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Sample records for chickenpox vaccine

  1. Chickenpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and breast milk. Those at risk for severe disease or serious complications — such as newborns whose mothers had chickenpox ... aspirin has been associated with a rare but serious disease, Reye syndrome , which can lead to liver failure ...

  2. Epidemiological game-theory dynamics of chickenpox vaccination in the USA and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingzhou; Kochin, Beth F; Tekle, Yonas I; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    The general consensus from epidemiological game-theory studies is that vaccination coverage driven by self-interest (Nash vaccination) is generally lower than group-optimal coverage (utilitarian vaccination). However, diseases that become more severe with age, such as chickenpox, pose an exception to this general consensus. An individual choice to be vaccinated against chickenpox has the potential to harm those not vaccinated by increasing the average age at infection and thus the severity of infection as well as those already vaccinated by increasing the probability of breakthrough infection. To investigate the effects of these externalities on the relationship between Nash and utilitarian vaccination coverages for chickenpox, we developed a game-theory epidemic model that we apply to the USA and Israel, which has different vaccination programmes, vaccination and treatment costs, as well as vaccination coverage levels. We find that the increase in chickenpox severity with age can reverse the typical relationship between utilitarian and Nash vaccination coverages in both the USA and Israel. Our model suggests that to obtain herd immunity of chickenpox vaccination, subsidies or external regulation should be used if vaccination costs are high. By contrast, for low vaccination costs, improving awareness of the vaccine and the potential cost of chickenpox infection is crucial.

  3. Epidemiological game-theory dynamics of chickenpox vaccination in the USA and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingzhou; Kochin, Beth F; Tekle, Yonas I; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    The general consensus from epidemiological game-theory studies is that vaccination coverage driven by self-interest (Nash vaccination) is generally lower than group-optimal coverage (utilitarian vaccination). However, diseases that become more severe with age, such as chickenpox, pose an exception to this general consensus. An individual choice to be vaccinated against chickenpox has the potential to harm those not vaccinated by increasing the average age at infection and thus the severity of infection as well as those already vaccinated by increasing the probability of breakthrough infection. To investigate the effects of these externalities on the relationship between Nash and utilitarian vaccination coverages for chickenpox, we developed a game-theory epidemic model that we apply to the USA and Israel, which has different vaccination programmes, vaccination and treatment costs, as well as vaccination coverage levels. We find that the increase in chickenpox severity with age can reverse the typical relationship between utilitarian and Nash vaccination coverages in both the USA and Israel. Our model suggests that to obtain herd immunity of chickenpox vaccination, subsidies or external regulation should be used if vaccination costs are high. By contrast, for low vaccination costs, improving awareness of the vaccine and the potential cost of chickenpox infection is crucial. PMID:21632611

  4. Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or not. Possible reactions after ProQuad® (or MMRV) vaccination Children who get the first dose of ProQuad® ... MMRV) Vaccine Aspirin use and possible reactions after vaccination You should not take aspirin products for 6 ...

  5. Experimental studies on the prevention and treatment of chickenpox and herpes zoster with measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Ming, Z L; Chen, Q; Li, Y

    1989-05-01

    In 151 chickenpox patients treated with live attenuated measles vaccine, the cure rate was 100%. In 145 cases of herpes zoster, the effective rate was 100% (completely cured in 91.7% and improved in 8.3%). In the treated group, the time needed for the subsidence of fever and skin rash and the duration of the disease were markedly shorter than those in the control group (P less than 0.01). It is particularly effective for alleviating pain, preventing and relieving postherpetic neuralgia in patients with zoster. The application of measles vaccine to the patients in the chickenpox incubation period might prevent the development of the disease, and decrease the incidence and death rate of varicella zoster virus infection in highly susceptible patients. The mechanism of its anti-viral action and production of interferon in the body is discussed.

  6. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    OpenAIRE

    Girija A.; Rafeeque M; Abdurehman K

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002) on the admitted cases with neurological complicat...

  7. Validity of a reported history of chickenpox in targeting varicella vaccination at susceptible adolescents in England ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Field, N.; Amirthalingam, G.; Waight, P; Ladhani, S. N.; van Hoek, A. J.; Miller, E.; Andrews, N.; Maple, P. A. C.; Brown, K E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the UK, primary varicella is usually a mild infection in children, but can cause serious illness in susceptible pregnant women and adults. The UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation is considering an adolescent varicella vaccination programme. Cost-effectiveness depends upon identifying susceptibles and minimising vaccine wastage, and chickenpox history is one method to screen for eligibility. To inform this approach, we estimated the proportion of adolescents wit...

  8. Hemorrhagic Chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sengupta B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of chickenpox in a boy of 16 years is described for its uncommon presentation with hemorrhagic vesicles, gum-bleeding without being preceded by any prodromal symptom and unassociated with any immunosuppressive disorder.

  9. Eruptive keloids after chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Kluger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scars and keloids result from abnormal wound healing in predisposed individuals. They occur within months of cutaneous trauma (surgical wounds, piercing, lacerations or inflammation (acne, folliculitis, vaccination site. They have rarely been reported after chickenpox. Herein we report a dramatic case in a 4-year-old black girl and discuss the issues related to the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids in this peculiar situation.

  10. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  11. Chickenpox ARDS in a health care worker following occupational exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knaggs, A

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of chickenpox acute respiratory distress syndrome in an ambulance driver after the inter-hospital transfer of a patient known to have chickenpox pneumonia. Following this exposure, he neither avoided patient contact nor received varicella zoster immune globulin. He subsequently required 13 days of ventilatory support before making a full recovery. The case described supports the contention that health care workers should be screened by serology for immunity to chickenpox before patient contact occurs, with subsequent vaccination of those who are non-immune, when the vaccine becomes available.

  12. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Chickenpox (Varicella) One family's struggles with chickenpox We provide this video in a variety of formats ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  13. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Chickenpox (Varicella) One family's struggles with chickenpox We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the " ...

  14. Chickenpox - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Farsi (فارسی) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Farsi (فارسی) Chickenpox Vaccine English (Farsi) واکسن آبله مرغان - ...

  15. Investigation of epidemic factors and protective efficacy of vaccine in an outbreak of chickenpox in school%一起学校水痘暴发的流行因素及其疫苗保护效率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗念慈; 李刚; 李苑

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查一起学校水痘暴发的流行因素,探讨水痘疫苗的保护效率.方法 采用1:1频数匹配病例对照研究方法,即以病例作为病例组,随机选择同班级、同性别,且无水痘患病史的相同数量未发病的健康学生作为对照组.使用自行设计的水痘危险因素调查表,对病例和对照进行问卷调查.结果 此次疫情共报告32例水痘病例,总罹患率为0.80%.波及深圳市龙岗区某学校4个班级,其中二年级23例,五年级9例,各班罹患率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);接种过水痘疫苗的病程时间(中位时间5d)比未接种过水痘疫苗的病程时间(中位时间10 d)短;经常与其他年级或班级学生玩耍感染水痘的危险性是未与其他年级或班级学生玩耍的10.71倍,接触班里水痘病例的危险性是未接触的41.89倍;水痘疫苗的保护效率为6.76%,95%CI:10.00%~83.51%.接种进口水痘疫苗的罹患率远低于接种国产疫苗的罹患率(P<0.05).结论 这是一起发生在某小学的水痘暴发疫情,经常与其他班级或年级的学生玩耍以及水痘疫苗保护效率欠佳,是此次疫情暴发的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the epidemic factors and protective efficacy of vaccine in an outbreak of chickenpox in school.Methods The 1:1 frequency matching case-control study was performed.Thirty-two students with chickenpox were served as case group,while 32 healthy students without history of chickenpox as control group.The students in two groups were inquired by self-designed questionnaires of chickenpox risk factors.Results A total of 32 cases were found in the outbreak,with an overall attack rate of 0.80%.The cases were found in four classes,including 23 in grade two and 9 in grade five.The attack rates were significantly different in various classes (P < 0.05).The disease course of cases vaccinated (at a median of 5 d) was shorter than those unvaccinated (at a median of 10 d

  16. Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Ogunjimi

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field.

  17. Clinical Epidemiology of Chickenpox in Iraq from 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Khaleel, Hanan Abdulghafoor; Abdelhussien, Hassan Muslem

    2012-01-01

    Varicella zoster (chickenpox) infection is an acute common disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Children are most susceptible to infection. In non-vaccinated populations, primary infection tends to occur at a younger age. In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health and socioeconomic problem, and where high (85 to 90%) and sustained vacci...

  18. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One family's struggles with chickenpox We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos ...

  19. Chickenpox Can Be Serious. Protect Yourself and Your Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Chickenpox Can Be Serious Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... about getting a second dose. Chickenpox Can Be Serious Chickenpox can be serious especially for babies, pregnant ...

  20. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  1. Chickenpox infection after renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj K.; Bhadhuria, Dharmendra; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chicken pox, although a common infection among children, is rare in immunocompromised patients, particularly renal transplant recipients, and carries a very high incidence of morbidity and mortality There is little data on chickenpox in adult renal transplant recipients, although reports have suggested that it may follow a virulent course requiring frequent hospitalization, and in severe cases can cause death. Aims. To evaluate the incidence, severity and complications of a varice...

  2. A Case Report of Chickenpox in Conjunctiva

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Turgut Coban

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is a primarily infection of Varicella-zoster virus and is childhood disease. Although varicella virus infections are usually benign skin disease, they can have serious systemic manifestations and complications. In this study, it is aim the presentations of a case report of chickenpox in conjunctiva.

  3. Chickenpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the heart muscle Pneumonia Joint pain or swelling Cerebellar ataxia may appear during the recovery phase or later. ... M.D., © Greene Ink, Inc. Read More Acute cerebellar ataxia Arthritis Encephalitis Myocarditis Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) Reye ...

  4. 上海市闵行区4~17岁儿童水痘减毒活疫苗接种情况及其保护效果%Analysis of protective effect of using chickenpox live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 years old children in Minhang district, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳; 余峰; 张莉萍; 汪曦; 金宝芳; 王烨; 梅克雯; 陆佳; 蒋露芳

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To survey on the vaccination of varicella live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 children in Minhang District, and analyze the protective effect against varicella.Methods We collected outbreak chickenpox cases reported from infectious disease report system and surveillance units in Minhang district from 1st May in 2012 to 30th Apr in 2013.The 1∶3 matched case-control study was conducted to questionnaire the legal guardian of the cases and control group, and calculate the protective effect and effective term of protection.The survey included vaccination, chickenpox exposure history, previous history of varicella illness, suffering from the symptoms of chickenpox, the vaccinations brand, etc.The criteria of accepted case were those healthy students who were in the same class with those chickenpox cases.The accepted matched controlling data were those children who were from the same class with outbreak chickenpox cases without varicelliform eruption, similar live condition, the closest house, the same gender, the closest age.This study investigated 390 cases of patients and the control group included 1 170 cases. Chi-square test was used to compare the vaccination of cases and controls, as well as the incidence of chickenpox vaccination different brands VarV, Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test was applied to compare the protective effect of the two groups.Results VarV overall vaccination rate was 68.3%( 1 065/1 560 ) , among them, the case group coverage was 45.1% ( 176/390 ) , significantly lower than the control group (76.0%(889/1 170)) (χ2 =128.55,P<0.01) .The coverage in children of 4-10 years old group was 88.4%(375/424), significantly higher than the 11-17 years old group (60.7%(690/1 136)) (χ2 =109.40,P <0.01 ) .The overall protective effect of VarV was 78.10%( 71.82%-82.98%) .Vaccinated group incidence ratio was 16.5% ( 176/1 065 ) , significantly lower than the unvaccinated group ( 43.2%(214/495))(χ2 =128.55,P<0.01).The chickenpox risk of the children

  5. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis in a child with primary varicella infection (chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeesh B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox (Varicella representing the primary infection by Varicella zoster virus is a common benign and self-limited infectious disease of childhood. Although the disease can be associated with complications, they are generally mild and tend to occur in adults and immunocompromised children. Severe and life-threatening complications are extremely rare, particularly those involving the cardiovascular system. We report a malnourished 5-year-old girl with chicken pox complicated by hemorrhagic pericarditis and deep vein thrombosis leading to fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Though varicella infection runs a benign self-limiting course, it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality when associated with complications, particularly in malnourished children. Hence, the importance of vaccination and early recognition of complications is emphasized.

  6. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis in a child with primary varicella infection (chickenpox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeesh, B N; Mahadevan, Anita; Yasha, T C; Shankar, S K

    2009-01-01

    Chickenpox (Varicella) representing the primary infection by Varicella zoster virus is a common benign and self-limited infectious disease of childhood. Although the disease can be associated with complications, they are generally mild and tend to occur in adults and immunocompromised children. Severe and life-threatening complications are extremely rare, particularly those involving the cardiovascular system. We report a malnourished 5-year-old girl with chicken pox complicated by hemorrhagic pericarditis and deep vein thrombosis leading to fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Though varicella infection runs a benign self-limiting course, it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality when associated with complications, particularly in malnourished children. Hence, the importance of vaccination and early recognition of complications is emphasized. PMID:19332925

  7. Chickenpox Chorioretinitis with Retinal Exudates and Periphlebitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokuni Kitamei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is rarely associated with posterior segment inflammation. We report on a case of unilateral chickenpox chorioretinitis with retinal exudates and periphlebitis. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old healthy man, who suffered from chickenpox 2 weeks prior to symptom development, exhibited mild anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, sheathing of retinal veins, and yellow-white exudates in his right eye. Varicella zoster virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the aqueous humor. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral prednisolone and valaciclovir. Aqueous cells quickly disappeared and retinal exudates diminished within 1 month, leaving faint retinal scarring. Retinal arteritis had never been observed in this patient. Conclusions: Although the ocular findings in this case were similar to acute retinal necrosis (ARN, the clinical features differed from ARN in the following points: (1 mild anterior chamber inflammation, (2 absence of retinal arteritis, and (3 prompt resolution of inflammatory findings. The distinctive clinical features indicated that chorioretinitis associated with chickenpox may not have the same pathological conditions as ARN.

  8. An observational study of complications in chickenpox with special reference to unusual complications in an apex infectious disease hospital, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Kole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox can cause serious complications and even death in persons without any risk factors. Aims: To observe the different complications with special reference to unusual complications of chickenpox and their outcomes. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective observational study where 300 patients suffering from chickenpox were evaluated with special reference to unusual complications and outcomes. Results: The usual complications of chickenpox commonly observed were acute hepatitis in 30 (10% and cerebellar ataxia in 22 patients (7.3%, whereas common unusual complications were acute pancreatitis in 45 (15%, hemorrhagic rash in 10 (3.3%, Guillain-Barrι syndrome in 4 (1.3%, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 (1.3%, necrotizing fasciitis in 4 (1.3%, and acute renal failure in 3 patients (1%. It had been observed that most of these unusual complications occurred in patients without any risk factor. A total of 18 patients (6% died in this study and of them 12 patients (4% died due to unusual complications. Conclusions: Compulsory childhood varicella vaccination including vaccination of risk groups and susceptible individuals are all essential to reduce the incidence of chickenpox, associated complications, and subsequent death.

  9. Simultaneous Onset of Chickenpox and Scarlet Fever: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chickenpox is a contagious febrile illness with rash that is caused by varicella zoster virus. Most children up to age 15 are infected with the virus. Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic toxin of streptococcus group A and usually causes skin reactions such as fine red and often itchy papules on the trunk and extremities as well as skin redness, especially on the groin and forearm. Case: Patient is a 3-year-old girl that two days after chickenpox while she had active lesions of the chickenpox, was infected with scarlet fever. Skin lesions at different stages along with the clinical symptoms confirmed the diagnosis of chickenpox. Chickenpox is a febrile illness, more contagious and associated with the rash, which rarely has been reported with scarlet fever. Macular lesions spreading all over the body especially the trunk, with strawberry red tongue and exudative lesions of tonsils with good response to penicillin confirmed the complication of scarlet fever following chickenpox. Rarely scarlet fever is a complication of chickenpox and symptoms of both conditions may be seen simultaneously. Considering that diagnosis of both diseases are based on clinical findings, so physicians should start the appropriate treatment if they have clinical suspicion.

  10. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  11. Outbreak of chickenpox in a Union Territory of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Primary infection with a varicella-zoster virus (VZV leads to chickenpox. Though the incidence of the disease has decreased in many developed countries due to the introduction of the varicella vaccine, outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. Materials and Methods: The present study reports an outbreak of varicella in an urbanised village in the vicinity of Chandigarh City in North India in November 2013. The outbreak was confirmed by the detection of VZV IgM antibodies in serum samples of clinically suspected patients. Vesicular fluid samples were collected from 8 patients with active lesions and tested for VZV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples were also collected from 17 healthy controls residing in the same locality and tested for the presence of VZV IgM and IgG antibodies. Results: A total of 18 cases occurred, and the majority of them (67% were <15 years of age. Of 17 samples collected from patients with the clinically suspected disease, 13 (76.5% showed the presence of VZV IgM antibodies. Of the healthy controls, 6 were VZV IgM positive and 4 of them developed symptomatic disease on follow-up. VZV DNA was positive in 5/8 (62.5% of the patients. In one patient, VZV DNA was detected in the absence of an IgM antibody response. Conclusion: The introduction of varicella vaccine in the universal immunisation programme of India may help to prevent these outbreaks; however, the cost-benefit analysis needs to be carried out before making such policies.

