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Sample records for chickenpox

  1. Chickenpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and breast milk. Those at risk for severe disease or serious complications — such as newborns whose mothers had chickenpox ... aspirin has been associated with a rare but serious disease, Reye syndrome , which can lead to liver failure ...

  2. Hemorrhagic Chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sengupta B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of chickenpox in a boy of 16 years is described for its uncommon presentation with hemorrhagic vesicles, gum-bleeding without being preceded by any prodromal symptom and unassociated with any immunosuppressive disorder.

  3. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    OpenAIRE

    Girija A.; Rafeeque M; Abdurehman K

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002) on the admitted cases with neurological complicat...

  4. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Chickenpox (Varicella) One family's struggles with chickenpox We provide this video in a variety of formats ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  5. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Chickenpox (Varicella) One family's struggles with chickenpox We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the " ...

  6. Eruptive keloids after chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Kluger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scars and keloids result from abnormal wound healing in predisposed individuals. They occur within months of cutaneous trauma (surgical wounds, piercing, lacerations or inflammation (acne, folliculitis, vaccination site. They have rarely been reported after chickenpox. Herein we report a dramatic case in a 4-year-old black girl and discuss the issues related to the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids in this peculiar situation.

  7. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  8. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One family's struggles with chickenpox We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos ...

  9. Chickenpox Can Be Serious. Protect Yourself and Your Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Chickenpox Can Be Serious Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... about getting a second dose. Chickenpox Can Be Serious Chickenpox can be serious especially for babies, pregnant ...

  10. Chickenpox infection after renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj K.; Bhadhuria, Dharmendra; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chicken pox, although a common infection among children, is rare in immunocompromised patients, particularly renal transplant recipients, and carries a very high incidence of morbidity and mortality There is little data on chickenpox in adult renal transplant recipients, although reports have suggested that it may follow a virulent course requiring frequent hospitalization, and in severe cases can cause death. Aims. To evaluate the incidence, severity and complications of a varice...

  11. A Case Report of Chickenpox in Conjunctiva

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Turgut Coban

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is a primarily infection of Varicella-zoster virus and is childhood disease. Although varicella virus infections are usually benign skin disease, they can have serious systemic manifestations and complications. In this study, it is aim the presentations of a case report of chickenpox in conjunctiva.

  12. Chickenpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the heart muscle Pneumonia Joint pain or swelling Cerebellar ataxia may appear during the recovery phase or later. ... M.D., © Greene Ink, Inc. Read More Acute cerebellar ataxia Arthritis Encephalitis Myocarditis Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) Reye ...

  13. Chickenpox Chorioretinitis with Retinal Exudates and Periphlebitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokuni Kitamei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is rarely associated with posterior segment inflammation. We report on a case of unilateral chickenpox chorioretinitis with retinal exudates and periphlebitis. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old healthy man, who suffered from chickenpox 2 weeks prior to symptom development, exhibited mild anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, sheathing of retinal veins, and yellow-white exudates in his right eye. Varicella zoster virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the aqueous humor. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral prednisolone and valaciclovir. Aqueous cells quickly disappeared and retinal exudates diminished within 1 month, leaving faint retinal scarring. Retinal arteritis had never been observed in this patient. Conclusions: Although the ocular findings in this case were similar to acute retinal necrosis (ARN, the clinical features differed from ARN in the following points: (1 mild anterior chamber inflammation, (2 absence of retinal arteritis, and (3 prompt resolution of inflammatory findings. The distinctive clinical features indicated that chorioretinitis associated with chickenpox may not have the same pathological conditions as ARN.

  14. Chickenpox - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Farsi (فارسی) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Farsi (فارسی) Chickenpox Vaccine English (Farsi) واکسن آبله مرغان - ...

  15. Simultaneous Onset of Chickenpox and Scarlet Fever: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chickenpox is a contagious febrile illness with rash that is caused by varicella zoster virus. Most children up to age 15 are infected with the virus. Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic toxin of streptococcus group A and usually causes skin reactions such as fine red and often itchy papules on the trunk and extremities as well as skin redness, especially on the groin and forearm. Case: Patient is a 3-year-old girl that two days after chickenpox while she had active lesions of the chickenpox, was infected with scarlet fever. Skin lesions at different stages along with the clinical symptoms confirmed the diagnosis of chickenpox. Chickenpox is a febrile illness, more contagious and associated with the rash, which rarely has been reported with scarlet fever. Macular lesions spreading all over the body especially the trunk, with strawberry red tongue and exudative lesions of tonsils with good response to penicillin confirmed the complication of scarlet fever following chickenpox. Rarely scarlet fever is a complication of chickenpox and symptoms of both conditions may be seen simultaneously. Considering that diagnosis of both diseases are based on clinical findings, so physicians should start the appropriate treatment if they have clinical suspicion.

  16. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  17. Chickenpox ARDS in a health care worker following occupational exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knaggs, A

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of chickenpox acute respiratory distress syndrome in an ambulance driver after the inter-hospital transfer of a patient known to have chickenpox pneumonia. Following this exposure, he neither avoided patient contact nor received varicella zoster immune globulin. He subsequently required 13 days of ventilatory support before making a full recovery. The case described supports the contention that health care workers should be screened by serology for immunity to chickenpox before patient contact occurs, with subsequent vaccination of those who are non-immune, when the vaccine becomes available.

  18. Acute Peripheral Facial Palsy after Chickenpox: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox, resulting from primary infection by the varicella-zoster virus, is an exanthematous disease very common during childhood and with good prognosis. However, serious complications, namely, neurological syndromes, may develop during its course, especially in risk groups, including adolescents. Peripheral facial palsy is a rare neurologic complication that has been previously described. Conclusion. We report the case of a teenager with peripheral facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox, aiming to increase the awareness of this rare association.

  19. Chickenpox – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-29

    This podcast discusses chickenpox, its symptoms, how it spreads, and how to protect you and your family from getting it.  Created: 9/29/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases.   Date Released: 9/29/2011.

  20. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis in a child with primary varicella infection (chickenpox)

    OpenAIRE

    Nandeesh B; Mahadevan Anita; Yasha T; Shankar S

    2009-01-01

    Chickenpox (Varicella) representing the primary infection by Varicella zoster virus is a common benign and self-limited infectious disease of childhood. Although the disease can be associated with complications, they are generally mild and tend to occur in adults and immunocompromised children. Severe and life-threatening complications are extremely rare, particularly those involving the cardiovascular system. We report a malnourished 5-year-old girl with chicken pox complicated by hemorrhagi...

  1. Clinical Epidemiology of Chickenpox in Iraq from 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Khaleel, Hanan Abdulghafoor; Abdelhussien, Hassan Muslem

    2012-01-01

    Varicella zoster (chickenpox) infection is an acute common disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Children are most susceptible to infection. In non-vaccinated populations, primary infection tends to occur at a younger age. In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health and socioeconomic problem, and where high (85 to 90%) and sustained vacci...

  2. Cervical Transverse Myelitis After Chickenpox in An Immunocompetent Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad; Zahra Abdi Layali; Esfandiar Shojaei; Saeed Kalantari

    2010-01-01

    Varicella-zoster viruses complications involving the CNS are estimated to occur rarely, transverse myelitis after Varicella-zoster virus in most patients is characterized by an abrupt onset of progressive weakness and sensory disturbance in the lower extremities , like other viruses. We describe the case of 17 year-old boy who experienced cervical transverse myelitis after chickenpox with inability to walk and with urinary retention. He was not treated with any medication but complete revover...

  3. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  4. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization.

  5. Evolution of cocirculating varicella-zoster virus genotypes during a chickenpox outbreak in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depledge, Daniel P; Gray, Eleanor R; Kundu, Samit;

    2014-01-01

    patterns, and (recent) natural history. IMPORTANCE: VZV is a highly infectious virus and the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles, the latter being particularly associated with the risk of painful complications. Seasonal outbreaks of chickenpox are very common among young children, yet little...

  6. Cervical Transverse Myelitis After Chickenpox in An Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVaricella-zoster viruses complications involving the CNS are estimated to occur rarely, transverse myelitis after Varicella-zoster virus in most patients is characterized by an abrupt onset of progressive weakness and sensory disturbance in the lower extremities , like other viruses. We describe the case of 17 year-old boy who experienced cervical transverse myelitis after chickenpox with inability to walk and with urinary retention. He was not treated with any medication but complete revovery has been occured.

  7. A patient with bilateral facial palsy associated with hypertension and chickenpox: learning points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Eslam; Milford, David V; Smith, Martin

    2010-11-26

    Bilateral facial nerve paralysis is an uncommon presentation and even more so in children. There are reports of different causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy. It is well-established that hypertension and chickenpox causes unilateral facial paralysis and the importance of checking the blood pressure in children with facial nerve paralysis cannot be stressed enough. The authors report a boy with bilateral facial nerve paralysis in association with hypertension and having recently recovered from chickenpox. The authors review aspects of bilateral facial nerve paralysis as well as hypertension and chickenpox causing facial nerve paralysis.

  8. Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Ogunjimi

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field.

  9. Epidemiological game-theory dynamics of chickenpox vaccination in the USA and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingzhou; Kochin, Beth F; Tekle, Yonas I; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    The general consensus from epidemiological game-theory studies is that vaccination coverage driven by self-interest (Nash vaccination) is generally lower than group-optimal coverage (utilitarian vaccination). However, diseases that become more severe with age, such as chickenpox, pose an exception to this general consensus. An individual choice to be vaccinated against chickenpox has the potential to harm those not vaccinated by increasing the average age at infection and thus the severity of infection as well as those already vaccinated by increasing the probability of breakthrough infection. To investigate the effects of these externalities on the relationship between Nash and utilitarian vaccination coverages for chickenpox, we developed a game-theory epidemic model that we apply to the USA and Israel, which has different vaccination programmes, vaccination and treatment costs, as well as vaccination coverage levels. We find that the increase in chickenpox severity with age can reverse the typical relationship between utilitarian and Nash vaccination coverages in both the USA and Israel. Our model suggests that to obtain herd immunity of chickenpox vaccination, subsidies or external regulation should be used if vaccination costs are high. By contrast, for low vaccination costs, improving awareness of the vaccine and the potential cost of chickenpox infection is crucial.

  10. Epidemiological game-theory dynamics of chickenpox vaccination in the USA and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingzhou; Kochin, Beth F; Tekle, Yonas I; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    The general consensus from epidemiological game-theory studies is that vaccination coverage driven by self-interest (Nash vaccination) is generally lower than group-optimal coverage (utilitarian vaccination). However, diseases that become more severe with age, such as chickenpox, pose an exception to this general consensus. An individual choice to be vaccinated against chickenpox has the potential to harm those not vaccinated by increasing the average age at infection and thus the severity of infection as well as those already vaccinated by increasing the probability of breakthrough infection. To investigate the effects of these externalities on the relationship between Nash and utilitarian vaccination coverages for chickenpox, we developed a game-theory epidemic model that we apply to the USA and Israel, which has different vaccination programmes, vaccination and treatment costs, as well as vaccination coverage levels. We find that the increase in chickenpox severity with age can reverse the typical relationship between utilitarian and Nash vaccination coverages in both the USA and Israel. Our model suggests that to obtain herd immunity of chickenpox vaccination, subsidies or external regulation should be used if vaccination costs are high. By contrast, for low vaccination costs, improving awareness of the vaccine and the potential cost of chickenpox infection is crucial. PMID:21632611

  11. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis in a child with primary varicella infection (chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeesh B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox (Varicella representing the primary infection by Varicella zoster virus is a common benign and self-limited infectious disease of childhood. Although the disease can be associated with complications, they are generally mild and tend to occur in adults and immunocompromised children. Severe and life-threatening complications are extremely rare, particularly those involving the cardiovascular system. We report a malnourished 5-year-old girl with chicken pox complicated by hemorrhagic pericarditis and deep vein thrombosis leading to fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Though varicella infection runs a benign self-limiting course, it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality when associated with complications, particularly in malnourished children. Hence, the importance of vaccination and early recognition of complications is emphasized.

  12. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis in a child with primary varicella infection (chickenpox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeesh, B N; Mahadevan, Anita; Yasha, T C; Shankar, S K

    2009-01-01

    Chickenpox (Varicella) representing the primary infection by Varicella zoster virus is a common benign and self-limited infectious disease of childhood. Although the disease can be associated with complications, they are generally mild and tend to occur in adults and immunocompromised children. Severe and life-threatening complications are extremely rare, particularly those involving the cardiovascular system. We report a malnourished 5-year-old girl with chicken pox complicated by hemorrhagic pericarditis and deep vein thrombosis leading to fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Though varicella infection runs a benign self-limiting course, it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality when associated with complications, particularly in malnourished children. Hence, the importance of vaccination and early recognition of complications is emphasized. PMID:19332925

  13. Simultaneous chickenpox and measles infection among migrant children who stayed in Italy during the second half of June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ivi?-Hofman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting on a household outbreak of measles, in which cases of simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection occured in children of a family who resided in Italy during the incubation period (June 2011. In three children, fever and generalized confluent macular rash were the dominant symptoms. Serology testing revealed simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection in four children.

  14. Optic Neuritis in an Adult Patient with Chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in a patient with primary infection with Varicella zoster virus is rare, especially in the immunocompetent adult. In particular, isolated optic neuritis has been described in a small number of cases. The authors present a case of optic neuritis in an immunocompetent patient. A 28-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a history of headaches during the previous week, without visual symptoms. The examination was unremarkable, except for a rash suggestive of chickenpox and hyperemic and edematous optic disc, bilaterally. Visual acuity and neurological examination were normal. Two days later, she complained of pain on eye movement and decreased visual acuity, which was 20/32 in her right eye and 20/60 in her left eye. Four days after admission, her visual acuity started to improve, and two months later, she had 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an immunocompetent adult in which a Varicella zoster virus associated optic neuritis presented with fundoscopic changes before decreased visual acuity. This suggests that this condition may be underdiagnosed in asymptomatic patients.

  15. Outbreak of chickenpox in a Union Territory of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Primary infection with a varicella-zoster virus (VZV leads to chickenpox. Though the incidence of the disease has decreased in many developed countries due to the introduction of the varicella vaccine, outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. Materials and Methods: The present study reports an outbreak of varicella in an urbanised village in the vicinity of Chandigarh City in North India in November 2013. The outbreak was confirmed by the detection of VZV IgM antibodies in serum samples of clinically suspected patients. Vesicular fluid samples were collected from 8 patients with active lesions and tested for VZV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples were also collected from 17 healthy controls residing in the same locality and tested for the presence of VZV IgM and IgG antibodies. Results: A total of 18 cases occurred, and the majority of them (67% were <15 years of age. Of 17 samples collected from patients with the clinically suspected disease, 13 (76.5% showed the presence of VZV IgM antibodies. Of the healthy controls, 6 were VZV IgM positive and 4 of them developed symptomatic disease on follow-up. VZV DNA was positive in 5/8 (62.5% of the patients. In one patient, VZV DNA was detected in the absence of an IgM antibody response. Conclusion: The introduction of varicella vaccine in the universal immunisation programme of India may help to prevent these outbreaks; however, the cost-benefit analysis needs to be carried out before making such policies.

  16. The incidence of chickenpox in the community: lessons for disease surveillance in sentinel practice networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Falcao, I.; Vega Alonso, T.; Padilla, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel practice networks have been established in many European countries to monitor disease incidence in the community. To demonstrate the value of sentinel networks an international study on the incidence of chicken pox has been undertaken. Chickenpox was chosen as an acute condition for which i

  17. Occupationally Related Outbreak of Chickenpox in Hospital Staff: A Learning Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Varicella (chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease which is caused by Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), a ubiquitous human α herpes virus. Nosocomial varicella in hospital employees can be costly to the hospital and disruptive to patient care. This case report describes an occupationally related outbreak of chickenpox in hospital staff and the lessons which were learnt by the hospital during this experience.

  18. Experimental studies on the prevention and treatment of chickenpox and herpes zoster with measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Ming, Z L; Chen, Q; Li, Y

    1989-05-01

    In 151 chickenpox patients treated with live attenuated measles vaccine, the cure rate was 100%. In 145 cases of herpes zoster, the effective rate was 100% (completely cured in 91.7% and improved in 8.3%). In the treated group, the time needed for the subsidence of fever and skin rash and the duration of the disease were markedly shorter than those in the control group (P less than 0.01). It is particularly effective for alleviating pain, preventing and relieving postherpetic neuralgia in patients with zoster. The application of measles vaccine to the patients in the chickenpox incubation period might prevent the development of the disease, and decrease the incidence and death rate of varicella zoster virus infection in highly susceptible patients. The mechanism of its anti-viral action and production of interferon in the body is discussed.

  19. Ischemic retinal vasculitis in an 18-year-old man with chickenpox infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonyathalang A,Sukavatcharin S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anuchit Poonyathalang, Somsiri Sukavatcharin, Tharikarn Sujirakul Department of Ophthalmology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Ocular involvement after primary infection with varicella zoster virus is very rare. We report a case of a healthy 18-year-old man who presented with unilateral ischemic retinal vasculitis 10 days after the onset of chickenpox. He developed acute severe visual loss and a relative afferent pupillary defect in his right eye. Fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, fundus fluorescence angiography, and electrophysiologic studies confirmed the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis, which led to generalized retinal ischemia. Although aggressive treatment with systemic steroids and antiviral drugs was administered, a poor visual outcome still resulted. Keywords: ischemic retinal vasculitis, chickenpox, varicella zoster virus

  20. Precipitation of stroke-like event by chickenpox in a child with MELAS syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ren Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS is a rare congenital disorder of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Herein we report a case of MELAS, whose second stroke-like episode was provoked by chickenpox. A point mutation at nucleotide (nt 3243 in mtDNA supported the diagnosis of MELAS in this case. History of myopathy, the presence of lesions that did not conform to accepted distributions of vascular territories on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, normal result of cranial magnetic resonance angiography, hyperintensity on diffusion weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping indicating the presence of vasogenic edema in the fresh stroke-like lesion, and mitochondrial DNA analysis helped to exclude the diagnosis of ischemic cerebral infarction which can also be induced by chickenpox.

  1. Occupationally related outbreak of chickenpox in hospital staff: a learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Smita

    2013-10-01

    Varicella (chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease which is caused by Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), a ubiquitous human α herpes virus. Nosocomial varicella in hospital employees can be costly to the hospital and disruptive to patient care. This case report describes an occupationally related outbreak of chickenpox in hospital staff and the lessons which were learnt by the hospital during this experience. PMID:24298507

  2. Characteristics of chickenpox in children and adults at a tertiary health center in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmir Baljic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chickenpox is very contagious childhood disease, which occurs due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV primaryinfection. Disease in healthy children resolves usually without complications, but risk of complication is much higherin adults and immunocompromised hosts. The goal of this study was to determine different clinical and epidemiologicalcharacteristics, laboratory features, clinical course, and outcome of chickenpox in children and adults.Material and methods: The descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Clinical Centerin Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The study included 120 patients chosen randomly. We compared their clinical andepidemiological characteristics, laboratory investigations, complications and the outcome of the disease.Results: Age of patients was in range from one to 48 years. Male patients prevailed in both groups (65% in adults,52% in children. Hospitalization rate was 10.7/100,000 inhabitants. Positive contact with chickenpox was confirmed in80% adults and 82% children. Dominating symptoms were fever, rash and muscle aches. Levels of C-reactive protein,erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR and fibrinogen levels were elevated in both groups, while thrombocytopenia waspresented in 33% of adults and 3% of children. Adults had complications in 83.3% and their hospitalization rate waslonger compared to children (11.5 days vs. 9.5 days, p<0.001.Conclusions: Chickenpox is a potentially severe illness in adult patients. Introduction of active immunization in Bosnia-Herzegovina should be considered to prevent severe forms of chickenpox. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 64-67Key words: Chickenpox, complications, pneumonia

  3. Epidemiologic lessons: Chickenpox outbreak investigation in a rural community around Chandigarh, North India

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    Mini Pritam Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Primary infection with Varicella Zoster virus (VZV leads to Varicella or chickenpox. The epidemiology of Varicella has changed dramatically since the introduction of the Varicella vaccine in 1995. The routine childhood immunization in a few countries in the western world like Germany and the United States has reduced the incidence of the disease, associated complications, hospital admissions and deaths related to its complications. However, chickenpox outbreaks are common in naive unvaccinated communities in India. Materials and Methods: We report an outbreak of chickenpox that occurred in a village situated on the outskirts of Chandigarh city in North India in the winter of 2007. The outbreak was confirmed by the detection of VZV IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on serum samples from the patients. In patients showing active lesions, Giemsa and indirect immunofluorescence was carried out on scrapings from vesicular lesions. Results: A total of 162 cases occurred in the present outbreak. The serum samples were collected from 20 patients, and all of them showed positive serology for VZV IgM antibodies while 19 showed a positive VZV IgG result by ELISA. The scrapings were collected from two patients showing active lesions, and both were positive by the Tzanck smear examination, and VZV antigen could be demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to identify naive communities and unvaccinated individuals at risk. Also, there is a need for regular training programmes of health workers posted in peripheral centers so that highly contagious communicable diseases can be picked up in time and such outbreaks can be prevented.

  4. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

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    Gilberto Serrano Ocaña

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.

  5. Management of Varicella Gangrenosa: A Life-Threatening Condition from Chickenpox

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    Judith P. M. Schots

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella gangrenosa, in which gangrenous ulceration of the skin and/or deeper tissues is seen, is a rare but alarming complication of Varicella infection. An early surgical intervention is generally advised, especially in case of sepsis and/or the presence of large necrotic lesions. We describe a case of a previously healthy 12-month-old boy presenting with sepsis due to Varicella gangrenosa. He presented with moderate lesions of moist gangrene. We treated our patient initially with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole and later on flucloxacillin and antiviral therapy (acyclovir whereupon his condition rapidly improved and all skin lesions healed entirely. This report highlights the possibility of conservative treatment and emphasizes the significance of acyclovir in the management of chickenpox complicated by moist gangrene due to bacterial superinfection.

  6. Validity of a reported history of chickenpox in targeting varicella vaccination at susceptible adolescents in England ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Field, N.; Amirthalingam, G.; Waight, P; Ladhani, S. N.; van Hoek, A. J.; Miller, E.; Andrews, N.; Maple, P. A. C.; Brown, K E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the UK, primary varicella is usually a mild infection in children, but can cause serious illness in susceptible pregnant women and adults. The UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation is considering an adolescent varicella vaccination programme. Cost-effectiveness depends upon identifying susceptibles and minimising vaccine wastage, and chickenpox history is one method to screen for eligibility. To inform this approach, we estimated the proportion of adolescents wit...

  7. Chickenpox (Varicella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . 6 th ed. pp.2070, 2080-2081, 2434-2437. New York: ... German Measles (Rubella) Measles (Rubeola) Roseola (Sixth Disease) Viral ...

  8. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz Chickenpox outbreak in Herrera del Duque, Badajoz, Spain

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    F.J. Valadés

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p Introduction: Chickenpox is a worldwide disease with high morbidity but few complications, although complications can be sevre in immunocompromised individuals and healthy adults. The annual chickenpox rate declared to the National Notification Disease Surveillance System is approximately 5 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in Extremadura (Spain. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics and cost of an epidemic outbreak of chickenpox

  9. An observational study of complications in chickenpox with special reference to unusual complications in an apex infectious disease hospital, Kolkata, India

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    A K Kole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox can cause serious complications and even death in persons without any risk factors. Aims: To observe the different complications with special reference to unusual complications of chickenpox and their outcomes. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective observational study where 300 patients suffering from chickenpox were evaluated with special reference to unusual complications and outcomes. Results: The usual complications of chickenpox commonly observed were acute hepatitis in 30 (10% and cerebellar ataxia in 22 patients (7.3%, whereas common unusual complications were acute pancreatitis in 45 (15%, hemorrhagic rash in 10 (3.3%, Guillain-Barrι syndrome in 4 (1.3%, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 (1.3%, necrotizing fasciitis in 4 (1.3%, and acute renal failure in 3 patients (1%. It had been observed that most of these unusual complications occurred in patients without any risk factor. A total of 18 patients (6% died in this study and of them 12 patients (4% died due to unusual complications. Conclusions: Compulsory childhood varicella vaccination including vaccination of risk groups and susceptible individuals are all essential to reduce the incidence of chickenpox, associated complications, and subsequent death.

  10. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Neumonia varicelosa. Presentacion de caso.

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    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.La varicela es una infección exantemática producida por el virus Varicela zoster (VZV que comúnmente ocurre en la infancia. Se reporta el 90 % de los casos en niños menores de 12 años, el 10 % de la población mayor de 15 años es susceptible a padecerla. La enfermedad se adquiere por inhalación de partículas que contienen el virus y que son expulsadas por la nasofaringe de individuos infectados. Esto causa una infección inicial en el epitelio respiratorio. El virus se disemina a células distantes del sistema retículo endotelial y, finalmente, se produce un estado de viremia con manifestaciones en la piel, aunque la diseminación también se puede extender a las vísceras. El deterioro de la inmunidad celular ocasionado por enfermedades coexistentes, infección por VIH, cáncer, enfermedad hemato-oncológica, uso de esteroides, así como, la edad avanzada, el hábito de fumar

  11. Geographical epidemiology study on chickenpox features in China%我国水痘疫情的地理流行学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫磊; 殷红梅; 黄国; 申锦玉; 牛建军; 王世文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the epidemic features of chickenpox in China from 2007-2010 by using the geographical epidemiology methods.[Methods]Using the surveillance data from national internet-based information system of infectious diseases in China Disease Prevention and Control Center, the analysis of the status of chickenpox epidemic in China from 2007 to 2010 was conducted by GIS software(ArcGIS) and statistical software(Stata).[Results]the national average incidence of chickenpox was 20.6, 23.8, 24.1, and 24.3 per 100 000 populations in 2007-2010 respectively.Using the cases/incidence of chickenpox in 2010 as an example, there were 162 counties which incidence of chickenpox was higher than 100/100 000.Most of them were located in Tebit, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Liaoning, Guangdong, Gansu provinces and accounted for 52% of 162 counties.From 2007 to 2010, the incidence of chickenpox increased yearly.[Conclusions]The risk factors of chickenpox epidemic are different among the provinces.The prevention strategies should be developed based on the local situation.%[目的]从地理流行病学的角度了解我国2007~2010年水痘发病情况.[方法]使用中国疾病预防控制中心"疾病监测信息报告管理系统",ArcGIS地理信息系统软件,Stata统计分析软件对2007-2010年全国水痘疫情分布进行了分析.[结果]2007-2010年全国平均发病率分别为十万分之20.6、23.8、24.1、和24.3,以2010年为例,发病率大于100/10万共有162的县,多数集中在西藏、新疆、四川、辽宁、广东、甘肃六个省,占总数的52%.2007-2010年全国水痘病例报告的人数和平均发病率的有逐年增高的趋势.[结论] 水痘发病的地域区别较大,影响发病率的因素较多,各地应根据自身情况与实际特点有针对性的进行防控.

  12. WAYS TO IMPROVE PREVENTION OF CHICKENPOX AT CHILDREN OF UKRAINE IN MODERN CONDITION

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    Kirsanova T.O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chickenpox (CP in recent years has tended to steady increase in the incidence of various regions of Ukraine, especially among children. The situation regarding the incidence of PA nowadays, especially among children, determines the relevance of infection and requires the solution of problems in finding the most effective ways to prevent the population of Ukraine against CP. Purpose: to theoretically justify the introduction of the National vaccination calendar of Ukraine vaccine against CP based on the study of modern epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical features of CP in children of Kharkiv region of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The analysis of statistical data on the incidence of PA in Kharkiv region and 2780 data from case histories of children aged one month PA-18, admitted to the Kharkiv Regional Hospital of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in the last five years. The diagnosis is established on the basis of characteristic clinical manifestations. Results and discussion. During the period 2010-2014 epidemiological curve morbidity in children with CP has tended to rise with maximum performance in 2011, prevailed among patients, children who lived in the city. The largest recorded incidence in children under 15 years old, had a tendency to increase the proportion of high school age children. Among dominated diseased children attending organized children's groups (kindergartens, schools, including more than a third part of patients lived in closed children's institutions (orphanages, boarding schools, etc.. Clear seasonal disease was traced to the rise of the autumn-winter period. Monitoring the number of children with CP, admitted to hospital, also showed growth in their numbers. The reason for hospitalization were: pronounced intoxication syndrome, abundant rash on skin and mucous membranes, complicated disease, epidemiological indications. The most affected age groups were children 1-10 years. The disease ran mostly in

  13. 衡阳市2005-2007年水痘流行情况分析%Epidemiological analysis of chickenpox in Hengyang from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 谢建民; 曾亚雄; 伍运生

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析衡阳市水痘流行情况,为水痘防制工作提供科学依据.方法 对2005-2007年衡阳市水痘疫情进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 衡阳市2005-2007共发生水痘1048例,无死亡,发病率呈逐年上升趋势.5、11月份为发病高峰月份,病例主要为学生.期间共有水痘暴发疫情20起,全部发生在农村中小学校.结论 加强学校卫生防病工作是预防控制水痘暴发和流行的工作重点.%Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of chickenpox in Hengyang,Hunan province and provide a scientific basis for effective prevention and control of the disease.Methods Descriptive epidemiologieal method was used to analyze the data of chickenpox activity in Hengyang from 2005 to 2007.Results Between 2005 and 2007,1048 cases of chickenpox were confirmed and no one died.The morbidity showed an increasing trend year by year.Most of the cases were seen in students.A total of 20 outbreaks were reported during the period,and the peak incidence appeared in May and November.All the events took place in rural schools.Conclusion Emphases should be put on strengthening rural schools'health management to prevent and control chickenpox effectively.

  14. 43例大学生水痘患者防治及护理%Prevention treatment and nursing on 43 cases of college students with chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏春华

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结大学生水痘的临床表现、防治原则及护理要点,减少疾病传播,促进患者康复。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年6月在本校医院就诊的43例大学生水痘病例。结果43例水痘患者均顺利出院,住院时间9~21 d,平均(13.1±5.2)d。结论水痘有较强的传染性,减毒疫苗尚未普及,而高校学生学习生活集中,故高校医务人员应加强大学生水痘患者的防治及护理,避免水痘大范围内爆发流行。%Objective To summarize the clinical manifestations ,control principles and care points of college students with chickenpox, reducing the spread of disease, and promoting the rehabilitation of patients. Methods A retrospective analysis on 43 college students with chickenpox, treated in the university hospital from January 2012 to June 2014. Results 43 cases with chickenpox were discharged, hospital stay were 9-21 d, the average( 13. 1± 5.2) d. conclusion Varicella was strongly infectious, attenuated vaccines is not yet universal, and college students’ living focus, so the medical staff in college should be strengthened prevention and care of college students with chickenpox to avoid the varicella large-scale outbreak.

  15. An Evaluation to assess the Knowledge regarding Prevention and Management of Chickenpox in Children among Mothers having Children below 10 years of age residing at selected community area of Allahabad (India

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    Jemy Elizabeth Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is a worldwide disease and is no respecter race or class. The incidence increases in spring & winter months in the temperate zones. In the tropics, the peak incidence is during winter and early spring. The disease in fact started spreading from February itself. Lack of knowledge among common people on preventing water contamination is helping the virus to spread rapidly. The descriptive study attempts to assess the knowledge regarding prevention and management of chickenpox among mothers of below 10 years of age children who are residing at Naini, Allahabad with a view to develop an information booklet. Method: The study involved single group test without a control, using non-experimental descriptive design, with non-probability convenient sampling. 60 women were involved in data collection by using structured questionnaire. The study came to an end by implementation of information booklet on chickenpox and its prevention and management, and the results were described using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The overall mean knowledge score was found to be 48.86 % and S.D 5.87. The highest mean knowledge score was found on general health (46.5%. The mean knowledge score varied from 46.5% to 55.6% on different aspects of chickenpox.  Chi-square test implies that there was a statistically significant association between selected demographic variables with knowledge of prevention and home care management of chickenpox at 5 percent level. Conclusion: The overall findings of the study clearly showed that there is lack of knowledge of prevention and home care management of chickenpox among mothers and the results revealed that distribution of information booklet on chickenpox and its prevention and management will be helpful for the women to gain knowledge.

