Schwann cells and perineurial cells. These results suggest that this ALV strain has the ability to induce PNSTs in chickens.

  15. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  16. Sources of blood meals of sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, assayed with qPCR and 12S cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Lucero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps. Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia.We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens, five for chicken (Gallus gallus and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus, and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica. Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors, and human (14 vectors blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors.We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors.

  17. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Yvette A; Dowd, Scot E; Decker, Jared E; Seabury, Paul M; Bhattarai, Eric; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Tizard, Ian R; Brightsmith, Donald J; Peterson, Markus J; Taylor, Jeremy F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite) have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao). More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum) would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  18. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  20. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...