  12. Acute Peripheral Facial Palsy after Chickenpox: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox, resulting from primary infection by the varicella-zoster virus, is an exanthematous disease very common during childhood and with good prognosis. However, serious complications, namely, neurological syndromes, may develop during its course, especially in risk groups, including adolescents. Peripheral facial palsy is a rare neurologic complication that has been previously described. Conclusion. We report the case of a teenager with peripheral facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox, aiming to increase the awareness of this rare association.

  13. Epidemiologic lessons: Chickenpox outbreak investigation in a rural community around Chandigarh, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Pritam Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Primary infection with Varicella Zoster virus (VZV leads to Varicella or chickenpox. The epidemiology of Varicella has changed dramatically since the introduction of the Varicella vaccine in 1995. The routine childhood immunization in a few countries in the western world like Germany and the United States has reduced the incidence of the disease, associated complications, hospital admissions and deaths related to its complications. However, chickenpox outbreaks are common in naive unvaccinated communities in India. Materials and Methods: We report an outbreak of chickenpox that occurred in a village situated on the outskirts of Chandigarh city in North India in the winter of 2007. The outbreak was confirmed by the detection of VZV IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on serum samples from the patients. In patients showing active lesions, Giemsa and indirect immunofluorescence was carried out on scrapings from vesicular lesions. Results: A total of 162 cases occurred in the present outbreak. The serum samples were collected from 20 patients, and all of them showed positive serology for VZV IgM antibodies while 19 showed a positive VZV IgG result by ELISA. The scrapings were collected from two patients showing active lesions, and both were positive by the Tzanck smear examination, and VZV antigen could be demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to identify naive communities and unvaccinated individuals at risk. Also, there is a need for regular training programmes of health workers posted in peripheral centers so that highly contagious communicable diseases can be picked up in time and such outbreaks can be prevented.

  14. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  15. Chickenpox – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-29

    This podcast discusses chickenpox, its symptoms, how it spreads, and how to protect you and your family from getting it.  Created: 9/29/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases.   Date Released: 9/29/2011.

  16. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  17. Recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccines as Platforms for Expression of Foreign Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne L. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV vaccines induce immunity against childhood chickenpox and against shingles in older adults. The safety, efficacy, and widespread use of VZV vaccines suggest that they may also be effective as recombinant vaccines against other infectious diseases that affect the young and the elderly. The generation of recombinant VZV vaccines and their evaluation in animal models are reviewed. The potential advantages and limitations of recombinant VZV vaccines are addressed.

  18. 43例大学生水痘患者防治及护理%Prevention treatment and nursing on 43 cases of college students with chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏春华

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结大学生水痘的临床表现、防治原则及护理要点,减少疾病传播,促进患者康复。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年6月在本校医院就诊的43例大学生水痘病例。结果43例水痘患者均顺利出院,住院时间9~21 d,平均(13.1±5.2)d。结论水痘有较强的传染性,减毒疫苗尚未普及,而高校学生学习生活集中,故高校医务人员应加强大学生水痘患者的防治及护理,避免水痘大范围内爆发流行。%Objective To summarize the clinical manifestations ,control principles and care points of college students with chickenpox, reducing the spread of disease, and promoting the rehabilitation of patients. Methods A retrospective analysis on 43 college students with chickenpox, treated in the university hospital from January 2012 to June 2014. Results 43 cases with chickenpox were discharged, hospital stay were 9-21 d, the average( 13. 1± 5.2) d. conclusion Varicella was strongly infectious, attenuated vaccines is not yet universal, and college students’ living focus, so the medical staff in college should be strengthened prevention and care of college students with chickenpox to avoid the varicella large-scale outbreak.

  19. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis in a child with primary varicella infection (chickenpox)

    OpenAIRE

    Nandeesh B; Mahadevan Anita; Yasha T; Shankar S

    2009-01-01

    Chickenpox (Varicella) representing the primary infection by Varicella zoster virus is a common benign and self-limited infectious disease of childhood. Although the disease can be associated with complications, they are generally mild and tend to occur in adults and immunocompromised children. Severe and life-threatening complications are extremely rare, particularly those involving the cardiovascular system. We report a malnourished 5-year-old girl with chicken pox complicated by hemorrhagi...

  20. Cervical Transverse Myelitis After Chickenpox in An Immunocompetent Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad; Zahra Abdi Layali; Esfandiar Shojaei; Saeed Kalantari

    2010-01-01

    Varicella-zoster viruses complications involving the CNS are estimated to occur rarely, transverse myelitis after Varicella-zoster virus in most patients is characterized by an abrupt onset of progressive weakness and sensory disturbance in the lower extremities , like other viruses. We describe the case of 17 year-old boy who experienced cervical transverse myelitis after chickenpox with inability to walk and with urinary retention. He was not treated with any medication but complete revover...

  1. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization.

  2. Evolution of cocirculating varicella-zoster virus genotypes during a chickenpox outbreak in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depledge, Daniel P; Gray, Eleanor R; Kundu, Samit;

    2014-01-01

    patterns, and (recent) natural history. IMPORTANCE: VZV is a highly infectious virus and the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles, the latter being particularly associated with the risk of painful complications. Seasonal outbreaks of chickenpox are very common among young children, yet little...

  3. 2007-2010年深圳市沙井街道水痘流行特征分析%Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Chickenpox in Shajing Street Block of Shenzhen City from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德坚; 郑磊; 黎小炳; 陆剑勇; 袁坚

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To grasp the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox, provide a scientific basis for making prevention and control strategies. [Methods]The data of chickenpox in Shajing street block of Shenzhen city from 2007 to 2010 were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. [Results] 1 626 cases of chickenpox were reported in Shajing street block from 2007 to 2010, and the annual incidence rates ranged from 33. 95/lakh to 66. 09/lakh. There were 8 outbreaks of chickenpox, all occurred in schools and kindergartens, and 2 were public health emergencies. The autumn and winter was peak season, which was from November to next January, and the highest peak was in December. 69.99% of total cases were people under IS years old, and 28.48% were people aged 15-30 years old. Students, scattered children and preschool children accounted for 71.46% of the total patients. 18.33% of cases were workers. Outbreak investigation showed that most patients had no history of chickenpox immunization or unknown immunization history. [Conclusion]The epidemic situation of chickenpox in Shajing street block is serious, and the vaccination is the most effective means for chickenpox control. It is recommended that chickenpox vaccine should be regarded as the class I vaccine management in some areas, so as to reduce the incidence of chickenpox.%目的 及时掌握水痘的流行病学特征,为制定预防控制策略提供科学依据.方法 对深圳沙井街道2007-2010年的水痘发病资料采用描述性流行病学方法进行统计和分析.结果 2007-2010年沙井街道累计报告确诊水痘病例1626例,年发病率位于33.95/10万~66.09/10万之间;发生水痘暴发疫情8起,全部在学校和幼儿园,其中突发公共卫生事件2起;呈现秋冬季节高发特点,11月至次年1月是高峰期,最高峰在12月;15岁以下人群水痘发病数占总数的69.99%,15 ~30岁的人群发病数占报告病例总数的28.48%;学生、散居儿童和托

  4. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bekker; G.H.A. Westerlaken; H. Scherpbier; S. Alders; H. Zaaijer; D. van Baarle; T. Kuijper

    2006-01-01

    Background: HIV-1-infected children have an increased risk of severe chickenpox. However, vaccination is not recommended in severely immunocompromised children. Objective: Can the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) Oka strain be safely and effectively given to HIV-1-infected children despi

  5. Cervical Transverse Myelitis After Chickenpox in An Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVaricella-zoster viruses complications involving the CNS are estimated to occur rarely, transverse myelitis after Varicella-zoster virus in most patients is characterized by an abrupt onset of progressive weakness and sensory disturbance in the lower extremities , like other viruses. We describe the case of 17 year-old boy who experienced cervical transverse myelitis after chickenpox with inability to walk and with urinary retention. He was not treated with any medication but complete revovery has been occured.

  6. A patient with bilateral facial palsy associated with hypertension and chickenpox: learning points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Eslam; Milford, David V; Smith, Martin

    2010-11-26

    Bilateral facial nerve paralysis is an uncommon presentation and even more so in children. There are reports of different causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy. It is well-established that hypertension and chickenpox causes unilateral facial paralysis and the importance of checking the blood pressure in children with facial nerve paralysis cannot be stressed enough. The authors report a boy with bilateral facial nerve paralysis in association with hypertension and having recently recovered from chickenpox. The authors review aspects of bilateral facial nerve paralysis as well as hypertension and chickenpox causing facial nerve paralysis.

  7. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz Chickenpox outbreak in Herrera del Duque, Badajoz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Valadés

    2003-06-01

    in Extremadura. Methods: Between November 2000 and March 2001, a descriptive study was performed. Cases of chickenpox were actively sought in a cohort of schoolchildren in Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. The protocols of the Monitoring Network of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura was used for case definition. Microbiological confirmation was performed by isolation of the virus and the presence of IgM and IgG markers in serum. We analyzed the direct and indirect tangible costs as well as the intangible costs of the outbreak. Results: Seventy-five cases were identified, of which 94.7% occurred in children aged between 1-9 years, mainly boys. The attack rate was 18.5 cases per 1,000 inhabitants and 68.2% occurred in children aged less than 10 years charing a home. The clinical course was benign, without hospital admissions or complications. A total of 71.6% of children aged between 3 and 8 years were susceptible. A possible temporary aggregation of cases in the school was analyzed and a relative risk of 5.01 (p < 0.0001 was obtained. The virus was isolated in the 4 vesicle samples studied and serology was positive (IgM in the 9 serum samples studied. The total cost of the outbreak was of 927,21 e, with a mean of 12,53 e per case and 205 school days lost. Conclusion: A chickenpox outbreack was confirmed in Herrera del Duque, with person-to-person transmission, affecting children aged between 1 and 9 years. The high susceptibility of the pupils, the characteristics of teaching, and the meetings prior to the carnivals played a determining role in the transmission of the epidemic. The estimated cost of this outbreak was 76% less than the cost that would have been generated by single-dose vaccination of the 75 individuals who contracted the disease.

  8. 一起水痘突发疫情流行病学分析%Epidemiological Analysis on An Outbreak of Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉琴; 王红卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:对北京市怀柔区某小学一起水痘突发疫情进行流行病学分析,为今后更好的处理水痘暴发疫情提供流行病学依据.方法:收集中国疾病控制信息系统中北京市怀柔区某小学的一起水痘突发疫情个案病例和突发疫情信息,采用描述流行病学方法分析流行病学特征.结果:水痘发病年龄(6~12) 岁,以一年级为主,共27 例,占总病例数的67.50%; 应急后免疫未超过1个月发病的2例,免疫史超过3年的发病3例,超过4年的发病3例,超过5年的发病25 例,分别占5.88% 、8.82% 、8.82% 、73.53%.结论:水痘易在学校等集体单位暴发流行,发病以低年级儿童为主,免疫史超过5年的突破病例较多.学校等集体单位在严格落实各项防控措施的同时,接种水痘减毒活疫苗(Varicella Attenuated Live Vaccine;VarV) 是预防和控制水痘最有效和最可靠的手段.%Objective:To analysis an outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school of Beijing Huairou district, to provide epidemiological basis for dealing with the epidemic of chickenpox. Methods: the information of chickenpox cases of a primary school in Beijing Huairou district was collected from Chinese Centers for Disease Control Information System, and descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze epidemiology characters of chickenpox .Results: The average age of cases was 7.08y(rangre 6y ~12y). The cases were diagnosed maily in grade 1, about 27 cases accounting for 67.50%. 2 cases within 1 month immune following stress, 3 cases withI more than 3 years immune history, 3 cases with more than 4 years immune history, 25 cases with more than 5 years immune history were diagnosed,accounting for 5.88%, 8.82%, 8.82% and 73.53% respectively. Conclusion:Chickenpox is outbreaked in collective units such as schools frequently, and the incidence cases are maily in low-grade children especially who with more than 5-year immune history. Schools and other collective units should implement

  9. Sequencing and characterization of Varicella-Zoster virus vaccine strain SuduVax

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jong; Jung Gyoo; Kim Yu; Ji Ga; Kim Hyung; Wang Wen; Park Ho; Park Song; Kim Geun; Kwon Shi; Lee Keon; Ahn Jin; Yoon Yeup; Lee Chan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in children and shingles in older people. Currently, live attenuated vaccines based on the Oka strain are available worldwide. In Korea, an attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed from a Korean isolate and has been commercially available since 1994. Despite this long history of use, the mechanism for the attenuation of the vaccine strain is still elusive. We attempted to understand the molecular basis of attenuation mechanis...

  10. The epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in The Netherlands: implications for varicella zoster virus vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, Hester E de; Berbers, Guy A M; Hahné, Susan J M; Rümke, Hans; Hof, Susan van den; Wit, G Ardine de; Boot, Hein J

    2006-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in The Netherlands to assess the desirability to implement routine varicella zoster virus vaccination in The Netherlands. Data on seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus in the general population (1995-1996), consult

  11. Simultaneous chickenpox and measles infection among migrant children who stayed in Italy during the second half of June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ivi?-Hofman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting on a household outbreak of measles, in which cases of simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection occured in children of a family who resided in Italy during the incubation period (June 2011. In three children, fever and generalized confluent macular rash were the dominant symptoms. Serology testing revealed simultaneous measles and chickenpox infection in four children.

  12. WAYS TO IMPROVE PREVENTION OF CHICKENPOX AT CHILDREN OF UKRAINE IN MODERN CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsanova T.O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chickenpox (CP in recent years has tended to steady increase in the incidence of various regions of Ukraine, especially among children. The situation regarding the incidence of PA nowadays, especially among children, determines the relevance of infection and requires the solution of problems in finding the most effective ways to prevent the population of Ukraine against CP. Purpose: to theoretically justify the introduction of the National vaccination calendar of Ukraine vaccine against CP based on the study of modern epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical features of CP in children of Kharkiv region of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The analysis of statistical data on the incidence of PA in Kharkiv region and 2780 data from case histories of children aged one month PA-18, admitted to the Kharkiv Regional Hospital of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in the last five years. The diagnosis is established on the basis of characteristic clinical manifestations. Results and discussion. During the period 2010-2014 epidemiological curve morbidity in children with CP has tended to rise with maximum performance in 2011, prevailed among patients, children who lived in the city. The largest recorded incidence in children under 15 years old, had a tendency to increase the proportion of high school age children. Among dominated diseased children attending organized children's groups (kindergartens, schools, including more than a third part of patients lived in closed children's institutions (orphanages, boarding schools, etc.. Clear seasonal disease was traced to the rise of the autumn-winter period. Monitoring the number of children with CP, admitted to hospital, also showed growth in their numbers. The reason for hospitalization were: pronounced intoxication syndrome, abundant rash on skin and mucous membranes, complicated disease, epidemiological indications. The most affected age groups were children 1-10 years. The disease ran mostly in

  13. Optic Neuritis in an Adult Patient with Chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in a patient with primary infection with Varicella zoster virus is rare, especially in the immunocompetent adult. In particular, isolated optic neuritis has been described in a small number of cases. The authors present a case of optic neuritis in an immunocompetent patient. A 28-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a history of headaches during the previous week, without visual symptoms. The examination was unremarkable, except for a rash suggestive of chickenpox and hyperemic and edematous optic disc, bilaterally. Visual acuity and neurological examination were normal. Two days later, she complained of pain on eye movement and decreased visual acuity, which was 20/32 in her right eye and 20/60 in her left eye. Four days after admission, her visual acuity started to improve, and two months later, she had 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an immunocompetent adult in which a Varicella zoster virus associated optic neuritis presented with fundoscopic changes before decreased visual acuity. This suggests that this condition may be underdiagnosed in asymptomatic patients.

  14. Investigation and analysis of an outbreak of chickenpox in a middle school in Shanghai%上海市某中学水痘暴发疫情调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许闯; 李物华; 魏大伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过分析上海市某中学一起水痘爆发疫情的流行病学特征,为以后更好地处置水痘爆发疫情提供参考依据。方法:对2013年10月—12月40例水痘疫情开展现场流行病学调查,采用描述性流行病学方法分析流行病学特征。结果:在40例中,罹患率5.7%(40/707),患者年龄介于14~15岁。有水痘免疫接种史的27例,占67.5%,水痘疫苗接种组与未接种组间发病率有统计学差异(χ2=4.31,P<0.05)。结论:提高学校晨检质量,及时发现并隔离水痘病例,相对隔离发病班级,加强消毒及健康教育,提高水痘疫苗接种率,发病学生返校须有医院开具的证明,这些是预防和控制水痘疫情的有效措施。%Objective:To analyze the epidemiologic feature of an outbreak of chickenpox in a middle school of Shanghai to provide a reference for dealing with the outbreak of chickenpox well in the future. Methods:From Oct. to Dec. 2013, the ifeld epidemiological investigation of the chickenpox outbreak of 40 cases was carried out, and the descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics. Results:In 40 cases, the attack rate was 5.7%(40/707), and the age of the cases ranged from 14 to 15 years old. There were 27 cases with the history of chickenpox immunization, accounting for 67.5%, and the incidence between the varicella vaccination group and non vaccinated group had the statistical difference(χ2=4.31, P<0.05). Conclusion:To improve the quality of school morning inspection, timely detect and isolate the cases of chickenpox, relatively isolate the class with the infected students, strengthen disinfection and health education, improve the vaccination rate of chickenpox vaccine, and allow the students to return to school with the proof issued by the hospital are these effective measures for prevention and control of varicella epidemic.