  16. Children with chickenpox:a care of 42 cases%42例小儿水痘护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methods of care chickenpox in children. Methods Isolation of children, and to give calamine lotion and topical acyclovir ointment, pruritus obvious oral antihistamines. Care items including general care, barrier nursing, nursing fever, skin and blister care, diet care, psychological care, and close observation the changes to prevent complications. Results Of the 42 patients were cured after treatment 7d 23 cases, the cure rate was 54.76%, the total effective 33 cases, the total effective rate was 78.75%, 14d after treatment cured 37 cases, the cure rate was 88.1%, the total effective 42 cases, the total efficiency was 100.00%. Rash face healed without scar formation. Conclusion Variety attentive care measures and calamine lotion and ointment acyclovir topical, has good efficacy, fewer side effects, is one of the better way to treat children with chickenpox.%目的:探讨小儿水痘的护理方法。方法隔离患儿,并给予炉甘石洗剂及阿昔洛韦软膏外用,皮肤瘙痒明显者可口服抗组胺药。包括:一般护理、隔离护理、发热护理、皮肤与水疱护理、饮食护理、心理护理,并密切观察病情变化,以防并发症的发生。结果42例患儿治疗7d后痊愈23例,痊愈率为54.76%,总有效33例,总有效率78.75%,治疗14d后痊愈37例,痊愈率为88.1%,总有效率42例,总有效率为100.00%。皮疹面愈合良好,无瘢痕形成。结论多种细心护理措施和炉甘石洗剂及阿昔洛韦软膏外用,疗效好,副作用较少,是治疗小儿水痘的较好方法之一。

  17. Epidemic Situation of Chickenpox in Jinjiang District of Chengdu, 2006 -2010%2006-2010年成都市锦江区水痘疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠民

    2012-01-01

    Objective By understanding the epidemic situation of chickenpox in Jinjiang district, to provide scientific evidence for developing measures of chickenpox prevention. Method Data of chickenpox epidemic situation in Jinjiang district from 2006 to 2010 was analyzed. Results Totally 1 372 chickenpox patients were reported during 2006 to 2010, the annual incidence rate was 62. 63/105 Dongguang (14. 58% ) , Shizishan (10. 71% ) , Liujiang (9. 32% ) , and Sansheng (8. 53% ) were the jurisdictions with the highest proportion of chickenpox. Among the cases, 747 were male, and 625 were female. The proportions of 0 - 3, 4 - 9, 10-15 years old group were 13. 56% , 50. 58% , and 19. 02% respectively. The proportions of students, child -care children, and scattered children were 41. 84% , 33. 89% , and 11. 08% respectively. The incidence concentrated in A-pril to June (43. 00% ) and November to the next January (27. 11% ). Both the incidence in 2007 (78. 84/ 105) and 2009 (76. 28/105) were high. Conclusion The highest incidences of chickenpox were in 2007 and 2009 in Jinjiang district from 2006 to 2010, and peaked every two years, while the proportion of cases was high in the agriculture - related street area. .%目的 了解2006 - 2010年成都市锦江区水痘疫情情况,为制定水痘防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对2006 - 2010年锦江区水痘疫情资料进行分析.结果 2006 -2010年共报告水痘1 372例,年均发生率为62.63/10万.水痘发病数较高的涉农街道辖区分别为东光(14.58%,200/1 372)、狮子山(10.71%,147/1 372)、柳江(9.32%,128/1 372)和三圣(8.53%,117/1 372).男性747例,女性625例;0~3岁占13.56%(186/1 372)、4~9岁占50.58% (694/1 372)、10~ 15岁占19.02%(261/1 372),学生占41.84%、托幼儿童占33.89%、散居儿童占11.08%;发病时间集中在4~6月和11月~次年1月,分别占43.00%和27.11%.2007和2009年发病率较高,分别为78.84/10万和76.28/10万.结论 2006 -2010

  18. 一起水痘突发疫情流行病学分析%Epidemiological Analysis on An Outbreak of Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉琴; 王红卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:对北京市怀柔区某小学一起水痘突发疫情进行流行病学分析,为今后更好的处理水痘暴发疫情提供流行病学依据.方法:收集中国疾病控制信息系统中北京市怀柔区某小学的一起水痘突发疫情个案病例和突发疫情信息,采用描述流行病学方法分析流行病学特征.结果:水痘发病年龄(6~12) 岁,以一年级为主,共27 例,占总病例数的67.50%; 应急后免疫未超过1个月发病的2例,免疫史超过3年的发病3例,超过4年的发病3例,超过5年的发病25 例,分别占5.88% 、8.82% 、8.82% 、73.53%.结论:水痘易在学校等集体单位暴发流行,发病以低年级儿童为主,免疫史超过5年的突破病例较多.学校等集体单位在严格落实各项防控措施的同时,接种水痘减毒活疫苗(Varicella Attenuated Live Vaccine;VarV) 是预防和控制水痘最有效和最可靠的手段.%Objective:To analysis an outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school of Beijing Huairou district, to provide epidemiological basis for dealing with the epidemic of chickenpox. Methods: the information of chickenpox cases of a primary school in Beijing Huairou district was collected from Chinese Centers for Disease Control Information System, and descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze epidemiology characters of chickenpox .Results: The average age of cases was 7.08y(rangre 6y ~12y). The cases were diagnosed maily in grade 1, about 27 cases accounting for 67.50%. 2 cases within 1 month immune following stress, 3 cases withI more than 3 years immune history, 3 cases with more than 4 years immune history, 25 cases with more than 5 years immune history were diagnosed,accounting for 5.88%, 8.82%, 8.82% and 73.53% respectively. Conclusion:Chickenpox is outbreaked in collective units such as schools frequently, and the incidence cases are maily in low-grade children especially who with more than 5-year immune history. Schools and other collective units should implement

  19. Ultra-violet radiation is responsible for the differences in global epidemiology of chickenpox and the evolution of varicella-zoster virus as man migrated out of Africa

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    Rice Philip S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the eight human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and zoster, has a unique epidemiology. Primary infection is much less common in children in the tropics compared with temperate areas. This results in increased adult susceptibility causing outbreaks, for example in health-care workers migrating from tropical to temperate countries. The recent demonstration that there are different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus and their geographic segregation into tropical and temperate areas suggests a distinct, yet previously unconsidered climatic factor may be responsible for both the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of this virus infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Unlike other human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus does not require intimate contact for infection to occur indicating that transmission may be interrupted by a geographically restricted climatic factor. The factor with the largest difference between tropical and temperate zones is ultra-violet radiation. This could reduce the infectiousness of chickenpox cases by inactivating virus in vesicles, before or after rupture. This would explain decreased transmissibility in the tropics and why the peak chickenpox incidence in temperate zones occurs during winter and spring, when ultra-violet radiation is at its lowest. The evolution of geographically restricted genotypes is also explained by ultra-violet radiation driving natural selection of different virus genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to inactivation, tropical genotypes being the most resistant. Consequently, temperate viruses should be more sensitive to its effects. This is supported by the observation that temperate genotypes are found in the tropics only in specific circumstances, namely where ultra-violet radiation has either been excluded or significantly reduced in intensity. Testing the Hypothesis The hypothesis is testable by exposing

  20. 2007-2010年深圳市沙井街道水痘流行特征分析%Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Chickenpox in Shajing Street Block of Shenzhen City from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德坚; 郑磊; 黎小炳; 陆剑勇; 袁坚

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To grasp the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox, provide a scientific basis for making prevention and control strategies. [Methods]The data of chickenpox in Shajing street block of Shenzhen city from 2007 to 2010 were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. [Results] 1 626 cases of chickenpox were reported in Shajing street block from 2007 to 2010, and the annual incidence rates ranged from 33. 95/lakh to 66. 09/lakh. There were 8 outbreaks of chickenpox, all occurred in schools and kindergartens, and 2 were public health emergencies. The autumn and winter was peak season, which was from November to next January, and the highest peak was in December. 69.99% of total cases were people under IS years old, and 28.48% were people aged 15-30 years old. Students, scattered children and preschool children accounted for 71.46% of the total patients. 18.33% of cases were workers. Outbreak investigation showed that most patients had no history of chickenpox immunization or unknown immunization history. [Conclusion]The epidemic situation of chickenpox in Shajing street block is serious, and the vaccination is the most effective means for chickenpox control. It is recommended that chickenpox vaccine should be regarded as the class I vaccine management in some areas, so as to reduce the incidence of chickenpox.%目的 及时掌握水痘的流行病学特征,为制定预防控制策略提供科学依据.方法 对深圳沙井街道2007-2010年的水痘发病资料采用描述性流行病学方法进行统计和分析.结果 2007-2010年沙井街道累计报告确诊水痘病例1626例,年发病率位于33.95/10万~66.09/10万之间;发生水痘暴发疫情8起,全部在学校和幼儿园,其中突发公共卫生事件2起;呈现秋冬季节高发特点,11月至次年1月是高峰期,最高峰在12月;15岁以下人群水痘发病数占总数的69.99%,15 ~30岁的人群发病数占报告病例总数的28.48%;学生、散居儿童和托

  1. Varicela complicada en un hospital pediátrico de referencia, Perú 2001-2011 Complicated chickenpox in a national pediatric Peruvian hospital, 2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Miranda-Choque

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de estudio fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos de varicela complicada atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (INSN del Perú durante los años 2001 al 2011. Se realizó una serie de casos que incluyó un total de 1073 niños con varicela complicada. La mediana de la edad fue de 2,5 años (RIQ 1,1-4,8 años; 578 (54% fueron de sexo masculino. El tipo de complicación más frecuente fueron las infecciones secundarias de piel y partes blandas con 768 casos (72%, se registró 13 (1,4% fallecidos. En conclusión, en el INSN se hospitalizan con mayor frecuencia casos de varicela complicada en niños menores de cinco años, con un tiempo de hospitalización corto y con una baja proporción de fallecidos, la mayoría de complicaciones siendo relacionadas con las infecciones secundarias de piel y partes blandasThe objective of the study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of complicated chickenpox cases seen at the National Institute of Children’s Health (INSN, Spanish acronym of Peru from 2001 to 2011. A case series was collected, including a total of 1,073 children with complicated chickenpox. The median age was 2.5 years (IQR 1.1-4.8 years, of which 578 (54% were male. The most frequent complications were secondary skin and soft tissue infections with 768 cases (72%. 13 deaths (1.4% were recorded. In conclusion, the hospitalizations due to complicated chickenpox in the INSN included mostly children under five, with a short stay and a low proportion of deaths most complications being related to secondary skin and soft tissue infections

  2. 口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效评价%The curative effect of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 黄国珍; 朱渝; 喻韬; 万朝敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox. METHODS Updated evidences were identified by searching Cochrane library, MEDUNE and EMBASE. Only systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi- RCTs were included. The efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox in healthy children was analyzed through evidence-based methods. RESULTS Oral acyclovir was associated with the reductions in the number of days with fever and in the number of rash. There were less supportive evidences in shortening the number of days to get new rash and relieving pruritus. CONCLUSION The clinical importance of oral acyclovir treatment in healthy children remains uncertain.%目的 对口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效进行循证评价.方法 使用相关检索词对Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE及EMBASE等数据库进行检索,获得关于口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效的系统评价及随机对照实验,用循证医学的方法对口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效进行评价.结果 口服阿昔洛韦能减少患者发热的天数及水痘皮疹的数量,但在缩短新生皮损出现时间及减轻皮肤瘙痒等方面尚不明确.结论 阿昔洛韦在治疗平素健康儿童水痘患者的重要性仍不明确.

  3. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... is higher in most other parts of the world than it is in the United States. Varicella ...

  4. Analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox in Jiading District%嘉定区2005-2010年水痘流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬华; 钟培松; 钱杰; 李强; 汤伟琴; 杨帆; 陈斌; 季莹; 张一英; 周浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To know the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox in Jiading District in order to provide some information for the control and prevention of chickenpox. Methods:Circular distribution was used to analyze the seasonal trend of chickenpox. Results:The total number of incidence was 6 091 cases from 2005-2010. Children under 14 years old accounted for 63.22%. The maximum annual incidence was 10.93/million. Circular distribution analysis showed that the seasonal trends were more obvious and their value was 0.60 and 0.63 (P<0.05). The ifrst peak time was April 3 and the second was Oct. 26. Conclusion:Chickenpox has the seasonal trend and the pre-school children and school students are in high risk. We should carry out the strategy of combined routine immunization with replanting vaccine to increase the level of immunity of chickenpox before the incidence peak.%目的:了解嘉定区水痘疫情的流行特征,为水痘防控提供依据。方法:运用圆形分布法对2005-2010年水痘疫情进行统计分析,计算角度离散度指标r值、平均角、推算高峰日,并进行雷氏检验。结果:嘉定区2005-2010年水痘总发病数为6091例,年发病率最高在2008年,为109.29/10万;14岁以下的儿童占63.22%。季节性趋势较为明显, r值分别为0.60和0.63(P<0.05),第1发病高峰时间为4月3日,第2发病高峰时间为10月26日。结论:水痘具有明显的季节性发病高峰,学龄前儿童和中小学生是水痘的高发人群,应该在高峰来临前采用学龄前儿童常规接种和在学生中补种相结合的策略开展水痘疫苗的群体水平免疫。

  5. Investigation on an outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school in Donghai county%东海县某小学一起水痘暴发疫情的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 李忠典; 钱忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 报告一起小学水痘暴发疫情及调查处理情况.方法 由专业技术人员进行现场调查处理并记录,根据现场记录总结分析.结果 该校12名学生被诊断为水痘,罹患率25.5%.其中三年级11例、占91.7%,二年级l例、占8.3%,男生9例,罹患率32.1%;女生3例,罹患率15.8%,无并发症及死亡病例.经专家确认是由水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)引起的水痘暴发疫情.结论 由于报告不及时导致此次疫情暴发,采取了有效防控措施,疫情得到控制.%OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school for controlling the epidemic quickly. METHODS Opened field investigation on outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school by the professional health staffs, and analyzed the data with descriptive method. RESULTS There were 12 chickenpox cases occurred among 47 kids, the attack rate was 25.5%. There were 11 cases in a class in Grade three, 1 case in Grade two. 9 of all cases was male, the attack rate for 32.1%, 3 cases of female, the attack rate was 15.8%. All cases was healed by treatments. This outbreak of chickenpox was caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). CONCLUSION The chickenpox outbreak occurs in a primary school and is not controlled well at early time due to not reporting timely. But the epidemic is controlled finally under effective measures.

  6. Investigation and analysis of an outbreak of chickenpox in a middle school in Shanghai%上海市某中学水痘暴发疫情调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许闯; 李物华; 魏大伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过分析上海市某中学一起水痘爆发疫情的流行病学特征,为以后更好地处置水痘爆发疫情提供参考依据。方法:对2013年10月—12月40例水痘疫情开展现场流行病学调查,采用描述性流行病学方法分析流行病学特征。结果:在40例中,罹患率5.7%(40/707),患者年龄介于14~15岁。有水痘免疫接种史的27例,占67.5%,水痘疫苗接种组与未接种组间发病率有统计学差异(χ2=4.31,P<0.05)。结论:提高学校晨检质量,及时发现并隔离水痘病例,相对隔离发病班级,加强消毒及健康教育,提高水痘疫苗接种率,发病学生返校须有医院开具的证明,这些是预防和控制水痘疫情的有效措施。%Objective:To analyze the epidemiologic feature of an outbreak of chickenpox in a middle school of Shanghai to provide a reference for dealing with the outbreak of chickenpox well in the future. Methods:From Oct. to Dec. 2013, the ifeld epidemiological investigation of the chickenpox outbreak of 40 cases was carried out, and the descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics. Results:In 40 cases, the attack rate was 5.7%(40/707), and the age of the cases ranged from 14 to 15 years old. There were 27 cases with the history of chickenpox immunization, accounting for 67.5%, and the incidence between the varicella vaccination group and non vaccinated group had the statistical difference(χ2=4.31, P<0.05). Conclusion:To improve the quality of school morning inspection, timely detect and isolate the cases of chickenpox, relatively isolate the class with the infected students, strengthen disinfection and health education, improve the vaccination rate of chickenpox vaccine, and allow the students to return to school with the proof issued by the hospital are these effective measures for prevention and control of varicella epidemic.

  7. 上海市浦东新区2009-2010年水痘疫情流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis on the chickenpox epidemic from 2009 to 2010 in Pudong new area, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉昭; 赵希畅; 肖绍坦

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the chickenpox epidemic of Pudong New Area and provide the scientific basis for the prevention and control work. [Methods] 6 032 chickenpox cases were analyzed of 2009 to 2010 in Pudong New Area by Retrospective analysis methods and SPSS 13. 0 statistical tools used to deal with the data (meaningful: P<0. 05), and compared the rate of groups by chi-square test. [Results] A total of 6 032 cases of chickenpox in the Pudong New Area were reported (incidence:64. 73/105). The incidence of local citizens were 79. 19/105 and foreign residents were 44. 40/105. Children below 15 years old accounted for 69. 65% of the total cases. School students accounted for 53. 88%. [Conclusions] The incidence of local citizens is higher than that of foreign residents, the incidence of chickenpox tended to be seasonal. Winter and spring are high-occurrence seasons for this disease. Children below 15 years old are the main infected age and school students are easily to be infected.%[目的]分析上海市浦东新区水痘疫情,为预防控制工作提供科学依据. [方法]将2009-2010年上海市浦东新区6 032例水痘病例采用回顾性分析,通过SPSS 13.0进行统计处理,组间率的比较运用x2检验,以P<0.05为差异有统计学意义. [结果]水痘病例6 032例,发病率为64.73/105,其中本市居民4 312例,发病率79.19/105,外来人员1 720例,发病率为44.40/105;15岁以下人群病例4 201例,占发病总数的69.65%,学生病例3 250例,占发病总数53.88%. [结论]本市居民发病率高于外来人员,发病具有明显的季节性,冬春季为高发季节,以15岁以下年龄为主,学生为主要发病群体.

  8. 北京市东城区一起学校水痘暴发疫情的调查分析%Investigation of a chickenpox outbreak in a primary school of Dongcheng district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiologic features of chickenpox outbreak in a primary school of Beijing,investigate the source of the outbreak,and provide recommendations for the chickenpox control and prevention.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characters of this chickenpox outbreak.Results 57 students were infected with chickenpox virus from January 5,2012 to April 15,2012.There were 1320 students in the school.The attack rate of students in storied building was 6.5%.There were no statistics difference in the attack rate among the students of the second floor,the third floor and the fourth floor.Conclusions The main reasons of the outbreak were poor ventilation and low inoculation rate.It is important to improve the vaccination rate to reduce the risk of outbreak.%目的 分析2012年北京市东城区一所小学水痘暴发疫情的流行病学特征,初步探讨暴发疫情发生的原因,为学校水痘暴发疫情控制措施调整提供建议.方法 对本起疫情开展现场流行病学调查,采用描述流行病学的方法进行分析,总结疫情流行病学特征,分析暴发疫情发生原因.结果 2012年1月5日~4月15日该校累计57名学生发病,患者年龄8-9岁.该校在校学生1320人,平房无病例报告,楼房学生罹患率6.5%.二、三、四楼层学生罹患率无统计学差异(x2=3.634,P=0.163).结论教室通风差、疫苗接种率低为暴发疫情发生的主要原因.学校应提高学生水痘疫苗接种率,降低暴发疫情发生的风险.

  9. 痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘48例%Tanreqing injection in treatment of 48 adult chickenpox cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶; 郭文; 方亮; 郑学毅

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘的临床疗效.方法 将48例水痘患者随机分为两组,治疗组在综合治疗的基础上加用痰热清注射液,对照组在综合治疗的基础上加用利巴韦林.两组均治疗5-7d.结果 治疗组加用痰热清注射液能缩短水痘患者体温下降及体温恢复正常时间,缩短皮疹消退时间,能有效缩短疗程,减少传播机会.疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘疗效良好,安全性高.%Objective To study the therapeutic effects of tanreqing injection in the treatment of chickenpox.Methods Forty-eight adult patients with ehickenpox were randomly divided into treatment group and control group.The treatment group received tanreqing injection on the base of complex treatment.The control group received ribavirin injection also on the base of complex treatment.Results Tanreqing injection could shorten the time of temperature beginning fall and recovery,skin eruption disappearing.The effective rate of the treatment group was obviously higher than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions Tanreqing injection is safe and effective for the treatment of chiekenpox.

  10. Chickenpox cases monitoring and epidemic strains gene polymorphism analysis in Ningbo, Zhejiang%浙江省宁波市水痘病例监测及流行株基因多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡逢蛟; 焦素黎; 倪红霞; 马瑞; 潘兴强; 许国章

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析宁波市2009-2011年水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)的流行病学及流行株基因分型特征.方法 收集宁波市突发公共卫生事件报告管理系统的水痘病例发病资料,采集部分水痘病例疱疹液样本,采用PCR法对VZV流行株病毒进行基因分型及限制性内切酶SmaⅠ进行流行株鉴定,用MRC-5细胞进行VZV的分离.结果 2009-2011年宁波市水痘病例的报告发病率分别为23.33/10万、26.24/10万和36.25/10万.7~ 12岁儿童发病率最高,达245.21/10万;5-6月份和11-12月份分别为两个季节性发病高峰.32份水痘患者水疱液样本中25份检出VZV核酸阳性样本,基因分型结果提示为2种不同基因型的毒株,其中2份为M1基因型,其余23份为J基因型毒株.结论 宁波市水痘病例主要发生在春末夏初和秋末冬初季节,以7~12岁学龄儿童为主,J基因型毒株目前为本市流行主要毒株,但也有M1基因型毒株的局部流行.%Objective To analyze the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) epidemiology and the genotype characteristics of epidemic strains in Ningbo from 2009 to 2011.Methods The incidence data of chickenpox cases from Ningbo public health emergency report management system were collected and analyzed.Some vesicle fluid samples from chickenpox cases were collected.The VZV epidemic strains were genotyped by PCR method and the epidemic strains were identified by the restriction enyme Sma Ⅰ.The VZV virus was isolated by MRC-5 cells.Results The reported incidence rates of chickenpox in Ningbo were 23.33/100 000,26.24/100 000 and 36.25/100 000 from 2009 to 2011.Children aged 7-12 years had the highest incidence rate (245.21/100 000).Two seasonal peaks of chickenpox incidence were from May to June and November to December,respectively.The PCR detection result of VZV from 32 vesicle fluid samples showed that 25 samples were positive.Genotype results showed 2 kinds of different genetic types of strain:2 samples were M1 type strains

  11. Investigation of epidemic factors and protective efficacy of vaccine in an outbreak of chickenpox in school%一起学校水痘暴发的流行因素及其疫苗保护效率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗念慈; 李刚; 李苑

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查一起学校水痘暴发的流行因素,探讨水痘疫苗的保护效率.方法 采用1:1频数匹配病例对照研究方法,即以病例作为病例组,随机选择同班级、同性别,且无水痘患病史的相同数量未发病的健康学生作为对照组.使用自行设计的水痘危险因素调查表,对病例和对照进行问卷调查.结果 此次疫情共报告32例水痘病例,总罹患率为0.80%.波及深圳市龙岗区某学校4个班级,其中二年级23例,五年级9例,各班罹患率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);接种过水痘疫苗的病程时间(中位时间5d)比未接种过水痘疫苗的病程时间(中位时间10 d)短;经常与其他年级或班级学生玩耍感染水痘的危险性是未与其他年级或班级学生玩耍的10.71倍,接触班里水痘病例的危险性是未接触的41.89倍;水痘疫苗的保护效率为6.76%,95%CI:10.00%~83.51%.接种进口水痘疫苗的罹患率远低于接种国产疫苗的罹患率(P<0.05).结论 这是一起发生在某小学的水痘暴发疫情,经常与其他班级或年级的学生玩耍以及水痘疫苗保护效率欠佳,是此次疫情暴发的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the epidemic factors and protective efficacy of vaccine in an outbreak of chickenpox in school.Methods The 1:1 frequency matching case-control study was performed.Thirty-two students with chickenpox were served as case group,while 32 healthy students without history of chickenpox as control group.The students in two groups were inquired by self-designed questionnaires of chickenpox risk factors.Results A total of 32 cases were found in the outbreak,with an overall attack rate of 0.80%.The cases were found in four classes,including 23 in grade two and 9 in grade five.The attack rates were significantly different in various classes (P < 0.05).The disease course of cases vaccinated (at a median of 5 d) was shorter than those unvaccinated (at a median of 10 d

  12. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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  18. 广州市番禺区2008-2010年学校水痘暴发疫情分析%Analysis on chickenpox outbreak in schools of PanYu distract during 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎燕君; 郭甜妹; 王凤梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市番禺区2008 - 2010年学校水痘疫情的流行情况,为制订学校水痘疫情防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对2008 - 2010年广州市番禺区学校水痘疫情进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 番禺区2008- 2010年中小学校和幼托园共报告水痘暴发疫情11起,累计发病237例,无死亡病例,累计罹患率3.70%.小学及幼儿园水痘暴发疫情10起,占总数的90.91%;暴发疫情主要集中在3~5月、10 ~ 12月.暴发疫情时间持续最长47d,最短4d,平均6d(中位数).大部分病例无水痘免疫史.结论 2008 -2010年番禺区报告的中小学校和幼托园水痘暴发疫情有逐年减少趋势,水痘暴发疫情防控较理想,但小学幼儿园仍是水痘暴发疫情控制的重点人群聚集场所,需采取针对性的控制措施.%Objective To understand the epidemic status of chickenpox outbreak in schools of Panyu during 2008 to 2010, and provide scientific evidences for marking preventive and control measures. Method Descriptive epidemiology method was performed on analyzing the epidemic of chickenpox outbreak in schools of Panyu during 2008 to 2010. Results 11 incidents and 237 cases were reported in middle schools and primary schools and infant' s schools during 2008 to 2010, no death cases, the accumulative total attack rate was 3. 70%. 10 of 11 incidents happened in primary schools and infant' s schools, it was about 90. 57 %. Most outbreak incidents happened in Mar to May and Oct to Dec. The epidemic time lasted for 47 days at the longest and 4 days at the shortest, the average was 6 days. Most of patients were without immunization history. Conclusions The chickenpox epidemic of schools which reported in Panyu during 2008 to 2010 showed downward trend year by year, and the epidemic situation was controlled, but the primary schools and infant' s schools were still the key people to control the disease, at the same time, we need to take the pertinent control measures.

  19. Avaliação da suscetibilidade à varicela no paciente pediátrico portador de insuficiência renal crônica Evaluation of chickenpox susceptibility in children with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Roberto Baldacci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a suscetibilidade natural à varicela de crianças e adolescentes portadores de insuficiência renal crônica (IRC. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 83 pacientes com idade acima de 18 meses e inferior a 18 anos, durante 2000 e 2001, com ritmo de filtração glomerular (RFG abaixo de 70mL/min/1,73m², portando cartão vacinal preconizado pela Fundação Nacional de Saúde e que não receberam nenhuma dose da vacina específica. Do total, três pacientes (3/83 foram excluídos, por terem recebido doses da vacina por meio de órgãos não governamentais. A sorologia foi realizada pelo método Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, considerando-se títulos sorológicos protetores acima de 100mUA/mL. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes renais crônicos tinham idade mediana de 11 anos, 66% eram masculinos, 60% procedentes do próprio município de São Paulo, com RFG médio de 33,6mL/min/1,73m². O diagnóstico clínico de varicela por profissional médico ocorreu em 39 pacientes; destes, 10% se mostraram soronegativos. Dos 80 pacientes restantes, 21 (26% apresentaram títulos não protetores para varicela. A prevalência de suscetibilidade em menores de seis anos foi 7,93 (IC95%=3,29-19,12 vezes superior à de maiores de seis anos. CONCLUSÕES: Houve diminuição da suscetibilidade à varicela com a idade. Pacientes abaixo de seis anos foram cerca de oito vezes mais suscetíveis à varicela que os renais crônicos com idade mais avançada e duas vezes mais suscetíveis do que a população pediátrica brasileira de mesma idade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response to chickenpox natural infection in pediatric patients with chronic renal insufficiency. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 83 patients between 18 months and 18 years old, with glomerular filtration rate below 70mL/min/1.73m², during the years 2000 and 2001, who did not received specific immunization according to official documentation. Three patients (3/83 had been

  20. Aplicación del teorema del umbral estocástico de Whittle a un brote de varicela Application of Whittle's stochastic threshold theorem to a chickenpox outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar el ritmo reproductivo básico en un brote de varicela, aplicar el teorema umbral estocástico para estimar la probabilidad de la ocurrencia del brote e identificar medidas preventivas. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en una guardería de 16 niños, con 13 susceptibles, un infectado inicial y dos niños inmunes por antecedente de enfermedad. Se partió de un modelo estocástico: susceptible - infectado - removido. Se estimó el ritmo de reproducción básico de la enfermedad R0, usando un método de máxima verosimilitud basado en el conocimiento de la distribución de probabilidades para el tamaño total de la epidemia y haciendo una aproximación de epidemia casi-completa. Con el R0 obtenido se aplicó el teorema de umbral estocástico para obtener algunas medidas preventivas que podrían impedir la irrupción del brote de varicela. RESULTADOS: Cada infectado inicial produjo tres casos nuevos de infección, requiriendo para impedir el brote, una cobertura mínima de vacunación del 62%, o disminuir en 62% el contacto entre miembros del grupo o aumentar en 170% la remoción de infectados. CONCLUSIONES: El teorema del umbral estocástico permite identificar medidas que se podrían implementar para prevenir y controlar brotes de varicela. Aunque la distribución del tamaño de la epidemia en forma bimodal con similar probabilidad de ocurrencia de brotes grandes y pequeños, señala la incertidumbre del proceso epidémico en grupos pequeños, requiriéndose un estrecho seguimiento de los brotes en tales grupos.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the basic reproductive rate of a chickenpox outbreak, to apply the stochastic threshold theorem to estimate the probability of an outbreak occurrence and to identify preventive measures. METHODS: The study was carried out in a daycare center comprising 16 children, 13 susceptible, one infected and two children with acquired immunity by previous disease. A stochastic susceptible - infected - removed

  1. 阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效比较%Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacy of Acyclovir and Ganciciovir in the Treatment of Adult Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝虹; 林敏

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic efficacy of acyclovir vs. Ganciclovir in the treatment of adult chickenpox. METHODS: 140 patients with chickenpox in our hospital were randomly divided into acyclovir group and ganciclovir group, according to odd and even days of hospitalization. They were given acyclovir and ganciclovir 10 mg·kg-1, bid, iv.gtt. The average defervescence time, the time for herpes forming a scab, total effective rate and adverse drug reaction were observed in 2 groups. RESULTS: The defervescence time of ganciclovir group was significantly shorter in acyclovir group, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05); Total effective rte of ganciclovir group was significantly higher than that of acyclovir group, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). No adverse drug reaction was found in 2 groups during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir in the treatment of adult varicella is significantly better than acyclovir, and the defervescence time of ganciclovir is shorter than acyclovir.%目的:比较阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效.方法:将我院140例水痘患者,按住院单双日随机均分为阿昔洛韦组与更昔洛韦组,分别给予阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦10 mg·kg-1,bid,静脉滴注.观察并记录2组患者的退热时间、皮疹结痂时间、总有效率和不良反应.结果:更昔洛韦组患者的退热时间明显短于阿昔洛韦组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组的皮疹结痂时间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);更昔洛韦组的总有效率明显高于阿昔洛韦组(P<0.05).2组治疗过程中,均未见不良反应发生.结论:更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效显著优于阿昔洛韦,且退热时间短于阿昔洛韦.

  2. Epidemiological analysis of infection outbreaks of chickenpox in Fangshan District of Beijing from 2008 to 2010%北京市房山区2008-2010年水痘暴发疫情流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟毅; 于海柱; 张士清; 周伟; 高美丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To collect more information on infection outbreaks of chickenpox in Fangshan District of Beijing from January 2008 to December 2010 so as to take more effective precautions against chickenpox in kindergartens and schools. Methods The methods of descriptive epidemiology were used to analyze the frequency of infection outbreaks of chickenpox in Fangshan District from January 2008 to December 2010. Results A total of twenty - one outbreaks occurred in Fangshan District from January 2008 to December 2010. 193 cases were reported during the period, and the incidence rate was 1.72% . Fifteen outbreaks occurred in 2008, two in 2009 , four in 2010. Five of these outbreaks occurred in kindergartens and sixteen in schools. Conclusions Chickenpox is highly infectious. Once the virus enters kindergartens or schools, it will spread rapidly. Strengthening surveillance,isolating the source of infection ,emergency vaccination of susceptible populations, and disinfection are important measures to prevent the outbreak of chicken-pox.%目的 了解北京市房山区2008-01至2010-12水痘暴发疫情情况,为制订托幼园所、学校水痘疫情防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对房山区2008-01至2010-12水痘暴发疫情进行流行病学分析研究.结果 共发生水痘暴发疫情21起,总病例数为193例,罹患率为1.72%.2008年发生15起,2009年发生2起,2010年发生4起.其中5起发生在托幼园所,16起发生在小学.结论 水痘传染性强,病毒一旦引入托幼园所、学校,传播迅速;加强监测,落实传染源隔离、对易感人群应急接种、消毒等措施是预防水痘暴发的重要措施.

  3. 广州地区92例成人水痘患者流行病学、临床及实验室特征分析%Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of 92 adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 林思炜; 廖宝林; 熊红品

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 92 adult patients with chickenpox, collected and analyzed their epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data. We also chose 30 child patients with chickenpox from same period for comparison. Results Adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area were mostly found in seasons of autumn and winter (61.9%), and in Baiyun district (40.2%). They were mainly consisted of students (42.4%). Patients in adult group (n = 84) had significantly longer fever (P = 0.033), as well as higher frequencies of throat pain, blister with infection and involved in oral mucosa than those in child group (P = 0.001, 0.005, 0.041), and most of their rash were not centrally distribution (P = 0.006). Patients in adult group had higher frequency of hepatitis than those in childe group (54.8% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Conclusion Clinical symptoms in adult patients with chickenpox are not typical and more severe, attentions must be paid to prevent and treat their complications.%目的:了解广州地区成人水痘患者流行病学、临床和实验室检查特征。方法回顾性分析92例成人水痘患者的流行病学、临床和实验室资料,选取同期30例儿童水痘患者作为对照。结果广州成人水痘患者多发生于秋冬季节(61.9%),白云区例数最多(40.2%),以学生为主(42.4%)。成人组(n =84)热程较长(P =0.033),咽痛、水泡伴发感染与累及口腔黏膜发生率均较儿童组明显升高(P =0.001、0.005、0.041),且皮疹以非向心性分布为主(P =0.006)。成人组合并肝炎发生率较儿童组高(54.8% vs 10.0%,P <0.001)。结论成人水痘患者临床表现不典型且病情较重,需注意并发症的防治。

  4. 儿童期急性白血病合并水痘的特点及其高危预后因素的临床分析%Clinical features of chickenpox and high risk factors of prognosis in childhood cases with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧慧; 程澄; 陈志海; 李兴旺

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析儿童期急性淋巴细胞白血病(ALL)合并水痘的临床特点,探讨与预后相关的高危临床因素。方法对2008年1月1日~2014年12月31日首都医科大学附属北京地坛医院感染中心收治的儿童期ALL合并水痘的患儿及同期随机普通水痘患儿的临床资料进行回顾性对照分析。结果仅5例(31.25%)儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘有明确水痘接触史。13例(81.25%)儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘临床表现为高热,较普通水痘患儿热程长,为(7.38±3.32)d(t =5.575,P <0.05);皮疹结痂时间较长,为(10.92±2.50)d(t=4.928,P<0.05)。100%患儿出现骨髓抑制,其中10例(62.50%)患儿出现粒细胞缺乏,7例(43.75%)出现血小板减少;8例(50.00%)患儿肝功能异常。儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘经抗病毒、对症支持等治疗,临床治愈11例,自动出院4例,死亡1例。儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘临床表现危重和最终死亡者,具有应用静脉药物化疗方案治疗、化疗中或完成静脉化疗1周内罹患水痘、所有病例均出现骨髓抑制粒细胞缺乏且持续较长时间[(10.08±2.77) d]等特点。结论儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘具有临床症状持续时间长、并发骨髓抑制粒细胞减少等特点,经积极抗病毒及对症支持治疗后预后良好。应用静脉药物化疗中或完成化疗1周内罹患水痘、持续性粒细胞缺乏是与儿童期ALL患儿并发水痘预后不良的临床相关因素。%Objective To investigate the clinical features of chickenpox and the high risk factors of the prognosis in childhood patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Methods The clinical characteristics of chickenpox in childhood ALL patients hospitalized in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2014 were studied, retrospectively, and the features of random ordinary children onset chickenpox

  5. Social epidemiology of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Colombian sugar cane producer region: a set theory-based analysis Epidemiología social de una gran epidemia de varicela en la región colombiana productora de caña de azúcar: un análisis basado en teoría de conjuntos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007, with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available.Hay pocos estudios de epidemiología social sobre epidemias de varicela, aunque resultados previos sugieren un importante rol de los determinantes sociales. Este estudio describe el contexto de una gran epidemia de varicela en la región del Valle del Cauca, Colombia (2003 a 2007, con énfasis en algunos macro-determinantes. Exploramos las tendencias temporales de la incidencia de varicela en 42 municipios para identificar los lugares con mayor ocurrencia. Analizamos las características municipales (calidad de educación, cobertura de vacunación, desempeño de los servicios de salud, inmigración relacionada con violencia, y área cultivada con caña de azúcar mediante análisis basados en teoría de conjuntos. Diagramas de Venn de Edward fueron usados para presentar los principales hallazgos. Los resultados indicaron que tres municipios tuvieron las mayores incidencias y que la educación de pobre calidad fue el atributo m

  6. Childhood lichen planus pemphigoides triggered by chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohanarao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP is a rare autoimmune bullous disorder that is rarer in children characterized by bullae on lichen planus like papules and the normal looking skin. Clinical, histopathological and direct immunoflourescence evaluation is important for the diagnosis of this entity. We report a case of LPP in a 5-year-old girl child probably triggered by an episode of preceding varicella. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunofluorescence examination. Histological findings were typical of lichen planus from the biopsy taken from a violaceous to erythematous papule and characteristic of bullous pemphigoid in the biopsy taken from a bullous lesion with evidence of immunoglobulin G and C3 deposition along the basement membrane zone on direct immunofluorescence.

  7. Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or not. Possible reactions after ProQuad® (or MMRV) vaccination Children who get the first dose of ProQuad® ... MMRV) Vaccine Aspirin use and possible reactions after vaccination You should not take aspirin products for 6 ...

  8. 上海市闵行区4~17岁儿童水痘减毒活疫苗接种情况及其保护效果%Analysis of protective effect of using chickenpox live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 years old children in Minhang district, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳; 余峰; 张莉萍; 汪曦; 金宝芳; 王烨; 梅克雯; 陆佳; 蒋露芳

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To survey on the vaccination of varicella live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 children in Minhang District, and analyze the protective effect against varicella.Methods We collected outbreak chickenpox cases reported from infectious disease report system and surveillance units in Minhang district from 1st May in 2012 to 30th Apr in 2013.The 1∶3 matched case-control study was conducted to questionnaire the legal guardian of the cases and control group, and calculate the protective effect and effective term of protection.The survey included vaccination, chickenpox exposure history, previous history of varicella illness, suffering from the symptoms of chickenpox, the vaccinations brand, etc.The criteria of accepted case were those healthy students who were in the same class with those chickenpox cases.The accepted matched controlling data were those children who were from the same class with outbreak chickenpox cases without varicelliform eruption, similar live condition, the closest house, the same gender, the closest age.This study investigated 390 cases of patients and the control group included 1 170 cases. Chi-square test was used to compare the vaccination of cases and controls, as well as the incidence of chickenpox vaccination different brands VarV, Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test was applied to compare the protective effect of the two groups.Results VarV overall vaccination rate was 68.3%( 1 065/1 560 ) , among them, the case group coverage was 45.1% ( 176/390 ) , significantly lower than the control group (76.0%(889/1 170)) (χ2 =128.55,P<0.01) .The coverage in children of 4-10 years old group was 88.4%(375/424), significantly higher than the 11-17 years old group (60.7%(690/1 136)) (χ2 =109.40,P <0.01 ) .The overall protective effect of VarV was 78.10%( 71.82%-82.98%) .Vaccinated group incidence ratio was 16.5% ( 176/1 065 ) , significantly lower than the unvaccinated group ( 43.2%(214/495))(χ2 =128.55,P<0.01).The chickenpox risk of the children

  9. LATE WINTER AND EARLY SPRING IS THE TIME OF VARICELLA (CHICKENPOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Armond

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A varicela ou catapora, como é conhecida popularmente, é uma doença contagiosa, causada por um vírus do grupo herpes - o vírus da varicela-zoster. As pessoas com catapora normalmente apresentam febre e pequenas vesículas na pele. Tipicamente, a doença possui caráter sazonal, onde a maior incidência ocorre no final do inverno e início da primavera. A varicela é uma das clássicas doenças da infância podendo ser adquirida em qualquer idade, porém, é rara nos primeiros meses de vida (a menos que a mãe não tenha tido a doença.

  10. 转移因子治疗水痘%Treatment of Chickenpox with Transfer Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙美英; 李晓萍

    2004-01-01

    @@ 笔者在临床中用转移因子治疗水痘,疗效显著,今录于后,以飨同道. 方法如下:取转移因子3mg肌肉注射,每日1次,连用3天.如发热或血常规白细胞计数偏高者加用抗生素3天.笔者在临床中应用数年,未出现任何不良反应,方法简单易行,适合基层医院应用.

  11. Two cases of neonatal chickenpox%新生儿水痘二例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢平; 孙玉红; 黄延凤

    2005-01-01

    例1 患儿,男,15d.全身水痘疹4d,发热半天来诊。于入院前4d自头面、躯干、四肢出现丘疹、丘疱疹,逐渐增多。入院前2d烦躁、拒乳。0.5d前发热,未测体温,入院治疗。其母在患儿发病前2d患“水痘”。患儿母乳喂养,与母亲密切接触。查体:T39.2℃,P140次/min,R38次/min,体重4kg。成熟儿貌,哭声小,反应差,全身皮肤弥漫性斑疹、丘疱疹,部分结痂,少数丘疱疹基底部扩大,

  12. Varicella zoster virus-associated anterior uveitis in a seronegative adult without a history of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine I

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Izumi Mine, Sho Ishikawa, Masaru TakeuchiDepartment of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa City, Saitama, JapanAim: The aim of this report was to present a case of varicella zoster virus (VZV-associated anterior uveitis, which developed in an adult who was seronegative for anti-VZV antibodies.Case presentation: A 66-year-old male patient was referred to the National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa City, Japan with iridocyclitis in his right eye. On examination, intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg in the right eye, and biomicroscopy revealed ciliary injection, corneal epithelial edema, mutton fat keratic precipitates, flare, and infiltrating cells in the anterior chamber. Serological tests were negative for anti-VZV antibodies, but VZV-DNA copies of 1.28×107 copies/mL were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using the aqueous humor obtained from the right eye. Iridocyclitis was reduced by administration of oral valaciclovir in addition to corticosteroid eye drops, and serum anti-VZV antibodies were first detected after 4 months’ administration. When ocular inflammation was resolved after 6 months, VZV-DNA could not be detected in the aqueous humor any more.Conclusion: VZV-associated uveitis may develop in an adult with undetectable serum anti-VZV antibodies. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous humor is the key investigation necessary for the diagnosis in such cases.Keywords: varicella zoster virus, VZV, zoster sine herpete, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, uveitic glaucoma

  13. Necrotizing Fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock in a child with chickenpox infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, O.; Mota, T.C.; Lopez, M. G.; Santos, E.; Lisboa, L; Morgado, H.; Lima, F.F.; Castro, C.; Ribeiro, A.

    2011-01-01

    Introdução: A fasceíte necrotizante é uma infecção grave dos tecidos moles, geralmente causada por Streptococcus pyogenes. É uma complicação rara da varicela e o diagnóstico numa fase precoce é pouco frequente. Caso clínico: Apresenta-se o caso clínico de uma criança de oito anos de idade com varicela, complicada de fasceíte necrotizante e síndrome de choque tóxico estreptocócico, que necessitou de procedimentos invasivos e de um internamento prolongado em Unidade de C...

  14. 水痘疫苗(1剂)在控制水痘流行病中的作用%Study on role of chickenpox vaccine in controling chickenpox epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传波; 赵海

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究水痘疫苗1剂在控制水痘流行病中的作用.方法 对我社区随机选取的120例符合入组标准儿童进行分组调查分析其发病情况,然后进行统计学分析,观察接种水痘疫苗对发病的影响.结果 其中100例接种水痘疫苗1剂的儿童在3个月内未发生水痘感染情况,1年内有2位感染水痘.未接种组20位儿童,3个月内水痘感染1人,6个月内感染2人,1年感染3人,其感染人数比例及发病率均高于接种组.结论 接种水痘疫苗对水痘发病率具有良好的控制.

  15. The Relationship Between Attack of Chickenpox and Season%水痘发病与季节关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴民祥; 高超

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨水痘发病与季节的关系. 方法随机采集我院近5年住院的312例水痘患者,用圆形分布法统计分析其发病与季节的关系. 结果 312例水痘患者好发于4月28日~9月24日,集中于7月11日,各月之间比较差异显著(r=0.4479,P<0.01). 结论水痘好发于春末夏初.

  16. PROTECTIVE LEVELS OF VARICELLA-ZOSTER ANTIBODY DID NOT EFFECTIVELY PREVENT CHICKENPOX IN AN X-LINKED AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aimée NOBRE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY We describe the case of an eight-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia who developed mild varicella despite regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy. He maintained protective antibody levels against varicella and the previous batches of IVIG that he received had adequate varicella-specific IgG levels. The case illustrates that IVIG may not prevent VZV infection.

  17. 带状疱疹合并水痘1例%A Case of Herpes Zoster Combined with Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君利

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1临床资料 患者男,65岁,纺织厂退休工人,因左额皮肤起水疱自觉灼痛3 d,躯干起水疱1 d就诊.3 d前,无原因左额皮肤起水疱自觉瘙痒,2 d后水疱结痂、灼痛,躯干开始起水疱.体检:系统检查未见异常.皮肤科检查:左颜面轻度肿胀,左上睑红肿,左眼流泪,左额皮肤有一片簇集性结痂水疱,左面颊部有数个散在的结痂水疱;胸、腹及背部皮肤见散发丘疹及水疱,疱液清亮,周边绕以红晕,未见结痂之水疱.

  18. Clinical analysis of 29 adult patients with chickenpox%成人水痘29例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊青

    2007-01-01

    根据以往资料,水痘多发于2—10岁儿童,成人偶见。近年来成人水痘发生率有增多趋势,值得医务人员注意。现对2(104年1月~2007年2月收治的29例成人水痘进行回顾性分析。

  19. Curision to Egg Chickens' Mixing Chickenpox%产蛋鸡暴发混合型鸡痘病例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢兰君

    2009-01-01

    河北省临城县城关镇赵某饲养蛋鸡2300只.常规饲养.免疫接种了马立克、新城疫、法氏囊病、传染性支气管炎、传染性喉气管炎和禽流感疫苗,但未进行鸡痘疫苗接种。166日龄时(产蛋率达90%以上)。有个别鸡开始发病,4d后发病率达30%,且每天死亡由几只增加到20只左右.产蛋率下降。发病后曾用过阿莫西林、红霉素、泰乐菌素及喉管散等药物,均无效果.2008年9月2日带病死鸡来邢台市兽医院诊治。

  20. Treatment of 50 Cases of Adult Chickenpox with Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine%中西医结合治疗成人水痘25例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁强

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察中西医结合治疗成人水痘的临床疗效.方法:将50例患者随机分为两组,中西医结合组采用阿昔洛韦静滴,银翘散加减口服,局部外涂炉甘石洗剂;西药组采用阿昔洛韦、能量合剂静滴,局部外涂炉甘石洗剂.1周为1个疗程,疗程结束后现察疗效.结果:两组在治愈率方面没有明显差异,但与西药组相比,中西医结合组在缩短退热时间、疱疹吸收至结痂时问以及治愈时间上,具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:中西医结合治疗成人水痘具有良好的疗效.

  1. 在校大学生水痘142例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 142 cases of chickenpox among undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美红; 晁慧; 王波纹; 朱训刚

    2009-01-01

    2006年1月~2008年12月共收治在校大学生水痘病例142例.冬春季发病116例(占81.7%),有密切接触史58例(占40.8%),有明显诱因者37例(26.1%),有前驱症状者126例(占88.8%),有发热症状者76例(占53.5%).患者被确诊后即隔离,除对症治疗外,还采取口服中药板蓝根、大青叶合剂,口服或静脉滴注阿昔洛韦等措施进行治疗.全部病例均痊愈出院,病程5~18 d,平均7.8 d.水痘在集体公寓传染性强,对患者进行隔离治疗,彻底消毒环境是控制水痘的重要措施.

  2. 一起学校水痘疫情暴发的调查%Investigation on Chickenpox Outbreak in A School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢敬华

    2010-01-01

    目的 及时掌握一起水痘的流行病学特征,为进一步制定水痘的预防控制策略提供科学依据.方法 对深圳市宝安区沙井街道某学校发生的一起"水痘"疫情采用流行病学方法进行统计和分析.结果 该学校师生共2842人,84人发病,罹患率为2.96%,无死亡病例.确认为学校暴发的水痘疫情.结论 加强学校晨检工作,尽早隔离病人,及时对易感人群实施预防接种,落实各项消毒工作,强化在校学生传染病的监测和报告的意识,是预防和控制"水痘"疫情的最有效措施.

  3. Investigation on an Outbreak of Chickenpox in Kindergarten%一起幼儿园水痘暴发疫情的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明哲

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2009年4月10日,正阳县一村幼儿园报告了水痘暴发事件,为了解暴发原因及可能的危险因素和控制疫情,我们赴现场进行了调查处理,现将流行病学调查情况分析如下.

  4. 1起水痘暴发的流行病学调查%Epidemiological Survey on an Outbreak of Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莹; 弭凤龙; 郭铁志

    2010-01-01

    [目的]分析阜新市彰武县西六九年制学校发生水痘暴发疫情的流行特征、控制效果和存在问题等相关因素,为今后学校传染病暴发疫情处理积累经验.[方法]对2007年4月阜新市彰武县西六九年制学校暴发的水痘疫情用描述性流行病学分析,利用SPSS统计软件进行统计检验.[结果]该疫情持续16 d.发病72例,罹患率为7.35%.平均潜伏期11 d.中小学生间发病率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同方位居住地学生罹患率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).无重症病例和并发症出现.[结论]学校存在很多暴发疫情发生的隐患.应建立并坚持好因病缺课和晨检等监测制度.

  5. Chickenpox outbreak in a kindergarten study of the causes%一所幼儿园水痘暴发原因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍树明; 余永江; 余东

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解垫江县高安镇中心幼儿园水痘暴发流行情况.方法 对该圆教职16人、幼儿719人进行逐个体检和流行病学调查.结果 大班年级罹患率明显高于小班年级、中班年级.经个案调查,发病时间、接种史、初诊情况、疫情报告等分析,有相应的流行病学特点.结论 此次水痘暴发是由于村级医疗卫生机构未及时报告疫情和未接种水痘疫苗而引起的.

  6. 水痘合并急性血小板减少性紫癜1例%One Case of Chickenpox Complicating Acute Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巍; 朱莹; 李智伟

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 病例介绍 患者男,7岁,学生.皮疹7 d,发热6 d,鼻衄2次,于2010-01-17入院.患者入院前7 d无诱因出现斑丘疹及水疱疹,次日皮疹增多,伴发热,体温最高38.2℃,于盛京医院感染科诊断为:水痘,化验血常规白细胞,血小板正常;口服蒲地兰抗病毒,甲紫外用等治疗;体温逐渐降至正常;入院前2d患者鼻衄1次,约10 ml,局部压迫后止血;

  7. Outbreak and control of chickenpox in nurses during menstrual period%经期护士水痘暴发与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运萍; 潘丽杰

    2011-01-01

    2009年2月,本院重症监护室( ICU)先后有3名护士出现低热,面部及躯干有散在的疱疹,经皮肤科医生确诊为水痘.确诊前,3名护士曾共同护理过一位多脏器衰竭合并带状疱疹的患者.自该患者出现带状疱疹17 d后,3名直接参与护理的护士陆续被感染水痘,且均处于月经期;其他接触该患者的医务人员未发现相同症状.1周后,3名护士发热症状消失,面部及躯干部疱疹结痂干燥.

  8. Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of chickenpox complicated by encephalitis%水痘并发脑炎的诊疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 梁晋敏

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨水痘并发脑炎患者的临床表现及治疗方法.方法:回顾分析水痘并发脑炎11例患者的临床资料.结果:临床特点为发热、头痛、呕吐、伴抽搐及精神意识异常等症状,同一时期可见不同类型皮疹,实验室检查部分脑电图异常,脑脊液细胞数轻度增高,脑脊液生化基本正常,应用抗病毒治疗后,本组患者住院治疗2~3周后基本痊愈出院.结论:水痘并发脑炎发生率低,经过积极抗病毒治疗与护理后,大多数疗效好.

  9. Treated experience for 12 cases of Pediatric chickenpox merging encephalitis%小儿水痘合并脑炎12例治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨水痘合并脑炎的诊断与治疗方法.方法 对三年来本院收治的水痘合并脑炎12例患者的诊疗进行回顾性分析.结果 通过抗病毒药物、激素、神经营养药物治疗和对症处理,12例治愈.结论 早诊断,早治疗,减少神经系统并发症.

  10. US children to get a second dose of chickenpox vaccine%美国儿童接种二次水痘疫苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    自1995年起,美国儿童一直常规接种水痘疫苗,其最初方法是单次接种抗水痘一带状疱疹病毒的减毒活疫苗。但从去年中期开始,美国免疫实践咨询委员会(ACIP)推荐,在有迹象表明儿童免疫力开始减退时应二次接种水痘疫苗。一项研究发现,加利福尼亚儿童接种水痘疫苗后,暴发性水痘发生率逐渐升高,第8年超过第1年发生率的12倍,这种趋势很明显,说明在单次接种水痘疫苗后,其免疫力随时间延长会逐渐降低,儿童还是会发生严重的水痘,不过此项研究只局限于8~12岁的儿童。该研究还发现,中重度水痘(超过50个水痘)患儿出现并发症的风险增加,如:肺炎、共济失调、皮肤细菌感染等。

  11. Chickenpox Outbreak in a Kindergarten in Sichuan Province Survey%四川某幼儿园水痘爆发流行病学调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 核实诊断,确定是否爆发,查明病因:描述爆发的分布特征:及时找到应采取的有效措施,以防止本病的蔓延.方法 2008年10月22日到对四川某幼儿园于2008年10月22日至2008年11月17日间发生的水痘疫情进行流行病学现况调查,对资料进行描述性分析.结果 有二代病例出现;患儿中男性发病10例,发病率3.68%;女性发病9例,发率3.31%.接种过水痘疫苗组总数为74例,发病数为0例.未接种水痘疫苗组总数为198例,发病数为19例,发病率为9.6%.结论 未接种疫苗组的发病率明显高于接种组,广大适龄儿童应尽可能地接种水痘疫苗.

  12. 46例成人水痘患者的护理体会%Nursing Experience of 46 Cases Adult Patients with Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施福娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结46例成人水痘的护理对策.方法:将患者安置于单间病房,加强房间的消毒管理;注重心理护理,加强全身皮疹尤其注重头、面、口腔等特殊部位的护理.结果:经积极合理有效的治疗和精心的护理后,46例患者均痊愈,皮疹面愈合完好,无瘢痕形成,无并发症.结论:对成人水痘患者实施及时恰当的护理措施,可有效控制疾病传播,缩短痛程,防止继发感染,以及预防发生并发症.

  13. 浅析蒙西医结合治疗水痘的体会%Experience in the Treatment of Chickenpox Traditional Mongolian Medicine Combined with Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    额尔敦巴雅尔; 美荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the ef icacy of Mongolian medicine and Western medicine in the treatment of varicella. Methods The ef ect of Western medicine in the treatment of Beamon from clinical varicella. Results The Mongolian medicine method to treat 20 patients cured 18, improved 2, the cure rate was 90%. Western medicine treatment of 20 children with al the more 16, 3 improved and 1 no significant ef ect, the cure rate was 85%. Treatment of varicella 20 children 7 days cured with Mongolian medicine and Western medicine, the cure rate was 100%. The etiology, clinical manifestations, but the same understanding of disease diagnosis, dif erent treatment methods. Conclusion According to clinical therapy of Mongolian medicine and Western medicine were observed and compared results with west medicine in the treatment of chicken pox, short course, quick ef ect, the cure rate increased. The children pay reaction and no complications and beneficial to the early rehabilitation.%目的探索蒙西医治疗水痘的疗效。方法从临床上对比蒙西医治疗水痘的疗效。结果蒙医学方法治疗20名患儿全愈18名,好转2名,治愈率90%。西医学方法治疗20名患儿全愈16名、好转3名、1名疗效不显,治愈率85%。蒙西医结合治疗水痘20例患儿7d基本治愈,治愈率100%。病因、临床表现相同、但对疾病的认识,诊断,治疗方法不同。结论根据蒙西医临床治疗对比观察结果表明用蒙西医结合治疗水痘,疗程短,疗效快,治愈率明显提高。对患儿付反应小、不留发症、益于早日康复。

  14. Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older US Population: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Langan, Sinéad M.; Liam Smeeth; Margolis, David J.; Thomas, Sara L

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Chickenpox is an extremely common childhood infectious disease that is caused by the herpes varicella-zoster virus. Children usually recover quickly from chickenpox, but dormant varicella-zoster virus persists throughout life inside the nervous system. The dormant virus causes no symptoms but if it becomes reactivated, it causes shingles (zoster), a painful skin rash. Anyone who has had chickenpox can develop shingles but shingles is most common and most severe in ...

  15. Nursing of a case of severe chickenpox combine multiple cellulitis%1例重症水痘合并多处蜂窝组织炎的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文君

    2013-01-01

    对1例重症水痘患儿合并多处蜂窝织炎的病例进行回顾性分析.水痘合并肺炎、脑炎、肝损伤较多见,并发多处蜂窝织炎不多见,此病例经过护理人员采取保护性隔离、皮肤护理、病情观察、伤口护理、心理护理等措施后,患儿治愈出院.

  16. 关于一起农村中学水痘暴发疫情的调查报告%Report on a case of chickenpox outbreak in a rural middle school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光树; 祝付斌; 孔静; 卓太平

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2008年9月中旬至10月下旬,安陆市接官乡接官中学发生一起水痘暴发疫情,经调查核实累计发病23例,罹患率为2.67%,现将本次疫情的流行病学调查结果报告如下. 1对象与方法 1.1调查对象该中学所有的师生中分批出现斑丘疹、水疱疹、脓疱疹、结痂的,均作为调查对象. 1.2方法采用描述性的流行病学方法进行分析. 1.3病例定义具有发热、头痛、食欲不振及上呼吸道症状,皮肤黏膜分批出现斑丘疹、水疱疹、脓疱疹、结痂特征的病例.

  17. Analysis of occurrence of adverse reactions and causes after injection of chickenpox vaccine%水痘疫苗注射后发病情况及原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀云

    2007-01-01

    目的 调查水痘疫苗注射后的发病情况,明确发病者的流行病学意义,为制定预防控制措施提高科学依据.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA),对2~20岁人群接种水痘疫苗后出现发热、出疹等症状者进行血清学检查,IGM抗体阳性者,予以确诊.结果 共接种8 827人,上报疑似病例165例,确诊165例,免疫后发病率为1.87%.结论 水痘疫苗免疫后发病较高,应对其原因加以研究,确保疫苗免疫安全有效.

  18. 成人与儿童水痘流行病学及临床特征分析%Epidemiologic and clinical features of chickenpox in adult and child patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 黄丽芬; 许镇; 吴跃; 邓子德

    2010-01-01

    @@ 水痘是一种由水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)引起的急性传染病,以较轻的全身症状和皮肤黏膜分批出现斑疹、丘疹、水疱和痂疹为特征,多见于小儿,但近年来成人水痘有所增多.为此,笔者总结了166例水痘患者的临床资料,对成人水痘与儿童水痘进行分析比较.

  19. Epidemiological characteristics and prevention of chickenpox outbreak in one primary school of zhabei district%闸北区某小学水痘疫情暴发流行病学特征及其防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对某小学水痘疫情暴发的流行病学调查分析,为有效预防控制水痘疫情提供科学依据和成功经验.方法 采用上海市水痘疫情暴发统一调查表,对该小学水痘患者进行流行病学调查分析,总结治疗、预防控制本病的经验.结果全校共508名学生,有29人患水痘(患病率为5.7%),疫情历时48d;其中发病人数中有预防接种水痘疫苗史的19人(占发病总数的65.5%);全部水痘患者及时康复,无1例出现并发症,及时控制了疫情.结论 某社区或单位发生水痘疫情时,及时报告,采取积极的防控措施,监测接触者,是有效防控的关键,以利社区人群的平安.

  20. An Observation of Clinical Efficacy of Acyclovir in 24 Cases of Child Chickenpox%阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘24例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江月萍; 顾仁月

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨阿昔洛韦对小儿水痘的临床疗效及安全性.方法:46例水痘患儿随机分为两组,治疗组24例用阿昔洛韦5 mg/(kg·次),每日4次口服,对照组22例用利巴韦林注射液10 mg/(kg·d),每日静脉滴注一次,疗程均为5 d,其他治疗方法相同.结果:治疗组热退及结痂时间较对照组缩短(P0.05).结论:阿昔洛韦对小儿水痘有显著疗效,而且安全可靠.

  1. 腊梅解毒汤治疗小儿毒热重证型水痘62例%Treatment of 62 Cases of Chickenpox of Severe Toxin-heat Type with Lamei Jiedu Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 陈燕萍

    2003-01-01

    @@ 毒热重证型水痘在治疗上颇为棘手,值得引起儿科医生的足够重视.笔者应用验方腊梅解毒汤治疗小儿毒热重证型水痘62例,取得满意疗效,并与病毒唑对照组38例进行对照观察,现报道如下.

  2. Epidemiological features of chickenpox outbreaks at schools in Shijingshan District of Beijing during 2007 to 2008%2007~2008年北京市石景山区学校水痘爆发疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭舫茹; 吴劲; 杨娜

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解2007~2008年北京市石景山区学校水痘爆发疫情,为制定学校/托幼机构防控措施提供科学依据.方法 应用描述流行病学方法分析石景山区2007~2008年学校水痘疫情情况.结果 2007~2008年石景山区有11所学校发生水痘爆发疫情,给学生身心健康造成危害的同时,也影响了学校正常的教学计划.结论 卫生防疫部门、教育部门应密切配合,加强学校传染病管理,控制传染病的发生和流行.

  3. Analysis on Chickenpox Outbreak in Schools of Lianyungang City in 2008%连云港市2008年学校水痘暴发疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    营亮; 梁晓雷

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解连云港市学校水痘疫情的流行情况,为制定学校水痘疫情防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对2008年连云港市学校水痘疫情进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 2008年连云港市学校共报告水痘疫情8起,报告病例159例,平均罹患率为2.63%.疫情主要发生在农村小学(托幼机构),占90.57%;年龄以6~7岁儿童为主,大部分疫情累及多个年级和班级.发病没有明显的季节性.结论 连云港市水痘疫情有上升趋势,及时报告疫情、隔离病人,通风消毒,开展宣传教育和免疫预防是预防控制疫情发生发展的重要措施.

  4. 外用阿米卡星治疗感染性水痘80例的疗效及护理%Local application of amikcain lotion on treatment for infected chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余巧林; 吕春客; 万彬; 陈慧琳

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨外用阿米卡星洗剂治疗水痘合并感染患者的疗效及安全性.方法 采用随机分组方法,以外用阿米卡星洗剂治疗水痘伴感染80例为治疗组,未用阿米卡星洗剂80例为对照组,进行疗效比较.结果 通过积极地治疗和护理,治疗组痊愈率为91.25%,总有效率为100%,与对照组比较差异有显著意义(P<0.01).结论 外用阿米卡星洗剂治疗水痘合并感染患者疗效好,安全可靠.加强小儿聚集处的卫生保健,早期正确诊断,隔离传染源,防止人群中传染.

  5. Clinical study on the treating of Thymosin and acyclovir treatment of children with chickenpox%胸腺肽联合阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段树鹏

    2009-01-01

    目的:胸腺肽、阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘98例疗效观察.方法:采用随机对照治疗,将水痘患儿分为胸腺肽联合阿昔洛韦治疗组50例,胸腺肽10~20mg/d,静脉滴注,阿昔洛韦10~15mg/kg,分2次静脉注射,连用7d;对照组48例,阿昔洛韦10~15mg/kg,分2次静脉注射,连用7d.结果:治疗组总有效率为94.0%;对照组总有效率为72.9%.结论:胸腺肽联合阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘有很好疗效.

  6. 甲氰咪胍加阿昔洛韦治疗水痘患者16例报告%Report on the results of treatment of 16 chickenpox patients with cimetidine and aciclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建南; 麦世萍

    2004-01-01

    水痘是儿科、皮肤科等常见的疾病,易在群体中传播,以往采取传统方法治疗,疗效不明显,病程绵长,易出现感染等合并症以致遗留瘢痕。我们采用甲氰咪胍加阿昔洛韦软膏治疗16例患者,临床疗效明显,现报道如下。

  7. Epidemic Feature Analysis of 5 Cases of Chickenpox in some Outbreak Areas%五起水痘局部暴发疫情的流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建文; 胡永勤

    2002-01-01

    对2001年发生在我区小学的五起水痘局部暴发疫情的流行特征分析,结果显示:水痘好发于2~5月冬春季节,呈季节性流行的倾向,在易感人群集簇的小学等集体单位中容易形成暴发.在自然流行状态下,流行早期传播往往仅限于同班中,罹患率可达27.5%~100%,而以整个学校为单位则为6.47%.由于水痘主要以显性感染为主, 提示水痘的发生主要与易感者同传染源的接触频度与程度有关,在未大面积推广对易感者接种水痘疫苗前,通过采取及时隔离病人等综合性措施,是阻止水痘暴发流行的有效措施.

  8. Nursing Care of One Case of Dissemination Chickenpox with DIC and MOSF%1例播散型水痘合并DIC及多脏器衰竭病人的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乔凤; 黄丽芬; 郑向荣

    2004-01-01

    1例慢性肾小球肾炎患成人播散型水痘并发DIC、多脏器衰竭病人,经支持、抗病毒,应用激素、抗感染、抗DIC、抗休克及对症等紧急处理和对症护理,抢救无效于入院第3天死亡.该病例病情急剧恶化与病人缺乏疾病相关知识及长期不规则使用激素有关.提示应大力普及卫生知识,提高社区人群卫生常识.