  15. Analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox in Jiading District%嘉定区2005-2010年水痘流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬华; 钟培松; 钱杰; 李强; 汤伟琴; 杨帆; 陈斌; 季莹; 张一英; 周浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To know the epidemiological characteristics of chickenpox in Jiading District in order to provide some information for the control and prevention of chickenpox. Methods:Circular distribution was used to analyze the seasonal trend of chickenpox. Results:The total number of incidence was 6 091 cases from 2005-2010. Children under 14 years old accounted for 63.22%. The maximum annual incidence was 10.93/million. Circular distribution analysis showed that the seasonal trends were more obvious and their value was 0.60 and 0.63 (P<0.05). The ifrst peak time was April 3 and the second was Oct. 26. Conclusion:Chickenpox has the seasonal trend and the pre-school children and school students are in high risk. We should carry out the strategy of combined routine immunization with replanting vaccine to increase the level of immunity of chickenpox before the incidence peak.%目的:了解嘉定区水痘疫情的流行特征,为水痘防控提供依据。方法:运用圆形分布法对2005-2010年水痘疫情进行统计分析,计算角度离散度指标r值、平均角、推算高峰日,并进行雷氏检验。结果:嘉定区2005-2010年水痘总发病数为6091例,年发病率最高在2008年,为109.29/10万;14岁以下的儿童占63.22%。季节性趋势较为明显, r值分别为0.60和0.63(P<0.05),第1发病高峰时间为4月3日,第2发病高峰时间为10月26日。结论:水痘具有明显的季节性发病高峰,学龄前儿童和中小学生是水痘的高发人群,应该在高峰来临前采用学龄前儿童常规接种和在学生中补种相结合的策略开展水痘疫苗的群体水平免疫。

  16. The incidence of chickenpox in the community: lessons for disease surveillance in sentinel practice networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Falcao, I.; Vega Alonso, T.; Padilla, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel practice networks have been established in many European countries to monitor disease incidence in the community. To demonstrate the value of sentinel networks an international study on the incidence of chicken pox has been undertaken. Chickenpox was chosen as an acute condition for which i

  17. Occupationally Related Outbreak of Chickenpox in Hospital Staff: A Learning Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Varicella (chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease which is caused by Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), a ubiquitous human α herpes virus. Nosocomial varicella in hospital employees can be costly to the hospital and disruptive to patient care. This case report describes an occupationally related outbreak of chickenpox in hospital staff and the lessons which were learnt by the hospital during this experience.

  18. Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L

    1986-10-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine has been administered to 307 children with leukemia in remission and to 86 healthy adults. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. The major side effect in leukemic children receiving maintenance chemotherapy was development of a vaccine-associated rash. Vaccinees in whom a rash developed were potentially somewhat infectious to others about 1 month after immunization. Vaccination was not associated with an increase in the incidence of herpes zoster or in relapse of leukemia. Vaccination provided excellent protection against severe varicella. It was associated with a significant decrease in the attack rate of chickenpox following an intimate exposure to varicella-zoster virus, conferring about 80% protection in leukemic children. The cases of breakthrough varicella that occurred were mild. Thus, the vaccine may either prevent or modify varicella in high-risk individuals. It may also have use for prevention of nosocomial varicella.

  19. Ischemic retinal vasculitis in an 18-year-old man with chickenpox infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonyathalang A,Sukavatcharin S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anuchit Poonyathalang, Somsiri Sukavatcharin, Tharikarn Sujirakul Department of Ophthalmology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Ocular involvement after primary infection with varicella zoster virus is very rare. We report a case of a healthy 18-year-old man who presented with unilateral ischemic retinal vasculitis 10 days after the onset of chickenpox. He developed acute severe visual loss and a relative afferent pupillary defect in his right eye. Fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, fundus fluorescence angiography, and electrophysiologic studies confirmed the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis, which led to generalized retinal ischemia. Although aggressive treatment with systemic steroids and antiviral drugs was administered, a poor visual outcome still resulted. Keywords: ischemic retinal vasculitis, chickenpox, varicella zoster virus

  20. Precipitation of stroke-like event by chickenpox in a child with MELAS syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ren Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS is a rare congenital disorder of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Herein we report a case of MELAS, whose second stroke-like episode was provoked by chickenpox. A point mutation at nucleotide (nt 3243 in mtDNA supported the diagnosis of MELAS in this case. History of myopathy, the presence of lesions that did not conform to accepted distributions of vascular territories on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, normal result of cranial magnetic resonance angiography, hyperintensity on diffusion weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping indicating the presence of vasogenic edema in the fresh stroke-like lesion, and mitochondrial DNA analysis helped to exclude the diagnosis of ischemic cerebral infarction which can also be induced by chickenpox.

  1. 北京市东城区一起学校水痘暴发疫情的调查分析%Investigation of a chickenpox outbreak in a primary school of Dongcheng district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiologic features of chickenpox outbreak in a primary school of Beijing,investigate the source of the outbreak,and provide recommendations for the chickenpox control and prevention.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characters of this chickenpox outbreak.Results 57 students were infected with chickenpox virus from January 5,2012 to April 15,2012.There were 1320 students in the school.The attack rate of students in storied building was 6.5%.There were no statistics difference in the attack rate among the students of the second floor,the third floor and the fourth floor.Conclusions The main reasons of the outbreak were poor ventilation and low inoculation rate.It is important to improve the vaccination rate to reduce the risk of outbreak.%目的 分析2012年北京市东城区一所小学水痘暴发疫情的流行病学特征,初步探讨暴发疫情发生的原因,为学校水痘暴发疫情控制措施调整提供建议.方法 对本起疫情开展现场流行病学调查,采用描述流行病学的方法进行分析,总结疫情流行病学特征,分析暴发疫情发生原因.结果 2012年1月5日~4月15日该校累计57名学生发病,患者年龄8-9岁.该校在校学生1320人,平房无病例报告,楼房学生罹患率6.5%.二、三、四楼层学生罹患率无统计学差异(x2=3.634,P=0.163).结论教室通风差、疫苗接种率低为暴发疫情发生的主要原因.学校应提高学生水痘疫苗接种率,降低暴发疫情发生的风险.

  2. Occupationally related outbreak of chickenpox in hospital staff: a learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Smita

    2013-10-01

    Varicella (chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease which is caused by Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), a ubiquitous human α herpes virus. Nosocomial varicella in hospital employees can be costly to the hospital and disruptive to patient care. This case report describes an occupationally related outbreak of chickenpox in hospital staff and the lessons which were learnt by the hospital during this experience. PMID:24298507

  3. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  4. Characteristics of chickenpox in children and adults at a tertiary health center in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmir Baljic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chickenpox is very contagious childhood disease, which occurs due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV primaryinfection. Disease in healthy children resolves usually without complications, but risk of complication is much higherin adults and immunocompromised hosts. The goal of this study was to determine different clinical and epidemiologicalcharacteristics, laboratory features, clinical course, and outcome of chickenpox in children and adults.Material and methods: The descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Clinical Centerin Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The study included 120 patients chosen randomly. We compared their clinical andepidemiological characteristics, laboratory investigations, complications and the outcome of the disease.Results: Age of patients was in range from one to 48 years. Male patients prevailed in both groups (65% in adults,52% in children. Hospitalization rate was 10.7/100,000 inhabitants. Positive contact with chickenpox was confirmed in80% adults and 82% children. Dominating symptoms were fever, rash and muscle aches. Levels of C-reactive protein,erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR and fibrinogen levels were elevated in both groups, while thrombocytopenia waspresented in 33% of adults and 3% of children. Adults had complications in 83.3% and their hospitalization rate waslonger compared to children (11.5 days vs. 9.5 days, p<0.001.Conclusions: Chickenpox is a potentially severe illness in adult patients. Introduction of active immunization in Bosnia-Herzegovina should be considered to prevent severe forms of chickenpox. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 64-67Key words: Chickenpox, complications, pneumonia

  5. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Serrano Ocaña

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.

  6. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  7. Management of Varicella Gangrenosa: A Life-Threatening Condition from Chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. M. Schots

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella gangrenosa, in which gangrenous ulceration of the skin and/or deeper tissues is seen, is a rare but alarming complication of Varicella infection. An early surgical intervention is generally advised, especially in case of sepsis and/or the presence of large necrotic lesions. We describe a case of a previously healthy 12-month-old boy presenting with sepsis due to Varicella gangrenosa. He presented with moderate lesions of moist gangrene. We treated our patient initially with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole and later on flucloxacillin and antiviral therapy (acyclovir whereupon his condition rapidly improved and all skin lesions healed entirely. This report highlights the possibility of conservative treatment and emphasizes the significance of acyclovir in the management of chickenpox complicated by moist gangrene due to bacterial superinfection.

  8. Varicella-zoster virus: pathogenesis, incidence patterns and vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Franchi, Michele; Maniscalco, Licia; Stefanati, Armando

    2016-06-01

    Varicella or chickenpox is a common and highly contagious exanthematic disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that during primary infection has the ability to establish latency. VZV reactivation, even decades after primary infection, causes herpes zoster. In healthy immunocompetent subjects, children in particular, varicella results in mild to moderate illness and for this reason, regardless its high morbidity, it is not considered a public health priority. Varicella still represents the most widespread vaccine preventable childhood infectious disease in industrialized countries; due to its relevant burden on healthcare resources several countries has introduced varicella vaccination into the recommended routine childhood national immunization schedule. Nowadays, live attenuated monovalent and combined MMRV vaccines are licensed worldwide. The use of several millions of doses has demonstrated the excellent safety and efficacy level of varicella vaccines as well as of combined MMRV vaccines. Universal vaccination adopted in many countries with a two-dose strategy has allowed to significantly reducing morbidity and mortality of this infectious disease. Anyway, an ample international debate is ongoing on the time range to be used between the two doses, and on the safety issues related to the use as first-dose of MMRV vaccine. Taking into account the availability of a zoster vaccine in subjects older than 50 years of age, it will be relevant to clarify if an impact on exogenous boosters and on the epidemiology of herpes zoster can occur after the adoption of extensive varicella immunization. PMID:27125440

  9. Perceived vaccination status in ecotourists and risks of anthropozoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Martinez, Leigh Ann; Lemke, Andrea A; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Andau, Patrick; Sakong, Rosman

    2008-09-01

    Anthropozoonotic (human to nonhuman animal) transmission of infectious disease poses a significant threat to wildlife. A large proportion of travelers to tropical regions are not protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses, and a majority of these travelers demonstrate poor recall of actual vaccination status. Here we characterize self-perceived vaccination status among a large sample of ecotourists at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia. Despite their recognized travel itinerary to view endangered animals, tourists at wildlife sanctuaries are not adequately protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses. Of 633 surveys, over half reported being currently vaccinated against tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, and measles. Fewer participants reported current vaccination status for influenza, rabies, and chickenpox. Despite the fact that the majority of visitors to Sepilok are from temperate regions where influenza is relatively more prevalent, 67.1% of those surveyed with medical-related occupations reported not being currently vaccinated for influenza. Ecotourists concerned about environmental protection are themselves largely unaware of their potential contribution to the spread of diseases to animals. The risks of negatively affecting animal populations must be communicated to all concerned parties, and this may begin by urging travelers to examine their actual vaccination status, particularly as the ecotourism industry continues its rapid expansion, and is seen increasingly as a possible tool to save great ape populations from extinction.

  10. Perceived vaccination status in ecotourists and risks of anthropozoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Martinez, Leigh Ann; Lemke, Andrea A; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Andau, Patrick; Sakong, Rosman

    2008-09-01

    Anthropozoonotic (human to nonhuman animal) transmission of infectious disease poses a significant threat to wildlife. A large proportion of travelers to tropical regions are not protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses, and a majority of these travelers demonstrate poor recall of actual vaccination status. Here we characterize self-perceived vaccination status among a large sample of ecotourists at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia. Despite their recognized travel itinerary to view endangered animals, tourists at wildlife sanctuaries are not adequately protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses. Of 633 surveys, over half reported being currently vaccinated against tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, and measles. Fewer participants reported current vaccination status for influenza, rabies, and chickenpox. Despite the fact that the majority of visitors to Sepilok are from temperate regions where influenza is relatively more prevalent, 67.1% of those surveyed with medical-related occupations reported not being currently vaccinated for influenza. Ecotourists concerned about environmental protection are themselves largely unaware of their potential contribution to the spread of diseases to animals. The risks of negatively affecting animal populations must be communicated to all concerned parties, and this may begin by urging travelers to examine their actual vaccination status, particularly as the ecotourism industry continues its rapid expansion, and is seen increasingly as a possible tool to save great ape populations from extinction. PMID:18810550

  11. Epidemiological analysis of infection outbreaks of chickenpox in Fangshan District of Beijing from 2008 to 2010%北京市房山区2008-2010年水痘暴发疫情流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟毅; 于海柱; 张士清; 周伟; 高美丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To collect more information on infection outbreaks of chickenpox in Fangshan District of Beijing from January 2008 to December 2010 so as to take more effective precautions against chickenpox in kindergartens and schools. Methods The methods of descriptive epidemiology were used to analyze the frequency of infection outbreaks of chickenpox in Fangshan District from January 2008 to December 2010. Results A total of twenty - one outbreaks occurred in Fangshan District from January 2008 to December 2010. 193 cases were reported during the period, and the incidence rate was 1.72% . Fifteen outbreaks occurred in 2008, two in 2009 , four in 2010. Five of these outbreaks occurred in kindergartens and sixteen in schools. Conclusions Chickenpox is highly infectious. Once the virus enters kindergartens or schools, it will spread rapidly. Strengthening surveillance,isolating the source of infection ,emergency vaccination of susceptible populations, and disinfection are important measures to prevent the outbreak of chicken-pox.%目的 了解北京市房山区2008-01至2010-12水痘暴发疫情情况,为制订托幼园所、学校水痘疫情防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对房山区2008-01至2010-12水痘暴发疫情进行流行病学分析研究.结果 共发生水痘暴发疫情21起,总病例数为193例,罹患率为1.72%.2008年发生15起,2009年发生2起,2010年发生4起.其中5起发生在托幼园所,16起发生在小学.结论 水痘传染性强,病毒一旦引入托幼园所、学校,传播迅速;加强监测,落实传染源隔离、对易感人群应急接种、消毒等措施是预防水痘暴发的重要措施.

  12. Chickenpox (Varicella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . 6 th ed. pp.2070, 2080-2081, 2434-2437. New York: ... German Measles (Rubella) Measles (Rubeola) Roseola (Sixth Disease) Viral ...

  13. Observation and nursing experience of adverse reactions of children vaccinated with chicken pox vaccine%儿童接种水痘疫苗的不良反应观察及护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琴

    2015-01-01

    objective: to investigate the children chickenpox vaccine adverse reactions and the nursing countermeasures. Methods: retrospectiveanalysis of 226 cases of children had chickenpox vaccine in our adverse reactions and the nursing measures. Results: all children within a few hours after inoculation, there are different degree of mild fever, swelling pain, mild skin rashes, mild chicken pox adverse reaction, nursing measures, reduce the adverse reaction. Conclusion: the adverse reactions of vaccinated children appear in the corresponding nursing measures, can effectively reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions, and improve the success rate of the vaccination is chickenpox vaccine ascending children's health.%目的:探讨儿童接种水痘疫苗的不良反应及护理对策.方法:回顾分析我院已经接种水痘疫苗的儿童226例的不良反应及护理措施.结果:所有儿童在接种结束后的几小时内,出现有不同程度上的轻微发热、局部红肿疼痛、轻微皮疹、轻度水痘不良反应,采取护理措施后,不良反应减少.结论:针对接种后的儿童出现的不良反应进行相应的护理措施,能够有效的减少不良反应的发生,提高接种是水痘疫苗的成功率,提升儿童的身体健康.