  9. 上海市某小学水痘爆发疫情处理分析%Processing and analysis of chickenpox outbreak in a primary school in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文栋; 方辉; 钟丽霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解水痘爆发疫情的流行病学特征,探讨预防控制措施及疫苗免疫效果。方法:对某小学水痘爆发疫情进行流行病学调查,对所有学生进行水痘疫苗接种史回顾性调查。结果:发病学生32名,罹患率为3.98%(32/805)。发病者年龄8~11岁,其中11岁学生发病最多,罹患率50.00%(16/32)。卡方检验比较接种水痘疫苗组与未接种水痘疫苗组的水痘发病率有统计学差异,接种疫苗保护率=63.8%。结论:及时处理疫情,提高疫苗接种率。为更好的预防水痘,建议对儿童进行2剂疫苗接种。

  10. Analysis on Data of Chickenpox Epidemic in Fucheng District of Mianyang City,2006-2009%2006~2009年绵阳市涪城区水痘疫情资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成科; 王晓丽; 杨晓玲

    2010-01-01

    [目的]了解绵阳市涪城区水痘流行情况,为控制水痘的发生与流行提供依据.[方法]对涪城区2006~2009年传染病网络报告系统水痘疫情资料进行分析.[结果]2006~2009年水痘累计发病1200例,年均报告发病率为45.67/10万,无死亡病例.年发病率,2006年为38.05/10万,2007年为54.34/10万,2008年为46.11/10万,2009年为44.10/10万.年均发病率,男性为48.92/10万,女性为42.13/10万(P<0.01);0~14岁为229.29/10万,≥15岁为14.68/10万(P<0.01).1200例病人中,学生、托幼儿童、散居儿童分别占42.42%、26.33%、12.00%;11月至次年1月发病的占32.08%;均为散发.[结论]2006~2009年涪城区水痘发病处于中等水平,但防治工作仍应加强.

  11. 2007~2008年某医院水痘疫情资料分析%Analysis on Chickenpox Incidence in a Hospital of Beijing between 2007 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芹; 刘方

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解水痘的流行特征,为预防控制水痘提供科学依据.方法:对医院2007~2008年水痘疫情资料进行描述性分析.结论;2007~2008年共报告水痘693例,2007年387例,2008年306例.病例中,1~14岁323例,占34.9%:15~29岁554例,占59.9%.1~5月份瘸例数339例,占48.9%;10~12月份病例数183例,占26.4%.学生发病数363例,占52.4%.结论:2007~2008年水痘发病率较高,且具有明显的季节性发病高峰,发病人群以学生为主.应采取相应措施积极防控.

  12. Nursing care of 1 case complicated with chickenpox after accepting double-lung transplantation%1例双肺移植术后合并水痘病人的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继伟; 闵群惠

    2011-01-01

    @@ 肺移植术是治疗终末期肺病的唯一有效治疗手段,由于术后免疫抑制剂的使用,导致免疫功能降低,可致各种感染发生,如细菌、病毒和真菌等感染.水痘是由水痘-带状疱疹病毒引起的急性呼吸道传染病.该病主要是通过飞沫和直接接触传播,其发病与精神紧张、劳累、生活起居不规律、抵抗力降低有关.

  13. 3 nursing cases and clinical observation of progressive disseminated chickenpox%进行性播散性水痘的临床观察与护理3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农晓红; 刘华; 赵小琴

    2004-01-01

    @@ 水痘是由水痘带性状疱疹病毒初次感染时引起的一种常见的急性传染病.一般病情经过较轻 ,预后良好.水痘患者一般不宜使用皮质激素,长期应用肾上腺皮质激素可能加重水痘病情引起内脏播散和死亡[1].2002年11月~2003年6月,我科收治了3例使用肾上腺皮质激素并在治疗过程中并发重症水痘患儿,现将临床观察与护理方法报告如下.

  14. The analysis of epidemiology about chickenpox report in Jaonan district from 2007 to 2010%2007~2010年胶南市水痘疫情资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德克; 吴学香

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解胶南市水痘流行情况,为控制水痘的发生与流行提供依据.方法 对胶南市2007~2010年传染病网络报告系统水痘疫情资料进行分析.结果 2007~2010年水痘累计发病365例,年均报告发病率为10.59/10万,无死亡病例.年发病率,2007年为6.05/10万,2008年为15.53/10万,2009年为18.03/10万,2010年为4.41/10万.年均发病率,男性为13.06/10万,女性为8.88/10万(P<0.01);0~14岁为66.80/10万,≥15岁为1.76/10万(P<0.01).365例病人中,学生、托幼儿童、散居儿童分别占58.90%、21.10%、11.23%;11月至次年1月发病的占11.78%;均为散发.结论 2007~2010年胶南市水痘发病处于较低水平,但防治工作仍应加强.

  15. The effective observation on treating 130 cases of chickenpox with Yinqiao Qingjie decoction%银翘清解方治疗水痘130例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清太; 黄仕桂

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察银翘清解方治疗水痘病的临床疗效。方法:门诊130例水痘病经采用银翘清解方加减治疗,平均服药4剂,全部治愈,无一例并发症。结论:银翘清解方治疗水痘疗效满意,经济便宜。

  16. The Observation of Effect on Tanreqing Injection in the Treatment of Adult Chickenpox%痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶端炉; 吴敏姿

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘的临床疗效.方法:将60例成人水痘患者随机分为观察组和对照组各30例,两组常规对症治疗,对照组给予阿昔洛韦注射液静点;治疗组用痰热清注射液静脉滴点,两组疗程均为7d.疗程结束后观察病人的症状及临床疗效.结果:治疗结束后治疗组与对照组相比,患者病程明显缩短,平均退热时间和皮疹结痂时间显优于对照组显,两组显效率差异有非常显著性(P<0.05).治疗组总有效率优于对照组,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘疗效肯定,安全性好,且无明显不良反应,值得临床推广应用.

  17. 胸腺肽治疗小儿水痘118例疗效观察%Effect of Treatment for 118 Cases of Pediatric Chickenpox with Thymic Ph thalein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕴辉; 陈孟君

    2003-01-01

    目的:河山胸腺肽、利巴韦林治疗小儿水痘158例疗效观察.方法:采用随机对照治疗,将水痘患儿分为河山胸腺肽治疗组118例,利巴韦林治疗组40例.分别用河山胸腺肽10~20mg/d,肌肉注射,连用5天;利巴韦林10~15mg/kg.d,分2次肌肉注射,连用5天.结果:治疗组总有效率为95.76%;对照组总有效率为62.50%结论:河山胸腺肽组疗效优于利巴韦林组.

  18. 盐酸伐昔洛韦与阿昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘疗效的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Valaciclovir Hydrochioride and Acyclovir in the Treatment of Children with Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菁; 朱炜春; 谭丽丽; 胡丹

    2015-01-01

    目的 对比分析盐酸伐昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2013年9月至2014年11月期间因水痘需住院治疗惠儿90例,随机分为2组,每组45例,分别予以盐酸伐昔洛韦(观察组)和阿昔洛韦(对照组)进行治疗,比较两组治疗后临床疗效、疗效指数和不良反应情况.结果 观察组治愈率80.0%高于对照组53.3%,总有效率97.8%高于对照组84.4%,疗效指数(0.86±0.31)高于对照组(0.53±0.29),差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);观察组瘙痒消失时间(0.7±0.2)d、全部结痂时间(2.3±0.5)d、痂落自愈时间(5.4±1.0)d均短于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(均P <0.05);观察组总不良反应率与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 盐酸伐昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘临床效果较好,疗效指数更高,症状体征消失快,且不良反应无异常增高,适合临床应用推广.

  19. 中西医结合法治疗小儿水痘的临床效果研究%Study on the Clinical Effect of Therapy of Integrated Medicine in the Treatment of Chickenpox in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟红

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨中西医结合在小儿水痘中的临床治疗效果.方法 选取2013年4月—2014年4月我院诊治的80例小儿水痘患儿资料进行分析,采用随机数字方法将患儿分为对照组和实验组,对照组采用阿昔洛韦联合呋喃西林西医治疗,实验组在对照组治疗基础上联合中医治疗,比较两组临床治疗效果.结果 实验组总有效率为95%,显著高于对照组(85%)(P<0.05);实验组满意率为95%,高于对照组(65%)(P<0.05);实验组退热时间、结痂时间以及住院时间,显著短于对照组(P<0.05);实验组3例出现并发症,并发症发生率为7.5%,显著低于对照组(7例出现并发症,并发症发生率为17.5%)(P<0.05).结论 小儿水痘在阿昔洛韦联合呋喃西林西医治疗基础上联合中医治疗效果理想,能够缓解患儿症状,药物不良反应发生率低,值得推广应用.

  20. 聚肌胞、西咪替丁联合治疗小儿水痘34例疗效观察%Observation for Unite Treatment with Polyinosinic and Cimetidine for 34 Children with Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽英; 董彩琴

    2003-01-01

    目的:观察聚肌胞、西咪替丁联合治疗小儿水痘的疗效.方法:观察组34例每次应用聚肌胞0.07~0.1mg/kg,隔日1次肌注,西咪替丁每日15 mg/kg,分3次口服,疗程5~7 d.对照组30例应用病毒唑每日10~15 mg/kg,分2次肌注,维生素B12每次250μg,隔日1次肌注,疗程5~7 d.结果:观察组退热、皮疹隐退、疱疹结痂、痂皮脱落,所需平均天数分别为1.65,3.13,4.50,9.58.对照组退热、皮疹隐退、疱疹结痂、痂皮脱落,所需平均天数分别为4.33,4.83,6.28,12.05.两组比较,观察组疗效明显优于对照组,各项指标比较均有显著差异,均为P<0.01.结论:聚肌胞、西咪替丁联合治疗小儿水痘疗效满意,可起到减轻症状,缩短病程,预防并发症的作用;并且见效较快,无严重不良反应.

  1. Treatment of Children Chickenpox with Qing Pox Decoction:A Clinical Observation of 45 Cases%清痘汤为主治疗小儿水痘45例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国深; 林广裕; 蔡建文; 谢奕璇

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察应用自拟清痘汤治疗小儿水痘的疗效.方法 采用随机方法将90例小儿水痘患者分为两组,治疗组45例用自拟清痘汤治疗.对照组45例用阿昔洛韦片剂、西咪替丁片剂治疗.1周后观察2组的临床疗效和症状、体征、发热改善时问及并发症发生情况.结果 总有效率治疗组为95.56%,对照组为71.11%,治疗组较对照组差异有显著性意义(P<0.01);同时,治疗组在疱疹痊愈时间、疱疹退热、止痒及基本结痂时间也明显优于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05);且并发症治疗组较对照组少.结论 自拟清痘汤对治疗小儿水痘具有较好的疗效,值得临床推广应用.

  2. An Analysis of the Clinical Features of Chickenpox after Children Inoculated Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine%接种水痘减毒活疫苗后发生水痘的临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范篆玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨接种水痘减毒活疫苗对儿童的保护作用及意义.方法 将同一流行期内的33例儿童水痘分为已接种水痘疫苗组和未接种水痘疫苗组,从临床特征、愈后情况进行对比分析.结果 接种水痘疫苗组患儿较未接种水痘疫苗组临床症状轻,患儿体温基本均正常,水疱数目明显少,且合并上呼吸道感染症状明显减少,出疹及脱痂时间、病程和疗程明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 水痘减毒活疫苗具有免疫保护作用,儿童应及时接种,同时建议完善水痘免疫策略以提高其免疫持久性.

  3. Congenital varicella syndrome in a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania A Villota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital varicella syndrome encompasses a broad spectrum of malformations present in children of mothers who developed chickenpox during the first 20 weeks of gestation. We report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy, with maternal exposure to chickenpox during the thirteenth week of gestation, which produced one symptomatic and one healthy child.

  4. Two New Flavone Glucosides from Serratula strangulata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction Genus Serratula (Compositae) consists of about 70 species distributed throughout the world[1]. Serratula species have been used as folk medicine to treat chickenpox, toxicosis,high cholesterol in China[2].

  5. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles ...

  6. Acute Transient Variety of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Following Varicella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parmar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of an 11 year female presenting with Acute Transient variety of Autoimmune hemolytic anemia following chickenpox, the patient was treated with blood transfusion and prednisolone and discharged with successful rise in hemoglobin.

  7. Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Richard A; Averbeck, Karin T; Poulsen, Anja G;

    2011-01-01

    chickenpox, which, in temperate countries, is a relatively benign childhood infection; yet in tropical countries it tends to occur at later age, a trend associated with markedly increased severity including complications, hospitalization, and overall burden of care. To investigate global differences in the...... epidemiology of chickenpox we studied a population in Guinea Bissau, which in contrast to other tropical countries has an unexpectedly early age of infection with VZV, comparable to temperate latitudes. In this study we used detailed records from over 3000 houses during an outbreak of chickenpox, combined with...... the epidemiology of chickenpox in tropical Guinea Bissau is dependent on the interaction of the social and physical environments. The distinctive clinical presentation of VZV and its ubiquitous distribution make it an attractive model for estimating the variables that contribute to global differences...

  8. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  9. Understanding Microbes in Sickness and in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands vigorously for at least 15 seconds with soap and water, about as long as it takes ... in this country. SOME VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Bacterial meningitis Chickenpox Cholera Diphtheria Haemophilus influenzae type B ( ...

  10. Prochlorperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Prochlorperazine tablets are also used on a short- ... if the child has chickenpox, measles, a stomach virus, or an infection of the brain or spinal ...

  11. Shingles: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Shingles: Hope Through Research See a list of all NINDS Disorders Get ... to lessen the severity of their chickenpox. What research is being done? The mission of the National ...

  12. Isolation precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airborne precautions include chickenpox , measles , and tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. People who have these germs should be in ... in the room should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with ...

  13. Avoiding Infections in Pregnancy (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could contain Listeria ( table 1 ). (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes infection" .) Chickenpox and rubella — If ... pregnancy" and "Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus" .) HIV — HIV can be passed from a mother to ...

  14. National Reye's Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome The Aspirin Link Reye's & Chickenpox Reye's, Flu & H1N1 Reye's & Teens Free School Packages Report A Case of Reye's Aspirin Lists Article Library Medical Library Video Library eBooks & Apps Dick ...

  15. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Annagur; Ayhan Tastekin; Pervin Gunaslan; Oguzhan Demirel; Ahmet Hakan Dikener

    2013-01-01

    Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella) can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also ...

  16. 大剂量IVIG联用万乃洛韦治疗儿童白血病合并水痘感染2例%High dose intravenous immunoglobulin and valaciclovir in the treatment of acute leukemic children with chickenpox -two cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕

    2001-01-01

    本文止的为寻求儿童白血病强烈化疗期间合并水痘感染治疗方法.我们运用大剂量的IVIG联合万乃洛韦治疗儿童白血病合并水痘感染2例,结果2例病人水痘均治愈,无并发症发生.揭示此方法对儿童白血病强化疗期间合并水痘治疗有效.但病例较少,有待于进一步研究.

  17. 热毒宁注射液治疗水痘并中性粒细胞减少症32例疗效观察%Observation on the Efficacy of Reduning Injection in the Treatment of Chickenpox and Neutropenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林耘

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨热毒宁治疗水痘并中性粒细胞减少症的疗效.方法:将2009-11~2012-01本院儿科收治的64例水痘合并中性粒细胞减少症患儿分成两组,治疗组32例给予热毒宁注射液静脉滴注,对照组32例给予阿昔洛韦静脉滴注,疗程5~7 d,同时根据病情给予抗炎,对症,支持治疗.对两组病例皮疹消退时间,热退时间,中性粒细胞恢复正常时间作综合比较.结果:治疗组总有效率为 96.8%,对照组为 75%.两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01 ).结论:热毒宁注射液治疗水痘合并中性粒细胞减少症疗效较好,值得临床推广应用.

  18. 更昔洛韦及水痘致血栓性微血管病并发急性肾小管坏死一例%One case of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) complicated with acute tubular necrosis induced by ganciclovir and chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连希艳; 黄胜华; 赵劲涛; 曾怡

    2010-01-01

    @@ 患者,女,20岁,学生,因反复皮肤紫癜、关节痛1个月,腹痛半个月,加重5 d入院.患者1个月前无明显诱因出现双下肢紫癜,四肢关节疼痛.半个月前以上症状再次出现,双下肢紫癜明显增多,呈片状、双侧对称,伴腹痛.5 d前腹痛加重,遂收住我院血液科.查体:BP 120/75mm Hg,躯干、双下肢、臀部皮肤新旧不一,点片状紫癜,浅表淋巴结未触及肿大,咽充血,心、肺、腹未见明显异常.

  19. Clinical observation on the efficacy of narrow-band UVB phototherapy combined with ganciclovir in treatment on children chickenpox%窄谱中波紫外线光疗联合更昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春翊; 郭晓楠; 吕静

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察窄谱中波紫外线光疗联合更昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘的疗效.方法 将60例水痘患儿随机分为两组,治疗组采用更昔洛韦注射液(5 mg/kg静滴,1次/d)联合窄谱中波紫外线照射(NB-UVB,波长311 nm)隔日一次治疗;对照组单独给予更昔洛韦注射液(5 mg/kg静滴,1次/d)治疗.观察两组临床疗效,记录不良反应.结果 治疗组总有效率为93.33%,对照组总有效率为73.33%,两组总有效率差异有显著统计学意义(χ2 = 5.24,P< 0.05).未出现严重不良反应.结论 NB-UVB联合更昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘安全有效.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of ganciclovir combined with NB-UVB in treatment on children with varicella. Methods Total of 60 children with varicella were randomly divided into treatment group ( 30 cases ) and control group ( 30 cases ), who were given ganciclovir ( 5 mg/kg, intravenous injection, once a day ) plus NB-UVB( 311 nm, twice a day )and ganciclovir ( 5 mg/kg, intravenous injection, once a day ) only, respectively. The therapeutic and adverse effects were recorded. Results The total clinical efficiency of the treatment group was 93. 33 % , which was 73. 33 % in the control group, with a significant difference between the two groups (χ2 =5. 24, P < 0. 05 ). There was no serious adverse effects in both groups. Conclusions These results indicated that ganciclovir combined with NB-UVB is safe and effective in treatment on children with varicella.

  20. POST VARICELLA ANGIOPATHY- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita R Sutay, Md Ashfaque Tinmaswala, Shilpa Hegde

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is a common viral illness in children. In most of the immunocompitent children it’s a self-limiting disease and seldom causes complications. Neurological complications are one of the rare complications of chickenpox. These complications may present as hemiparesis, focal deficits and arterial ischemic strokes (AIS. These Ischemic strokes may be a manifestation of post varicella angiopathy. Here we present a case of 11 year old girl who presented with left hemiparesis with left sided facial nerve palsy 15 days after chickenpox. An MRI was done which was suggestive of multiple infarcts in cortical and subcortical regions and MR angiography was suggestive of narrowing of right middle cerebral artery. Patient was treated with aspirin and LMW heparin in addition to supportive measures.

  1. Breakthrough VZV infection after immunization, presenting as herpes zoster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, R.P.; Bakkers, J.; Cornelissen, M.; Koster-Kamphuis, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Galama, J.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    An immunocompromized, VZV-vaccinated child had a breakthrough infection with VZV, acquired at a day-care centre during a chickenpox outbreak. Interestingly, the infection manifested as herpes zoster of 1 dermatome. Typing showed wild-type virus, which suggests that exogenous reinfection with a new s

  2. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura following Varicella zoster infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Dai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although thrombocytopenia is a rarely observed complicationfollowing chickenpox, it can lead to serious bleedingproblems. In order to underline rare hematologiccomplications of varicella infection and the importanceof vaccination, here we reported a seven year old boywho developed severe thrombocytopenia duringvaricella infection and gave good response to intravenousimmunoglobulin therapy. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 85-87

  3. Cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood disease. It is usually a benign self limiting exanthematous illness. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT which has not been previously reported.

  4. Myokarditis med massivt troponin T-udslip forårsaget af varicella zoster-infektion hos teenager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Kristin Brønnum; Stantchev, Hristo

    2014-01-01

    Chickenpox is a common childhood infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Complications are rare. We report on a 15-year-old boy who developed myocarditis during a varicella-zoster infection. The patient presented with severe chest pain, examinations revealed significant ST-elevations in the...

  5. Idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphopenia without autoimmunity or granulomatous disease in the slipstream of RAG mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Kuijpers; H. IJspeert; E.M.M. van Leeuwen; M.H. Jansen; M.D. Hazenberg; K.C. Weijer; R.A.W. van Lier; M. van der Burg

    2011-01-01

    A girl presented during childhood with a single course of extensive chickenpox and moderate albeit recurrent pneumonia in the presence of idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphocytopenia (ICL). Her clinical condition remained stable over the past 10 years without infections, any granulomatous disease, or autoimm

  6. Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphopenia without autoimmunity or granulomatous disease in the slipstream of RAG mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Kuijpers (Taco W.); H. IJspeert (Hanna); E.M.M. van Leeuwen (Ester); M.H. Jansen (Machiel H.); M.D. Hazenberg (Mette D.); K. Weijer (Kees); R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); M. van der Burg (Mirjam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractA girl presented during childhood with a single course of extensive chickenpox and moderate albeit recurrent pneumonia in the presence of idiopathic CD4+T lymphocytopenia (ICL). Her clinical condition remained stable over the past 10 years without infections, any granulomatous disease, o

  7. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies , Chickenpox and Shingles Tests , Parvovirus B19 All content on Lab Tests Online has been ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . ^ Back to top When is it ordered? The ...

  8. Cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Menon; Rajeev Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood disease. It is usually a benign self limiting exanthematous illness. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT which has not been previously reported.

  9. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these diseases are so common in children. Contagious diseases are often caused by the spread of bacteria (such as in scarlet fever) or viruses (such as in chickenpox, measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and quite a few others) in droplets of ...

  10. Simian varicella virus infection of Chinese rhesus macaques produces ganglionic infection in the absence of rash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); R. Mahalingam (Ravi); V. Traina-Dorge (Vicki); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Wellish (Mary); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D. Gilden (Don); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractVaricella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis, and may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (shingles). VZV may infect ganglia via retrograde axonal transport from infected skin or through hematogenous spread. Simian varicell

  11. Comprehensive analysis of varicella-zoster virus proteins using a new monoclonal antibody collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Roviš (Tihana Lenac); S.M. Bailer (Susanne); V.R. Pothineni (Venkata R); W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); H. Šimić (Hrvoje); M. Babić (Marina); K. Miklić (Karmela); S. Malić (Suzana); M.C. Verweij; M. Baiker (Martin); O. Gonzalez (Orland); A. Brunn (Albrecht von); R. Zimmer; K. Früh (Klaus); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); S. Jonjic (Stipan); J. Haasb (Jürgeni)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractVaricella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of chickenpox and shingles. Due to the virus's restricted host and cell typetropism and the lack of tools for VZV proteomics, it is one of the least-characterized human herpesviruses. We generated 251monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) again

  12. Necrosis of nose skin after varicella zoster infection : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Bart Jorrit; Visconti, Giuseppe; Grabietz, Patrice D.; Werker, Paul M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causal agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection is a common childhood disease, but elderly patients and those having a compromised immune system are also at risk. We present the case of progressive necrosis of the nose sk

  13. The epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in The Netherlands: implications for varicella zoster virus vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, Hester E de; Berbers, Guy A M; Hahné, Susan J M; Rümke, Hans; Hof, Susan van den; Wit, G Ardine de; Boot, Hein J

    2006-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in The Netherlands to assess the desirability to implement routine varicella zoster virus vaccination in The Netherlands. Data on seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus in the general population (1995-1996), consult

  14. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bekker; G.H.A. Westerlaken; H. Scherpbier; S. Alders; H. Zaaijer; D. van Baarle; T. Kuijper

    2006-01-01

    Background: HIV-1-infected children have an increased risk of severe chickenpox. However, vaccination is not recommended in severely immunocompromised children. Objective: Can the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) Oka strain be safely and effectively given to HIV-1-infected children despi

  15. Viral Genome Sequencing Proves Nosocomial Transmission of Fatal Varicella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depledge, Daniel P.; Brown, Julianne; Macanovic, Jasna; Underhill, Gill; Breuer, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We report the first use of whole viral genome sequencing to identify nosocomial transmission of varicella-zoster virus with fatal outcome. The index case patient, nursed in source isolation, developed disseminated zoster with rash present for 1 day before being transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). Two patients who had received renal transplants while inpatients in an adjacent ward developed chickenpox and 1 died; neither patient had direct contact with the index patient. PMID:27571904

  16. Hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Chang; Monica Vanesa Vásquez Acajabón

    2014-01-01

    Boy 4 years old, hospitalized due to hemorrhagic chickenpox and sepsis during his clinical examination besides hemorrhagic crust, vesicles and bullous he has also a cutaneous red lesion localized at the right proximal nail fold of the big toenail (Fig. 1), dermatoscopic view of the lesion (Fig. 2). The diagnosis of hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter was done. The proximal nail fold hematomas due to oximeter are uncommon dermatoses at this level that are caused for the pressure...

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Sinha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An 11 years old male was admitted with upper motor type of weakness of both lower limbs, retention of urine, impaired consciousness, tremor and convulsion on 11th day after vesicular eruption of chickenpox. He was investigated and treated. MRI Brain and Spine suggests encephalitis and myelitis. Other causes were excluded by relevant investigations. Patient was improved satisfactorily. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 103-104

  18. Acute pancreatitis: Rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase awareness about this complication and its fatality in chicken pox.

  19. The Effect of Childhood Viral Infections on the Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis

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    Reza Vazirinejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the history of viral infections of measles, chickenpox and mumps in childhood was compared between the two groups of adults with multiple sclerosis (MS and healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a group of 45 MS patients and a group of 135 healthy people who were similar based on some variables were invited. Patients had a definite diagnosis of MS and control group consisted of people accompanying MS patients. Data were collected by a trained expert in face-to-face interview sessions. For data analysis, odds ratio index was calculated and 95% confidence interval was also computed. The mean age of respondents at the time of viral infections was also compared between the two groups.Results: The proportions of infected people by measles, chickenpox and mumps among MS patients were 58%, 56% and 40%, respectively. These proportions in healthy group were 68%, 52% and 44%, respectively. There was not any significant difference between these proportions in the two groups. Mean age of morbidity for measles, chickenpox and mumps among patients were 6.8±3.1, 8.7±2.98 and 10.6±4.7 years, and were significantly higher that these mean ages (4.1±2.1, 5.3±3.1 and 8.4±2.8, respectively among healthy people (p<0.001.Conclusion: Although there was not any significant difference between the history of morbidity of measles, chickenpox and mumps in the two groups of MS patients and healthy people, the mean ages of these viral infections among MS patients were significantly higher than healthy people.

  20. Herpes Zoster in a Healthy Child

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    Ahu Çiler Çıkım

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is the causing agent of chickenpox which is common in children. Herpes zoster (HZ is a latent infection that is caused by VZV, which is localized in the cells of dorsal root ganglions. HZ is rare in childhood and is especially encountered in immunosuppressed children. Here, an immunocompetent child with HZ is presented and the clinical symptoms, treatment and complications of the infection are reviewed.

  1. Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphopenia without autoimmunity or granulomatous disease in the slipstream of RAG mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Taco W.; IJspeert, Hanna; Leeuwen, Ester; Jansen, Machiel H.; Mette D Hazenberg; Weijer, Kees; Van Lier, Rene A. W.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    textabstractA girl presented during childhood with a single course of extensive chickenpox and moderate albeit recurrent pneumonia in the presence of idiopathic CD4+T lymphocytopenia (ICL). Her clinical condition remained stable over the past 10 years without infections, any granulomatous disease, or autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping demonstrated strongly reduced naive T and B cells with intact proliferative capacity. Antibody reactivity on in vivo immunizations was normal. T-cell receptor-Vβ r...

  2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonitis in case of varicella zoster in adult: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Anaz Binazeez; Saurabh Kothari; Dhaval Dave; Manish Pendse; Divya Lala; Smita Patil; Archana Bhate

    2015-01-01

    Chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). The disease is often more severe in adults than children. Here we present a case of adult male suffering from chicken pox who presented with complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] due to viral pneumonitis. Due to his late presentation, despite of giving antivirals, patient had a fatal outcome. So this case highlights the necessity and importance of early administration of a...

  3. Immunization - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Farsi (فارسی) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Adult Immunization ... Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Farsi (فارسی) Chickenpox Vaccine English (Farsi) واکسن آبله مرغان - ...

  4. STUDY REPORTS ON VARICELLA ZOSTER IN TERM PREGNANCY AND ITS OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Pranjal; Kshirsagar; De Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus, a member of the herpes virus family. The same virus also causes herpes zoster (shingles) in adults. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. It is presented with fever and vesicular lesions all over body. (1,2) Even the pregnant women can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important concern. In this specific paper, we have given the details and discussed ...

  5. Prodromal Herpes Zoster Mimicking Odontalgia - A Diagnostic Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Shilpa; Srinivas, K.; Reddy, BH Satheesha; Gupta, Mudit

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles) is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus which is present due to an earlier varicella infection (chicken-pox). Herpes Zoster is a less common and endemic disease than varicella, although factors causing reactivation are still not well known, but it occurs in older and/or immunocompromised individuals. Involvement of C3, T5, L1, L2 and first division of trigeminal nerve are the most frequently encountered whereas the involvement of second and thir...

  6. Acute pancreatitis: Rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sunil; Jain A; Pandit A.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase ...

  7. Fatal varicella in a healthy young adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Coppack, S W; Doshi, R.; Ghose, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A healthy adult presented with severe neurological disturbance 4 d after developing chicken-pox. Although pneumonic and renal problems were also present the neurological state dominated the clinical picture. After the patient's sudden death an autopsy revealed that renal and cerebral problems were secondary to myocardial involvement. This was of an unusual type for varicella with features of dilated cardiomyopathy resembling that previously related to Coxsackie infections. We conclude that ca...

  8. Chicken pox outbreak in the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital: Lessons learnt the hard way

    OpenAIRE

    Sarit Sharma; Shruti Sharma; Deepinder Chhina; Chhina, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes 2 clinically and epidemiologically distinct forms of diseases. Chickenpox (varicella) is the disease that results from primary infection with the VZV. Herpes zoster (HZ) results from the reactivation of VZV latently infecting the dorsal root ganglia. We are reporting an outbreak of varicella infection among the health care workers (HCWs) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. We found transmission of varicella among eight HCWs of pulm...

  9. Postherpetic Nneuralgia: Review of Treatment Modalities

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    Philip SL Chan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV is the etiological agent for both varicella (chickenpox and herpes zoster (HZ (shingles. HZ results from the reactivation of VZV acquired during childhood. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common complication of HZ infection in immunocompetent patients. There is no universally accepted definition of PHN. While the mechanisms producing pain associated with PHN are not fully understood, peripheral and central processes are thought to be important.

  10. Recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccines as Platforms for Expression of Foreign Antigens

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    Wayne L. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV vaccines induce immunity against childhood chickenpox and against shingles in older adults. The safety, efficacy, and widespread use of VZV vaccines suggest that they may also be effective as recombinant vaccines against other infectious diseases that affect the young and the elderly. The generation of recombinant VZV vaccines and their evaluation in animal models are reviewed. The potential advantages and limitations of recombinant VZV vaccines are addressed.

  11. Hope-Simpsons Progressive Immunity Hypothesis as a Possible Explanation for Herpes Zoster Incidence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Poletti, Piero; del Fava, Emanuele; Ajelli, Marco; Tomba, Gian Paolo Scalia; Merler, Stefano; Manfredi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ) (shingles). After varicella infection, the virus remains dormant in the hosts dorsal ganglia and can reactivate due to waning cell-mediated immunity, causing HZ. Exposure of varicella-immune persons to VZV may boost the hosts immune response, resulting in a protective effect against HZ. In this study, we used mathematical models of VZV transmission and HZ development to test the biologica...

  12. Sequencing and characterization of Varicella-Zoster virus vaccine strain SuduVax

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jong; Jung Gyoo; Kim Yu; Ji Ga; Kim Hyung; Wang Wen; Park Ho; Park Song; Kim Geun; Kwon Shi; Lee Keon; Ahn Jin; Yoon Yeup; Lee Chan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in children and shingles in older people. Currently, live attenuated vaccines based on the Oka strain are available worldwide. In Korea, an attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed from a Korean isolate and has been commercially available since 1994. Despite this long history of use, the mechanism for the attenuation of the vaccine strain is still elusive. We attempted to understand the molecular basis of attenuation mechanis...