  14. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Neumonia varicelosa. Presentacion de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.La varicela es una infección exantemática producida por el virus Varicela zoster (VZV que comúnmente ocurre en la infancia. Se reporta el 90 % de los casos en niños menores de 12 años, el 10 % de la población mayor de 15 años es susceptible a padecerla. La enfermedad se adquiere por inhalación de partículas que contienen el virus y que son expulsadas por la nasofaringe de individuos infectados. Esto causa una infección inicial en el epitelio respiratorio. El virus se disemina a células distantes del sistema retículo endotelial y, finalmente, se produce un estado de viremia con manifestaciones en la piel, aunque la diseminación también se puede extender a las vísceras. El deterioro de la inmunidad celular ocasionado por enfermedades coexistentes, infección por VIH, cáncer, enfermedad hemato-oncológica, uso de esteroides, así como, la edad avanzada, el hábito de fumar

  15. Sequencing and characterization of Varicella-Zoster virus vaccine strain SuduVax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox in children and shingles in older people. Currently, live attenuated vaccines based on the Oka strain are available worldwide. In Korea, an attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed from a Korean isolate and has been commercially available since 1994. Despite this long history of use, the mechanism for the attenuation of the vaccine strain is still elusive. We attempted to understand the molecular basis of attenuation mechanism by full genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of the Korean vaccine strain SuduVax. Results SuduVax was found to contain a genome that was 124,759 bp and possessed 74 open reading frames (ORFs. SuduVax was genetically most close to Oka strains and these Korean-Japanese strains formed a strong clade in phylogenetic trees. SuduVax, similar to the Oka vaccine strains, underwent T- > C substitution at the stop codon of ORF0, resulting in a read-through mutation to code for an extended form of ORF0 protein. SuduVax also shared certain deletion and insertion mutations in ORFs 17, 29, 56 and 60 with Oka vaccine strains and some clinical strains. Conclusions The Korean VZV vaccine strain SuduVax is genetically similar to the Oka vaccine strains. Further comparative genomic and bioinformatics analyses will help to elucidate the molecular basis of the attenuation of the VZV vaccine strains.

  16. Avaliação da suscetibilidade à varicela no paciente pediátrico portador de insuficiência renal crônica Evaluation of chickenpox susceptibility in children with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Roberto Baldacci

    2008-03-01

    previously vaccinated by non-governmental agencies and were excluded. Varicella antibodies were evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay and antibody titers above 100mUA/mL were considered protective. RESULTS: The median age was 11 years old, 66% were male, 60% lived in the city of São Paulo, with an average glomerular filtration rate of 33.6mL/min/1.73m². Clinical diagnosis of chickenpox was done by pediatricians in 39 patients and four of these 39 were seronegative for varicella. Susceptibility to chickenpox was found in 21/80 (26% patients and the relative prevalence of susceptibility to the disease was 7.93 (95%CI=3.29-19.12 higher in patients under six years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to varicella infection decreased with age. Patients younger than six years were eight times more susceptible than older patients and twice more susceptible compared to the Brazilian pediatric population of the same age group.

  17. Aplicación del teorema del umbral estocástico de Whittle a un brote de varicela Application of Whittle's stochastic threshold theorem to a chickenpox outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio

    2006-08-01

    model was applied. The basic reproductive rate (R0 was estimated using the maximum likelihood method based on probability distribution for the total size of the epidemic and making an approach of almost complete epidemic. Based on R0, the theorem was applied to establish some preventive measures for preventing a chickenpox outbreak. RESULTS: Each initially infected subject produced three new cases of infection requiring minimum vaccination coverage of 62% to prevent the outbreak or to reduce in 62% the contact among members of the group or to increase in 170% removal of infected subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The stochastic threshold theorem allows to identifying measures that could be implemented to prevent and control chickenpox outbreaks. Although the distribution of the epidemic size showed similar probability of occurrence of large and small outbreaks in a typical bimodal pattern, it illustrates the uncertainty of epidemic process in small groups, requiring close detection of outbreaks in such groups.

  18. Geographical epidemiology study on chickenpox features in China%我国水痘疫情的地理流行学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫磊; 殷红梅; 黄国; 申锦玉; 牛建军; 王世文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the epidemic features of chickenpox in China from 2007-2010 by using the geographical epidemiology methods.[Methods]Using the surveillance data from national internet-based information system of infectious diseases in China Disease Prevention and Control Center, the analysis of the status of chickenpox epidemic in China from 2007 to 2010 was conducted by GIS software(ArcGIS) and statistical software(Stata).[Results]the national average incidence of chickenpox was 20.6, 23.8, 24.1, and 24.3 per 100 000 populations in 2007-2010 respectively.Using the cases/incidence of chickenpox in 2010 as an example, there were 162 counties which incidence of chickenpox was higher than 100/100 000.Most of them were located in Tebit, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Liaoning, Guangdong, Gansu provinces and accounted for 52% of 162 counties.From 2007 to 2010, the incidence of chickenpox increased yearly.[Conclusions]The risk factors of chickenpox epidemic are different among the provinces.The prevention strategies should be developed based on the local situation.%[目的]从地理流行病学的角度了解我国2007~2010年水痘发病情况.[方法]使用中国疾病预防控制中心"疾病监测信息报告管理系统",ArcGIS地理信息系统软件,Stata统计分析软件对2007-2010年全国水痘疫情分布进行了分析.[结果]2007-2010年全国平均发病率分别为十万分之20.6、23.8、24.1、和24.3,以2010年为例,发病率大于100/10万共有162的县,多数集中在西藏、新疆、四川、辽宁、广东、甘肃六个省,占总数的52%.2007-2010年全国水痘病例报告的人数和平均发病率的有逐年增高的趋势.[结论] 水痘发病的地域区别较大,影响发病率的因素较多,各地应根据自身情况与实际特点有针对性的进行防控.

  19. Varicella vaccine for immunocompromised children: results of collaborative studies in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRussa, P; Steinberg, S; Gershon, A A

    1996-11-01

    Varicella vaccine in immunocompromised children was clinically evaluated in 575 US and Canadian children with leukemia in remission by the Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study. Most children had chemotherapy stopped 1 week before and 1 week after immunization. Steroids were stopped for 3 weeks (1 week before to 2 weeks after vaccination). Varicella vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and effective in leukemic children at risk for serious disease or death from chickenpox. The major side effect was mild rash in 50% approximately 1 month after immunization. About 40% of children who developed rash were treated with acyclovir. Vaccine efficacy was judged by the degree of protection after a household exposure to varicella; of 123 exposed children, 17 (14%) developed a mild form of varicella. The vaccine protected completely against severe varicella. Leukemic vaccines were less likely to develop zoster than were comparable children with leukemia who had wild type varicella. Thus, varicella vaccine, administered carefully with close follow-up, is extremely beneficial for leukemic children.

  20. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  1. Pneumococcal vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.

  2. Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  3. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  5. Social epidemiology of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Colombian sugar cane producer region: a set theory-based analysis Epidemiología social de una gran epidemia de varicela en la región colombiana productora de caña de azúcar: un análisis basado en teoría de conjuntos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007, with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available.Hay pocos estudios de epidemiología social sobre epidemias de varicela, aunque resultados previos sugieren un importante rol de los determinantes sociales. Este estudio describe el contexto de una gran epidemia de varicela en la región del Valle del Cauca, Colombia (2003 a 2007, con énfasis en algunos macro-determinantes. Exploramos las tendencias temporales de la incidencia de varicela en 42 municipios para identificar los lugares con mayor ocurrencia. Analizamos las características municipales (calidad de educación, cobertura de vacunación, desempeño de los servicios de salud, inmigración relacionada con violencia, y área cultivada con caña de azúcar mediante análisis basados en teoría de conjuntos. Diagramas de Venn de Edward fueron usados para presentar los principales hallazgos. Los resultados indicaron que tres municipios tuvieron las mayores incidencias y que la educación de pobre calidad fue el atributo m

  6. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism among Varicella-Zoster Virus and identification of vaccine-specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Seon; Won, Youn Hee; Kim, In Kyo; Ahn, Jin Hyun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chan Hee

    2016-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of attenuation, complete genome sequences of vaccine and wild-type strains were compared and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. ORF22 and ORF62 contained the highest number of SNPs. The detailed analysis of the SNPs suggested 24 potential vaccine-specific sites. All the mutational events found in vaccine-specific sites were transitional, and most of them were substitution of AT to GC pair. Interestingly, 18 of the vaccine-specific sites of the vaccine strains appeared to be genetically heterogeneous. The probability of a single genome of vaccine strain to contain all 24 vaccine-type sequences was calculated to be less than 4%. The average codon adaptation index (CAI) value of the vaccine strains was significantly lower than the CAI value of the clinical strains. PMID:27376245

  7. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism among Varicella-Zoster Virus and identification of vaccine-specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Seon; Won, Youn Hee; Kim, In Kyo; Ahn, Jin Hyun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chan Hee

    2016-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of attenuation, complete genome sequences of vaccine and wild-type strains were compared and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. ORF22 and ORF62 contained the highest number of SNPs. The detailed analysis of the SNPs suggested 24 potential vaccine-specific sites. All the mutational events found in vaccine-specific sites were transitional, and most of them were substitution of AT to GC pair. Interestingly, 18 of the vaccine-specific sites of the vaccine strains appeared to be genetically heterogeneous. The probability of a single genome of vaccine strain to contain all 24 vaccine-type sequences was calculated to be less than 4%. The average codon adaptation index (CAI) value of the vaccine strains was significantly lower than the CAI value of the clinical strains.

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. 衡阳市2005-2007年水痘流行情况分析%Epidemiological analysis of chickenpox in Hengyang from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 谢建民; 曾亚雄; 伍运生

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析衡阳市水痘流行情况,为水痘防制工作提供科学依据.方法 对2005-2007年衡阳市水痘疫情进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 衡阳市2005-2007共发生水痘1048例,无死亡,发病率呈逐年上升趋势.5、11月份为发病高峰月份,病例主要为学生.期间共有水痘暴发疫情20起,全部发生在农村中小学校.结论 加强学校卫生防病工作是预防控制水痘暴发和流行的工作重点.%Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of chickenpox in Hengyang,Hunan province and provide a scientific basis for effective prevention and control of the disease.Methods Descriptive epidemiologieal method was used to analyze the data of chickenpox activity in Hengyang from 2005 to 2007.Results Between 2005 and 2007,1048 cases of chickenpox were confirmed and no one died.The morbidity showed an increasing trend year by year.Most of the cases were seen in students.A total of 20 outbreaks were reported during the period,and the peak incidence appeared in May and November.All the events took place in rural schools.Conclusion Emphases should be put on strengthening rural schools'health management to prevent and control chickenpox effectively.

  10. An Evaluation to assess the Knowledge regarding Prevention and Management of Chickenpox in Children among Mothers having Children below 10 years of age residing at selected community area of Allahabad (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemy Elizabeth Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is a worldwide disease and is no respecter race or class. The incidence increases in spring & winter months in the temperate zones. In the tropics, the peak incidence is during winter and early spring. The disease in fact started spreading from February itself. Lack of knowledge among common people on preventing water contamination is helping the virus to spread rapidly. The descriptive study attempts to assess the knowledge regarding prevention and management of chickenpox among mothers of below 10 years of age children who are residing at Naini, Allahabad with a view to develop an information booklet. Method: The study involved single group test without a control, using non-experimental descriptive design, with non-probability convenient sampling. 60 women were involved in data collection by using structured questionnaire. The study came to an end by implementation of information booklet on chickenpox and its prevention and management, and the results were described using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The overall mean knowledge score was found to be 48.86 % and S.D 5.87. The highest mean knowledge score was found on general health (46.5%. The mean knowledge score varied from 46.5% to 55.6% on different aspects of chickenpox.  Chi-square test implies that there was a statistically significant association between selected demographic variables with knowledge of prevention and home care management of chickenpox at 5 percent level. Conclusion: The overall findings of the study clearly showed that there is lack of knowledge of prevention and home care management of chickenpox among mothers and the results revealed that distribution of information booklet on chickenpox and its prevention and management will be helpful for the women to gain knowledge.

  11. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  12. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  13. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intuss...

  14. The evaluation of emergent vaccination against varicells%水痘疫苗应急接种效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To valuation the effect of varicella vaccine's emergent vaccination and to understand the sero prevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV).Methods Sevevteen schools which had Chickenpox outbreak in the years of 2004~2006 were chosen as the field of epidemiological study.The chickenpox patients and close contects in 5 schools of them were investigated in Questionnaire.And we collected 85 serum samples of students before and after immunity in 2 schools to test IgG antibody of VZV using ELISA.Results The attack rates of chickenpox in the schools before and after emergent vaccination are 6.22% and 1.65%.The difference was significant(x2=10.99,P<0.01).The attack rate of exposure group was significant lower than the control group(x2=20.70,P<0.01).Antibodies effective rate after immunity was 90.70%,Antibody positive rate was 87.80%,and Immune success rate was 70.70%.Condusion Emergent vaccination can effectively control the chickenpox outbreak.So the result of study suggests that emergent vaccination should be done immediately once a chickenpox case has occured in a school.%目的 评价水痘疫苗应急接种效果及暴发后人群抗体水平,指导水痘暴发疫情控制.方法 以2004-2006年发生水痘暴发的17所学校为研究对象,对其中5所学校的患者及密切接触者进行问卷调查,并采集2所学校水痘疫苗应急接种后应急接种者免疫前后血清标本各85份进行水痘疫苗血清抗体滴度测定.结果 应急接种前学校水痘罹患率为6.22%,应急接种后学校水痘罹患率为1.65%,两者的差别有统计学意义(x2=10.99,P<0.01);接种疫苗者与未接种水痘者的水痘罹患率分别为8.60%和19.89%,免疫人群的水痘罹患率明显低于未免人群(x2=20.70,P<0.01);接种水痘疫苗后血清抗体有效率为90.70%,抗体阳转率为87.80%,免疫成功率为70.70%.结论 应急接种对控制学校水痘疫情暴发有重要作用,建议在出现水痘

  15. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  16. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  17. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  18. Children with chickenpox:a care of 42 cases%42例小儿水痘护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methods of care chickenpox in children. Methods Isolation of children, and to give calamine lotion and topical acyclovir ointment, pruritus obvious oral antihistamines. Care items including general care, barrier nursing, nursing fever, skin and blister care, diet care, psychological care, and close observation the changes to prevent complications. Results Of the 42 patients were cured after treatment 7d 23 cases, the cure rate was 54.76%, the total effective 33 cases, the total effective rate was 78.75%, 14d after treatment cured 37 cases, the cure rate was 88.1%, the total effective 42 cases, the total efficiency was 100.00%. Rash face healed without scar formation. Conclusion Variety attentive care measures and calamine lotion and ointment acyclovir topical, has good efficacy, fewer side effects, is one of the better way to treat children with chickenpox.%目的:探讨小儿水痘的护理方法。方法隔离患儿,并给予炉甘石洗剂及阿昔洛韦软膏外用,皮肤瘙痒明显者可口服抗组胺药。包括:一般护理、隔离护理、发热护理、皮肤与水疱护理、饮食护理、心理护理,并密切观察病情变化,以防并发症的发生。结果42例患儿治疗7d后痊愈23例,痊愈率为54.76%,总有效33例,总有效率78.75%,治疗14d后痊愈37例,痊愈率为88.1%,总有效率42例,总有效率为100.00%。皮疹面愈合良好,无瘢痕形成。结论多种细心护理措施和炉甘石洗剂及阿昔洛韦软膏外用,疗效好,副作用较少,是治疗小儿水痘的较好方法之一。

  19. 水痘疫苗(1剂)在控制水痘流行病中的作用%Study on role of chickenpox vaccine in controling chickenpox epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传波; 赵海

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究水痘疫苗1剂在控制水痘流行病中的作用.方法 对我社区随机选取的120例符合入组标准儿童进行分组调查分析其发病情况,然后进行统计学分析,观察接种水痘疫苗对发病的影响.结果 其中100例接种水痘疫苗1剂的儿童在3个月内未发生水痘感染情况,1年内有2位感染水痘.未接种组20位儿童,3个月内水痘感染1人,6个月内感染2人,1年感染3人,其感染人数比例及发病率均高于接种组.结论 接种水痘疫苗对水痘发病率具有良好的控制.

  20. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  1. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  2. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  3. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  4. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  5. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  6. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated?Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis ...