  13. Surveillance and Analysis of Rash and Fever Illness in Binhai New Area (Tanggu District) of Tianjin during 2009-2010%2009-2010年天津滨海新区(塘沽)发热伴出疹性疾病监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张丽平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨天津市塘沽地区发热伴出疹症性疾病(RFIs)病原谱构成.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)对2009年9月-2010年5月塘沽传染病医院就诊的发热伴出疹性疾病患者急性期血清标本进行麻疹、风疹和水痘IgM抗体检测,咽拭标本采用RT-PCR方法分离病毒.结果 243份血清标本中麻疹IgM抗体阳性检出率为51.44%,风疹IgM抗体阳性检出率为5.76%,水痘IgM阳性检出率为4.12%,三者全部阴性者占38.27%.236份咽试标本中麻疹病毒核糖核酸(RNA)阳性62份,风疹病毒RNA阳性27份.塘沽地区RFIs病例主要为20岁以上成人发病,占总病例的87.65%.麻疹IgM抗体阳性病例中,无免疫史和不详者占92.80%,风疹和水痘IgM抗体阳性病例均无免疫史.结论 目前,塘沽地区发热出疹性疾病以麻疹为主,发病以大年龄组人群为主,同时具有一定的风疹和水痘病例,积极推行疫苗接种是控制麻疹、风疹和水痘发病的主要策略.%[ Objective ] To study the pathogen spectrum of rash and fever illness (RFIs) in Tanggu area of Tianjin. [ Methods ] The method of ELISA was adopted to detect the IgM antibodies of measles, rubella and chickenpox in the serum of RFIs cases during acute stage in Tanggu infectious diseases hospital from September 2009 to May 2010. The viruses were isolated from oropharyngeal swabs by RT-PCR. [ Results] Among 243 serum samples, the positive rates of IgM antibody in measles, rubella and chickenpox were 51.44%, 5.76% and 4. 12% respectively, and 38.27% were negative all for measles, rubella and chickenpox. Among 236 oropharyngeal swabs, 62 samples were positive for measles virus RNA, and 27 samples were positive for rubella virus RNA. 87.65% of the total cases in Tanggu area were adults over 20 years old. Among measles cases with positive IgM antibody, 92.80% had no history or an uncertain history of vaccination. All of rubella and chickenpox cases with positive IgM antibody had

  14. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

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    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  15. Acyclovir for treating varicella in otherwise healthy children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

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    Hartling Lisa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyclovir has the potential to shorten the course of chickenpox which may result in reduced costs and morbidity. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials that evaluated acyclovir for the treatment of chickenpox in otherwise healthy children. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched. The reference lists of relevant articles were examined and primary authors and Glaxo Wellcome were contacted to identify additional trials. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed study quality using the Jadad scale and allocation concealment, and extracted data. Continuous data were converted to a weighted mean difference (WMD. Overall estimates were not calculated due to differences in the age groups studied. Results Three studies were included. Methodological quality was 3 (n = 2 and 4 (n = 1 on the Jadad scale. Acyclovir was associated with a significant reduction in the number of days with fever, from -1.0 (95% CI -1.5,-0.5 to -1.3 (95% CI -2.0,-0.6. Results were inconsistent with respect to the number of days to no new lesions, the maximum number of lesions and relief of pruritis. There were no clinically important differences between acyclovir and placebo with respect to complications or adverse effects. Conclusion Acyclovir appears to be effective in reducing the number of days with fever among otherwise healthy children with chickenpox. The results were inconsistent with respect to the number of days to no new lesions, the maximum number of lesions and the relief of itchiness. The clinical importance of acyclovir treatment in otherwise healthy children remains controversial.

  16. Observation and nursing experience of adverse reactions of children vaccinated with chicken pox vaccine%儿童接种水痘疫苗的不良反应观察及护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琴

    2015-01-01

    objective: to investigate the children chickenpox vaccine adverse reactions and the nursing countermeasures. Methods: retrospectiveanalysis of 226 cases of children had chickenpox vaccine in our adverse reactions and the nursing measures. Results: all children within a few hours after inoculation, there are different degree of mild fever, swelling pain, mild skin rashes, mild chicken pox adverse reaction, nursing measures, reduce the adverse reaction. Conclusion: the adverse reactions of vaccinated children appear in the corresponding nursing measures, can effectively reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions, and improve the success rate of the vaccination is chickenpox vaccine ascending children's health.%目的:探讨儿童接种水痘疫苗的不良反应及护理对策.方法:回顾分析我院已经接种水痘疫苗的儿童226例的不良反应及护理措施.结果:所有儿童在接种结束后的几小时内,出现有不同程度上的轻微发热、局部红肿疼痛、轻微皮疹、轻度水痘不良反应,采取护理措施后,不良反应减少.结论:针对接种后的儿童出现的不良反应进行相应的护理措施,能够有效的减少不良反应的发生,提高接种是水痘疫苗的成功率,提升儿童的身体健康.

  17. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Wiafe MD MSc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common infection caused by the human herpes virus 3, the same virus that causes chickenpox. It is a member of herpes viridae, the same family as the herpes simplex virus, Epstein- Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when a latent varicella zoster virus in the trigeminal ganglia involving the ophthalmic division of the nerve is reactivated. Of the three divisions of the fifth cranial nerve, the ophthalmic is involved 20 times more frequently than the other divisions.

  18. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MEMECYLON MALABARICUM (MELASTOMATACEAE LEAVES

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    M. Ramaiah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon malabaricum cogn (Melastomataceae is an indigenous medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, inflammation and skin diseases including herpes, chickenpox. It’s also a root ecbolic. The methanolic extract of Memecylon malabaricum leaves is subjected to antidiabetic activity using experimental model of alloxan induced diabetes. The results showed that the methanolic extract significantly decrease the raised blood glucose level, comparable to reference standard, gliclazide. The results of this study explicate justification of the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes.  

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonitis in case of varicella zoster in adult: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaz Binazeez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV. The disease is often more severe in adults than children. Here we present a case of adult male suffering from chicken pox who presented with complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] due to viral pneumonitis. Due to his late presentation, despite of giving antivirals, patient had a fatal outcome. So this case highlights the necessity and importance of early administration of antivirals, especially in adult pox, to tackle the complications of disease and get a favourable outcome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3924-3927

  20. STUDY REPORTS ON VARICELLA ZOSTER IN TERM PREGNANCY AND ITS OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus, a member of the herpes virus family. The same virus also causes herpes zoster (shingles in adults. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. It is presented with fever and vesicular lesions all over body. (1,2 Even the pregnant women can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important concern. In this specific paper, we have given the details and discussed 5 cases on chicken pox in term pregnancy and its outcome. We have also discussed the management of VZV (Varicella Zoster Virus infection in pregnancy.

  1. VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS-ITS PATHOGENESIS, LATENCY & CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

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    Anis Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus causes primary infection as chickenpox, at which time latencyis established in the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia or ganglia of the cranial nerves.Reactivation produces herpes zoster infection (HZI, commonly called shingles. Anunderstanding of the mechanisms of latency is crucial in developing effective therapies forVZV infections of the nervous system. This article describes the pathogenesis of VZVwhich includes immune response to the virus, immune evasion by the virus, mechanism ofits latency and cell-mediated immunity.

  2. Hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Boy 4 years old, hospitalized due to hemorrhagic chickenpox and sepsis during his clinical examination besides hemorrhagic crust, vesicles and bullous he has also a cutaneous red lesion localized at the right proximal nail fold of the big toenail (Fig. 1, dermatoscopic view of the lesion (Fig. 2. The diagnosis of hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter was done. The proximal nail fold hematomas due to oximeter are uncommon dermatoses at this level that are caused for the pressure of the oximeter and it has been seeing in patient in Unit Intensive or Intermediate Unit Care since 2007.

  3. Varicella and secondary pneumonia in a healthy child: is it time to introduce varicella vaccine in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba P; Abdelrhim, Hisham; Kane, Meridith; Haque, Salma Y

    2013-10-01

    A previously healthy 8-month-old boy presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of chickenpox infection. His routine immunizations were up-to-date. His parents reported a high temperature (up to 39.5°C) in the preceding 48 hours and that he also had a mild cough, episodes of vomiting and loose stools. He had fed poorly in the 24 hours before presentation. Clinical assessment revealed a temperature of 36.7°C, heart rate 130/min, respiratory rate of 34/min and crusted chickenpox lesions. The infant was alert, smiling and playful, and systemic examination was otherwise unremarkable. He was admitted for monitoring of his fluid intake and temperature. As the infant continued to vomit intermittently in the 6 hours post admission, blood investigations were done and intravenous fluids were commenced. Laboratory investigations did not reveal biochemical evidence of dehydration, but they did show raised inflammatory markers: white blood cell count 24.8 × 109/litre, neutrophil count 19.8 × 109/litre and C-reactive protein 227mg/litre. In view of these results and the ongoing high fever, a chest X-ray was performed, revealing right upper lobe consolidation and collapse (Figure 1). Oral amoxicillin and flucloxacillin were started and oral feeding was successfully reestablished over the next 24 hours. He was discharged home after 48 hours, to complete a full 7-day course of oral antibiotics.

  4. Epidemiological characteristics of varicella from 2000 to 2008 and the impact of nationwide immunization in Taiwan

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    Chang Luan-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella has an important impact on public health. Starting in 2004 in Taiwan, nationwide free varicella vaccinations were given to 1-year-old children. Methods Our study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of varicella from 2000 to 2008, and assessed the change of varicella epidemiology after the mass varicella immunization. ICD-9-CM codes related to varicella or chickenpox (052, 052.1, 052.2, 052.7, 052.8, 052.9 were analyzed for all young people under 20 years of age through the National Health Insurance database of Taiwan from 2000 to 2008. Results Case numbers of varicella or chickenpox significantly declined after the nationwide immunization in 2004. Winter, particularly January, was the epidemic season of varicella. We found a significant post-vaccination decrease in incidence among preschool children, especially 3 to 6 year-old children-- the peak incidence was 66 per thousand for 4 and 5 year-old children before the nationwide immunization (2000 to 2003, and the peak incidence was 23 per thousand for 6 year-old children in 2008 (p Conclusion The varicella annual incidence and varicella-related hospitalization markedly declined in preschool children after nationwide varicella immunization in 2004.

  5. Basic health indicators in the province of Granma (Cuba in the period 2007-2011: retrospective and descriptive observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurieth Gallardo Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The province of Granma in Cuba is not exempt from the changes that have been occurring in the country in recent years, resulting in an improved quality of life of its inhabitants. This study looks into basic health indicators of Granma as a result of a systemic and team approach of its human resources inserted in the provincial health system. Methods. An observational retrospective descriptive study was conducted to describe the results of the provincial health system based on demographic and morbidity indicators during the five years from 2007 to 2011. Results. A gradual increase in births and of the population older than 60 was found. Child mortality rates did not vary significantly. Direct maternal mortality decreased. Mortality from non communicable diseases was due mainly to heart conditions and malignancies. Mortality from stroke and accidents was reduced. Among the communicable diseases, there was an increase in chickenpox, gonorrhea, syphilis, and pulmonary tuberculosis, while viral hepatitis and meningoencephalitis decreased. Discussion. Morbidity and mortality studies are used to measure and indirectly assess the health status of a population, which in turn helps to plan the provision of services and scientific and technical development. Birth rates are increasing and deaths are decreasing, but there is no information on the quality of life of the aging population. Conclusion. The study found a predominance of older population. The most striking rates were those related to death from heart disease, malignancies and stroke. There was a greater morbidity from tuberculosis, chickenpox and gonorrhea.

  6. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. C. Maple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended.

  7. A systematic approach for the identification of novel, serologically reactive recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lueking Angelika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella-Zoster virus causes chickenpox upon primary infection and shingles after reactivation. Currently available serological tests to detect VZV-specific antibodies are exclusively based on antigens derived from VZV-infected cells. Results We present a systematic approach for the identification of novel, serologically reactive VZV antigens. Therefore, all VZV open reading frames were cloned into a bacterial expression vector and checked for small scale recombinant protein expression. Serum profiling experiments using purified VZV proteins and clinically defined sera in a microarray revealed 5 putative antigens (ORFs 1, 4, 14, 49, and 68. These were rearranged in line format and validated with pre-characterized sera. Conclusions The line assay confirmed the seroreactivity of the identified antigens and revealed its suitability for VZV serodiagnostics comparable to commercially available VZV-ELISA. Recombinant ORF68 (gE proved to be an antigen for high-confidence determination of VZV serostatus. Furthermore, our data suggest that a serological differentiation between chickenpox and herpes zoster may be possible by analysis of the IgM-portfolio against individual viral antigens.

  8. The evaluation of emergent vaccination against varicells%水痘疫苗应急接种效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To valuation the effect of varicella vaccine's emergent vaccination and to understand the sero prevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV).Methods Sevevteen schools which had Chickenpox outbreak in the years of 2004~2006 were chosen as the field of epidemiological study.The chickenpox patients and close contects in 5 schools of them were investigated in Questionnaire.And we collected 85 serum samples of students before and after immunity in 2 schools to test IgG antibody of VZV using ELISA.Results The attack rates of chickenpox in the schools before and after emergent vaccination are 6.22% and 1.65%.The difference was significant(x2=10.99,P<0.01).The attack rate of exposure group was significant lower than the control group(x2=20.70,P<0.01).Antibodies effective rate after immunity was 90.70%,Antibody positive rate was 87.80%,and Immune success rate was 70.70%.Condusion Emergent vaccination can effectively control the chickenpox outbreak.So the result of study suggests that emergent vaccination should be done immediately once a chickenpox case has occured in a school.%目的 评价水痘疫苗应急接种效果及暴发后人群抗体水平,指导水痘暴发疫情控制.方法 以2004-2006年发生水痘暴发的17所学校为研究对象,对其中5所学校的患者及密切接触者进行问卷调查,并采集2所学校水痘疫苗应急接种后应急接种者免疫前后血清标本各85份进行水痘疫苗血清抗体滴度测定.结果 应急接种前学校水痘罹患率为6.22%,应急接种后学校水痘罹患率为1.65%,两者的差别有统计学意义(x2=10.99,P<0.01);接种疫苗者与未接种水痘者的水痘罹患率分别为8.60%和19.89%,免疫人群的水痘罹患率明显低于未免人群(x2=20.70,P<0.01);接种水痘疫苗后血清抗体有效率为90.70%,抗体阳转率为87.80%,免疫成功率为70.70%.结论 应急接种对控制学校水痘疫情暴发有重要作用,建议在出现水痘

  9. 舒适护理在小儿水痘护理中的应用效果%Application effect of comfortable nursing in care of children with varicella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭东娟; 李女; 李耀才

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the effects and clinical value of the application of comfort care model in children with chick-enpox nursing. Method 81 cases of chickenpox in children were screened as research subjects in this comparative experiment,patients were given basic care measures in the control group,treatment group were given comfort care,including diet care,psychological care,skin care and other aspects. Results The satisfaction in the treatment group for care job was significantly higher than that of the control group,in favor of es-tablishing and maintaining a harmonious relationship between nurses and patients,the satisfaction the treatment group for nursing job was as high as 97. 57%,the control group was only 82. 50%,the difference was statistically significant( P<0. 05). Conclusion The implementation of comfort care for children with chickenpox can facilitate to restore their condition,which is safe and reliable,not only to ensure the health and safety of children,but also to improve the quality of life of children,it is worthy of clinical application.%目的:研究分析应用舒适护理模式在小儿水痘护理中的应用效果以及临床价值。方法:筛选水痘患儿共81例作为本次对比实验的研究对象。给予对照组基础护理措施,治疗组则进行舒适护理包括饮食护理、心理护理、皮肤护理等方面。结果:治疗组患者对于护理工作的满意程度明显高于对照组,有利于和谐护患关系的建立和维持,治疗组对护理工作满意度高达97.57%,对照组则仅为82.50%差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对于水痘患儿实施舒适护理可以促进其病情恢复,安全可靠,既保证了患儿的健康安全,又能够提高患儿的生活质量,值得在临床中应用。

  10. Simple technique for in field samples collection in the cases of skin rash illness and subsequent PCR detection of orthopoxviruses and varicella zoster virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Dumont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In case of outbreak of rash illness in remote areas, clinically discriminating monkeypox (MPX from severe form of chickenpox and from smallpox remains a concern for first responders. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was therefore to use MPX and chickenpox outbreaks in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC as a test case for establishing a rapid and specific diagnosis in affected remote areas. METHODS: In 2008 and 2009, successive outbreaks of presumed MPX skin rash were reported in Bena Tshiadi, Yangala and Ndesha healthcare districts of the West Kasai province (DRC. Specimens consisting of liquid vesicle dried on filter papers or crusted scabs from healing patients were sampled by first responders. A field analytical facility was deployed nearby in order to carry out a real-time PCR (qPCR assay using genus consensus primers, consensus orthopoxvirus (OPV and smallpox-specific probes spanning over the 14 kD fusion protein encoding gene. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used on-site as backup method to confirm the presence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in samples. To complete the differential diagnosis of skin rash, chickenpox was tested in parallel using a commercial qPCR assay. In a post-deployment step, a MPXV-specific pyrosequencing was carried out on all biotinylated amplicons generated on-site in order to confirm the on-site results. RESULTS: Whereas MPXV proved to be the agent causing the rash illness outbreak in the Bena Tshiadi, VZV was the causative agent of the disease in Yangala and Ndesha districts. In addition, each on-site result was later confirmed by MPXV-specific pyrosequencing analysis without any discrepancy. CONCLUSION: This experience of rapid on-site dual use DNA-based differential diagnosis of rash illnesses demonstrates the potential of combining tests specifically identifying bioterrorism agents and agents causing natural outbreaks. This opens the way to rapid on-site DNA-based identification of a

  11. 激素致水痘重症化7例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐苏; 张静

    2011-01-01

    @@ 水痘(varicella,chickenpox)是由水痘-带状疱疹病毒所引起的一种传染性很强的出疹性疾病,可通过飞沫和直接接触及被污染的用具传播,常以斑疹、丘疹、疱疹及痂疹为主要表现,病初可有发热、咳嗽等类似呼吸道感染症状.现将我院感染科2007-2010年共收治7例在基层乡镇卫生院和个体诊所应用糖皮质激素致水痘重症化患者报告如下.

  12. 2007-2009年水痘与带状疱疹就诊情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来群; 樊曼云; 逯晓慧; 谢磊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 水痘(varicella,chickenpox)和带状疱疹(herps zoster)是由水痘-带状疱疹病毒(Varicella-zoster virus,VZV)感染所引起的临床表现不同的两种疾病.VZV在无或低免疫力的人群中引起原发感染即水痘,少数亦可呈隐性感染.人群对VZV普遍易感,易感儿童接触VZV后90%发病[1].VZV在先前患过水痘或预防接种而有部分免疫力的宿主感染引起带状疱疹,但一般认为主要是潜伏的VZV再激活后发生的皮肤感染[1].

  13. Differentiation of strains of varicella-zoster virus by changes in neutral lipid metabolism in infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerkofsky, M.; De Siervo, A.J.

    1986-03-01

    Eleven isolates of varicella-zoster virus were tested for their effects on the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)acetate into lipids in infected human embryonic lung cells. By relative percent, all virus isolates demonstrated a shift from polar lipid synthesis to neutral lipid, especially triglyceride, synthesis. By data expressed as counts per minute per microgram of protein, the VZV strains could be separated into two groups: those strains which depressed lipid synthesis and those strains which did not depress, and may even have stimulated, lipid, especially triglyceride, synthesis. These results may be useful in understanding the development of lipid changes seen in children affected with Reye's syndrome following chickenpox.

  14. Chicken pox outbreak in the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital: Lessons learnt the hard way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV causes 2 clinically and epidemiologically distinct forms of diseases. Chickenpox (varicella is the disease that results from primary infection with the VZV. Herpes zoster (HZ results from the reactivation of VZV latently infecting the dorsal root ganglia. We are reporting an outbreak of varicella infection among the health care workers (HCWs in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a tertiary care hospital. We found transmission of varicella among eight HCWs of pulmonary ICU. They had a history of contact with a patient having HZ infection. Investigation of the outbreak was conducted as per guidelines. Better dissemination of information on disease transmission, isolation of infected patients inside the hospital, and adequate protection (including vaccination for susceptible employees are important to prevent such outbreaks.

  15. Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L

    1986-10-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine has been administered to 307 children with leukemia in remission and to 86 healthy adults. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. The major side effect in leukemic children receiving maintenance chemotherapy was development of a vaccine-associated rash. Vaccinees in whom a rash developed were potentially somewhat infectious to others about 1 month after immunization. Vaccination was not associated with an increase in the incidence of herpes zoster or in relapse of leukemia. Vaccination provided excellent protection against severe varicella. It was associated with a significant decrease in the attack rate of chickenpox following an intimate exposure to varicella-zoster virus, conferring about 80% protection in leukemic children. The cases of breakthrough varicella that occurred were mild. Thus, the vaccine may either prevent or modify varicella in high-risk individuals. It may also have use for prevention of nosocomial varicella.

  16. Varicella Pneumonia in a 39-year-old Female in Third Trimester Twin Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzovic, Meliha; Mehanic, Snjezana; Lukovac, Enra; Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Baljic, Izet; Imsirovic, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Chickenpox is disease caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), with possibly devastated consequences during pregnancy, for mother and neonate. Pneumonia is most common complication in pregnancy with very high mortality. Case report A 39-year-old female in third trimester twin pregnancy, referred to Clinic for infectious diseases in Sarajevo, with five days history of illness. Before the admission her condition get worse, with fatigue, exhaustion, and shortness of breath. In a first three days patient was febrile, tachydispnoic and ortopnoic. We started therapy with acyclovir and antibiotic. After four days we had detoriation in patient’s condition. Chest X-ray revealed infiltrative shadows in basal parts of lung. Antimicrobial therapy was changed and corticosteroids were associated. Significant improvement was noticed after five days of therapy. Conclusion Varicella pneumonia during third trimester may have serious consequences for mother and child, with possible fatal outcome. PMID:24493990

  17. Multiple Apical Radiolucencies and External Cervical Resorption Associated with Varicella Zoster Virus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kreena; Schirru, Elia; Niazi, Sadia; Mitchell, Philip; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for the primary infection chickenpox. After the initial infection, it remains latent but can reactivate, resulting in shingles (herpes zoster). Previous reports have implicated VZV in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis, but the involvement of the virus has not been investigated fully. The present case describes a patient who suffered from a severe episode of shingles and subsequently developed periapical radiolucencies of all the teeth in the affected nerve distribution. Molecular and culture techniques showed the presence of VZV DNA in the root canal system in the absence of bacteria. This confirms that VZV can cause localized pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. The lesions healed after endodontic treatment, implying chemomechanical debridement using sodium hypochlorite irrigation and a calcium hydroxide interim dressing may be effective against the virus. PMID:27133503

  18. Chicken pox outbreak in the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital: Lessons learnt the hard way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarit, Sharma; Shruti, Sharma; Deepinder, Chhina; Chhina, R S

    2015-12-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes 2 clinically and epidemiologically distinct forms of diseases. Chickenpox (varicella) is the disease that results from primary infection with the VZV. Herpes zoster (HZ) results from the reactivation of VZV latently infecting the dorsal root ganglia. We are reporting an outbreak of varicella infection among the health care workers (HCWs) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. We found transmission of varicella among eight HCWs of pulmonary ICU. They had a history of contact with a patient having HZ infection. Investigation of the outbreak was conducted as per guidelines. Better dissemination of information on disease transmission, isolation of infected patients inside the hospital, and adequate protection (including vaccination) for susceptible employees are important to prevent such outbreaks. PMID:26816447

  19. Varicella Zoster Virus in the Nervous System [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gilden

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is a ubiquitous, exclusively human alphaherpesvirus. Primary infection usually results in varicella (chickenpox, after which VZV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. As VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity declines in elderly and immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and causes herpes zoster (shingles, frequently complicated by postherpetic neuralgia. VZV reactivation also produces multiple serious neurological and ocular diseases, such as cranial nerve palsies, meningoencephalitis, myelopathy, and VZV vasculopathy, including giant cell arteritis, with or without associated rash. Herein, we review the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathological features of neurological complications of VZV reactivation as well as diagnostic tests to verify VZV infection of the nervous system. Updates on the physical state of VZV DNA and viral gene expression in latently infected ganglia, neuronal, and primate models to study varicella pathogenesis and immunity are presented along with innovations in the immunization of elderly individuals to prevent VZV reactivation.

  20. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  1. Is ultra-violet radiation the main force shaping molecular evolution of varicella-zoster virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar-Gutiérrez Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella (chickenpox exhibits a characteristic epidemiological pattern which is associated with climate. In general, primary infections in tropical regions are comparatively less frequent among children than in temperate regions. This peculiarity regarding varicella-zoster virus (VZV infection among certain age groups in tropical regions results in increased susceptibility during adulthood in these regions. Moreover, this disease shows a cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during winter and spring. This observation further supports the participation of environmental factors in global epidemiology of chickenpox. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive disease behavior are not understood completely. In a recent publication, Philip S. Rice has put forward an interesting hypothesis suggesting that ultra-violet (UV radiation is the major environmental factor driving the molecular evolution of VZV. Discussion While we welcomed the attempt to explain the mechanisms controlling VZV transmission and distribution, we argue that Rice's hypothesis takes lightly the circulation of the so called "temperate VZV genotypes" in tropical regions and, to certain degree, overlooks the predominance of such lineages in certain non-temperate areas. Here, we further discuss and present new information about the overwhelming dominance of temperate VZV genotypes in Mexico regardless of geographical location and climate. Summary UV radiation does not satisfactorily explain the distribution of VZV genotypes in different tropical and temperate regions of Mexico. Additionally, the cyclic behavior of varicella does not shown significant differences between regions with different climates in the country. More studies should be conducted to identify the factors directly involved in viral spreading. A better understanding of the modes of transmissions exploited by VZV and their effect on viral

  2. Surveillance of communicable disease from a tertiary care teaching hospital of central Kerala, India

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    Velikkakath Divakaran Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance is the back bone of any disease control program. Communicable disease is a major cause of morbidity. Precise data on the pattern of communicable disease will enable us to identify the epidemic early so that timely response will be possible. Aims: (1 To find out the morbidity and mortality pattern of communicable diseases. (2 To study the disease trend and seasonality of acute respiratory infections (ARIs and acute diarrheal diseases (ADD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective record-based descriptive study was done to find out the morbidity and mortality pattern of communicable disease and trend of seasonality. Five years surveillance data from 2009 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. Results: Maximum morbidity (47.6% was observed in air borne diseases. ARI accounted for 53%, and pulmonary tuberculosis 27% of morbidity among air borne diseases. Admissions from water borne diseases were mainly done for ADD (47%, followed by hepatitis (34%. 90% of the morbidity from vector borne disease was due to dengue fever. ADD showed a rise during the summer season, and ARI showed peak during the rainy season. The difference in incidence observed between seasons for ADD and ARI were statistically significant (P = 0.001. Leptospirosis and chickenpox were present throughout the years. Increase in mortality from all communicable diseases was observed from the year 2011 onwards. 48% of mortality was due to air borne diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, and chickenpox. Conclusion: Maximum morbidity and mortality were due to airborne diseases. Incidence of ADD was more during the summer while ARI was more during the rainy season.

  3. 水痘-带状疱疹病毒感染的研究现状%The Present Status of Reseach on Varicella-zoster Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞蕙; 朱启镕

    2001-01-01

    水痘是儿童常见的一种急性、高传染性的呼吸道传染病,带状疱疹是患水痘后潜伏病毒的再激活所致,其病原为水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV),即人类疱疹病毒3型。原发感染可引起不同严重程度的典型疾病,健康儿童感染VZV后多数症状轻微,预后良好。但在某些特殊人群,如免疫功能缺陷及使用免疫抑制剂治疗的儿童,会导致严重后果,甚至死亡。成人感染VZV后症状也甚为严重。对VZV的分子生物学特征、流行病学、实验室诊断、治疗及预防对策等做了详细阐述。%Chickenpox is an acute and highly infectious respiratory disease commonly seen in children.Varicela-zoster often results from the activation of latent virus in chickenpox called varicella-zoster virus(VZV)or called human herpesvirus type 3. Primary infection of VZV may induce typical disease of various severity and most healthy children infected with VZV have mild symptoms and good prognosis.But VZV infection,if occurs in special population such as persons of immune inhibition treatment will induce serious consequence or even death and it is as same serious as in adults.A detailed illustration of molecular biology,epidemiology,laboratory diagnosis,treatment and preventive strategy of the VZV were given.

  4. 某高职院校29例成人水痘临床浅析%Clinical Analysis of 29 Cases of Adult Varicella in A Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the epidemic characteristics of adult chickenpox,to do infectious disease control work in higher vocational colleges.Method:The clinical data of 29 cases of adult varicella patients to the school from January 2010 to December 2013 in our department were analyzed. Result:Among the 29 cases,26 cases occured in the winter and spring season,accounting for 89.8%.There had a clear history of exposure to the source of infection in 17 cases,accounting for 58.6%.Moderate fever in 22 cases,accounting for 75.9%.The 29 patients were cured.Conclusion:Chickenpox infectious is strong,adult varicella symptoms is heavier.Do the work of disease prevention and control,early diagnosis,early isolation and early treatment,can effectively control the varicella epidemic.%目的:探讨成人水痘的流行特点,做好高职院校的传染病控制工作。方法:对该校2010年1月-2013年12月收治的29例成人水痘患者的临床资料进行分析。结果:其中26例发病于冬、春季节,占89.8%;有明确传染源接触史17例,占58.6%;中度以上发热者22例,占75.9%;29例患者均治愈。结论:水痘传染性强,成人水痘全身症状较重。做好疾病控制工作,早诊断、早隔离、早治疗,能有效控制水痘的流行。

  5. The Effect of Varicella-zoster Virus on the Humoral Immune Function of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus%水痘-带状疱疹病毒对系统性红斑狼疮患者体液免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔咏望; 曾华松

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察水痘患者、系统性红斑狼疮(systemic lupus eryhematosus,SLE)患者和系统性红斑狼疮合并水痘患者体液免疫指标的变化,探讨水痘-带状疱疹病毒对系统性红斑狼疮患者体液免疫功能的影响.方法:选择在我院诊断治疗的水痘患者、系统性红斑狼疮患者和系统性红斑狼疮合并水痘患者共66例,同时设21例正常对照组;利用血液细胞分析仪检测各组血液中白细胞计数(WBC)、血小板计数(PLT)以及血红蛋白含量(HGB);采用免疫比浊法检测各组血清中免疫球蛋白G(IgG)、免疫球蛋白A(IgA)和免疫球蛋白M(IgM)以及补体C3、C4的水平.结果:与正常对照组比较,水痘组、SLE组以及SLE合并水痘组WBC、PLT和HGB含量下降,其中SLE组和SLE合并水痘组WBC、PLT降低,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05或P<0.01);水痘组血清中IgG、IgA和IgM含量下降,SLE组和SLE合并水痘组血清中IgG、IgA和IgM含量上升,其中水痘组血清中IgA含量减少有统计学意义(P<0.05),SLE组和SLE合并水痘组血清中IgG、IgA含量增加有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);水痘组血清中补体C3、C4含量增加,SLE组和SLE合并水痘组血清中补体C3、C4含量减少,其中SLE合并水痘组减少且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与SLE组比较,SLE合并水痘组WBC明显增加(P<0.05),血清中IgG、IgA和补体C3、C4降低且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:水痘-带状疱疹病毒可引起系统性红斑狼疮患者免疫系统相关指标的改变并对其产生影响.%Objective: To observe the immunological indexs' changes of patients with chickenpox, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus with chickenpox, and to explore the effect of varicella-zoster virus on the immune system of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: A total of sixty-six cases of patients with chickenpox, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus

  6. Study of susceptibility towards varicella by screening for the presence of IgG antibodies among nursing and medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A Singru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that all suffer from chickenpox infection in their childhood. Many studies abroad and some in India clearly indicate that many individuals escape the infection in childhood, and thus, remain susceptible in adulthood. Adulthood chickenpox is a more serious infection than childhood. Prior screening of health care workers for the presence of IgG antibodies against Varicella will not only prevent hospital outbreaks but also economic and academic loss faced by the students. This will also have an important implication in terms of patient care as there is a threat of spreading Varicella to immuno-compromised patients. Definite history of prior infection of chickenpox is considered as an indicator for immunity towards the same. However, the reliability of this needs to be tested. Aim: A study to assess the susceptibility of nursing and medical students towards Varicella infection by screening for IgG antibodies against Varicella virus and to identify any risk factors for the same. Settings and design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in nursing and medical students. Materials and Methods: Total 78 nursing and medical students participated in the study. They were given prestructured and pretested questionnaires. After obtaining informed consent, blood sample was collected and screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Varicella by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA by using a commercial kit. Statistical analysis: Epi_info 2002 was used for analysis. Age of the study subjects were summarized as mean age and standard deviation. Susceptibility was analyzed as percentage with 95% confidence interval and Chi Square test was used to find association of susceptibility status with sex and region of residence in childhood. Relevance of definite history as an indicator for immunity was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results

  7. 东莞市某学校1起水痘暴发疫情调查分析%Investigation on an outbreak on varicella in primary school of DongGuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiologic features of chickenpox outbreak in a school, and provide scientific proofs for effective prevention and control of the disease. Method Using epidemiological methods to cany out epidemiology and clinical feature investigation and analyze. Results There were 24 cases which involving 6 classes of 4 grades, the attack rate was 3. 41 % , and all of the patients were students. The attack rate of first infected was different between the classes in the same floor and other floors'classes, and there was statistical significance (P <0. 05) . The attack rates of children who took school bus and not were different (P <0.05) . Under the control measures, the disease last for 18 days. Conclusions Close contact with infected children may be the risk factors of chickenpox outbreak. Schools should strengthen the communicable disease control work, strictly implement the infectious disease report system, morning checking and absence follow - up system, enhance contagion propaganda. At the same time, put chicken pox into notifiable disease management and put chickenpox vaccine into country planned immunity.%目的 为了解学校水痘暴发疫情的流行病学特征,对有效防控水痘提供科学依据.方法 应用流行病学方法对学校发病儿童进行流行病学和临床特征进行调查、分析.结果 本次水痘暴发疫情发病24例,涉及4个年级6个班,罹息率3.41%.患者均为学生.首发病例同楼层班级与其他楼层班级之间学童罹患率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).坐校车学童和不坐校车学童之间罹患率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).通过控制措施18d后,确认疫情终止.结论 患儿密切接触可能是本次水痘发病的危险因素.学校要加强传染病管理工作,严格执行疫情报告制度、晨检制度和因病缺勤随访制度,加强传染宣传工作.同时将水痘纳入法定传染病管理,水痘疫苗纳入国家计划免疫.

  8. Analysis on epidemical characteristics of infectious diseases in schools and kindergartens in Ezhou from 2005 to 2009%鄂州市2005-2009年学校及托幼机构传染病流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖学舟; 王焕章; 王黎明; 王韦玥; 唐杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解鄂州市2005 -2009年托幼机构儿章、中小学校学生传染病流行特征,为学校传染病防控提供依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对鄂州市2005 -2009年学校传染病流行特征进行分析.结果 鄂州市2005 -2009年共报告3~18岁托幼机构、中小学校学生传染病19种共4 668例,年平均发病率为517.73/10万.发病率较高的传染病病种为水痘(144.52/10万)、流行性腮腺炎(137.20/10万)、病毒性肝炎(72.20/10万)、风疹(32.94/10万)、肺结核(20.63/10万).结论 鄂州市托幼机构儿童、中小学校学生传染病发病率总体呈下降趋势,水痘、流行性腮腺炎、风疹、病毒性肝炎、肺结核为防控重点.%Objective To understand epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases in Nurseries, Primary and Secondary schools of Ezhou City, from 2005 to 2009, so as to provide the basis for prevention and control of infectious diseases for school. Methods The descriptive epidemiological method was performed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases in nurseries, primary and secondary schools of Ezhou City, from 2005 to 2009. Results From 2005 to 2009, a total of 4 668 cases of 19 categories of infectious diseases were reported among students aged 3 to 18 years, the average annual reported rate was 517. 73 per 100 000. The prevalence rates of chickenpox (144. 52/100 000), mumps(137.20/100 000) , viral hepatitis (72.20/100 000), rubella (32.94/100 000) and tuberculosis (20.63/100 000) were relatively high. Conclusion An overall downward trend is observed in students aged 3 to 18 years in E zhou City from 2005 to 2009, and the further focus on prevention and control of infectious diseases are chickenpox, mumps, hand-foot-mouth disease, rubella, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis.

  9. 中西医治疗水痘的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥波

    2012-01-01

      目的:观察阿昔洛韦与蓝芩口服液联合用药治疗水痘的临床疗效.方法:47例患者随机分成两组,A 组给予阿昔洛韦与蓝芩口服液,B 组给予阿昔洛韦注射液,比较其疗效和疗程,并进行统计学分析.结果:A 组患儿23例,痊愈为10例,有效为7例,有效率为73.91%;B 组患儿24例,痊愈为14例,有效为10例,有效率为100%.从疗效和疗程来看,A 的治疗方法明显优于 B 组.结论:采用中西医结合的方法治疗水痘能够取得较好的治疗效果,值得临床推广.%  Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of treating chickenpox with acyclovir plus Lanqin oral liquid. Methods: 47 cases patients were randomly divided into two groups, the group A was gaven acyclovir plus Lanqin oral liquid for treatment, and the group B was treated with acyclovir injection respectively. Compare their efficacy and the course of treatment, and were statistically analyzed. Results: The group A had 23 cases, recovery in 10 cases, effective in 7 cases, the total effective 73.91% ; and the group B had 24 cases, recovery in 14 cases, effective in 10 cases, the total effective 100%. The group A was better than the group B from the curative effect and the treatment. Conclusion: Treating chickenpox in the integrative medicine can get better treatment effect, worthy of clinical promotion.

  10. Varicella-zoster virus: pathogenesis, incidence patterns and vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Franchi, Michele; Maniscalco, Licia; Stefanati, Armando

    2016-06-01

    Varicella or chickenpox is a common and highly contagious exanthematic disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that during primary infection has the ability to establish latency. VZV reactivation, even decades after primary infection, causes herpes zoster. In healthy immunocompetent subjects, children in particular, varicella results in mild to moderate illness and for this reason, regardless its high morbidity, it is not considered a public health priority. Varicella still represents the most widespread vaccine preventable childhood infectious disease in industrialized countries; due to its relevant burden on healthcare resources several countries has introduced varicella vaccination into the recommended routine childhood national immunization schedule. Nowadays, live attenuated monovalent and combined MMRV vaccines are licensed worldwide. The use of several millions of doses has demonstrated the excellent safety and efficacy level of varicella vaccines as well as of combined MMRV vaccines. Universal vaccination adopted in many countries with a two-dose strategy has allowed to significantly reducing morbidity and mortality of this infectious disease. Anyway, an ample international debate is ongoing on the time range to be used between the two doses, and on the safety issues related to the use as first-dose of MMRV vaccine. Taking into account the availability of a zoster vaccine in subjects older than 50 years of age, it will be relevant to clarify if an impact on exogenous boosters and on the epidemiology of herpes zoster can occur after the adoption of extensive varicella immunization. PMID:27125440

  11. Perceived vaccination status in ecotourists and risks of anthropozoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Martinez, Leigh Ann; Lemke, Andrea A; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Andau, Patrick; Sakong, Rosman

    2008-09-01

    Anthropozoonotic (human to nonhuman animal) transmission of infectious disease poses a significant threat to wildlife. A large proportion of travelers to tropical regions are not protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses, and a majority of these travelers demonstrate poor recall of actual vaccination status. Here we characterize self-perceived vaccination status among a large sample of ecotourists at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia. Despite their recognized travel itinerary to view endangered animals, tourists at wildlife sanctuaries are not adequately protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses. Of 633 surveys, over half reported being currently vaccinated against tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, and measles. Fewer participants reported current vaccination status for influenza, rabies, and chickenpox. Despite the fact that the majority of visitors to Sepilok are from temperate regions where influenza is relatively more prevalent, 67.1% of those surveyed with medical-related occupations reported not being currently vaccinated for influenza. Ecotourists concerned about environmental protection are themselves largely unaware of their potential contribution to the spread of diseases to animals. The risks of negatively affecting animal populations must be communicated to all concerned parties, and this may begin by urging travelers to examine their actual vaccination status, particularly as the ecotourism industry continues its rapid expansion, and is seen increasingly as a possible tool to save great ape populations from extinction.

  12. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

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    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  13. 抗水痘-带状疱疹病毒药物的研究进展%Research progress on anti-varicella-zoster virus agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晔; 陈建华

    2012-01-01

    水痘-带状疱疹病毒(Varicella-Zoster Virus,VZV)是一种α疱疹病毒.VZV的初次感染会引发水痘,之后潜伏于神经节中.VZV的再激活会导致带状疱疹和其他多种神经性疾病.目前阿昔洛韦是首选的抗水痘-带状疱疹病毒药物,近年来其它一些处于研究中的抗水痘-带状疱疹病毒药物都表现出较好的抗病毒活性.%Varicella-zoster virus ( VZV ) is one of alpha-herpes viruses. Primary infection causes varicella ( chickenpox ), after which virus becomes latent. VZV reactivates and causes herpes zoster ( shingles ) and other neurological diseases. Acyclovir is the preferred current anti-VZV agent. In recent years, new molecules in development show improved activity against VZV.

  14. Amebic liver abscess in Iranian children

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    Khotaii Gh

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Although amebic liver abscess can be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in all ages, there are few reports dealing with this entity in children. Twenty-four children with amebic liver abscess. Ages ranging between 8 weeks and 14.5 years were managed at the Tehran university hospital of children, Iran, between November 1987, and October 2001. The most frequency presentation was high-grade fever and right upper quadrant pain, associated with tender hepatomegaly, leukocytosis and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated indirect hemagglutination titers and ultrasonograpy of the liver. Unlike the experience in adult patients, none of the patients had concomitant jaundice and significant derangement of liver enzymes. The abscesses were likely to be solitary (22 of 24 patients. There were 17 males and 7 females. Most patients (80% were between 8 weeks to 14.5 years of age. In five patients possible predisposing factors were tuberculosis, chickenpox, tetralogy of fallot and thalassemia major. All patients received metronidazole (50 mg/kg/day, followed by a therapeutic course of a luminal amebicide. There was no death despite a mean delay of 15 days before presentation to our hospital. In conclusion a high index of suspicion, early institution of metronidazole therapy and aspiration of abscesses with potential to rupture are believed to have contributed to the better outcome in these children when compared with results in previous reports.

  15. Herpes Zoster in Healthy Children: A Retrospective Study

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    Birgül Tepe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herpes zoster is an acute dermatomal viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. While it is commonly seen among elderly and immunocompromised individuals, it is rare in healthy children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features, treatment and complications of healthy children with herpes zoster. Methods: Thirty one patients aged between 0-16 years who were admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of herpes zoster, between January 2014 and December 2014, were evaluated retrospectively for age, gender, month of admission, complaint, history of chickenpox infection or varicella vaccination, triggering factors, dermatomal involvement, complications and treatment. Results: Among 31 patients with diagnosis of herpes zoster, 19 were boys (61.3% and 12 were girls (38.7%. The mean of age was 9.12±4.4 years. Twenty patients had thoracic (64.5%, six had lumbar (19.4% and five had cervical involvements (16.2%. The most frequent symptoms were pruritus and pain, respectively. Six patients were administered topical treatment and 25 patients were treated with both systemic and topical treatments. Complication was not observed. Conclusion: Herpes zoster is also being encountered increasingly in healthy children nowadays. It is benign and generally no complications are observed. Incidence can vary because of geographic and socioeconomic differences like vaccination programs.

  16. Varicella pneumonia in adults: 13 years′ experience with review of literature

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    Alanezi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is a serious complication of varicella infection in adults. This study investigates the clinical characteristics in 19 patients admitted to our hospital with diagnosis of Varicella pneumonia . Materials and Methods : A retrospective chart review study was performed in adult patients admitted with diagnosis of Varicella pneumonia over 13 years (1992-2005. The study documented the clinical characteristics, laboratory investigations, hospital course, complications, treatment received and the outcomes. Results : Nineteen patients were identified with a mean age of 41 (±15.4. All were males except two. Eleven patients (58% were smokers. Eleven patients (58% had direct contact with persons with chickenpox infection. One patient had underlying chronic pulmonary disease (sarcoidosis. Sixteen patients (84% were admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure; eight of them required mechanical ventilation. The mean duration of ICU stay was 4.4 days. All patients were treated with acyclovir and IV antibiotics. Three patients received IV steroid. There was one death. Conclusion : Patients with Varicella pneumonia are at high risk for respiratory failure and the need for mechanical ventilation. However, early implementation of supportive therapy seems to positively influence the recovery rate and outcome.

  17. Diagnosis and management of herpes zoster by the family and community physician

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    Pedro Alexandre Barreto Coelho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The herpes virus that causes varicella (chickenpox persists in a latent form in the nervous system and can reactivate and propagate through nerve roots, manifesting years later through painful skin lesions, a condition called herpes zoster. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, but it is important to make a differential diagnosis with impetigo, contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis and also herpes simplex itself. After the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment should be initiated within the first 72 hours after onset of the rash and it is based upon antiviral therapy. Valacyclovir and famciclovir are more effective when compared to acyclovir. The most common complication of herpes zoster is post-herpetic neuralgia, usually managed with tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical lidocaine or capsaicin. Recently, a live attenuated vaccine against herpes zoster was introduced in Brazil, with the same components as the vaccine against varicella, but in a greater concentration. However, it still has a high cost and is not available in the public health system.

  18. Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Atypical Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children from Chongqing, China: A Retrospective Study

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    Xiang Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD is a disease that had similar manifestations to chickenpox, impetigo, and measles, which is easy to misdiagnose and subsequently causes delayed therapy and subsequent epidemic. To date, no study has been conducted to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of atypical HFMD. Methods. 64 children with atypical HFMD out of 887 HFMD children were recruited, stool was collected, and viral VP1 was detected. Results. The atypical HFMD accounted for 7.2% of total HFMD in the same period (64/887 and there were two peaks in its prevalence in nonepidemic seasons. Ten children (15.6% had manifestations of neurologic involvement, of whom 4 (6.3% were diagnosed with severe HFMD and 1 with critically severe HFMD, but all recovered smoothly. Onychomadesis and desquamation were found in 14 patients (21.9% and 15 patients (23.4%, respectively. The most common pathogen was coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6 which accounted for 67.2%, followed by nontypable enterovirus (26.6%, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 (4.7%, and coxsackievirus A16 (A16 (1.5%. Conclusions. Atypical HFMD has seasonal prevalence. The manifestations of neurologic involvement in atypical HFMD are mild and usually have a good prognosis. CV-A6 is a major pathogen causing atypical HFMD, but not a major pathogen in Chongqing, China.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis with group A Streptococci and Eggerthella lenta as a complication of Varicella in a child – case presentation –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cambrea Simona

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a life threatening condition that can be quickly spread through the flesh surrounding the muscle. The disease can be polymicrobial, or caused by group A beta hemolytic Streptococci, or by Clostridium spp. We present a case of a 7 years old girl, which was hospitalized in Children Infectious Diseases Department in a 7th day of chickenpox (hematic crusts all over the body, high fever, asthenia, vomiting, oligoanuria, and tumefaction, pain and functio lessa in the right thigh. In a very short time in the right thigh swelling, edema and congestion have increased gradually, and in the third highest middle thigh the ecchymotic areas appeared evolving towards bubbles and blisters which included the right thigh and calf. After excluding the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis was raised suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis. CT pelvic scan evidenced pelvic asymmetry by maximus and medium right gluteal muscles swelling with important inflammatory infiltrate extended laterally in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. In blood culture was isolated Eggerthella lenta, and from throat swab was isolated group A Streptococci. Treatment consists of a combination of antibiotics associated with intravenous immunoglobulin administration. Despite medical treatment evolution worsened and required transfer in a pediatric surgery department where emergent surgical debridement associated with intensive antibiotic therapy was done. After this intervention evolution was slowly favorable without major limb dysfunction. Polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis is a severe disease, which if recognized early can have a

  20. High-resolution CT findings of varicella-zoster pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Hye Jeung; Kim, Kun Il [Busan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Nam [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the high-resolution CT findings of varicella-zoster pneumonia. Seven adult patients with clinically and serologically diagnosed varicella-zoster pneumonia underwent HRCT scanning. One had undergone a kidney transplant, and the others were immunocompetent. The HRCT findings were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists in terms of the presence of a nodule, pneumonia consolidation, ground-glass attenuation and pleural effusion, and with regard to the number, size and distribution of nodules. HRCT findings of varicella pneumonia included nodule (n=7), consolidation (n=3), diffuse ground-glass attenuation (n=1) and pleural effusion (n=1). Nodules were mostly 2-10 mm in size, and multiple (n=6), and zonal predominancy was not apparent. One case in which HRCT demonstrated diffuse ground-glass opacity and slight bilateral pleural effusion involved a patient in whom complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome occured. When HRCT demonstrates the presence of nodules 2-10 mm in size multiple nodules, or nodule surrounded by ground-glass attenuation, or the coalescence of nodules and consolidation is observed in adults with chickenpox, the varicella-zoster pneumonia should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  1. MR and CT imaging patterns in post-varicella encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, C.F. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Larsen, M.B. [Div. of Neurology, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Byrd, S.E. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Radkowski, M.A. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Palka, P.S. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Allen, E.D. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to determine the patterns of cerebral involvement on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in post-varicella encephalitis. Four children between the ages of 2 and 11 years presented over a 5-year period with a diagnosis of post-varicella encephalitis. Their imaging studies and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. The medical histories of all four children were noncontributory except for recent bouts of chickenpox 1 week to 3 months prior to hospitalization. Three children presented with parkinsonian manifestations. Bilateral, symmetric hypodense, nonenhancing basal ganglia lesions were found on CT. These areas showed nonenhancing low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images on MR. One child presented with diffuse, multiple gray and white matter lesions of similar imaging characteristics; some lesions, however, did enhance. This child had no gait disturbances. Post-varicella encephalitis can produce two patterns of dramatic CT and MR findings. With an appropriate history and clinical findings, varicella as a cause of bilateral basal ganglia or diffuse cerebral lesions can be differentiated from other possible etiologies which include trauma, anoxia, metabolic disorders and demyelinating diseases. (orig.)

  2. Using stated preference discrete choice modelling to evaluate the introduction of varicella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jane; Kenny, Patricia; King, Madeleine; Louviere, Jordan; Viney, Rosalie; Yeoh, Angela

    2002-07-01

    Applications of stated preference discrete choice modelling (SPDCM) in health economics have been used to estimate consumer willingness to pay and to broaden the range of consequences considered in economic evaluation. This paper demonstrates how SPDCM can be used to predict participation rates, using the case of varicella (chickenpox) vaccination. Varicella vaccination may be cost effective compared to other public health programs, but this conclusion is sensitive to the proportion of the target population immunised. A choice experiment was conducted on a sample of Australian parents to predict uptake across a range of hypothetical programs. Immunisation rates would be increased by providing immunisation at no cost, by requiring it for school entry, by increasing immunisation rates in the community and decreasing the incidence of mild and severe side effects. There were two significant interactions; price modified the effect of both support from authorities and severe side effects. Country of birth was the only significant demographic characteristic. Depending on aspects of the immunisation program, the immunisation rates of children with Australian-born parents varied from 9% to 99% while for the children with parents born outside Australia they varied from 40% to 99%. This demonstrates how SPDCM can be used to understand the levels of attributes that will induce a change in the decision to immunise, the modification of the effect of one attribute by another, and subgroups in the population. Such insights can contribute to the optimal design and targeting of health programs.

  3. Varicella vaccine for immunocompromised children: results of collaborative studies in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRussa, P; Steinberg, S; Gershon, A A

    1996-11-01

    Varicella vaccine in immunocompromised children was clinically evaluated in 575 US and Canadian children with leukemia in remission by the Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study. Most children had chemotherapy stopped 1 week before and 1 week after immunization. Steroids were stopped for 3 weeks (1 week before to 2 weeks after vaccination). Varicella vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and effective in leukemic children at risk for serious disease or death from chickenpox. The major side effect was mild rash in 50% approximately 1 month after immunization. About 40% of children who developed rash were treated with acyclovir. Vaccine efficacy was judged by the degree of protection after a household exposure to varicella; of 123 exposed children, 17 (14%) developed a mild form of varicella. The vaccine protected completely against severe varicella. Leukemic vaccines were less likely to develop zoster than were comparable children with leukemia who had wild type varicella. Thus, varicella vaccine, administered carefully with close follow-up, is extremely beneficial for leukemic children.

  4. Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphopenia without autoimmunity or granulomatous disease in the slipstream of RAG mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Taco W; Ijspeert, Hanna; van Leeuwen, Ester M M; Jansen, Machiel H; Hazenberg, Mette D; Weijer, Kees C; van Lier, Rene A W; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2011-06-01

    A girl presented during childhood with a single course of extensive chickenpox and moderate albeit recurrent pneumonia in the presence of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL). Her clinical condition remained stable over the past 10 years without infections, any granulomatous disease, or autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping demonstrated strongly reduced naive T and B cells with intact proliferative capacity. Antibody reactivity on in vivo immunizations was normal. T-cell receptor-Vβ repertoire was polyclonal with a very low content of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) were also abnormal in the B cells. Both reflect extensive in vivo proliferation. Patient-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells could not repopulate RAG2(-/-)IL2Rγc(-/-) mice, indicating the lymphoid origin of the defect. We identified 2 novel missense mutations in RAG1 (p.Arg474Cys and p.Leu506Phe) resulting in reduced RAG activity. This report gives the first genetic clue for ICL and extends the clinical spectrum of RAG mutations from severe immune defects to an almost normal condition. PMID:21502542

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes and re-emergence of scarlet fever as a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson Sy; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-07-01

    Explosive outbreaks of infectious diseases occasionally occur without immediately obvious epidemiological or microbiological explanations. Plague, cholera and Streptococcus pyogenes infection are some of the epidemic-prone bacterial infections. Besides epidemiological and conventional microbiological methods, the next-generation gene sequencing technology permits prompt detection of genomic and transcriptomic profiles associated with invasive phenotypes. Horizontal gene transfer due to mobile genetic elements carrying virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, or mutations associated with the two component CovRS operon are important bacterial factors conferring survival advantage or invasiveness. The high incidence of scarlet fever in children less than 10 years old suggests that the lack of protective immunity is an important host factor. A high population density, overcrowded living environment and a low yearly rainfall are environmental factors contributing to outbreak development. Inappropriate antibiotic use is not only ineffective for treatment, but may actually drive an epidemic caused by drug-resistant strains and worsen patient outcomes by increasing the bacterial density at the site of infection and inducing toxin production. Surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection is important because it can complicate concurrent chickenpox and influenza. Concomitant outbreaks of these two latter infections with a highly virulent and drug-resistant S. pyogenes strain can be disastrous.

  6. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism among Varicella-Zoster Virus and identification of vaccine-specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Seon; Won, Youn Hee; Kim, In Kyo; Ahn, Jin Hyun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chan Hee

    2016-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of attenuation, complete genome sequences of vaccine and wild-type strains were compared and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. ORF22 and ORF62 contained the highest number of SNPs. The detailed analysis of the SNPs suggested 24 potential vaccine-specific sites. All the mutational events found in vaccine-specific sites were transitional, and most of them were substitution of AT to GC pair. Interestingly, 18 of the vaccine-specific sites of the vaccine strains appeared to be genetically heterogeneous. The probability of a single genome of vaccine strain to contain all 24 vaccine-type sequences was calculated to be less than 4%. The average codon adaptation index (CAI) value of the vaccine strains was significantly lower than the CAI value of the clinical strains. PMID:27376245

  7. Hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication.

  8. Susceptibility to varicella zoster virus infection in health care workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, J

    2012-02-03

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an occupational hazard for a percentage of health care staff. Nine hundred and seventy staff members attending the Occupational Health Department at Cork University Hospital took part in the survey. A latex agglutination assay was used to determine the health care workers immune status to VZV. Of the 970 workers tested, 928 (95.7%) were immune to VZV. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of an enquiry regarding a history of chicken-pox was determined on a sample of 206 health care workers. The positive predictive value was 95% (119\\/125) and the negative predictive value was 11% (4\\/35). The sensitivity of the enquiry was 79% (119\\/150), the specificity was 40% (4\\/10), reducing to 61% (119\\/195) and 36% (4\\/11) respectively when individuals with uncertain histories were included in the calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of selective staff screening are discussed. In the authors\\' opinion all health care workers involved in the clinical care of patients should be screened by serology for past VZV infection before taking up duty and those who are susceptible to VZV should be made aware of the risks and health effects associated with VZV if contracted.

  9. Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus infections in Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage NPM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Varicella Zoster virus (VZV infections occur worldwide, the epidemiology is remarkably different in tropical and temperate climates. VZV infections result in significant morbidity and mortality among adults in Sri Lanka. Aims : For future VZV vaccination strategies, we set to determine the age-specific seroprevalence rate of VZV infections in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Materials and methods : The study was carried out from 1999 to 2000. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect 913 blood samples, which were tested for the presence of VZV-specific IgG antibodies. Results :0 VZV seroprevalence rates were markedly lower in all age groups when compared to temperate climates. The seroprevalence rates increased with age in both the rural and urban populations. Of those aged 60 years, only 50% in the rural population and 78.9% in the urban population were immune to VZV. Seroprevalence rates of VZV infections were significantly different between the urban and rural populations (P< 0.001, with VZV-specific IgG antibodies detected in 47.5% in the urban population and 27.9% in the rural population. It was found that 56.2% (131 of females of childbearing age were nonimmune to VZV. Conclusions : These findings highlight the need for a VZV vaccination program, which is likely to have a huge impact on the incidence of chickenpox and its associated morbidity and mortality.

  10. Complicated Varicella Infection at 8-year-old Boy with Pulmonary Agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzovic–Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Lukovac, Enra; Mehanic, Snjezana; Ahmetspahic-Begic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Varicella or chickenpox is highly contagious, childhood infectious disease caused by primary infection with varicella – zoster virus from the herpes family of viruses. Usually it has a mild clinical course, rarely with described complication, mostly affecting respiratory tract and rarely the central nervous system. Case report The case present 8 year old boy hospitalized eighth day of disease with clinical pictures of varicella complication. Upon receipt tachydyspnea, high fever, tachycardia, hypotensive with positive findings on lung auscultation in the sense of pneumonia. Extremely high values of non-specific inflammatory parameters are implied on bacterial infection which is treated using triple antimicrobial therapy and antiviral. A detailed clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation is determined of clinical disease complication under a picture of MODS that required prolonged multidisciplinary treatment in ICU. Conclusion The disease had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of training completely without consequences but, with the detected congenital absence lower lobe of right lung and transposition of the brachiocephalic trunk. PMID:24493991

  11. Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A retrospective study of twenty-five patients and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a retrospective study of 25 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax (three recurrent) comprising 16 Saudis (nine males and seven females) and eight non-Saudi's (eight males and one female), seen at the Asir Central Hospital, Abha, over a period of 45 months. Almost one-third of patients (9/25) had no underlying cause discernible by our investigational facilities (chest x-ray, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan and flexible bronchofiberscopy). Underlying pneumonia (three patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (two patients), lung abscess (one patient) and congenital bullae (one patient) constituted the etiology in another third of the spontaneous pneumothorax patients. Other underlying pulmonary diseases, precipitating spontaneous pneumothorax in the group included pulmonary fibrosis, metastatic mesothelioma and immunosuppression in a medulloblastoma patient undergoing chemotherapy with the development of chickenpox. Closed thoracostomy tube drainage was the only method of treatment in 20 out of 25 patients, with three failures of closed thoracostomy tube drainage needing thoractomy and resection of blebs/bullae. The only complication was empyema in two of the patients. Two patients were successfully treated conservatively with observation alone. (author)

  12. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. PMID:26930365

  13. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Laurel Mokale Kognou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae is used in Cameroon and West Africa folk medicine for the treatment of various microbial infections (measles, chickenpox, and sexually transmitted diseases. The antibacterial properties of the methanolic extract and fractions from stem bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria and eight Gram-negative bacteria using Agar-well diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract and fractions were investigated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The methanolic extract and some fractions exhibited antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (ID = 0.00–25.00 mm; MIC = 781–12500 μg/mL and 0.24–1000 μg/mL. The activity of the crude extract is, however, very weak compared to the reference antibiotics (MIC = 0.125–128 μg/mL. Two fractions (FE and FF showed significant activity (MIC = 0.97 μg/mL while S. aureus ATCC 25922 was almost resistant to all the tested fractions. In addition, the crude extract and some fractions showed good antioxidant potential with inhibition values ranging from 17.53 to 98.79%. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as some of the fractions in the treatment of infectious diseases and oxidative stress.

  14. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simian varicella virus (SVV, the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV. Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.

  15. Sero-Prevalence of Antibodies against Varicella Zoster Virus in Children under Seven-Years Old in 2012 in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Vojgani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is a member of herpes family viruses, which causes varicella (chickenpox after primary infection and herpes zoster (shingles because of latent virus reactivation from dorsal root ganglia. Generally, prevalence of varicella antibodies increases with age. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anti-VZV antibody in children under seven years old, in order to obtain a preliminarily picture of general presence of these antibodies to design an immunization plan.In this cross-sectional study, performed from September 2011 to September 2012 in Tehran, Iran, 267 serum samples including sera from 7 month old infants, n= 87; 18 month old children, n= 86; and 6 year old children, n= 94 were assessed for the presence of specific IgG antibodies against VZV, using ELISA technique.4.6% of 7 month, 12.8% of 18 month and 21.3% of 6-year-old children were seropositive. No relation was found between demographic variables (e.g. age and birth weight and seropositivity in these age groups. VZV antibodies increased with age. Serum levels of varicella antibodies were elevated in 18 months old compared to 7 months old children, significantly (P < 0.001.In view of the significant elevation of VZV antibodies in children from 7 months to 18 months of age and rate of seronegative children, our results support the necessity of varicella immunization between 7 and 18 months of age in order to prevent viral infection.

  16. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV-Human Neuron Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gilden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is a highly neurotropic, exclusively human herpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox, wherein VZV replicates in multiple organs, particularly the skin. Widespread infection in vivo is confirmed by the ability of VZV to kill tissue culture cells in vitro derived from any organ. After varicella, VZV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. During latency, virus DNA replication stops, transcription is restricted, and no progeny virions are produced, indicating a unique virus-cell (neuron relationship. VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles, often complicated by serious neurological and ocular disorders. The molecular trigger(s for reactivation, and thus the identity of a potential target to prevent it, remains unknown due to an incomplete understanding of the VZV-neuron interaction. While no in vitro system has yet recapitulated the findings in latently infected ganglia, recent studies show that VZV infection of human neurons in SCID mice and of human stem cells, including induced human pluripotent stem cells and normal human neural progenitor tissue-like assemblies, can be established in the absence of a cytopathic effect. Usefulness of these systems in discovering the mechanisms underlying reactivation awaits analyses of VZV-infected, highly pure (>90%, terminally differentiated human neurons capable of prolonged survival in vitro.

  17. RNA-seq analysis of host and viral gene expression highlights interaction between varicella zoster virus and keratinocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleri Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is the etiological agent of chickenpox and shingles, diseases characterized by epidermal skin blistering. Using a calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation model we investigated the interaction between epidermal differentiation and VZV infection. RNA-seq analysis showed that VZV infection has a profound effect on differentiating keratinocytes, altering the normal process of epidermal gene expression to generate a signature that resembles patterns of gene expression seen in both heritable and acquired skin-blistering disorders. Further investigation by real-time PCR, protein analysis and electron microscopy revealed that VZV specifically reduced expression of specific suprabasal cytokeratins and desmosomal proteins, leading to disruption of epidermal structure and function. These changes were accompanied by an upregulation of kallikreins and serine proteases. Taken together VZV infection promotes blistering and desquamation of the epidermis, both of which are necessary to the viral spread and pathogenesis. At the same time, analysis of the viral transcriptome provided evidence that VZV gene expression was significantly increased following calcium treatment of keratinocytes. Using reporter viruses and immunohistochemistry we confirmed that VZV gene and protein expression in skin is linked with cellular differentiation. These studies highlight the intimate host-pathogen interaction following VZV infection of skin and provide insight into the mechanisms by which VZV remodels the epidermal environment to promote its own replication and spread.

  18. Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (chickenpox followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles. HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella and Zostavax® (for HZ. Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.

  19. Sequencing and characterization of Varicella-Zoster virus vaccine strain SuduVax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox in children and shingles in older people. Currently, live attenuated vaccines based on the Oka strain are available worldwide. In Korea, an attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed from a Korean isolate and has been commercially available since 1994. Despite this long history of use, the mechanism for the attenuation of the vaccine strain is still elusive. We attempted to understand the molecular basis of attenuation mechanism by full genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of the Korean vaccine strain SuduVax. Results SuduVax was found to contain a genome that was 124,759 bp and possessed 74 open reading frames (ORFs. SuduVax was genetically most close to Oka strains and these Korean-Japanese strains formed a strong clade in phylogenetic trees. SuduVax, similar to the Oka vaccine strains, underwent T- > C substitution at the stop codon of ORF0, resulting in a read-through mutation to code for an extended form of ORF0 protein. SuduVax also shared certain deletion and insertion mutations in ORFs 17, 29, 56 and 60 with Oka vaccine strains and some clinical strains. Conclusions The Korean VZV vaccine strain SuduVax is genetically similar to the Oka vaccine strains. Further comparative genomic and bioinformatics analyses will help to elucidate the molecular basis of the attenuation of the VZV vaccine strains.

  20. A RENAISSANCE PROMOTER OF MODERN SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenciuc, I; Minea, Raluca; Duceac, Letiţia; Vlad, T

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims, exploring the history of Renaissance medicine, to evoke the figure and work of the priest, surgeon and anatomist, Guido Guidi (Vidus Vidius) (1509-1569). The XVIth century is considered a period marked by artistic and scientific effervescence in the western part of Europe and Guido Guidi was a first order personality, grandson of Domenico Ghirlandaio and friend of Benvenuto Cellini. He was appointed by the King Francis I the first professor of anatomy and surgery at the newly founded College de France. On demand of the King, he wrote Chirurgia j Graeco in Latinum conversa Vido Vidio Florentino interprete, cum nonnullis eiusdem Vidii comentariis (1544), a beautifully illustrated original surgery book that became for the following two centuries the main source in teaching surgery. Our study realized a detailed assessment of the book and especially of its illustrations belonging to Francesco Salviati. Exploring the life of Guido Guidi, we were also able to point out other significant contributions in the field of anatomy and clinical medicine as De anatome the first book where are presented disarticulated, the bones of the skull base and also the discovery of the chickenpox. Some surgical personalities attributed to him both the elaboration of the term appendix vermiformis and the first description of an aneurysm, he treated with the help of Fallopio. Although forgotten today, Guido Guidi was a leading figure of the Renais sance medicine both in France and Italy.