  7. [HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed. PMID:27268446

  8. Epidemic Situation of Chickenpox in Jinjiang District of Chengdu, 2006 -2010%2006-2010年成都市锦江区水痘疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠民

    2012-01-01

    Objective By understanding the epidemic situation of chickenpox in Jinjiang district, to provide scientific evidence for developing measures of chickenpox prevention. Method Data of chickenpox epidemic situation in Jinjiang district from 2006 to 2010 was analyzed. Results Totally 1 372 chickenpox patients were reported during 2006 to 2010, the annual incidence rate was 62. 63/105 Dongguang (14. 58% ) , Shizishan (10. 71% ) , Liujiang (9. 32% ) , and Sansheng (8. 53% ) were the jurisdictions with the highest proportion of chickenpox. Among the cases, 747 were male, and 625 were female. The proportions of 0 - 3, 4 - 9, 10-15 years old group were 13. 56% , 50. 58% , and 19. 02% respectively. The proportions of students, child -care children, and scattered children were 41. 84% , 33. 89% , and 11. 08% respectively. The incidence concentrated in A-pril to June (43. 00% ) and November to the next January (27. 11% ). Both the incidence in 2007 (78. 84/ 105) and 2009 (76. 28/105) were high. Conclusion The highest incidences of chickenpox were in 2007 and 2009 in Jinjiang district from 2006 to 2010, and peaked every two years, while the proportion of cases was high in the agriculture - related street area. .%目的 了解2006 - 2010年成都市锦江区水痘疫情情况,为制定水痘防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对2006 - 2010年锦江区水痘疫情资料进行分析.结果 2006 -2010年共报告水痘1 372例,年均发生率为62.63/10万.水痘发病数较高的涉农街道辖区分别为东光(14.58%,200/1 372)、狮子山(10.71%,147/1 372)、柳江(9.32%,128/1 372)和三圣(8.53%,117/1 372).男性747例,女性625例;0~3岁占13.56%(186/1 372)、4~9岁占50.58% (694/1 372)、10~ 15岁占19.02%(261/1 372),学生占41.84%、托幼儿童占33.89%、散居儿童占11.08%;发病时间集中在4~6月和11月~次年1月,分别占43.00%和27.11%.2007和2009年发病率较高,分别为78.84/10万和76.28/10万.结论 2006 -2010

  9. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. PMID:26930365

  10. Ultra-violet radiation is responsible for the differences in global epidemiology of chickenpox and the evolution of varicella-zoster virus as man migrated out of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Philip S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the eight human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and zoster, has a unique epidemiology. Primary infection is much less common in children in the tropics compared with temperate areas. This results in increased adult susceptibility causing outbreaks, for example in health-care workers migrating from tropical to temperate countries. The recent demonstration that there are different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus and their geographic segregation into tropical and temperate areas suggests a distinct, yet previously unconsidered climatic factor may be responsible for both the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of this virus infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Unlike other human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus does not require intimate contact for infection to occur indicating that transmission may be interrupted by a geographically restricted climatic factor. The factor with the largest difference between tropical and temperate zones is ultra-violet radiation. This could reduce the infectiousness of chickenpox cases by inactivating virus in vesicles, before or after rupture. This would explain decreased transmissibility in the tropics and why the peak chickenpox incidence in temperate zones occurs during winter and spring, when ultra-violet radiation is at its lowest. The evolution of geographically restricted genotypes is also explained by ultra-violet radiation driving natural selection of different virus genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to inactivation, tropical genotypes being the most resistant. Consequently, temperate viruses should be more sensitive to its effects. This is supported by the observation that temperate genotypes are found in the tropics only in specific circumstances, namely where ultra-violet radiation has either been excluded or significantly reduced in intensity. Testing the Hypothesis The hypothesis is testable by exposing

  11. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  12. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  13. Meningococcal Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Sullivan, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease varies geographically with some countries (e.g., in the African meningitis belt) having both high endemic disease rates and ongoing epidemics, with annual rates reaching 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with meningococcal disease, it remains a major global health threat best prevented by vaccination. Several countries have implemented vaccination programs with the selection of specific vaccine(s) based on locally prevalent serogroup(s) of N. meningitidis and targeting population groups at highest risk. Polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines became available over 40 years ago, but are limited by their inability to produce immunologic memory responses, poor immunogenicity in infants/children, hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses, and lack of efficacy against nasopharyngeal carriage. In 1999, the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced and have been successful in overcoming many of the shortcomings of polysaccharide vaccines. The implementation of meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs in many areas of the world (including the massive campaign in sub-Saharan Africa using a serogroup A conjugate vaccine) has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of meningococcal disease by both individual and population protection. Progressive advances in vaccinology have led to the recent licensure of two effective vaccines against serogroup B

  14. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EFFECTS The most common side effects are fainting, dizziness, nausea, headache, and skin reactions at the site where the shot was given. WHAT ELSE TO THINK ABOUT The HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV ...

  15. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  16. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  18. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  19. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  20. Varicela complicada en un hospital pediátrico de referencia, Perú 2001-2011 Complicated chickenpox in a national pediatric Peruvian hospital, 2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Miranda-Choque

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de estudio fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos de varicela complicada atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (INSN del Perú durante los años 2001 al 2011. Se realizó una serie de casos que incluyó un total de 1073 niños con varicela complicada. La mediana de la edad fue de 2,5 años (RIQ 1,1-4,8 años; 578 (54% fueron de sexo masculino. El tipo de complicación más frecuente fueron las infecciones secundarias de piel y partes blandas con 768 casos (72%, se registró 13 (1,4% fallecidos. En conclusión, en el INSN se hospitalizan con mayor frecuencia casos de varicela complicada en niños menores de cinco años, con un tiempo de hospitalización corto y con una baja proporción de fallecidos, la mayoría de complicaciones siendo relacionadas con las infecciones secundarias de piel y partes blandasThe objective of the study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of complicated chickenpox cases seen at the National Institute of Children’s Health (INSN, Spanish acronym of Peru from 2001 to 2011. A case series was collected, including a total of 1,073 children with complicated chickenpox. The median age was 2.5 years (IQR 1.1-4.8 years, of which 578 (54% were male. The most frequent complications were secondary skin and soft tissue infections with 768 cases (72%. 13 deaths (1.4% were recorded. In conclusion, the hospitalizations due to complicated chickenpox in the INSN included mostly children under five, with a short stay and a low proportion of deaths most complications being related to secondary skin and soft tissue infections

  1. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally,......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted.......The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally...

  2. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  3. Vaccine Vexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates

  4. 口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效评价%The curative effect of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 黄国珍; 朱渝; 喻韬; 万朝敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox. METHODS Updated evidences were identified by searching Cochrane library, MEDUNE and EMBASE. Only systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi- RCTs were included. The efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox in healthy children was analyzed through evidence-based methods. RESULTS Oral acyclovir was associated with the reductions in the number of days with fever and in the number of rash. There were less supportive evidences in shortening the number of days to get new rash and relieving pruritus. CONCLUSION The clinical importance of oral acyclovir treatment in healthy children remains uncertain.%目的 对口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效进行循证评价.方法 使用相关检索词对Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE及EMBASE等数据库进行检索,获得关于口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效的系统评价及随机对照实验,用循证医学的方法对口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效进行评价.结果 口服阿昔洛韦能减少患者发热的天数及水痘皮疹的数量,但在缩短新生皮损出现时间及减轻皮肤瘙痒等方面尚不明确.结论 阿昔洛韦在治疗平素健康儿童水痘患者的重要性仍不明确.

  5. Replicating vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  6. Malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  7. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  8. US children to get a second dose of chickenpox vaccine%美国儿童接种二次水痘疫苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    自1995年起,美国儿童一直常规接种水痘疫苗,其最初方法是单次接种抗水痘一带状疱疹病毒的减毒活疫苗。但从去年中期开始,美国免疫实践咨询委员会(ACIP)推荐,在有迹象表明儿童免疫力开始减退时应二次接种水痘疫苗。一项研究发现,加利福尼亚儿童接种水痘疫苗后,暴发性水痘发生率逐渐升高,第8年超过第1年发生率的12倍,这种趋势很明显,说明在单次接种水痘疫苗后,其免疫力随时间延长会逐渐降低,儿童还是会发生严重的水痘,不过此项研究只局限于8~12岁的儿童。该研究还发现,中重度水痘(超过50个水痘)患儿出现并发症的风险增加,如:肺炎、共济失调、皮肤细菌感染等。

  9. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  10. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  11. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  12. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  13. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...

  14. Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...

  15. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... is higher in most other parts of the world than it is in the United States. Varicella ...

  16. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...

  17. Investigation on an outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school in Donghai county%东海县某小学一起水痘暴发疫情的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 李忠典; 钱忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 报告一起小学水痘暴发疫情及调查处理情况.方法 由专业技术人员进行现场调查处理并记录,根据现场记录总结分析.结果 该校12名学生被诊断为水痘,罹患率25.5%.其中三年级11例、占91.7%,二年级l例、占8.3%,男生9例,罹患率32.1%;女生3例,罹患率15.8%,无并发症及死亡病例.经专家确认是由水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)引起的水痘暴发疫情.结论 由于报告不及时导致此次疫情暴发,采取了有效防控措施,疫情得到控制.%OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school for controlling the epidemic quickly. METHODS Opened field investigation on outbreak of chickenpox in a primary school by the professional health staffs, and analyzed the data with descriptive method. RESULTS There were 12 chickenpox cases occurred among 47 kids, the attack rate was 25.5%. There were 11 cases in a class in Grade three, 1 case in Grade two. 9 of all cases was male, the attack rate for 32.1%, 3 cases of female, the attack rate was 15.8%. All cases was healed by treatments. This outbreak of chickenpox was caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). CONCLUSION The chickenpox outbreak occurs in a primary school and is not controlled well at early time due to not reporting timely. But the epidemic is controlled finally under effective measures.

  18. Using stated preference discrete choice modelling to evaluate the introduction of varicella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jane; Kenny, Patricia; King, Madeleine; Louviere, Jordan; Viney, Rosalie; Yeoh, Angela

    2002-07-01

    Applications of stated preference discrete choice modelling (SPDCM) in health economics have been used to estimate consumer willingness to pay and to broaden the range of consequences considered in economic evaluation. This paper demonstrates how SPDCM can be used to predict participation rates, using the case of varicella (chickenpox) vaccination. Varicella vaccination may be cost effective compared to other public health programs, but this conclusion is sensitive to the proportion of the target population immunised. A choice experiment was conducted on a sample of Australian parents to predict uptake across a range of hypothetical programs. Immunisation rates would be increased by providing immunisation at no cost, by requiring it for school entry, by increasing immunisation rates in the community and decreasing the incidence of mild and severe side effects. There were two significant interactions; price modified the effect of both support from authorities and severe side effects. Country of birth was the only significant demographic characteristic. Depending on aspects of the immunisation program, the immunisation rates of children with Australian-born parents varied from 9% to 99% while for the children with parents born outside Australia they varied from 40% to 99%. This demonstrates how SPDCM can be used to understand the levels of attributes that will induce a change in the decision to immunise, the modification of the effect of one attribute by another, and subgroups in the population. Such insights can contribute to the optimal design and targeting of health programs.

  19. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  20. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  1. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  2. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  3. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  4. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...

  5. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  6. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  7. Who Should Not Get Vaccinated with These Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...

  8. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  9. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...

  10. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines.... People who got the 2009 H1N1 vaccine still need to get vaccinated with the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine... always changing. Because of this, influenza vaccines are updated every year, and an annual vaccination...

  11. 上海市浦东新区2009-2010年水痘疫情流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis on the chickenpox epidemic from 2009 to 2010 in Pudong new area, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉昭; 赵希畅; 肖绍坦

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the chickenpox epidemic of Pudong New Area and provide the scientific basis for the prevention and control work. [Methods] 6 032 chickenpox cases were analyzed of 2009 to 2010 in Pudong New Area by Retrospective analysis methods and SPSS 13. 0 statistical tools used to deal with the data (meaningful: P<0. 05), and compared the rate of groups by chi-square test. [Results] A total of 6 032 cases of chickenpox in the Pudong New Area were reported (incidence:64. 73/105). The incidence of local citizens were 79. 19/105 and foreign residents were 44. 40/105. Children below 15 years old accounted for 69. 65% of the total cases. School students accounted for 53. 88%. [Conclusions] The incidence of local citizens is higher than that of foreign residents, the incidence of chickenpox tended to be seasonal. Winter and spring are high-occurrence seasons for this disease. Children below 15 years old are the main infected age and school students are easily to be infected.%[目的]分析上海市浦东新区水痘疫情,为预防控制工作提供科学依据. [方法]将2009-2010年上海市浦东新区6 032例水痘病例采用回顾性分析,通过SPSS 13.0进行统计处理,组间率的比较运用x2检验,以P<0.05为差异有统计学意义. [结果]水痘病例6 032例,发病率为64.73/105,其中本市居民4 312例,发病率79.19/105,外来人员1 720例,发病率为44.40/105;15岁以下人群病例4 201例,占发病总数的69.65%,学生病例3 250例,占发病总数53.88%. [结论]本市居民发病率高于外来人员,发病具有明显的季节性,冬春季为高发季节,以15岁以下年龄为主,学生为主要发病群体.

  12. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  13. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  14. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  15. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  16. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  17. RECOMBINANT INFLUENZA VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...

  18. Clinical vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...

  19. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  20. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-01-01

    Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  1. A Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  2. 痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘48例%Tanreqing injection in treatment of 48 adult chickenpox cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶; 郭文; 方亮; 郑学毅

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘的临床疗效.方法 将48例水痘患者随机分为两组,治疗组在综合治疗的基础上加用痰热清注射液,对照组在综合治疗的基础上加用利巴韦林.两组均治疗5-7d.结果 治疗组加用痰热清注射液能缩短水痘患者体温下降及体温恢复正常时间,缩短皮疹消退时间,能有效缩短疗程,减少传播机会.疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 痰热清注射液治疗成人水痘疗效良好,安全性高.%Objective To study the therapeutic effects of tanreqing injection in the treatment of chickenpox.Methods Forty-eight adult patients with ehickenpox were randomly divided into treatment group and control group.The treatment group received tanreqing injection on the base of complex treatment.The control group received ribavirin injection also on the base of complex treatment.Results Tanreqing injection could shorten the time of temperature beginning fall and recovery,skin eruption disappearing.The effective rate of the treatment group was obviously higher than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions Tanreqing injection is safe and effective for the treatment of chiekenpox.

  3. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...

  4. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  5. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  6. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  7. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  8. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  9. Chickenpox cases monitoring and epidemic strains gene polymorphism analysis in Ningbo, Zhejiang%浙江省宁波市水痘病例监测及流行株基因多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡逢蛟; 焦素黎; 倪红霞; 马瑞; 潘兴强; 许国章

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析宁波市2009-2011年水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)的流行病学及流行株基因分型特征.方法 收集宁波市突发公共卫生事件报告管理系统的水痘病例发病资料,采集部分水痘病例疱疹液样本,采用PCR法对VZV流行株病毒进行基因分型及限制性内切酶SmaⅠ进行流行株鉴定,用MRC-5细胞进行VZV的分离.结果 2009-2011年宁波市水痘病例的报告发病率分别为23.33/10万、26.24/10万和36.25/10万.7~ 12岁儿童发病率最高,达245.21/10万;5-6月份和11-12月份分别为两个季节性发病高峰.32份水痘患者水疱液样本中25份检出VZV核酸阳性样本,基因分型结果提示为2种不同基因型的毒株,其中2份为M1基因型,其余23份为J基因型毒株.结论 宁波市水痘病例主要发生在春末夏初和秋末冬初季节,以7~12岁学龄儿童为主,J基因型毒株目前为本市流行主要毒株,但也有M1基因型毒株的局部流行.%Objective To analyze the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) epidemiology and the genotype characteristics of epidemic strains in Ningbo from 2009 to 2011.Methods The incidence data of chickenpox cases from Ningbo public health emergency report management system were collected and analyzed.Some vesicle fluid samples from chickenpox cases were collected.The VZV epidemic strains were genotyped by PCR method and the epidemic strains were identified by the restriction enyme Sma Ⅰ.The VZV virus was isolated by MRC-5 cells.Results The reported incidence rates of chickenpox in Ningbo were 23.33/100 000,26.24/100 000 and 36.25/100 000 from 2009 to 2011.Children aged 7-12 years had the highest incidence rate (245.21/100 000).Two seasonal peaks of chickenpox incidence were from May to June and November to December,respectively.The PCR detection result of VZV from 32 vesicle fluid samples showed that 25 samples were positive.Genotype results showed 2 kinds of different genetic types of strain:2 samples were M1 type strains

  10. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  11. Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older US Population: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Langan, Sinéad M.; Liam Smeeth; Margolis, David J.; Thomas, Sara L

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Chickenpox is an extremely common childhood infectious disease that is caused by the herpes varicella-zoster virus. Children usually recover quickly from chickenpox, but dormant varicella-zoster virus persists throughout life inside the nervous system. The dormant virus causes no symptoms but if it becomes reactivated, it causes shingles (zoster), a painful skin rash. Anyone who has had chickenpox can develop shingles but shingles is most common and most severe in ...

  12. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and...

  13. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  14. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  15. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  16. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  17. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...

  18. Immunobiology of Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...

  19. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: A 27-year-old patient of mine recently learned she is pregnant. She took the influenza vaccine offered at work when she was 7 weeks pregnant. Is her fetus at risk of malformations? ANSWER: No evidence indicates that killed influenza vaccine is teratogenic, even if given during the first trimester. Since 1996, Health Canada's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that pregnant women in their second and third trimesters be vaccinated. This should not be interpreted...

  20. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  1. Vaccination against RSV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem; Rots, Nynke Y.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants worldwide. Also persons with heart/lung disease or an immunodeficiency disorder, and the elderly are at increased risk for severe LRI upon RSV infection. Although there is at present no licensed RSV vaccine available, it is a priority target for several vaccine developers. For the implementation of a future RSV vaccination within national immunization schemes, various strategies can be...

  2. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  3. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  4. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  5. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevnar 13®) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®) Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib) Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) ... CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those ...

  6. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  7. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  8. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  9. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines. PMID:22002157

  10. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity......Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... and hence adjuvants are included to enhance and direct the immune response. Although the vaccine has been tested in ART naïve individuals, we recommend future testing of the vaccine during (early started) ART that improves immune function and to select individuals likely to benefit. Peptides representing...

  11. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  12. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  13. Vaccine safety--vaccine benefits: science and the public's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C B; Marcuse, E K

    2001-11-01

    The development of cowpox vaccination by Jenner led to the development of immunology as a scientific discipline. The subsequent eradication of smallpox and the remarkable effects of other vaccines are among the most important contributions of biomedical science to human health. Today, the need for new vaccines has never been greater. However, in developed countries, the public's fear of vaccine-preventable diseases has waned, and awareness of potential adverse effects has increased, which is threatening vaccine acceptance. To further the control of disease by vaccination, we must develop safe and effective new vaccines to combat infectious diseases, and address the public's concerns.

  14. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  15. Lassa fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  16. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  17. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  18. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  19. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Kaliaperumal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

  20. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  1. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  2. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...

  3. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  4. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  5. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  6. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

  7. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  8. DNA vaccines and intradermal vaccination by DNA tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, K; van den Berg, J H; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, DNA vaccination has been developed as a method for the induction of immune responses. However, in spite of high expectations based on their efficacy in preclinical models, immunogenicity of first generation DNA vaccines in clinical trials was shown to be poor, and no DNA vaccines have yet been licensed for human use. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of second generation DNA vaccines and DNA vaccine delivery methods. Here we review the key characteristics of DNA vaccines as compared to other vaccine platforms, and recent insights into the prerequisites for induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines will be discussed. We illustrate the development of second generation DNA vaccines with the description of DNA tattooing as a novel DNA delivery method. This technique has shown great promise both in a small animal model and in non-human primates and is currently under clinical evaluation.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  10. Smallpox vaccine revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Teri

    2002-12-01

    Smallpox is a serious contagious disease which is back in the public eye. Yet, most health care providers are unprepared for its return. Nurses will be key health care professionals in a smallpox outbreak or vaccination program.

  11. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which cancers are caused by HPV? Who gets HPV infections? Can HPV infections be ...

  13. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities’ communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines’ effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  14. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  15. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  16. Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Stanley

    2010-01-22

    WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden. PMID:19699330

  17. Next Generation Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin L Moffitt; Malley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limits their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resources areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variation...

  18. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te laten treden tegen Campylobacter", zegt Wagenaar die werkt bij het CVI en hoogleraar is aan de Universiteit Utrecht. "Geen van de vaccins die onderzoekers tot nu hebben uitgeprobeerd werken"

  19. Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and associated human infections have led to a heightened level of awareness and preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the best option by which spread of a pandemic virus could be prevented and severity of disease reduced. Production of live attenuated and inactivated vaccine seed viruses against avian influenza viruses, which have the potential to cause pandemics, and their testing in preclinical studies and...

  20. Advances in influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targetin...

  1. Meningococcal vaccines Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurugöl, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    Meningococcal disease presenting primarily as meningococcemia and meningitis continues to be a devastating problem around the world In the past 200 years several meningococcal epidemics have been noted in Europe Africa Asia and the United States Annually 500 000 cases of invasive meningococcal disease occur still worldwide of which 8805;50 000 result in death Therefore vaccine development has been undertaken in earnest for the prevention of this disease Polysaccharide vaccines have been avail...

  2. Anti-addiction vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  3. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

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  4. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... organizations wishing to create their own end slates. Right-click any link to download to your computer. ... you could benefit. Copyright 1996 - by PKIDs. All rights reserved. home tools experts donate contact us sitemap ...

  5. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Transcripts Full-length transcript PDF Important disclaimer : The information on pkids.org is for educational purposes only ... cares for your child. All medical advice and information should be considered to be incomplete without a ...

  6. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos are provided for organizations wishing to create their own end slates. Right- ...

  7. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... only and should not be considered to be medical advice . It is not meant to replace the ... the physician who cares for your child. All medical advice and information should be considered to be ...

  8. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" ... be considered to be incomplete without a physical exam, which is not possible without a visit to ...

  9. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  10. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  11. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  12. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  13. DNA vaccines against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Genetic vaccine technology has been considerably developed within the last two decades. This cost effective and promising strategy can be applied for therapy of cancers and for curing allergy, chronic and infectious diseases, such as a seasonal and pandemic influenza. Despite numerous advantages, several limitations of this technology reduce its performance and can retard its commercial exploitation in humans and its veterinary applications. Inefficient delivery of the DNA vaccine into cells of immunized individuals results in low intracellular supply of suitable expression cassettes encoding an antigen, in its low expression level and, in turn, in reduced immune responses against the antigen. Improvement of DNA delivery into the host cells might significantly increase effectiveness of the DNA vaccine. A vast array of innovative methods and various experimental strategies have been applied in order to enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccines. They include various strategies improving DNA delivery as well as expression and immunogenic potential of the proteins encoded by the DNA vaccines. Researchers focusing on DNA vaccines against influenza have applied many of these strategies. Recent examples of the most successful modern approaches are discussed in this review.

  14. Immunology of BVDV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2013-01-01

    Providing acquired immune protection against infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) is challenging due to the heterogeneity that exists among BVDV strains and the ability of the virus to infect the fetus and establish persistent infections. Both modified live and killed vaccines have been shown to be efficacious under controlled conditions. Both humoral and cellular immune responses are protective. Following natural infection or vaccination with a modified live vaccine, the majority of the B cell response (as measured by serum antibodies) is directed against the viral proteins E2 and NS2/3, with minor responses against the Erns and E1 proteins. Vaccination with killed vaccines results in serum antibodies directed mainly at the E2 protein. It appears that the major neutralizing epitopes are conformational and are located within the N-terminal half of the E2 protein. While it is thought that the E2 and NS2/3 proteins induce protective T cell responses, these epitopes have not been mapped. Prevention of fetal infections requires T and B cell response levels that approach sterilizing immunity. The heterogeneity that exists among circulating BVDV strains, works against establishing such immunity. Vaccination, while not 100% effective in every individual animal, is effective at the herd level. PMID:22883306

  15. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  16. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  17. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  18. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  19. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  20. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace ...

  1. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with a significantly higher

  2. 广州市番禺区2008-2010年学校水痘暴发疫情分析%Analysis on chickenpox outbreak in schools of PanYu distract during 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎燕君; 郭甜妹; 王凤梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市番禺区2008 - 2010年学校水痘疫情的流行情况,为制订学校水痘疫情防制措施提供科学依据.方法 对2008 - 2010年广州市番禺区学校水痘疫情进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 番禺区2008- 2010年中小学校和幼托园共报告水痘暴发疫情11起,累计发病237例,无死亡病例,累计罹患率3.70%.小学及幼儿园水痘暴发疫情10起,占总数的90.91%;暴发疫情主要集中在3~5月、10 ~ 12月.暴发疫情时间持续最长47d,最短4d,平均6d(中位数).大部分病例无水痘免疫史.结论 2008 -2010年番禺区报告的中小学校和幼托园水痘暴发疫情有逐年减少趋势,水痘暴发疫情防控较理想,但小学幼儿园仍是水痘暴发疫情控制的重点人群聚集场所,需采取针对性的控制措施.%Objective To understand the epidemic status of chickenpox outbreak in schools of Panyu during 2008 to 2010, and provide scientific evidences for marking preventive and control measures. Method Descriptive epidemiology method was performed on analyzing the epidemic of chickenpox outbreak in schools of Panyu during 2008 to 2010. Results 11 incidents and 237 cases were reported in middle schools and primary schools and infant' s schools during 2008 to 2010, no death cases, the accumulative total attack rate was 3. 70%. 10 of 11 incidents happened in primary schools and infant' s schools, it was about 90. 57 %. Most outbreak incidents happened in Mar to May and Oct to Dec. The epidemic time lasted for 47 days at the longest and 4 days at the shortest, the average was 6 days. Most of patients were without immunization history. Conclusions The chickenpox epidemic of schools which reported in Panyu during 2008 to 2010 showed downward trend year by year, and the epidemic situation was controlled, but the primary schools and infant' s schools were still the key people to control the disease, at the same time, we need to take the pertinent control measures.

  3. 75 FR 48707 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... get vaccinated? HPV vaccine is important because it can prevent most cases of cervical cancer in... this HPV vaccine and when? Females: Routine Vaccination HPV vaccine is recommended for girls 11 or 12... is best to be vaccinated before the first sexual contact. HPV vaccine is given as a 3-dose series...

  4. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...

  5. Answers about HIV Vaccine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trial participation by people of all races/ethnicities, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. • Support vaccine volunteers and/or ... preventive HIV vaccines. These include leading universities, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical firms and government agencies such as NIAID. • ...

  6. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating...

  7. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  8. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...

  9. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  10. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  11. 阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效比较%Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacy of Acyclovir and Ganciciovir in the Treatment of Adult Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝虹; 林敏

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic efficacy of acyclovir vs. Ganciclovir in the treatment of adult chickenpox. METHODS: 140 patients with chickenpox in our hospital were randomly divided into acyclovir group and ganciclovir group, according to odd and even days of hospitalization. They were given acyclovir and ganciclovir 10 mg·kg-1, bid, iv.gtt. The average defervescence time, the time for herpes forming a scab, total effective rate and adverse drug reaction were observed in 2 groups. RESULTS: The defervescence time of ganciclovir group was significantly shorter in acyclovir group, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05); Total effective rte of ganciclovir group was significantly higher than that of acyclovir group, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). No adverse drug reaction was found in 2 groups during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir in the treatment of adult varicella is significantly better than acyclovir, and the defervescence time of ganciclovir is shorter than acyclovir.%目的:比较阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效.方法:将我院140例水痘患者,按住院单双日随机均分为阿昔洛韦组与更昔洛韦组,分别给予阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦10 mg·kg-1,bid,静脉滴注.观察并记录2组患者的退热时间、皮疹结痂时间、总有效率和不良反应.结果:更昔洛韦组患者的退热时间明显短于阿昔洛韦组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组的皮疹结痂时间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);更昔洛韦组的总有效率明显高于阿昔洛韦组(P<0.05).2组治疗过程中,均未见不良反应发生.结论:更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效显著优于阿昔洛韦,且退热时间短于阿昔洛韦.

  12. Rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Harry B.; Estes, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children worldwide; the enormous disease burden has focused efforts to develop vaccines and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of gastrointestinal virus pathogenesis and host responses to infection. Two live-attenuated vaccines for gastroenteritis (Rotateq and Rotarix) have been licensed in many countries. This review summarizes the latest data on these vaccines, their effectiveness and challenges to global vaccination. Recent insigh...

  13. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2009-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a ...

  14. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  15. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SPOTS! AH’M SICK, MA! AH CAIN’T GIT NO VACCINE T’DAY! 13 OH, SON! HOW’ ... D TELL HIS FOLKS HE WAS GOIN’ T’GIT VACCINATED AN’ HE’D GO SWIMMIN’! "” ” HE DIDN’ ... T’THE HEALTH CLINIC! HEH! HEH! AH GOTTA GIT THET VACCINE! WAIT! WE’LL GO WITH YOU! ...

  16. [About of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  17. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  18. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among HIV-infected adults: Conventional vaccine vs. intradermal vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 – 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50–60% and 2.5 – 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose. PMID:26431466

  20. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  1. Smallpox vaccines for biodefense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Poland, Gregory A

    2009-11-01

    Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia. With fatality rates up to 30%, smallpox left its survivors with extensive scarring and other serious sequelae. It is estimated that smallpox killed 500 million people in the 19th and 20th centuries. Given the ongoing concerns regarding the use of variola as a biological weapon, this review will focus on the licensed vaccines as well as current research into next-generation vaccines to protect against smallpox and other poxviruses. PMID:19837292

  2. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  3. Vaccine Failures in Patients Properly Vaccinated with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Catalonia, a Region with Low Vaccination Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Garcia-Garcia, Juan-Jose; Díaz-Conradi, Alvaro; Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; González-Peris, Sebastià; Hernández, Sergi; de Sevilla, Mariona Fernández; Uriona, Sonia; Izquierdo, Conchita; Selva, Laura; Campins, Magda; Codina, Gemma; Batalla, Joan; Esteva, Cristina; Domínguez, Àngela; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Vaccine failures occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 3 pediatric hospitals in Barcelona (2012-2013) are described. PCV13 vaccine failure was defined as the occurrence of an invasive pneumococcal infection in children properly vaccinated by PCV13. Among 84 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, 32 had received at least one dose of PCV13. Seventeen of them had invasive pneumococcal infection produced by a PCV13 serotype. Among those, 9 patients were considered to have a PCV13 vaccine failure. Serotype 3 was isolated in 6 patients, serotype 19A in 2 and serotype 6B in 1. PMID:26658626

  4. Analysis of occurrence of adverse reactions and causes after injection of chickenpox vaccine%水痘疫苗注射后发病情况及原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀云

    2007-01-01

    目的 调查水痘疫苗注射后的发病情况,明确发病者的流行病学意义,为制定预防控制措施提高科学依据.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA),对2~20岁人群接种水痘疫苗后出现发热、出疹等症状者进行血清学检查,IGM抗体阳性者,予以确诊.结果 共接种8 827人,上报疑似病例165例,确诊165例,免疫后发病率为1.87%.结论 水痘疫苗免疫后发病较高,应对其原因加以研究,确保疫苗免疫安全有效.

  5. An Analysis of the Clinical Features of Chickenpox after Children Inoculated Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine%接种水痘减毒活疫苗后发生水痘的临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范篆玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨接种水痘减毒活疫苗对儿童的保护作用及意义.方法 将同一流行期内的33例儿童水痘分为已接种水痘疫苗组和未接种水痘疫苗组,从临床特征、愈后情况进行对比分析.结果 接种水痘疫苗组患儿较未接种水痘疫苗组临床症状轻,患儿体温基本均正常,水疱数目明显少,且合并上呼吸道感染症状明显减少,出疹及脱痂时间、病程和疗程明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 水痘减毒活疫苗具有免疫保护作用,儿童应及时接种,同时建议完善水痘免疫策略以提高其免疫持久性.

  6. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored.

  7. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  8. Ensuring safety of DNA vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessels Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1990 a new approach for vaccination was invented involving injection of plasmid DNA in vivo, which elicits an immune response to the encoded protein. DNA vaccination can overcome most disadvantages of conventional vaccine strategies and has potential for vaccines of the future. However, today 15 years on, a commercial product still has not reached the market. One possible explanation could be the technique's failure to induce an efficient immune response in humans, but safety may also be a fundamental issue. This review focuses on the safety of the genetic elements of DNA vaccines and on the safety of the microbial host for the production of plasmid DNA. We also propose candidates for the vaccine's genetic elements and for its microbial production host that can heighten the vaccine's safety and facilitate its entry to the market.

  9. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  10. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  11. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  12. Immunology of BVDV vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...

  13. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  14. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  15. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  16. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  17. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  18. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  19. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  20. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required.

  1. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  2. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  3. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Reina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the  Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with  >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan.   The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program

  4. Advances in flavivirus vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Beth-Ann G; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Yelmene, Michele; Thorne, Mike; Parks, D Elliot

    2010-12-01

    Flaviviruses comprise a diverse family of viruses that are cumulatively responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of infection annually. The Flavivirus genus includes both insect-vectored viruses, such as yellow fever and dengue, and non-vectored viruses such as HCV; the viruses have a broad range of disease presentation and geographic distribution. No specific antiviral therapies are currently available for the diseases caused by insect-vectored flaviviruses. Thus, efforts have been focused on the prevention of disease, through either vaccination or vector control, rather than on the treatment of infected individuals. While vector control can occasionally be successful in controlling the spread of flavivirus outbreaks, vaccines appear to be a more cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly approach. A review of vaccines for the medically important flaviviruses presents the full spectrum of vaccine options and complexity levels, and provides examples of successes and major challenges. The insect-borne flavivirus vaccine field is dynamic, with new and improved vaccines being advanced to replace existing vaccines, and novel vaccine approaches being developed for those targets that currently lack an approved vaccine. Advances in scientific knowledge and in the application of new technologies are helping to overcome some of the key challenges that have stymied the field for decades. New, safe and effective vaccines to protect against yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses will likely result. PMID:21154147

  5. Parasite vaccines--a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J P; Mulcahy, G

    2001-07-12

    Over the last decade, the anti-parasitics market has been the fastest growing sector of the overall $18 billion animal health market. While drugs for the treatment of parasites of livestock still dominate this sector and will continue to be developed or re-formulated, because of consumer demands for chemical-free food and of concerns regarding the environment and animal welfare there is a growing interest in the development of safe and effective vaccines. There is also a call for vaccines in the lucrative $3 billion-plus companion animal market. These demands for vaccines will add a greater impetus to an area that has seen tremendous success in the last 15 years. A number of anti-parasite vaccines have been developed, e.g. the recombinant 45w and EG95 oncosphere proteins against Taenia ovis and Echinococcus granulosis, respectively, and the Bm86 vaccine against Boophilus microplus. In addition, the cathepsin L vaccines against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and the H11 vaccine against Haemonchus contortus are progressing well. There are also many additional vaccine candidates for H. contortus and for other nematodes such as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp. that may ultimately lead to broad-spectrum gastrointestinal worm vaccines. Live or attenuated-live vaccines are available for the control of avian coccidiosis, toxplasmosis in sheep and anaplasmosis in cattle, although molecular vaccines against protozoans are still proving elusive. The wealth of information in genomics, proteomics and immunology that has been forthcoming together will new methods of vaccine production and delivery should see many new vaccines reach the marketplace in the near future. PMID:11516584

  6. Undesired consequences of vaccination and faults in vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanov Jasna; Došen Radoslav; Lalić Milan; Gagrčin Mladen; Orlić Dušan B.