  1. Perceived vaccination status in ecotourists and risks of anthropozoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Martinez, Leigh Ann; Lemke, Andrea A; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Andau, Patrick; Sakong, Rosman

    2008-09-01

    Anthropozoonotic (human to nonhuman animal) transmission of infectious disease poses a significant threat to wildlife. A large proportion of travelers to tropical regions are not protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses, and a majority of these travelers demonstrate poor recall of actual vaccination status. Here we characterize self-perceived vaccination status among a large sample of ecotourists at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia. Despite their recognized travel itinerary to view endangered animals, tourists at wildlife sanctuaries are not adequately protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses. Of 633 surveys, over half reported being currently vaccinated against tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, and measles. Fewer participants reported current vaccination status for influenza, rabies, and chickenpox. Despite the fact that the majority of visitors to Sepilok are from temperate regions where influenza is relatively more prevalent, 67.1% of those surveyed with medical-related occupations reported not being currently vaccinated for influenza. Ecotourists concerned about environmental protection are themselves largely unaware of their potential contribution to the spread of diseases to animals. The risks of negatively affecting animal populations must be communicated to all concerned parties, and this may begin by urging travelers to examine their actual vaccination status, particularly as the ecotourism industry continues its rapid expansion, and is seen increasingly as a possible tool to save great ape populations from extinction. PMID:18810550

  2. Quantitative Measurement of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection by Semiautomated Flow Cytometry▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Irina V.; Zhang, Yuhua; Shambaugh, Cindy; Bauman, Meredith A.; Tan, Charles; Bodmer, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) is the etiological cause of chickenpox and, upon reactivation from latency, zoster. Currently, vaccines are available to prevent both diseases effectively. A critical requirement for the manufacturing of safe and potent vaccines is the measurement of the biological activity to ensure proper dosing and efficacy, while minimizing potentially harmful secondary effects induced by immunization. In the case of live virus-containing vaccines, such as VZV-containing vaccines, biological activity is determined using an infectivity assay in a susceptible cellular host in vitro. Infectivity measurements generally rely on the enumeration of plaques by visual inspection of an infected cell monolayer. These plaque assays are generally very tedious and labor intensive and have modest throughput and high associated variability. In this study, we have developed a flow cytometry assay to measure the infectivity of the attenuated vaccine strain (vOka/Merck) of VZV in MRC-5 cells with improved throughput. The assay is performed in 96-well tissue culture microtiter plates and is based on the detection and quantification of infected cells expressing VZV glycoproteins on their surfaces. Multiple assay parameters have been investigated, including specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, range of linear response, signal-to-noise ratio, and precision. This novel assay appears to be in good concordance with the classical plaque assay results and therefore provides a viable, higher-throughput alternative to the plaque assay. PMID:19201967

  3. Quantitative measurement of varicella-zoster virus infection by semiautomated flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Irina V; Zhang, Yuhua; Shambaugh, Cindy; Bauman, Meredith A; Tan, Charles; Bodmer, Jean-Luc

    2009-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) is the etiological cause of chickenpox and, upon reactivation from latency, zoster. Currently, vaccines are available to prevent both diseases effectively. A critical requirement for the manufacturing of safe and potent vaccines is the measurement of the biological activity to ensure proper dosing and efficacy, while minimizing potentially harmful secondary effects induced by immunization. In the case of live virus-containing vaccines, such as VZV-containing vaccines, biological activity is determined using an infectivity assay in a susceptible cellular host in vitro. Infectivity measurements generally rely on the enumeration of plaques by visual inspection of an infected cell monolayer. These plaque assays are generally very tedious and labor intensive and have modest throughput and high associated variability. In this study, we have developed a flow cytometry assay to measure the infectivity of the attenuated vaccine strain (vOka/Merck) of VZV in MRC-5 cells with improved throughput. The assay is performed in 96-well tissue culture microtiter plates and is based on the detection and quantification of infected cells expressing VZV glycoproteins on their surfaces. Multiple assay parameters have been investigated, including specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, range of linear response, signal-to-noise ratio, and precision. This novel assay appears to be in good concordance with the classical plaque assay results and therefore provides a viable, higher-throughput alternative to the plaque assay.

  4. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism among Varicella-Zoster Virus and identification of vaccine-specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Seon; Won, Youn Hee; Kim, In Kyo; Ahn, Jin Hyun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chan Hee

    2016-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of attenuation, complete genome sequences of vaccine and wild-type strains were compared and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. ORF22 and ORF62 contained the highest number of SNPs. The detailed analysis of the SNPs suggested 24 potential vaccine-specific sites. All the mutational events found in vaccine-specific sites were transitional, and most of them were substitution of AT to GC pair. Interestingly, 18 of the vaccine-specific sites of the vaccine strains appeared to be genetically heterogeneous. The probability of a single genome of vaccine strain to contain all 24 vaccine-type sequences was calculated to be less than 4%. The average codon adaptation index (CAI) value of the vaccine strains was significantly lower than the CAI value of the clinical strains.

  5. HIV and family living. Preventing the spread of HIV and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, P; Weinberger, H

    1995-10-01

    HIV is spread through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. HIV is not spread through everyday contact. People with HIV are not dangerous to the people they live with at home or in the community and with whom they have ordinary, non-sexual contact. Certain precautions should be taken, however, to minimize risk. First, personal items such as razors, toothbrushes or earrings, should not be shared. Latex gloves should be worn by uninfected family members when they may come into contact with bodily fluids, and the family members should always wash their hands with soap and water after touching blood and other fluids, even if gloves have been worn. The person with HIV can be protected by minimizing exposure to food-borne illnesses carried by raw or undercooked meat, eggs or unpasteurized milk; limiting contact with people who have colds, the flu or diarrhea; and avoiding contact with cages or litter boxes of pets. To help clarify sanitary measures, some frequently asked questions are answered. These questions address the safety of sharing food with HIV-infected people; chickenpox infection and emergence of shingles; prevention of CMV infection; toxoplasmosis and cats; spread of M. avium complex (MAC); and the safety of contact between HIV-infected people and infants. PMID:11362833

  6. Chemical reconstruction of skin scars therapy using 100% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of atrophic facial post varicella scars: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidheesh Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chickenpox (varicella is a common viral disease caused by Varicella zoster virus. Facial atrophic scars after varicella infection are not uncommon and pose a cosmetic problem. Like atrophic scars of other aetiologies, they are a difficult condition to treat. There are not enough references in the literature regarding efficient treatment of post varicella scars. High strength Trichloroacetic acid (TCA, which is known to cause dermal collagen remodelling, was used to treat varicella scars in the present study. Aims: The study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars (CROSS technique using 100% TCA in the treatment of atrophic facial post varicella scars. Settings and Design: Open label, pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients with atrophic facial post varicella scars were treated by focal application of 100% TCA solution by pressing down upon the scar surface by a toothpick (CROSS technique. Total 4 sittings were given at 2 weekly intervals and the results evaluated after 3 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fischer′s exact t-test. Results: All of the 13 patients who completed the study showed good clinical improvement, with 69% patients grading the response as excellent (>75% improvement, whereas the rest 31% patients reporting good (51-75% improvement. No significant complications were seen in any patient. Conclusions: CROSS technique using 100% TCA is a safe, cheap and effective therapy for the treatment of post varicella scars.

  7. Alignment of varicella-zoster virus sequences between Oka vaccine strain and wild-type strain%水痘-带状疱疹病毒Oka疫苗株与野毒株序列比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲文; 金于兰; 瞿爱东; 马相虎; 王亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察水痘-带状疱疹病毒(varicella-zoster virus,VZV)Oka疫苗株(V-Oka株)的传代稳定性,并与分离于水痘患者的野毒株进行序列比对.方法 将V-Oka株在人二倍体细胞MRC-5中连续传代培养至50代,提取32、34、38、42、46和50代V-Oka株及野毒株的DNA,对主要基因(ORF31、ORF62、ORF68、R区)进行PCR扩增和测序,并进行序列比对.结果 与GenBank中的V-Oka株序列相比,32代至50代V-Oka株的ORF31、ORF62、ORF68、R区序列稳定,并趋于减毒.未发现野毒株序列发生如同V-Oka株的独特变异.结论 连续传代培养至50代,V-Oka株的分子遗传学特性保持稳定.序列比对显示,水痘患者的致病毒株为野毒株,而非V-Oka株.%Objective To observe the stability of varicella-zoster virus(VZV) Oka vaccine(V-Oka)strain during subculture,and align VZV sequences between V-Oka strain and wild-type strain from chickenpox patients.Methods V-Oka strain was subcultured to the 50th passage on human diploid cell MRC-5.VZV DNAs were extracted from the 32nd,34th,38th,42nd,46th and 50th passages of V-Oka strains and wild-type strains.The major genes( ORF31,ORF62,ORF68 and repeat regions)of V-Oka strains and wild-type strains were amplified by PCR and sequenced.DNA sequences between V-Oka strains and wild-type strains were aligned.Results In comparison with DNA sequences of V-Oka strain in GenBank,ORF31,ORF62,0RF68,repeat regions sequences of V-Oka strains from the 32nd passage to the 50th passage were stable and seemed to be more attenuated.Unique mutations as same as those in V-Oka stains were not observed in wild-type strains.Conclusions The molecular genetic characteristics of V-Oka strains are stable till the 50th passage.The results of sequence alignment show that pathogenic strains in chickenpox patients are wild-type strains,but not V-Oka strains.

  8. Validation of an aseptic process for live attenuated varicella vaccine%水痘减毒活疫苗的无菌生产工艺验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马相虎; 陈哲文; 晏子厚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To validate the effectiveness of the aseptic production process of live attenuated varicella vaccine (chickenpox vaccine) by media fill test.Methods The aseptic filling of the vaccine was simulated using Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB,3.2%),with filling volume of 0.6 ml per vial.The vials were incubated after filling,and the sterility of current production process was evaluated by the contamination situation of the media inside the vials.Results The filling batch numbers of 3 media fill tests were 10 160,10 181 and 10 175 vials,respectively.After successive incubation at 20-25 ℃ and 30-35 ℃,contamination rates of TSB all were 0.≥0.5μm airborne particulates were less than 70 per cubic meter at each sampling point in the production area.No ≥ 5.0 μm airborne particulate was detected.There was no colony of settle plate and surface microbial.The growth promotion test and microbial challenging test of TSB were both qualified.Conclusion The aseptic production process of chickenpox vaccine is conformed with good manufacture practice,which can assure its sterility.%目的 通过培养基模拟灌装试验,验证水痘减毒活疫苗(水痘疫苗)无菌生产工艺的有效性.方法 模拟水痘疫苗的无菌灌装工艺,对胰酪胨大豆肉汤培养基(TSB)按0.6 ml/瓶进行模拟灌装,对灌装后小瓶进行培养,根据小瓶内培养基的污染情况,评估现行水痘疫苗无菌生产工艺的有效性.结果 3次TSB模拟灌装试验的灌装批量分别为10 160、10 181和10 175瓶,经20~25℃和30~35℃先后培养后,均未出现TSB污染.在水痘疫苗生产区域的各监测点,≥0.5μm悬浮粒子均≤70粒/m3,≥5.0 μm悬浮粒子均为0;沉降菌和表面微生物的菌落计数均为0;培养基灵敏度检查和微生物挑战试验均合格.结论 水痘疫苗的无菌生产工艺符合药品生产质量管理规范的要求,可确保产品的无菌性.

  9. 带状疱疹失治1例%One Case of Shingles Loss Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常亚利

    2014-01-01

    Shingles is a common viral skin diseases, and for the same kind of chickenpox varicella - zoster virus (VZV) caused, in the absence or immunocompromised people (mostly children) primary infection with this virus after the clinical manifestations of infection with chickenpox or were concealed sexual activity, after the virus enters the skin sensory nerve endings and nerve fibers along the spinal cord to the center section of the trigeminal nerve root or mobile, durable lurking in the spinal dorsal root ganglia neurons. Inducing stimuli in a variety of roles, latent virus is activated again, growth and reproduction, so that violations of ganglion inflammation and necrosis, resulting in neuralgia. Meanwhile, the active virus can be moved along the circumference of the nerve fibers in the skin, resulting in a unique stage herpes zoster skin herpes water [1]. This retrospective analysis of one patient due to loss of governance, resulting in lower back produces clusters of blisters, Qiu herpes. Given the treatment foscarnet sodium chloride injection (resistant) 3.0 intravenously infusion time>2h, once daily, oral mecobalamin piece 0.5mg, 3 times a day, vitamin B1 tablets 10mg, daily three times, the results were satisfactory, the first report is as follows%带状疱疹是一种常见的病毒性皮肤病,与水痘为同一种水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)所引起,在无或免疫力低下的人群(多数为儿童)初次感染此病毒后,临床上表现为水痘或呈隐匿性行感染,以后此病毒进入皮肤的感觉神经末梢,且沿着脊髓后根或三叉神经节的神经纤维向中心移动,持久的潜伏于脊髓后根神经节的神经元中。在各种诱发刺激的作用下,潜伏的病毒再次被激活,生长繁殖,使受侵犯的神经节发炎坏死,产生神经痛。同时,在活动的病毒可沿着周围神经纤维而移动到皮肤,在皮肤上产生带状疱疹所特有的阶段性水疱疹[1]。本文回顾性分析1例患者因失治,导致

  10. Epidemiological analysis and countermeasures of public health emergencies in Wuming County from 2004 to 2011%武鸣县2004-2011年突发公共卫生事件流行特征分析及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓玉; 黄肇林

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨武鸣县突发公共卫生事件发生的规律与特征,提出防控应对策略.方法 应用描述流行病学方法,对武鸣县2004-2011年发生的突发公共卫生事件进行统计分析.结果 2004-2011年武鸣县共报告突发公共卫生事件24起,以传染病突发事件为主(70.83%),其中又以流感、流腮、水痘、风疹和手足口病最为常见;食物中毒5起,占突发公共卫生事件的20.83%.学校和托幼机构是突发公共卫生事件发生的主要场所,占事件总数的86.96%.学生和幼托儿童是主要发病人群,占总发病数97.48%.事件发生有较明显季节性,呈双峰分布,3~6月及9~12月为事件高发期.结论 武鸣县突发公共卫生事件以肠道、呼吸道传染病突发公共卫生事件为主,主要发生在学校和托幼机构.应进一步加强肠道、呼吸道传染病的防控工作,重点放在学校和托幼机构,做好流感、水痘、流腮、风疹等疫苗接种工作,加强手足口病监测与预警,及时处置.%Objective To explore the laws and characteristics of public health emergency in Wuming County, and propose prevention and control strategies. Method Do descriptive epidemiological analysis on the data of public health emergencies in Wuming County from 2004 to 2011. Results A total of 24 cases of public health emergencies were reported in Wuming County from 2004 to 2011. The main emergencies were infectious diseases , like influenza, mumps, chickenpox, rubella and hand - foot - and - mouth disease, which accounted for 70. 83%. 5 cases were caused by food poisoning, which accounted for 20. 83%. The public health emergencies mainly occurred in the primary schools and nurseries (86. 96% ) , and they were common among students and children (97.48% ) . The emergencies had obvious seasonally and presented two peaks, namely, from March to June and from September to December. Conclusions The major public health emergencies occurred in Wuming County

  11. 2005-2012年某综合医院传染病流行特征%2005 -2012 epidemics feature of communicable diseases in the general hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单旭征; 易智勇

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解综合医院传染病分布情况,减少因传染病引起的医院感染。方法以2005-2012年某三甲医院网络直报传染病病例为研究对象,通过统计描述分析传染病流行特征。结果 HIV 病毒感染、丙肝和手足口病构成比有上升趋势,流行性腮腺炎、手足口病、水痘和感染性腹泻平均年龄分别为(7.8±6.3)岁、(2.9±3.4)岁、(12.7±9.0)岁、(7.1±14.5)岁,来自其他省病例构成比最高的传染病为 HIV 感染(20.8%)、其他(3.6%)、丙肝(3.4%)。结论流行性腮腺炎、手足口病、水痘和感染性腹泻发病年龄较小,易形成聚集,HIV 感染、丙肝和乙肝因人口流动性增加而多为输入病例,可通过识别高危人群,加强医院感染管理切断传播途径,保护易感人群。%Objective To Exploring the distribution of communicable diseases in the general hospital to reduce hospital infection caused by communicable diseases.Methods The 2005 -2012 network report cases of communicable diseases were research object and the statistical description was used to analysis the epidemic characteristics.Results The number of HIV infection ca-ses,hepatitis C infection cases and the hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)had the rising trend,the ages of mumps,HFMD,chickenpox,and infectious diarrhea were (7.8 ±6.3),(2. 9 ±3.4),(12.7 ±9.0)and (7.1 ±14.5)respectively,and the highest proportion diseases of cases coming from other provinces were HIV infection(20.8%),other diseases(3.6%),and hepatitis C(3.4%).Conclusion Mumps,HFMD,chickenpox,and infectious diarrhea in young people can form aggregation easily,and HIV infection,hepatitis C and hepatitis B were usual y imported diseases,so identifying high -risk groups and strengthening the hospital infection management can cut of the transmission and protect the vulnerable population.

  12. The clinical analysis of radical total gastrectomy and jejunal interposition on behalf of the stomach surgery in the treatment of 37 patients with gastric cancer%根治性全胃切除空肠间置代胃术治疗37例胃癌患者临床作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮戈; 谈凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索运用根治性全胃切除空肠间置代胃术治疗胃癌的临床疗效.方法 研究选取37例于某院进行诊治胃癌患者,全部予以根治性全胃切除空肠间置代胃术进行消化道的治疗和重建,并于手术后1年内进行术后并发症、营养状况及复查结果等方面的持续随访.结果 全部患者术后生存期均超过1年以上,有3例患者术后出现进食后伴有轻度胸骨后疼痛感,其余患者均未出现吞咽困难、胸骨后烧灼感及食物反流等表现;全部患者术后体重均较前增加,胃镜检查显示均未出现吻合口炎症或胆汁反流征,血生化检查中的血红蛋白、白蛋白及总蛋白量均恢复至正常范围内.结论 在全胃切除后实施连续空肠间置术对消化道进行重建,可在最大限度清除癌变病灶的同对,尽可能的保留胃肠道的生理功能,从而尽量减少术后食管反流等并发症的发生并提高患者的术后营养状况.而且该手术方法污染较少,肠管自愈能力较强,吻合口瘘发生率较低.另外,该手术操作吻合口较少,加之吻合传的临床应用,使得吻合操作的步骤较为简便可靠,手术时间也大大减少,十分适宜临床的广泛应用及普及.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox. METHODS Updated evidences were identified by searching Cochrane library, MEDUNE and EMBASE. Only systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi- RCTs were included. The efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox in healthy children was analyzed through evidence-based methods. RESULTS Oral acyclovir was associated with the reductions in the number of days with fever and in the number of rash. There were less supportive evidences in shortening the number of days to get new rash and relieving pruritus. CONCLUSION The clinical importance of oral acyclovir treatment in healthy children remains uncertain.

  13. Forecasting fluctuating outbreaks in seasonally driven epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lewi

    2009-03-01

    Seasonality is a driving force that has major impact on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, chickenpox, and pertussis. Here we gain new insights into the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent diseases through the analysis of the classical seasonally forced SIR epidemic model. Despite many efforts over the last decades, it has been difficult to gain general analytical insights because of the complex synchronization effects that can evolve between the external forcing and the model's natural oscillations. The analysis advanced here attempts to make progress in this direction by focusing on the dynamics of ``skips'' where we identify and predict years in which the epidemic is absent rather than outbreak years. Skipping events are intrinsic to the forced SIR model when parameterised in the chaotic regime. In fact, it is difficult if not impossible to locate realistic chaotic parameter regimes in which outbreaks occur regularly each year. This contrasts with the well known Rossler oscillator whose outbreaks recur regularly but whose amplitude vary chaotically in time (Uniform Phase Chaotic Amplitude oscillations). The goal of the present study is to develop a ``language of skips'' that makes it possible to predict under what conditions the next outbreak is likely to occur, and how many ``skips'' might be expected after any given outbreak. We identify a new threshold effect and give clear analytical conditions that allow accurate predictions. Moreover, the time of occurrence (i.e., phase) of an outbreak proves to be a useful new parameter that carries important epidemiological information. In forced systems, seasonal changes can prevent late-initiating outbreaks (i.e., having high phase) from running to completion. These principles yield forecasting tools that should have relevance for the study of newly emerging and reemerging diseases.

  14. Establishment of real-time PCR assays for detection of monkeypox virus%猴痘病毒荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娜; 陈国强; 张敬友; 范红结

    2009-01-01

    根据GenBank发表的猴痘病毒(AF380138)F3L基因全序列,设计并合成了引物和TaqMan、MGB探针,建立了F3L基因的荧光定量PCR检测方法.应用该方法可从人工合成的猴痘病毒F3L基因片段(48048~48 509 bp)扩增典型的"S"型曲线,25 μL反应体系检测灵敏度可达68拷贝,但不能从鸡痘、山羊痘等病毒中扩增出相应的扩增曲线.结论:本方法可快速、敏感、特异地检测猴痘病毒.%In this paper the primers and TaqMan, MGB probes were designed by using Primer Express 3. 0 software according to the entire F3L gene sequence of monkeypox virus in CenBank to develop a real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of monkeypox virus. A typical "S" curve can be got when the artifical F3L gene sequence was used as a target, and the detection limits were 6. 8 copies of target DNA per PCR vial. However, when the chickenpox, goalpox or any other virus were used as targets, a typical " S" curve can not be got. So this assay may represent a battery of tests in detection of monkeypox virus.

  15. Varicella Viruses Inhibit Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke C Verweij

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox in humans and, subsequently, establishes latency in the sensory ganglia from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster. Infection of rhesus macaques with simian varicella virus (SVV recapitulates VZV pathogenesis in humans thus representing a suitable animal model for VZV infection. While the type I interferon (IFN response has been shown to affect VZV replication, the virus employs counter mechanisms to prevent the induction of anti-viral IFN stimulated genes (ISG. Here, we demonstrate that SVV inhibits type I IFN-activated signal transduction via the JAK-STAT pathway. SVV-infected rhesus fibroblasts were refractory to IFN stimulation displaying reduced protein levels of IRF9 and lacking STAT2 phosphorylation. Since previous work implicated involvement of the VZV immediate early gene product ORF63 in preventing ISG-induction we studied the role of SVV ORF63 in generating resistance to IFN treatment. Interestingly, SVV ORF63 did not affect STAT2 phosphorylation but caused IRF9 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, suggesting that SVV employs multiple mechanisms to counteract the effect of IFN. Control of SVV ORF63 protein levels via fusion to a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-degradation domain additionally confirmed its requirement for viral replication. Our results also show a prominent reduction of IRF9 and inhibition of STAT2 phosphorylation in VZV-infected cells. In addition, cells expressing VZV ORF63 blocked IFN-stimulation and displayed reduced levels of the IRF9 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that varicella ORF63 prevents ISG-induction both directly via IRF9 degradation and indirectly via transcriptional control of viral proteins that interfere with STAT2 phosphorylation. SVV and VZV thus encode multiple viral gene products that tightly control IFN-induced anti-viral responses.

  16. 空气灌肠失败和晚期肠套迭的手术治疗%Surgical Treatment of Advanced Intussusceptions and Failure of Rectal Inflation Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟椿; 成守礼

    1983-01-01

    From Nov.,1975 to July,1982,80 cases(51 males and 29 females)of intussusceotion were operated on.Among them,31 rectal inflation reduction failed.49 cases were advanced intussusdeption including some small intestinal intussusception.66 cases were primary.62 children were aged under one.Most of them had either enlarged regional mesenteric lymph node or mobile cecum.14 had secondary intussusceptions,13 of whom aged over one.There were 5 cases of Meckel's diverticulum,4 polyps,4 ileal duplications and one allergic purpura complicated with hematoma in the anterior wall of the cecum.Manual reductions were accomplished in 58 patients,together with simultaneous appendectomy.No plication of the cecum was attempted nor relapse noted.Intestinal resection followed by anastomosis was performed in 22 cases for intestinal gangrene.While rectal inflation on two patients with intestinal perforation was not successful,surgical repair was performed immediately.Only one death due to preoperative pneumonia and chickenpox was recorded.Thus mortality rate was 1.25%.%@@ 肠套迭是婴儿常见的急腹症,自从应用空气灌肠治疗以来,早期肠套迭的整复治疗取得了肯定的疗效,显著地降低了手术率.但对于复杂型和晚期肠套迭的病例使用空气灌肠,不但难以奏效,而且往往发生危险,而仍需手术治疗.

  17. 新生儿水痘并发肺炎的临床观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新亚

    2011-01-01

    水痘(vat icella,chickenpox)是由水痘-带状疱疹病毒所引起的急性传染病.水痘为原发感染的表现,其临床特点为皮肤和黏膜相继出现并同时存在丘疹、疱疹和结痂等各类皮疹.一年四季均可发病,学龄前儿童为好发年龄,6个月以内婴幼儿较少发病,新生儿罕见.新生儿水痘并发肺炎观察、护理不当,病情加重,预后较差.如水痘被抓破合并感染,皮肤溃烂,甚至引起皮肤坏死,留下永久性瘢痕.我科于2010年01月—2011年06月共收治新生儿水痘并发肺炎8例,在常规治疗基础上,通过密切观察病情、隔离护理、保持呼吸道通畅、氧疗、发热护理、输液护理、饮食护理及皮肤护理,并发症护理等综合护理措施取得满意效果,现报告如下.

  18. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and varicella zoster virus among pregnant women in Bradford: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Pembrey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV among pregnant women in Bradford by ethnic group and country of birth. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 949 pregnant women enrolled in the Born in Bradford birth cohort was selected to ensure sufficient numbers of White UK born women, Asian UK born women and Asian women born in Asia. Serum samples taken at 24-28 weeks' gestation were tested for CMV IgG, EBV IgG and VZV IgG. Each woman completed a questionnaire which included socio-demographic information. RESULTS: CMV seroprevalence was 49% among the White British women, 89% among South Asian UK born women and 98% among South Asian women born in South Asia. These differences remained after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. In contrast, VZV seroprevalence was 95% among women born in the UK but significantly lower at 90% among South Asian women born in Asia. EBV seroprevalence was 94% overall and did not vary by ethnic group/country of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Although about half of White British women are at risk of primary CMV infection in pregnancy and the associated increased risk of congenital infection, most congenital CMV infections are likely to be in children born to South Asian women with non-primary infection during pregnancy. South Asian women born in South Asia are at risk of VZV infection during pregnancy which could produce congenital varicella syndrome or perinatal chickenpox. Differences in CMV and VZV seroprevalence by ethnic group and country of birth must be taken into account when universal immunisation against these viruses is contemplated.

  19. Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood

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    Yoav Y. Pikkel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV or varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods: Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat' precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days, 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days, and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day was given for 4 months. Results: At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions: This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN.

  20. Epidemiological investigation of mixed outbreaks of measles/varicella in hilly villages of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuptaSN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background On 26th September 2006, a local health worker informed us about sudden increased number of cases of fever and rash in three villages of district Kangra. We investigated the suspected outbreak to confirm diagnosis and recommendation to prevent and control.Methods A case of measles was defined as occurrence of fever with rash in a child between six months to 17 years of age, from 26th September to 2nd week of January, 2007. The information on age, sex, symptoms, signs, date of onset, residence, traveling history treatment taken and assessment of cold chain system was collected. The outbreak was described by place, time and person characteristics. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study among children between 10 months and 15 years of age to estimate the vaccine efficacy. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, epidemiologically and serologically. Results We identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. The overall attack rate (AR was 8.13%; maximally in the age group of 11-17 years ranging in between 17-35%. Sex specific AR was more (17% in females. There was neither any death nor any serious complications. The proportion of the children vaccinated was 95% for measles but nil for varicella. Of 35 case-patients, 27 (78% were vaccinated for measles only with no vitamin A supplementation (relative risk: 5.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.90 – 14.77. The measles vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 82%. 3/3 case-patients for measles IgM antibodies and 2/3 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested positive by PCR and D4 measles strain genotyped.Conclusion Measles/varicella outbreaks were confirmed. We recommended varicella vaccination, second dose opportunity for measles and vitamin A supplementation to all cases in affected areas.

  1. Intravenous drip acyclovir hematuria in 1 case analysis%静脉滴注阿昔洛韦致血尿1例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋庆锋; 吴建军

    2015-01-01

    阿昔洛韦是第三代广谱抗病毒药物,为合成的嘌呤核苷类似物,用于治疗单纯疱疹病毒感染和带状疱疹病毒感染,由英国葛兰素-威尔康研发并于1981年5月在英国首次上市,目前已被世界上包括美国在内的50多个国家批准上市使用,是世界上销售量最大的抗病毒药物之一,具有高效、低毒、广谱、对病毒选择性高的特点。临床用于单纯疱疹病毒感染的治疗与预防,带状疱疹以及免疫缺陷者水痘的治疗。%Acyclovir is the third generation of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, for the synthesis of purine nucleoside analogues, used in the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection, and herpes zoster virus infection by the British glaxo - will, research and development and in May 1981 for the first time in the UK, has been the world more than 50 countries, including the United States, approved to use, is one of the largest antiviral drug sales in the world, and has high efficiency, low toxicity and the characteristics of broad spectrum, high selectivity to the virus. Clinical used in the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection and prevention, the treatment of herpes zoster and immunodeficiency chickenpox.

  2. Microbiology laboratory and the management of mother-child varicella-zoster virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2016-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection. A Microbiology laboratory can help in the diagnosis and management of mother-child infection at four main times: (1) when a pregnant woman has been exposed to varicella or herpes zoster, a prompt search for specific antibodies can determine whether she is susceptible to, or protected against infection; (2) when a pregnant woman develops clinical symptoms consistent with varicella, the diagnosis is usually clinical, but a laboratory can be crucial if the symptoms are doubtful or otherwise unclear (atypical patterns in immunocompromised subjects, patients with post-vaccination varicella, or subjects who have received immunoglobulins), or if there is a need for a differential diagnosis between varicella and other types of dermatoses with vesicle formation; (3) when a prenatal diagnosis of uterine infection is required in order to detect cases of congenital varicella syndrome after the onset of varicella in the mother; and (4) when the baby is born and it is necessary to confirm a diagnosis of varicella (and its complications), make a differential diagnosis between varicella and other diseases with similar symptoms, or confirm a causal relationship between maternal varicella and malformations in a newborn

  3. Microbiology laboratory and the management of mother-child varicella-zoster virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2016-08-12

    Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection. A Microbiology laboratory can help in the diagnosis and management of mother-child infection at four main times: (1) when a pregnant woman has been exposed to varicella or herpes zoster, a prompt search for specific antibodies can determine whether she is susceptible to, or protected against infection; (2) when a pregnant woman develops clinical symptoms consistent with varicella, the diagnosis is usually clinical, but a laboratory can be crucial if the symptoms are doubtful or otherwise unclear (atypical patterns in immunocompromised subjects, patients with post-vaccination varicella, or subjects who have received immunoglobulins), or if there is a need for a differential diagnosis between varicella and other types of dermatoses with vesicle formation; (3) when a prenatal diagnosis of uterine infection is required in order to detect cases of congenital varicella syndrome after the onset of varicella in the mother; and (4) when the baby is born and it is necessary to confirm a diagnosis of varicella (and its complications), make a differential diagnosis between varicella and other diseases with similar symptoms, or confirm a causal relationship between maternal varicella and malformations in a newborn

  4. Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Madrid, based on the Sentinel General Practitioner Network: 1997–2004

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    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez Ángeles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella (chickenpox is the primary disease caused by varicella-zoster virus. It is extremely contagious and is frequent in children. Indeed, in the absence of vaccination, a high proportion of the population is liable to contract it. Herpes zoster -more frequent among adults- is caused by reactivation of the latent virus. The objective of this study is to describe the status of and time trend for varicella and herpes zoster in the Madrid Autonomous Region prior to the introduction of the vaccine to the general population. Methods Data source: individualised varicella and herpes zoster case records kept by the Madrid Autonomous Region Sentinel General Practitioner Network for the period 1997–2004. Cumulative incidences, crude and standardised incidence rates, and age-specific rates of varicella and herpes zoster were calculated for each year. Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate whether incidence displayed a time trend. Spectral density in the time series of weekly incidences was estimated using a periodogram. Results Standardised annual varicella incidence rates ranged from 742.5 (95% CI: 687.2 – 797.7 to 1239.6 (95% CI: 1164.5 – 1313.4 cases per 100 000 person-years. Most cases affected children, though complications were more frequent in adults. Varicella incidence displayed an annual periodicity but no trend over time. Most herpes zoster cases occurred at advanced ages, with incidence registering a rising annual trend but no seasonality factor. Conclusion In the absence of vaccination, no significant changes in varicella incidence were in evidence recent years, though these were observed in the incidence of herpes zoster. Sentinel general practitioner networks are a valid instrument for surveillance of diseases such as varicella. Further varicella vaccination-coverage and vaccine-efficacy studies are called for.