    2002-01-01

    Different diseases in domestic animals require the application of different methods of immunological protection, depending on the type of vaccine manner of application and type of adjuvant. The objective of the work was to consider general principles and the basic requirements for efficient vaccination. It points out existing faults in practice which lead to the occurrence of mistakes made during vaccination and the appearance of resulting undesired consequences. There are many reasons why va...

  7. Distempter Vaccination of Dogs: Factors Which Could Cause Vaccine Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, R. Charles

    1986-01-01

    Distemper vaccination failures are uncommon. A number of factors which could cause such failure are discussed. The blocking effect of maternal antibody can be expected in 50% of pups at six weeks but is not important after 12 weeks. Among intercurrent infections, the immunosuppressive effect of parvovirus has the potential to precipitate vaccine-induced distemper. Corticosteroids at levels up to 10 mg/kg do not interfere with successful distemper vaccination. Anesthesia or surgery has little ...

  8. Vaccination Against Tuberculosis With Whole-Cell Mycobacterial Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Henri Lambert, Paul; Sanicas, Melvin; Martin, Carlos; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Live attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) offer promising vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. A number of WCV candidates, based on recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or related mycobacterial species are in various stages of preclinical or clinical development. In this review, we discuss the vaccine candidates and key factors shaping the development pathway for live and killed WCVs and provide an update on progress. PMID:27247343

  9. Tetravalent DNA vaccine product as a vaccine candidate against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kevin R; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Raviprakash, Kanakatte

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arbovirus worldwide and is the virus that causes dengue fever and the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. There are four serotypes of dengue with each possessing the ability to cause disease. Developing a preventive vaccine is the most efficient and effective way to prevent these diseases, and because immunity to one serotype does not protect against the other serotypes, a vaccine must provide tetravalent protection. We used DNA immunization as a platform to develop a tetravalent vaccine. In this chapter, we describe the laboratory, regulatory, and clinical methodology for evaluating a candidate tetravalent vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial. PMID:24715294

  10. [Protein subunit vaccines: example of vaccination against hepatitis B virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degos, F

    1995-06-15

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been used for over 10 years. It is efficient and safe. Protection of risk groups against hepatitis B virus infection is now achieved and vaccination of newborns and adolescents is a main public health problem. Bad responders are well characterized and immunomodulatory interventions (cytokines) must be tested in these patients. Response to hepatitis B vaccine is genetically determined and the possibility of vaccine induced escape mutants should lead to careful epidemiological studies of the spread of hepatitis B virus infection.

  11. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  12. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    ), no intervention, or alternative Japanese encephalitis vaccine. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Dichotomous data were compared with relative risks and a 95% confidence interval (CI), and converted into percentage vaccine efficacy. MAIN RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1...

  13. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  14. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  15. Statistical physics of vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaz; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination - one of the most important preventive measures of modern times - is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated ana...

  16. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  17. Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines: What You Need to Know Past Issues / ... b), and Varicella (protects against chicken pox). The vaccination charts that follow offer a simple overview of ...

  18. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  19. Vaccine prophylaxis: achievements, problems, perspectives of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrutenkov V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents medical and social aspects of immune prophylaxis of infectious diseases; the history of vaccines and vaccination is presented, as well as perspectives of development of vaccine prophylaxis.

  20. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...

  1. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  2. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher-Hoch, S P; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques...

  3. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, u...

  4. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  5. Validation of an aseptic process for live attenuated varicella vaccine%水痘减毒活疫苗的无菌生产工艺验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马相虎; 陈哲文; 晏子厚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To validate the effectiveness of the aseptic production process of live attenuated varicella vaccine (chickenpox vaccine) by media fill test.Methods The aseptic filling of the vaccine was simulated using Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB,3.2%),with filling volume of 0.6 ml per vial.The vials were incubated after filling,and the sterility of current production process was evaluated by the contamination situation of the media inside the vials.Results The filling batch numbers of 3 media fill tests were 10 160,10 181 and 10 175 vials,respectively.After successive incubation at 20-25 ℃ and 30-35 ℃,contamination rates of TSB all were 0.≥0.5μm airborne particulates were less than 70 per cubic meter at each sampling point in the production area.No ≥ 5.0 μm airborne particulate was detected.There was no colony of settle plate and surface microbial.The growth promotion test and microbial challenging test of TSB were both qualified.Conclusion The aseptic production process of chickenpox vaccine is conformed with good manufacture practice,which can assure its sterility.%目的 通过培养基模拟灌装试验,验证水痘减毒活疫苗(水痘疫苗)无菌生产工艺的有效性.方法 模拟水痘疫苗的无菌灌装工艺,对胰酪胨大豆肉汤培养基(TSB)按0.6 ml/瓶进行模拟灌装,对灌装后小瓶进行培养,根据小瓶内培养基的污染情况,评估现行水痘疫苗无菌生产工艺的有效性.结果 3次TSB模拟灌装试验的灌装批量分别为10 160、10 181和10 175瓶,经20~25℃和30~35℃先后培养后,均未出现TSB污染.在水痘疫苗生产区域的各监测点,≥0.5μm悬浮粒子均≤70粒/m3,≥5.0 μm悬浮粒子均为0;沉降菌和表面微生物的菌落计数均为0;培养基灵敏度检查和微生物挑战试验均合格.结论 水痘疫苗的无菌生产工艺符合药品生产质量管理规范的要求,可确保产品的无菌性.

  6. [Herd immunity and effectiveness of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinations is discussed in relation to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination programs. The types of epidemiological studies used in the assessment of vaccine effectiveness are presented, and most common sources of bias in such studies are listed. Basic formulas for calculation of vaccine effectiveness are given as applied for cohort and case-control studies. The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.

  7. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  8. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  9. The March Toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L.; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  10. [Assessment of BCG vaccine practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechiche, C; Charpille, M; Saissi, G; Sotto, A

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem. In France, the vaccine against tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, BCG) is in decline. This decline is firstly due to changes in BGG administration that were implemented in 2006 and secondly because of new recommandations in 2007 that ended compulsory vaccination. To determine their position on this vaccine, in 2013-2014 we asked general practitioners, pediatricians, and Maternal and Infantile Protection Center physicians in the Gard and Herault departments (in Southern France) why this vaccine was not administered and their suggestions for improvement. Most of these doctors (73.9%) stated that they did not oppose this vaccination for children. They expressed concern about potential side effects, technical problems (intradermic injection, multi-dose bottles) and parents' refusal. One quarter of these physicians would have preferred that this vaccine remains compulsory and one third that this vaccine be administered in the maternity hospital. They also requested simplified criteria for patient eligibility, technical improvements (training for intradermal injection, single-dose vaccine) and more information for the public concerning this vaccination.

  11. The march toward malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-11-27

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  12. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.

  13. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  14. Influenza Vaccinations, Fall 2009: Model School-Located Vaccination Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…

  15. HPV vaccination series completion and co-vaccination: Pairing vaccines may matter for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; McKim Mitchell, Emma; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-10-26

    Very little is known about the effect of concurrent co-vaccination on HPV series completion. This study utilized a retrospective review of a Clinical Data Repository to assess whether concurrent vaccination had an impact on HPV vaccination series completion, and whether there were differences based on age. 3371 patients who received the HPV vaccine at a single academic medical center between the years 2009-2013 were included in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for effect of concurrent vaccination on series completion for the age group 9-18 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Although not statistically significant, the aOR for effect of concurrent vaccination on completion changed direction for the 19-25 age group and was 0.44 (95% CI 0.17, 1.12). This study provides preliminary evidence that pairing the HPV vaccine with one or more co-vaccines may yield a higher HPV vaccination completion rate among adolescents age 9-18.

  16. Studies using multiple vaccinated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serological responses in vaccinated and multiple vaccinated cattle against non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus were measured using four commercially available assays. Vaccines were concentrated using polyethylene glycol to contain higher antigenic payloads that those routinely used. Animals received up to five doses of polyvalent oil vaccines over six months, administered by the intra-muscular route on d 0, 90, 130, 160 and 200. Serum samples were taken 30-40 d after each vaccination. At 60 d post vaccination the antibody response to each of the vaccine strains showed high levels of antibodies against structural proteins that correlated with protection against challenge above 81%. The detection of antibodies against NSP was made with two ELISAs using expressed 3ABC as antigen; one ELISA using peptides from 3B and an enzyme-immunotransfer blot assay (EITB). Locally produced ELISA-3ABC reagents and agar gel immunodiffusion using VIAA, were also evaluated. After four doses of vaccine, animals were negative in all the assays. After the fifth immunization, two of seventeen animals were reactive in one ELISA kit, but these samples proved negative by confirmatory tests. Antibodies against NSP were not detected in primo-vaccinated cattle used for potency tests using three batches of standard vaccine. The principle of the NSP ELISA as screening test for large sero surveys in South America is established and this paper emphasises the importance using vaccines that have no demonstrated interference with NSP ELISAs and the advantages of reducing the number of false-positives that would require further confirmation by other assays. (author)

  17. Delivery systems for intradermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R

    2012-01-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533

  18. Vaccines for leishmaniasis: from proteome to vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Juliane; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. cause a wide spectrum of tropical diseases which are threatening an estimated 350 million people around the globe. While in most cases non-fatal, the disease is associated with high morbidity, social stigmata and poverty. However, the most severe form visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapeutics are available but show high toxicity, costs and are prone to resistance development due to prolonged treatment periods. Healing is associated with a life-long resistance to re-infection and this argues for the feasibility of vaccination. However, despite much effort, no such vaccine has become available yet. Here, the status of vaccine development in this field is briefly summarized before the focus is set on the promise of reverse vaccinology for anti-Leishmania vaccine development in the post-genomic era. We report on our own experience with this approach using an instructive example of successful candidate vaccine antigen identification.

  19. Improved ERM vaccination efficacy using combined vaccine administration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Desmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that immersion vaccination (30 sec) using the Aquavac Relera vaccine (containing formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 of both biotypes 1 and 2) provides the best protection (when compared to other commercial ERM vaccines on the Danish market) against infection...... following i. p. challenge using Y. ruckeri O1, biotype 2, which at present is the main bacterial pathogen in fingerling trout production in Denmark. Despite a significant protection conferred by this vaccine (immersion) some mortality could be observed following challenge. We have therefore performed...... a study in order to elucidate if different vaccine administration methods (using Aquavac Relera) can improve protection and reduce mortality of exposed trout following challenge with this particular pathogen. Rainbow trout (mean weight 7.8 g) reared at the Bornholm Salmon Hatchery under pathogen free...

  20. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  1. HPV virus and youth vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifanti Ε.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is considered the major cause of cervical cancer. Its primary prevention is nowadays possible with the vaccination against HPV. Aim: It was to investigate the vaccination level of the children of Greek and Immigrants, aged 12-18 years old, regarding the vaccination against HPV. Results: None of the boys and the children of immigrants had ever been vaccinated against HPV. 5.3% of the Junior High School and High School females were fully vaccinated against the virus. Material and method: The sample of the study consisted of Greek and immigrants High Schools and Junior High Schools’ pupils aged 12-18 years old. Children’s personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. χ2 was used for comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPSS 17.0. Conclusion: The vaccination coverage of adolescents against HPV is at very low levels. There is an emergency of organizing the appropriate vaccination programs, especially in Greek provincial areas.

  2. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  3. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.

  4. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  5. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  6. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...... the commercial product Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG PR (SEPPIC), and a soluble and ≥98% pure β-glucan from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Sigma-Aldrich). Hence, five experimental groups in duplicate were established and exposed to vaccine and adjuvants in the following combinations: AquaVac™ Relera (alone); Aqua......Vac™ Relera + Montanide™; AquaVac™ Relera + β-glucan; Montanide™ (alone); and β-glucan (alone). Approximately 450 degree days post-vaccination, the fish were bath-challenged with live Yersinia ruckeri to produce survival curves. Blood, skin and gills were sampled at selected time points during the course...

  7. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  8. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Bayu Mahendra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in womer, and it has the highest cancer-related deaths in developing country. The incidences kept increasing every year, associated with  delay on diagnosis, limited human resources, knowledge, education, facilities, and influence of socioeconomicculture. Currently, infection of oncogenic group high risk human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18 has been widely accepted as the cause of cervical cancer. The finding of  HPV vaccine brings new hope to all of us. With primary prevention, the incidence can be brought down. Later on, every women can be freed from in cervical cancer

  9. Points for Consideration for dengue vaccine introduction - recommendations by the Dengue Vaccine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Lee, Yong-Seok; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Thiry, Georges; Mahoney, Richard; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Dengue is a public health problem in the tropics and subtropics. There are several vaccine candidates in clinical development. However, there may be gaps in the new vaccine introduction after vaccine licensure before it becomes available in developing countries. In anticipation of the first dengue vaccine candidate to be licensed, Dengue Vaccine Initiative (DVI) and, its predecessor, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) have been working on points for consideration to accelerate evidence-based dengue vaccine introduction, once a vaccine becomes available. In this paper, we review the history of PDVI and its successor, the DVI, and elaborate on the points of consideration for dengue vaccine introduction. PMID:26651238

  10. 广州地区92例成人水痘患者流行病学、临床及实验室特征分析%Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of 92 adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 林思炜; 廖宝林; 熊红品

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 92 adult patients with chickenpox, collected and analyzed their epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data. We also chose 30 child patients with chickenpox from same period for comparison. Results Adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area were mostly found in seasons of autumn and winter (61.9%), and in Baiyun district (40.2%). They were mainly consisted of students (42.4%). Patients in adult group (n = 84) had significantly longer fever (P = 0.033), as well as higher frequencies of throat pain, blister with infection and involved in oral mucosa than those in child group (P = 0.001, 0.005, 0.041), and most of their rash were not centrally distribution (P = 0.006). Patients in adult group had higher frequency of hepatitis than those in childe group (54.8% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Conclusion Clinical symptoms in adult patients with chickenpox are not typical and more severe, attentions must be paid to prevent and treat their complications.%目的:了解广州地区成人水痘患者流行病学、临床和实验室检查特征。方法回顾性分析92例成人水痘患者的流行病学、临床和实验室资料,选取同期30例儿童水痘患者作为对照。结果广州成人水痘患者多发生于秋冬季节(61.9%),白云区例数最多(40.2%),以学生为主(42.4%)。成人组(n =84)热程较长(P =0.033),咽痛、水泡伴发感染与累及口腔黏膜发生率均较儿童组明显升高(P =0.001、0.005、0.041),且皮疹以非向心性分布为主(P =0.006)。成人组合并肝炎发生率较儿童组高(54.8% vs 10.0%,P <0.001)。结论成人水痘患者临床表现不典型且病情较重,需注意并发症的防治。

  11. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in reducing deaths attributable to malaria, it continues to claim approximately 500,000 lives per year and is associated with approximately 200 million infections. New tools, including safe and effective vaccines, are needed to ensure that the gains of the last 15 years are leveraged toward achieving the ultimate goal of malaria parasite eradication. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency announced the adoption of a positive opinion for the malaria vaccine candidate most advanced in development, RTS,S/AS01, which provides modest protection against clinical malaria; in early 2016, WHO recommended large-scale pilot implementations of RTS,S in settings of moderate-to-high malaria transmission. In alignment with these advancements, the community goals and preferred product characteristics for next-generation vaccines have been updated to inform the development of vaccines that are highly efficacious in preventing clinical malaria, and those needed to accelerate parasite elimination. Next-generation vaccines, targeting all stages of the parasite lifecycle, are in early-stage development with the most advanced in Phase 2 trials. Importantly, progress is being made in the definition of feasible regulatory pathways to accelerate timelines, including for vaccines designed to interrupt transmission of parasites from humans to mosquitoes. The continued absence of financially lucrative, high-income markets to drive investment in malaria vaccine development points to continued heavy reliance on public and philanthropic funding. PMID:26993333

  12. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  13. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses

    OpenAIRE

    Wobeser, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  14. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  15. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  16. Meningococcal Education: More than Just a Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzi, Lana

    2004-01-01

    The administration of meningitis vaccinations to the college population has recently been the topic of much discussion. Much of the controversy has surrounded the promotion of widespread vaccinations or educational campaigns about the vaccine for incoming freshman students. Recommendations about the use of meningococcal vaccines for college…

  17. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil-9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is HPV vaccine?Gardasil-9 is one of three FDA-approved HPV vaccines. It is recommended for both males and females. ... Who should not get HPV vaccine or should wait?Anyone who has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a dose of HPV vaccine should ...

  18. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  19. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  20. Rethinking vaccine policy making in an era of vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2013-01-01

    Recently in this journal, David Ropeik argued for imposing additional burdens upon individuals who refused vaccines for themselves or for their children. Specifically, Ropeik advocated for policies that would decrease the ease of claiming vaccine exemptions and restricting unvaccinated children participation in social activities. We argue that, in order to derive the optimal societal benefit from modern vaccinology in an era of vaccine hesitancy, we need to consider doing more than conventional remodeling of current policies. We may need to fundamentally redesign and rebuild. PMID:24084386

  1. Advances in vaccine stability monitoring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Stephen E

    2006-08-14

    Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM). PMID:16759766

  2. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  3. Self-replicating alphavirus RNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant nucleic acids are considered as promising next-generation vaccines. These vaccines express the native antigen upon delivery into tissue, thus mimicking live attenuated vaccines without having the risk of reversion to pathogenicity. They also stimulate the innate immune system, thus potentiating responses. Nucleic acid vaccines are easy to produce at reasonable cost and are stable. During the past years, focus has been on the use of plasmid DNA for vaccination. Now mRNA and replicon vaccines have come into focus as promising technology platforms for vaccine development. This review discusses self-replicating RNA vaccines developed from alphavirus expression vectors. These replicon vaccines can be delivered as RNA, DNA or as recombinant virus particles. All three platforms have been pre-clinically evaluated as vaccines against a number of infectious diseases and cancer. Results have been very encouraging and propelled the first human clinical trials, the results of which have been promising.