  5. Microbiology laboratory and the management of mother-child varicella-zoster virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2016-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection. A Microbiology laboratory can help in the diagnosis and management of mother-child infection at four main times: (1) when a pregnant woman has been exposed to varicella or herpes zoster, a prompt search for specific antibodies can determine whether she is susceptible to, or protected against infection; (2) when a pregnant woman develops clinical symptoms consistent with varicella, the diagnosis is usually clinical, but a laboratory can be crucial if the symptoms are doubtful or otherwise unclear (atypical patterns in immunocompromised subjects, patients with post-vaccination varicella, or subjects who have received immunoglobulins), or if there is a need for a differential diagnosis between varicella and other types of dermatoses with vesicle formation; (3) when a prenatal diagnosis of uterine infection is required in order to detect cases of congenital varicella syndrome after the onset of varicella in the mother; and (4) when the baby is born and it is necessary to confirm a diagnosis of varicella (and its complications), make a differential diagnosis between varicella and other diseases with similar symptoms, or confirm a causal relationship between maternal varicella and malformations in a newborn.

  6. Postherpetic neuralgia: Therapeutic and prophylactic aspects and pregabalin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Mendelevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is one of the most common and persistent chronic pain syndromes caused by chickenpox virus affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems. PHN is a typical neuropathic pain resulting from injury or dysfunction of the somatosensory system whose development involves a few mechanisms. Elderly people are more prone to PHN, which is associated with the weakened immune system. Treatment of shingles cannot completely prevent subsequent neuralgia; however, some drugs can reduce its manifestations. The diagnosis of PHN is largely based on the duration of pain after rash onset. However, it is difficult to estimate the real rate of PHN development because there is neither consensus of opinion on this issue nor common criteria for pat duration (1 to 6 months, as shown by different data. The significant factors that may predispose to PHN are older age, female gender, and acute herpes zoster indicators, such as pain intensity, the severity of herpetic rash and infectious manifestations. Pain syndrome in PHN can reach a high intensity level, accompanied by the development of chronic fatigue, depression, and loss of social skills. There are several types of pain in PHN: constant, paroxysmal and allodynia, which are due to different pathophysiological mechanisms. Variability in the clinical manifestations of PHN may underlie the inadequate efficacy of one or other drug. The treatment of PHN poses definite difficulties. About 40-50% of patients continue to suffer from pain despite the fact that the multitude of currently available therapies is performed. Pregabalin, whose high efficacy and advantages in the treatment of pain in PHN are demonstrated in numerous studies, is one of the most effective first-line drugs for PHN. In-depth analysis suggests that inadequately low doses of pregabalin are frequently used in the treatment of PHN, which may lead to an insufficient analgesic effect.

  7. 3D reconstruction of VZV infected cell nuclei and PML nuclear cages by serial section array scanning electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Reichelt

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox and herpes zoster (shingles. Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity, what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the

  8. Postherpetic neuralgia: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pain management pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallick-Searle T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Mallick-Searle,1 Brett Snodgrass,2 Jeannine M Brant,3 1Pain Management Center, Stanford Health Care, Redwood City, CA, 2LifeLinc Pain Centers, Cordova, TN, 3Billings Clinic, Billings, MT, USA Abstract: Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia report decreased quality of life and interference with activities of daily living. Approaches to management of postherpetic neuralgia include preventing herpes zoster through vaccination and/or antiviral treatment, and administering specific medications to treat pain. Current guidelines recommend treatment of postherpetic neuralgia in a hierarchical manner, with calcium channel α2-δ ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or desipramine, or topical lidocaine patches as first-line drugs. The safety and tolerability of pharmacologic therapies for pain are important issues to consider as postherpetic neuralgia affects primarily an older population. Patients should be educated on appropriate dosing, titration if applicable, the importance of adherence to treatment for optimal effectiveness, and possible side effects. Health-care professionals play a key role in helping to ameliorate the pain caused by postherpetic neuralgia through early recognition and diligent assessment of the problem; recommending evidence

  9. Postherpetic neuralgia: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pain management pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick-Searle, Theresa; Snodgrass, Brett; Brant, Jeannine M

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox) virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia report decreased quality of life and interference with activities of daily living. Approaches to management of postherpetic neuralgia include preventing herpes zoster through vaccination and/or antiviral treatment, and administering specific medications to treat pain. Current guidelines recommend treatment of postherpetic neuralgia in a hierarchical manner, with calcium channel α2-δ ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin), tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or desipramine), or topical lidocaine patches as first-line drugs. The safety and tolerability of pharmacologic therapies for pain are important issues to consider as postherpetic neuralgia affects primarily an older population. Patients should be educated on appropriate dosing, titration if applicable, the importance of adherence to treatment for optimal effectiveness, and possible side effects. Health-care professionals play a key role in helping to ameliorate the pain caused by postherpetic neuralgia through early recognition and diligent assessment of the problem; recommending evidence-based treatments; and monitoring treatment adherence, adverse events, responses, and expectations. Nurse practitioners are especially crucial in establishing communication with patients and encouraging the initiation of appropriate

  10. Epstein-Barr virus: the hematologic and oncologic consequences of virus-host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, R H; Grose, C

    1989-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are two of the human herpesviruses. The others include herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, HSV type 2, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). In a series of two articles, we review the clinical diseases caused by VZV and EBV infections; we pay particular attention to the manifestations of these two viral infections in immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients. In addition to the clinical reviews, each of the two articles begins with a brief discussion of the molecular aspects of VZV and EBV, respectively; this introduction describes features of the genome and immunogenic viral proteins which have clinical relevance. A model for pathogenesis is included. The first review concerns VZV infections. Recent data about the DNA sequence of the entire VZV genome are included, as well as a review of the VZV glycoproteins. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox) and VZV reactivation (zoster) are described in detail in both healthy individuals and people with cancer. The decade-long VZV vaccine trials in children with leukemia receive special emphasis because they have engendered considerable interest and debate. The second review (published here) covers EBV infections. This virus has been implicated in the causation of a wide variety of human hematological and oncological disorders, besides classical infectious mononucleosis. In particular, Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders are strongly associated with EBV infection of the transformed cells. In addition, immunologically mediated cytopenias occasionally follow EBV infection. Finally, treatment regimens with antiviral chemotherapy and other agents are discussed for both VZV and EBV infections. PMID:2545365

  11. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  12. 上海市松江区8种重点传染病控制图法预警界值优选分析%A study of early detection for 8 communicable diseases by control graph method in Songjiang district of Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞平; 龙云; 刘会会; 姚霞箐; 曾光

    2014-01-01

    control graph alert technique based on the local disease information.Method 8 major communicable diseases in Songjiang district were ascertained by analysis of the national early warning detection information system which include the other diarrhea,mumps,chickenpox,scarlet fever,rubella,hand foot mouth disease,influenza and dysentery; weekly reported cases from 2008 to 2011 were used to establish the early detection model (PERCENTILE (array,x),array (4 ×5),x =0.05,0.10 0.95) by moving percentile method,next applying the established early detection model and the golden standard (x ± 2s) to predict the expected weekly cases in 2012 respectively,and then ascertain the predict results by comparison with the actual weekly cases in 2012 respectively,finally the premium threshold was selected by comparison of the model predicted results with the golden standard predicted results after comprehensive consideration of the sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.Results The premium alert threshold for mumps,other diarrhea and rubella was P90,dysentery was P75,scarlet fever and chickenpox was P80,and the premium threshold for hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and influenza was P95,the sensitivity of 8 major communicable diseases were 100%,100%,86%,100%,100%,100%,94%,100%,respectively; the specificities were 92%,73%,72%,77%,73%,92%,66%,80%,respectively; the positive predictive values were 43%,40%,32%,8%,24%,20%,59%,47%,respectively; and the negative predictive values were 100%,100%,97%,100%,100%,100%,96%,100%,respectively.The national recommended alert thresholds for the 8 major communicable diseases were P80,except for chickenpox (P50) and HFMD (CUSUM).Conclusion 6 out of 8 major communicable diseases' early detection thresholds in Songjiang district should be adjusted according to the analysis results.Premium alert threshold

  13. Fractional lasers in dermatology - Current status and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractional laser technology is a new emerging technology to improve scars, fine lines, dyspigmentation, striae and wrinkles. The technique is easy, safe to use and has been used effectively for several clinical and cosmetic indications in Indian skin. Devices: Different fractional laser machines, with different wavelengths, both ablative and non-ablative, are now available in India. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Indications: Common indications include resurfacing for acne, chickenpox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photoageing changes, facial dyschromias. The use of fractional lasers in stretch marks, melasma and other pigmentary conditions, dermatological conditions such as granuloma annulare has been reported. But further data are needed before adopting them for routine use in such conditions. Physician qualification: Any qualified dermatologist may administer fractional laser treatment. He/ she should possess a Master′s degree or diploma in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers, either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist or plastic surgeon with experience and training in using lasers. Since parameters may vary with different systems, specific training tailored towards the concerned device at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another center using the machine is recommended. Facility: Fractional lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects and possible postoperative complications should be provided to the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and also adequate opportunity to seek information. A detailed consent form needs to be completed by the patient. Consent form should

  14. 国产与进口水痘减毒活疫苗安全性和免疫效果Meta分析%Meta analysis on the safety and immunogenicity of indigenously produced and imported Varicella attenuated live vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐万琴; 张翔; 朱中奎; 王超; 卫平民

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较国产与进口水痘疫苗在中国人群中的安全性和免疫效果,为探讨适用于中国人群的疫苗提供循证医学依据.方法 以“水痘”(varicella or chickenpox)、“水痘减毒活疫苗”(varicella or chickenpex attenuated live vaccine)、“安全性”(safety)、“免疫效果”(immunogenicity)为关键词,检索1998-2013年公开发表的、符合入选标准的有关水痘疫苗的中英文研究文献,进行Meta分析.结果 有12篇文献纳入研究,其中水痘减毒活疫苗(VarV)实验性研究9篇(随机对照试验4篇),病例对照研究3篇.国产与进口VarV局部不良反应RR合并=0.45,95%CI为0.28~0.70(P<0.05);全身不良反应RR合并=1.45,95% CI为0.58~3.65(P>0.05);抗体阳转率RRA并=1.00,95% CI为0.97~1.02(P>0.05);疫苗保护效果OR合并=1.03,95%CI为0.52~2.03(P>0.05).结论 国产VarV在中国人群中的安全性和免疫效果良好,与进口VarV差异无统计学意义.

  15. CD4 T cell immunity is critical for the control of simian varicella virus infection in a nonhuman primate model of VZV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Haberthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (more commonly known as chickenpox after which VZV establishes latency in sensory ganglia. VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (shingles, a debilitating disease that affects one million individuals in the US alone annually. Current vaccines against varicella (Varivax and herpes zoster (Zostavax are not 100% efficacious. Specifically, studies have shown that 1 dose of varivax can lead to breakthrough varicella, albeit rarely, in children and a 2-dose regimen is now recommended. Similarly, although Zostavax results in a 50% reduction in HZ cases, a significant number of recipients remain at risk. To design more efficacious vaccines, we need a better understanding of the immune response to VZV. Clinical observations suggest that T cell immunity plays a more critical role in the protection against VZV primary infection and reactivation. However, no studies to date have directly tested this hypothesis due to the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate the immune response to VZV. We have recently shown that SVV infection of rhesus macaques models the hallmarks of primary VZV infection in children. In this study, we used this model to experimentally determine the role of CD4, CD8 and B cell responses in the resolution of primary SVV infection in unvaccinated animals. Data presented in this manuscript show that while CD20 depletion leads to a significant delay and decrease in the antibody response to SVV, loss of B cells does not alter the severity of varicella or the kinetics/magnitude of the T cell response. Loss of CD8 T cells resulted in slightly higher viral loads and prolonged viremia. In contrast, CD4 depletion led to higher viral loads, prolonged viremia and disseminated varicella. CD4 depleted animals also had delayed and reduced antibody and CD8 T cell responses. These results are similar to clinical observations that children with agammaglobulinemia have

  16. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

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    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  17. Sudden, unexpected death of a 15-year-old boy due to pancarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osculati, Antonio; Visonà, Silvia Damiana; Ventura, Francesco; Castelli, Francesca; Andrello, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. Methods: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed . Before the autopsy, anamnesis and some circumstantial data were collected from the boy's parents. During the autopsy, samples for histological, toxicological and molecular examinations were collected. The samples for the histology (brain, hypophysis, heart and pericardium, lungs, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal glands) were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. Each section was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Immunostaining was also performed, with anti-CD 68, anti-CD3, anti-CD 20, anti-myeloperoxidase. Microbiological cultures were performed on cardiac blood, myocardium, pericardial effusion and cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during autopsy. Blood specimens were also processed through PCR, in order to reveal the presence of Enteroviruses, Chickenpox virus, Epstein Barr virus. Also chemical-toxicological examinations for the detection of the main medications and drugs were performed on blood samples. Results: The anamnesis, collected before the autopsy, revealed an acute pharyngitis few weeks before. The autopsy, and the following histological and immunochemical examinations suggested an immunological etiology. The immunohistochemistry, showing a strong positivity of antiCD68 antibodies, integrated with clinical-anamnestic information, leads to hypothesize a rheumatic carditis. Conclusion: In light of this case, at least 3 main messages of great importance for the clinician can be deduced. First, an accurate anamnesis collected by the family physician could have

  18. Brote de varicela en el Servicio de Oncología de hombres del Hospital San Juan de Dios, febrero-abril de 2004, San José, Costa Rica Chicken pox outbreak in the male Oncology Ward at he Hospital San Juan de Dios Hospital, febrero-abril de 2004

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    Sócrates Vargas-Naranjo

    2008-03-01

    illness. Service quarantine as recommended. Results: The first case of chickenpox happened in February,at the third day of hospitalization. Later on 5 more cases were identified.When the variables were analyzed the epidemic curve and the period of incubation, contact among the patients was the most important to maintain outbreak existence (p < 0,005; R = 25; IC95%2,3 - 275.7. Conclusion: Person to person transmission of varicella was confirmed to be the main source of infection in the hospital. Although quarantine stopped the outbreak, more practical and less expensive mesures should be taken to prevent the appearance of future outbreak.

  19. Mortalidade de crianças usuárias de creches no Município de São Paulo Mortality among children enrolled in public day care centers in Brazil

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    Eneida S Ramos Vico

    2004-02-01

    children occurred before completing six months in the day care center, with a concentration of 36.3% during the first three months. The majority of the deaths occurred during the winter and autumn seasons: 31.8% and 29.6%, respectively. The main underlying causes of death were infections: pneumonia (29.6%, meningococcal disease (13.0%, non-meningococcal meningitis (8.5%, gastroenteritis (7.6% and chickenpox (5.4%. External causes were responsible for 13.5% of the deaths and included falls, being run over, drowning, burns and physical aggression. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated that younger children (0-3 years were the most vulnerable group and that the majority of deaths derived from avoidable causes, some of which preventable by vaccination nowadays.

  20. 丙种球蛋白在儿科临床中的应用研究探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东亚

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of the application of gamma globulin in the treatment of pediatric diseases. Methods: randomly selected homes in the August 2011 to August 2012 during the application of gamma globulin treatment 78 cases of pediatric diseases, treatment of this retrospective analysis of 78 patients, and further analysis of gamma globulin in the treatment of pediatric diseases application value. Results: Patients with gamma globulin neonatal hemolytic jaundice disease condition improved after treatment, the rate is 83.3%, improvement rate of infectious diseases such as chickenpox and measles patients was 90.9%, the improvement rate of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in patients was 81.2%, improvement rate was 99.9% in patients with Kawasaki disease, improvement rate in patients with severe pneumonia was 85.7%. Conclusion: The gamma globulin can enhance immunity, improve pediatric disease hemolytic jaundice, chicken pox and measles and other infectious diseases, neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, Kawasaki disease, severe il ness such as pneumonia, of these diseases and has better therapeutic effect.%目的:分析丙种球蛋白在儿科疾病治疗中的应用效果。方法:随机抽取我院在2011年8月至2012年8月期间应用丙种球蛋白治疗的78例儿科疾病患者,回顾性分析此78例患者的治疗效果,进而分析丙种球蛋白在儿科疾病治疗中的应用价值。结果:新生儿溶血性黄疸疾病患者经丙种球蛋白治疗后的病情好转率是83.3%,水痘及麻疹等传染性疾病患者的好转率是90.9%,新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病患者的好转率是81.2%,川崎病患者的好转率是99.9%,重症肺炎患者的好转率是85.7%。结论:丙种球蛋白可增强机体免疫力,有效改善儿科疾病中的新生儿溶血性黄疸、水痘及麻疹等传染性疾病、新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病、川崎病、重症肺炎等疾病的病情,并且对此类疾病具有较好的治疗效果。

  1. A systematic review of 36 patients diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis%急性播散性脑脊髓炎36例临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓红; 陈海

    2012-01-01

    目的 阐明急性播散性脑脊髓炎(ADEM)的临床特点及诊治方法.方法 分析宣武医院2003年至2010年36例ADEM住院患者的一般临床资料、临床表现、辅助检查及治疗与预后转归情况.结果 本文病例多见于儿童和青壮年,急性起病,3例复发.其常见诱因为急性上呼吸道感染、疫苗接种、麻疹、风疹、水痘、流行性腮腺炎、猩红热等共计29例,原因不明7例.实验室检查中脑脊液可出现免疫球蛋白增高,磁共振成像检查提示受累部位包括脊髓、小脑、大脑白质及脑干等,其它辅助检查如电生理和免疫学检查等可协助诊断,应用糖皮质激素治疗效果确切.结论 结合临床特点、神经电生理、脑脊液免疫学及影像学检查等,临床可以作出准确诊断,及时恰当的治疗对预后极为重要.%Objective To further clarify the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( ADEM). Methods This study were to perform a prospective clinical (2003-2010) on ADEM in patients consecutively referred to Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, China, and undertake a systematic review of general clinical data, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and treatment and prognosis of outcome of 36 patients with ADEM. Results The 36 patients had the following characteristics: children and young adults were predomidantly developed with ADEM with an acute onsets, and 3 cases relapse in this group of patients.The common causes included acute upper respiratory tract infection, vaccination, measles, rubella, chickenpox, mumps, scarlet fever, etc. The immunoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased. Imaging examinations, especially magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) examinations showed spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebral medullary substance and brain stem were often affected. Other laboratory examinations such as electrophysiological, immunological tests were helpful for diagnosis. The

  2. Control of schools of public health emergencies of infectious diseases preven-tion%学校传染病突发公共卫生事件预防控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光菊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the school infectious disease outbreaks and public health events and control the status quo, in order to enhance the school of public health emergencies of infectious disease prevention. Methods Collected the school infectious diseases data in July 2013 to July 2015, assessment analysis of school public health emergencies of in-fectious diseases described epidemiology and prevention and control effect. Results A total of 10 cases occurred within the school of public health incidents occurred in rural primary and secondary schools from July 2013 to July 2015, in which six cases of mumps, chickenpox 2 cases, 2 cases of influenza. 10 cases of communicable diseases of public health emergencies schools, four from the CDC reporting agency, six cases to local health care agency reports. The first case to report a maxi-mum interval of 17.37 d, a minimum interval of 2.52 d, report the event to the disposal of a maximum interval of 2.10 d, a minimum interval of 0.02 d. Conclusion For sanitation, poor economic conditions of rural primary and secondary schools as mumps, chicken pox, influenza and other infectious diseases of public health emergencies high incidence of infectious dis-eases and therefore the need to strengthen the work of the school management, the implementation of preventive measures to improve joint prevention and control mechanism to prevent epidemics, protect student health.%目的 分析学校传染病突发公共卫生事件发生与控制现状,以增强学校对传染病突发公共卫生事件的预防. 方法 收集2013年7月—2015年7月学校传染病数据,评估分析学校传染病突发公共卫生事件流行病学描述与预防控制效果. 结果 2013年7月—2015年7月学校内共发生10起公共卫生事件,均发生在农村中小学内,其中6起流行性腮腺炎,2起水痘,2起流行性感冒. 10起学校传染病突发公共卫生事件中,4起为疾控机构报告,6起为当地卫生医疗机构报告. 首

  3. Genotype of prevalent varicella-zoster virus in Ningbo city%宁波市水痘-带状疱疹病毒流行株基因分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞; 许国章; 李翔; 方挺; 胡逢蛟; 焦素黎

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析浙江省宁波市2009-2010年水痘的流行病学特征,以及水痘-带状疱疹毒流行株基因分型特征,为预防控制水痘提供依据.方法 根据法定传染病报告系统、宁波市全国突发公共卫生事件报告管理系统的水痘发病资料,收集数据并统计分析;同时对部分临床诊断水痘病例采集疱疹液标本,采用MRC-5细胞进行VZV分离,并提取脱氧核糖核酸进行聚合酶链反应,并对扩增产物测序,分析其基因型别.结果 宁波市2009、2010年水痘报告发病率分别为23.33/10万和26.24/10万,各县(市)区均有病例报告,发病年龄组以7~12岁儿童发病率最高(245.21/10万),存在2个发病时间高峰,分别为5~6月份和11~12月份.15例患者水痘病毒核酸检测阳性,13例患者VZV为J型毒株,2例为MI型.结论 宁波市水痘病例主要发生在冬春季节,主要以7~12岁及学龄儿童为主,J型毒株目前为本市流行主要毒株,但也有M1型毒株的局部流行.%Objective To examine the epidemiological characteristics of varicella and to detect the genotype of varicella-zoster virus for developing strategies of varicella prevention and control in Ningbo. Methods Graphs and appropriate statistics were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox cases extracted from the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Meanwhile herpes specimen were collected from clinically diagnosed cases and genotypes of varicella-zoster virus were determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results The reported incidence of varicella in Ningbo was 23. 33/100 000 in 2009 and 26. 24/100 000 in 2010,respectively. Most of the patients were children aged 7-12 years and the epidemic peaks were in May,June,November and December. The genotypes of 15 DNA specimens were 13 J-type and 2 Ml-type. Conclusion Varicella cases in Ningbo occurred mainly in winter and spring seasons and most of the cases were

  4. Reliability of information on varicella history in preschool children Confiabilidade da informação sobre antecedente de varicela em crianças pré-escolares

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    Lúcia Ferro Bricks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify how reliable is the information provided by parents about the history of varicella in their children. METHODS: 204 parents of previously healthy children attending two municipal day-care centers of São Paulo city were interviewed between August 2003 and September 2005. A standardized form was filled out with information regarding age, sex, history of varicella and other diseases, drug use and antecedent of immunization, After medical history, physical examination and checking of immunization records, 5 ml of blood were collected for ELISA (in house varicella test. Exclusion criteria were: age less than 1 year or more than 60 months, previous immunization against chickenpox, presence of co-morbidities or recent use of immunosuppressive drugs. Data were filed in a data bank using the Excel 2003 Microsoft Office Program and stored in a PC computer. The exact Fisher test was employed to calculate sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of history of varicella informed by children's parents. RESULTS: The age of the children varied from 12 to 54 months (median, 26 months; 49 (24% children had positive history of varicella, 155 (76% a negative or doubtful history. The predictive positive and negative values of the information were 90% and 93%, respectively (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of reliability of information about history of varicella informed by parents of children attending day care centers was high and useful to establish recommendations on varicella blocking immunization in day-care centers.OBJETIVOS: Verificar o grau de confiabilidade da informação fornecida pelos pais de crianças atendidas em creches sobre o antecedente de varicela. MÉTODOS: Os pais de 204 crianças previamente saudáveis matriculadas em duas creches da cidade de São Paulo foram entrevistados entre Agosto de 2003 e Setembro de 2005 para preenchimento de um questionário padronizado com informações sobre idade

  5. Outcome of the pregnancy women complicated with varicella in third trimester%妊娠晚期合并水痘对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄虔莹; 刘敏; 张丽菊; 康晓迪; 蒋红丽

    2016-01-01

    the incidence of neonatal chickenpox potentially.%目的:探讨妊娠晚期合并水痘对妊娠结局的影响。方法收集2011年1月至2014年11月首都医科大学附属北京地坛医院妊娠晚期合并水痘的住院孕妇15例,回顾性分析水痘-带状疱疹病毒对母婴的影响。结果15例晚期妊娠合并水痘的患者中,孕29~34周患者5例(占33.3%),均无严重并发症,经积极治疗10~14 d痊愈出院,足月后3例孕妇自然分娩,2例孕妇剖宫产分娩,产妇无不良结局,新生儿阿氏评分、体重均在正常范围,随访新生儿30 d无水痘感染病例。孕37~40周患者10例(占66.7%),治疗过程中分娩8例,其中4例孕妇剖宫产分娩,4例孕妇自然临产分娩;孕妇感染7 d内分娩者3例,感染7 d以上分娩者5例,其中孕妇感染第5天自然分娩的1例新生儿感染水痘,经积极治疗痊愈出院,其余7例新生儿阿氏评分、体重均在正常范围,随访30 d均无水痘感染;8例产妇治疗7~10 d均痊愈出院;另外2例孕妇水痘痊愈后外院分娩,追访母儿分娩顺利,新生儿随访30 d无水痘感染。孕29~34周和孕37~40周感染水痘的两组孕妇,足月后分娩的新生儿水痘感染率分别为0%和10%,差异具有统计学意义(P =0.048)。结论妊娠晚期合并水痘的孕妇应积极给予抗病毒和对症治疗以减轻临床症状、避免出现严重并发症,同时尽量推迟分娩,以减少新生儿水痘的发生。

  6. 南通市通州区春季呼吸道传染病流行特点和防控策略探讨%To Investigate the Epidemiological Characteristics of Respiratory Diseases in Spring and the Control Strategy about Tongzhou District City of Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾东烨

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of respiratory diseases in spring of Tongzhou District of Nan-tong City, and provide scientific basis for formulating prevention and control strategies. Methods The application of the method of descriptive epidemiology,On the occurrence of respiratory infectious disease report China disease prevention and control informa-tion system of infectious disease information management system in Nantong city of Tongzhou District in 2013 and 2014 from February to April were retrospectively investigated. Results In 2013 and 2014 of February to April, Nantong City, Tongzhou Dis-trict reported a total of 7 kinds of respiratory infectious diseases occurred, a total of 494 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, mumps and chickenpox secondary;gender distribution shows that the incidence of men than women, there are significant statistical signifi-cance (χ2= 80.94, P<0.01); age distribution the elderly and minors; occupational distribution to most farmers, accounting for 52.02%, followed by students and kindergartens, nursery children, each accounted for 25.91% and 6.28%, including tuberculosis to farmers, varicella, mumps, scarlet fever in students and kindergartens, children are the main clinical manifestations included fever;cough, rash, swelling of the parotid gland and shortness of breath. Conclusion According to the epidemiological characteris-tics of respiratory infectious diseases in the spring, the school should take nurseries for key units, to the elderly and minors as fo-cus groups, especially farmers, to strengthen the monitoring of symptoms, clean and ventilated, daily disinfection, health education, isolation treatment, comprehensive prevention and control measures such as vaccination.%目的:分析南通市通州区春季呼吸道传染病的流行特点,为制订防控策略提供科学依据。方法利用描述流行病学方法,对中国疾病预防控制信息系统传染病报告信

  7. Alterações microscópicas na erupção do Sarampo Histology of measles eruption

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1952-03-01

    soon in the corium and could be demonstrated twelve hours after the onset of the eruption. The early lesions (twelve to thirty-six hours in the epidermis show usually different stages in a single slide examined. They are described as minute vesicles and pustules; in older lesions the pustules have dried up forming thickened plaques in and beneath cornified layer. Parakeratotic cells with intranuclear bodies first described by TORRES & TEIXIERA (1932 b while inconstant are regarded as a pathognomonic change in measles eruption. Edema of the papillary layer and perivascular infiltrations in the reticular layer by large mononuclears some of them containing small irregular deeply stained granules (MALLORY-MEDLAR-LIPSCHÜTZ' cells are well known changes largely referred in the literature. Evidence is here submitted in support of the opinion that such cells correspond to macrophages with keratohyaline granules phagocited as a consequence of changes in cornification determined by the virus itself. Microscopic examination is necessary for the demonstration of the minute vesicles and pustules which are such an important detail in the histology of the measles eruption as it establishes connections between measles usually considered in the group of exanthematous diseases with chicken-pox, zoster, small-pox and alastrim (pustulous diseases. Epidermal changes are no more found seventy-two hours after the onset of the eruption while well-defined mantles of cells about the vessels and a moderate proliferation of fibrocytes is noticed in the corium.

  8. 英夫利昔单抗治疗幼年特发性关节炎的疗效%Clinical study of infliximab in treatment of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    周娟; 张宇; 丁媛; 张志勇; 唐雪梅

    2014-01-01

    ),erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),C-reactive protein (CRP),visual analog scale for general health (GH),disease activity score (DAS) 28,as well as adverse reactions of treatment and follow-up outcomes were analyzed.The infliximab-treated patients were intravenously infused with infliximab at the low dose of < 5 mg/(kg · time) or the high dose of ≥ 5 mg/(kg · time) in 0,2nd,6th,14th,22nd,30th week.The JIA control patients were treated with conventional therapy.Results The treatment of infliximab ameliorated the TJC,SJC,ESR,CH,CRP and DAS28 of JIA patients.In the dynamical analysis of these clinical indexes of the infliximab-treated JIA patients,the index of SJC was found to fall firstly in the 2nd week,the indexes of TJC,ESR,CH and DAS28 were found to decline secondly at 6th week,the indexes of TJC,SJC,ESR,CRP and DAS28 continued dropping till 22nd week,and only the index of GH progressively declined to 30th week.The high-dose infliximab-treated group had lower levels of ESR,GH and CRP than the low-dose infliximab-treated group (t =2.14,3.04,2.33,P =0.04,0.01,0.04).But there were no statistical difference in TJC,SJC,DAS28 and the incidence of recent adverse reactions between the high and low infliximab dose groups.In the infliximab treated group,2 cases of patients (6.25%) failed in the therapy of infliximab;9 cases of patients (28.13%) continued therapy with infliximab to 46th-62nd week; 7 cases of patients (21.88%) stopped therapy with infliximab in the 30th week had good improvement of joint symptoms and inflammatory indexes; 14 cases of patients (43.75%) relapsed and retreated by infliximab after cease the first course of treatment; 1 case of patient died of severe chickenpox infection after therapy with infliximab was ceased.Conclusions Infliximab can alleviate the joint symptoms,inflammatory indexes and DAS28 of JIA patients,and is an effective and safe therapy for JIA patients in the short-term study.

  9. Situación de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO en Navarra: 2002 Diseases of Compulsory Notification (DCN in Navarra: 2002

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    M. Urtiaga

    2003-04-01

    microbiologically and all appeared in a sporadic way. With respect to the causative serogroup, on 12 occasions Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B was isolated and in the 4 remaining cases serogroup C was isolated. One case was notified in infants of less than 2 years of age (Rate: 10.52 cases per 100,000, another case in children between 2 and 5 years (5.52 cases per 100,000, 5 cases in the age group of 6 to 19 years (Rate: 5.86 cases per 100,000 and the remaining nine cases in the age group of persons aged 20 years or over (2.2 per 100,000. 70 cases of Legionellosis were declared in 2002 (EI: 4.67, all but one under the clinical form of pneumonia. Twenty-two of the cases were presented in the context of two outbreaks with a community origin, which affected 17 and 5 persons respectively. Similarly, there was a notable increase in the declaration of cases of bacillary dysentery, with 6 cases (EI: 2.00, brucellosis, with 10 cases (EI: 1.67 and chickenpox, with 4,346 notified cases (EI: 1.61.

  10. 2010年广西突发公共卫生事件流行病学特征及处置情况分析%Epidemiological characteristics anti disposal of public health emergencies occurred in Guangxi,2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学燕; 龚健; 雷芝樱; 吴秀玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and control of public health emergencies occurred in Guangxi in 2010, and to provide scientific basis for improving their prevention and control effectively. Methods We collected data of all public health emergencies occurred in 2010 including their survey, confirmation and control, which were dealt with by different centers for diseases prevention and control (CDCs) throughout Guangxi and reported by these CDCs via National Information Management System of Public Health Emergency Report in China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention. The data were analyzed using a descriptive epidemiologic method. Results A total of 185 public health emergencies were reported, including infectious diseases (155 events), food poisoning (22 events), occupation poisoning (4 events), environmental factor (2 events) and other public health events (2events). There are 7 490 cases and 41 deaths caused by these events. The numbers of the events and cases caused by infectious diseases accounted for 83.78% (155/185 ) and 92.68% (6 942/7 490) of all reported events and cases, respectively, ranking first in all events. Nanning City had the most events and cases, accounting for 29.73% (55/185) and 36.06% (2701/7 490), respectively. The number of public health emergencies (119 events), cases (4 170) and deaths (36) caused by the events occurred in countryside and towns is significantly higher than that in cities (P < 0.01). The month with most events was April, accounting for 20.00% of the 12 months of a year. The month with most cases was September, accounting for 41.60% of the whole year. Diseases with more events and cases were hand-foot-mouth disease (51 events), acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (28 events) , mumps (20 events) and chickenpox (15 events). The seasonal peaks of cases was April, September, November and December, respectively. The major sites of the public events were schools (134 events). The