  4. [Vaccination by the pharmacist: practical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, J

    2012-11-01

    It appears to be entirely appropriate for pharmacists to administer vaccinations if restricted to a limited number of vaccines and a well-defined set of recipients. Recommended types of vaccines would be inert vaccines with no contraindications, including flu vaccines, booster shots for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Recipients targeted for these types of vaccinations would only be adults and adolescents. In addition, pharmacist-administered vaccinations would not be recommended for pregnant women, people with immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases, or cystic fibrosis, people under treatment (anticoagulants) or with known allergies, and haemophiliacs. They would not be recommended either when needed in the context of employment and for traveling abroad. Training is essential to manage the successful implementation of a pharmacist-administered vaccination program (maintaining cold storage, monitoring, space allocation, vaccination administration process, preventive measures, quick recognition and management of anaphylactic chock…). PMID:23177558

  5. The evolution of poxvirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; García-Arriaza, Juan; Di Pilato, Mauro; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV) and horsepox virus (HSPV) were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV), which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.

  6. The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV and horsepox virus (HSPV were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV, which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.

  7. Anaesthesia and recently vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, J H; Roberton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Most countries have active vaccination programmes for children aged two months and older. It is likely that many children presenting for medical procedures which require general anaesthesia have been vaccinated recently. Although there is no evidence suggesting increased risks associated with anaesthetizing recently vaccinated children there are many theoretical reasons why this situation needs critical assessment and review. After vaccination there is local swelling and pain at the site of the injection and the most common side effects seen are fever, malaise, headache, rash and myalgia which may last from one day to three weeks. Anaesthesia, stress and trauma are known to suppress the immune system. It is suggested that if possible, children should not be subjected to anaesthesia for elective procedures within two to three weeks after vaccination. Urgent procedures should be managed according to anaesthetic principles which will minimize the effect of anaesthesia on the physiological system affected by the immunization process at the time. Paediatric anaesthesia risk management programmes should include vaccination data to enable the risks of anaesthesia in recently vaccinated children to be analysed.

  8. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidang Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines.

  9. Recent update in HIV vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results ob...

  10. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  11. Rotavirus vaccination: a concise review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, T

    2012-10-01

    Live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines were tested for proof-of-concept in the early 1980s, the first vaccine (RotaShield, Wyeth) was introduced in 1998 but was subsequently withdrawn because of association with intussusception, and the two currently licensed vaccine (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline, and RotaTeq, Merck) were introduced in 2006. Before licensure both vaccines were extensively tested for safety (for intussusception) and efficacy in trials comprising in over 60,000 infants each. Rotarix is a single-strain human rotavirus vaccine (RV1) and RotaTeq is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although the composition of the two vaccines is different, their field effectiveness and, largely, mechanism of action are similar. Both prevent effectively severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) but are less efficacious against mild RVGE or rotavirus infection. Field effectiveness of these vaccines in Europe and the USA against severe RVGE has been above 90% and in Latin America around 80%. Trials in Africa have yielded efficacy rates between 50 and 80%. Rotavirus vaccination has been introduced into the national immunization programmes of about 20 countries in Latin America, with Brazil and Mexico as leading countries, as well as in the USA, Australia and South Africa. Introduction into other African countries will start in 2012. In Europe, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria and Finland and five federal states of Germany have introduced universal rotavirus vaccination. The reasons for the slow progress in Europe include low mortality from RVGE, unfavourable cost-benefit calculations in some countries, and concerns that still exist over intussusception.

  12. Introducing dengue vaccine: Implications for diagnosis in dengue vaccinated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagarasu, Kalichamy

    2016-05-27

    Diagnosis of dengue virus infections is complicated by preference for different diagnostic tests in different post onset days of illness and the presence of multiple serotypes leading to secondary and tertiary infections. The sensitivity of the most commonly employed diagnostic assays such as anti dengue IgM capture (MAC) ELISA and non structural protein (NS) 1 capture ELISA are lower in secondary and subsequent infections. Introduction of dengue vaccine in endemic regions will affect the way how dengue is diagnosed in vaccinated subjects. This viewpoint article discusses implications of introduction of dengue vaccine on the diagnosis of dengue infections in vaccinated subjects and the strategies that are needed to tackle the issue. PMID:27142330

  13. Interactions of conjugate vaccines and co-administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, H; Borrow, R

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines play an important role in the prevention of infectious diseases such as those caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines developed against these 3 pathogens utilize 3 main carrier proteins, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Current pediatric immunisation schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously, therefore increasing the potential for immune interference (both positively and negatively) to the antigens administered. Knowledge of vaccine interactions is principally derived from clinical trials, these are reviewed here to explore immune interference which may result of from carrier-specific T-cell helper interactions, bystander interference and carrier induced epitopic suppression. PMID:26619353

  14. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  15. Novel Vaccine against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Combines Advantages of DNA Immunization and a Live Attenuated Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakova, Irina; Lukashevich, Igor S; Glass, Pamela; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines combine remarkable genetic and chemical stability with proven safety and efficacy in animal models, while remaining less immunogenic in humans. In contrast, live-attenuated vaccines have the advantage of inducing rapid, robust, long-term immunity after a single-dose vaccination. Here we describe novel iDNA vaccine technology that is based on an infectious DNA platform and combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. We applied this technology for vaccination against i...

  16. Is a low dose of hepatitis B vaccine enough for a rapid vaccination scheme?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Xiang Wang; Jan van Hattum; Gijsbert C. de Gast; Greet Boland; Ying Guo; Shao-Ping Lei; Chang-Hong Yang; Juan Chen; Jie Tian; Jin-Ying Wen; Ke-Hong Du

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether or not a low dose of HB vaccine can be effectively used in the rapid vaccination.METHODS: Rapid vaccination (0, 1, 2 months) with low dose (5 μg) or routine dose (10 μg) HB vaccine was studied in 250 subjects (130 school children and 120 university students). Serum from all the participants was tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc at 1, 3 and 7 months after the first dose of vaccination and all subjects were serum HBV marks negative before the vaccination. Non-responders to a complete initial vaccination from university students were given an additional vaccination with 10 μg of HB vaccine and their serum anti-HBs was tested again one month later.RESULTS: One month after the third dose of vaccination (third month) sero-conversion rates and geometric mean titer (GMTs) were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the routine dose (resp. 89 % and 106.8) than in the low dose group (resp. 72 % and 59.5). Sero-conversion rates and GMTs were maintained stable for another 4 months in both groups.After an additional vaccination to non-responders with 10 μg HB vaccine, 17/23 subjects (13/15 from those vaccinated with 5 μg vaccine and 4/8 from those vaccinated with 10 μg vaccine) became anti-HBs positive, yielding similar seroconversion rates for both dose groups.CONCLUSION: Higher sero-conversion rates and GMTs were reached in those vaccinated with 10 μg HB vaccine than in those vaccinated with 5 μg HB vaccine after a comp~te vaccination with a 0, 1, 2 month scheme. But the subjects vaccinated with 5 μg vaccine can also reach the similar sero-conversion rate after an additional vaccination.

  17. THE AUSTRIAN VACCINATION PARADOX: TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINATION VERSUS INFLUENZA VACCINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular. PMID:26615654

  18. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. PMID:26973063

  19. Mucin-Based Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P.; MacMillan, Derek

    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated cell surface and secreted glycoproteins . In addition to orchestrating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in healthy organisms mucins are also the major carriers of altered glycosylation in carcinomas. Tumor-associated antigens displayed by cancer cells comprise oligosaccharide and glycopeptide motifs not encountered in the same locale or at the same frequency in healthy cells, and potentially confer a selective advantage to the tumor. Frequently tumor-associated antigens are under-glycosylated and prematurely sialylated, and it is these relatively simple saccharide and glycopeptide structures that have been targeted to serve as drug candidates in most cases. A major goal is to assemble glycopeptide vaccine candidates based on partial mucin sequences and displaying tumor-associated antigens that can mount a potent immunological tumor-specific response when, in reality, the tumor has already coerced the immune system into a state of co-existence.

  20. Vaccines against Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Silva, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis, a parasitic disease of worldwide distribution and endemic in many regions, poses a challenge to epidemiological control due, on the one hand, to the increased toxicity of chemotherapy and resistance to it and, on the other, to the fact that vector control has become extremely difficult because the insect is widespread and has adapted to many different microenvironments. Hence, the high priority given to develop prophylactic measures to prevent this disease, that are cost-effective because the affected population lives mostly in countries with weak economies. The subject of this review was to update what is being done in vaccination strategies against Leishmania. We summarize the information in order to guide health professionals in the adequate control of this important worldwide endemic disease.

  1. Immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: comparison of two different vaccination schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Agladioglu, S.; Beyazova, U.; Camurdan, A. D.; Sahin, F.; Atak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal immunization with hepatitis B (HB) vaccine induces protective levels of antibody (anti-HBs ≥10 IU/L) in a majority of vaccines. However, the duration of protection after HB vaccination in infants is unknown. A smaller proportion of children vaccinated beginning at birth with three doses of HB vaccine were found to have protective titers 5–10 years after initial vaccination. Long-term efficacy of HB vaccine depends mainly on peak antibody levels after vaccination, and subje...

  2. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF UPDATING THE INFLUENZA VACCINE ON THE EFFICACY OF REPEATED VACCINATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. SMITH; A. LAPEDES; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The accumulated wisdom is to update the vaccine strain to the expected epidemic strain only when there is at least a 4-fold difference [measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay] between the current vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain. In this study we investigate the effect, on repeat vaccines, of updating the vaccine when there is a less than 4-fold difference. Methods: Using a computer model of the immune response to repeated vaccination, we simulated updating the vaccine on a 2-fold difference and compared this to not updating the vaccine, in each case predicting the vaccine efficacy in first-time and repeat vaccines for a variety of possible epidemic strains. Results: Updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference resulted in increased vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged. Conclusions: These results suggest that updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference between the existing vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain will increase vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged.

  3. 儿童期急性白血病合并水痘的特点及其高危预后因素的临床分析%Clinical features of chickenpox and high risk factors of prognosis in childhood cases with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧慧; 程澄; 陈志海; 李兴旺

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析儿童期急性淋巴细胞白血病(ALL)合并水痘的临床特点,探讨与预后相关的高危临床因素。方法对2008年1月1日~2014年12月31日首都医科大学附属北京地坛医院感染中心收治的儿童期ALL合并水痘的患儿及同期随机普通水痘患儿的临床资料进行回顾性对照分析。结果仅5例(31.25%)儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘有明确水痘接触史。13例(81.25%)儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘临床表现为高热,较普通水痘患儿热程长,为(7.38±3.32)d(t =5.575,P <0.05);皮疹结痂时间较长,为(10.92±2.50)d(t=4.928,P<0.05)。100%患儿出现骨髓抑制,其中10例(62.50%)患儿出现粒细胞缺乏,7例(43.75%)出现血小板减少;8例(50.00%)患儿肝功能异常。儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘经抗病毒、对症支持等治疗,临床治愈11例,自动出院4例,死亡1例。儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘临床表现危重和最终死亡者,具有应用静脉药物化疗方案治疗、化疗中或完成静脉化疗1周内罹患水痘、所有病例均出现骨髓抑制粒细胞缺乏且持续较长时间[(10.08±2.77) d]等特点。结论儿童期ALL患儿合并水痘具有临床症状持续时间长、并发骨髓抑制粒细胞减少等特点,经积极抗病毒及对症支持治疗后预后良好。应用静脉药物化疗中或完成化疗1周内罹患水痘、持续性粒细胞缺乏是与儿童期ALL患儿并发水痘预后不良的临床相关因素。%Objective To investigate the clinical features of chickenpox and the high risk factors of the prognosis in childhood patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Methods The clinical characteristics of chickenpox in childhood ALL patients hospitalized in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2014 were studied, retrospectively, and the features of random ordinary children onset chickenpox

  4. Vaccine Therapy for Unresectable Chordoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase II clinical trial, adult patients with inoperable chordoma who are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to receive a yeast-based vaccine that targets a protein called brachyury or a placebo injection.

  5. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  6. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. Synthetic vaccines: Immunity without harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Abhinav P.; Murthy, Niren

    2011-03-01

    Multilamellar lipid vesicles with crosslinked walls carrying protein antigens in the vesicle core and immunostimulatory drugs in the vesicle walls generate immune responses comparable to the strongest live vector vaccines.

  9. Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir There are ... healthy, do not need to get PPSV23 because it is not effective against those conditions. For additional ...

  10. VACCINATION IN RHEUMATOLOGY: CURRENT ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    B S Belov; M. S. Naumtseva; G M Tarasova; M V Polyanskaya

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases still remain a serious social and medical problem. The importance of comorbid infections in rheumatology has increased substantially in recent years, particularly due to the clinical introduction of biologicals. The investigation and active use of different vaccines are one of the ways to solve the above problem. This review considers the issues concerning the use of vaccines against influenza, infections caused by pneumococci, herpesviruses, human papillomavirus, and hepa...

  11. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...

  12. Social networks and vaccination decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Neel; Möbius, Markus M.; Rosenblat, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to medical information raises people’s perceptions of the benefits of immunization. The average student’s b...

  13. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921683

  14. Priorities for CMV vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philip R; Bialek, Stephanie R; Boppana, Suresh B; Griffiths, Paul D; Laughlin, Catherine A; Ljungman, Per; Mocarski, Edward S; Pass, Robert F; Read, Jennifer S; Schleiss, Mark R; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2013-12-17

    A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering pre-emptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of pre-emptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune

  15. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  16. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  17. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  18. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. PMID:26263200

  19. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages.

  20. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  1. Assembly and Assessment of DNA Scaffolded Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Wang, Lili; Yan, Hao; Chang, Yung

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines play an important role in preventing many life-threatening infectious diseases. To meet the demand of vaccination for treating a wide range of diseases, rational vaccine design has been recognized as a desirable and necessary strategy for development of safe and effective vaccines. DNA nanostructures are advantageous in the design and construction of synthetic vaccines, owing to their robust self-assembly, programmability, and precision control in complex organization, as well as their intrinsic adjuvant activity. Here, we describe a modular assembly of DNA scaffolded vaccine complex, composing of a model antigen, streptavidin, and adjuvant, CpG oligonucleotide. The DNA-assembled vaccines were found to elicit strong antigen-specific antibody responses, but causing little or no adverse reactions. Conceivably, this vaccine platform can be further optimized for improved immunogenicity and extended to the construction of various subunit vaccines. PMID:27076307

  2. The future of human DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Saade, Fadi; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2012-12-31

    DNA vaccines have evolved greatly over the last 20 years since their invention, but have yet to become a competitive alternative to conventional protein or carbohydrate based human vaccines. Whilst safety concerns were an initial barrier, the Achilles heel of DNA vaccines remains their poor immunogenicity when compared to protein vaccines. A wide variety of strategies have been developed to optimize DNA vaccine immunogenicity, including codon optimization, genetic adjuvants, electroporation and sophisticated prime-boost regimens, with each of these methods having its advantages and limitations. Whilst each of these methods has contributed to incremental improvements in DNA vaccine efficacy, more is still needed if human DNA vaccines are to succeed commercially. This review foresees a final breakthrough in human DNA vaccines will come from application of the latest cutting-edge technologies, including "epigenetics" and "omics" approaches, alongside traditional techniques to improve immunogenicity such as adjuvants and electroporation, thereby overcoming the current limitations of DNA vaccines in humans.

  3. Effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Barbara E; Newton, Anna E; Mintz, Eric D

    2014-06-17

    Typhoid vaccination is recommended in the United States before travel to countries where typhoid fever is endemic, though little information is available on its effectiveness in travelers. We estimated typhoid vaccination effectiveness (VE) by comparing vaccination status in cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever (Salmonella Paratyphi A infection, against which typhoid vaccine offers no protection) reported in the United States. We included travelers to Southern Asia and excluded persons vaccination status was not reported. From 2008 through 2011, 744 eligible cases (602 typhoid, 142 paratyphoid A) were reported to CDC. Typhoid vaccination was reported for 5% (29/602) of typhoid patients and for 20% (29/142) of paratyphoid A patients. Estimated VE was 80% (95% confidence interval, 66-89%). Because of missing data, we could not estimate VE for specific vaccines. We demonstrated moderate effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers, supporting vaccination recommendations.

  4. Realizing the promise of breast cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erica Jackson, Hatem SolimanUniversity of South Florida/Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Breast cancer vaccines are being developed to stimulate adaptive antitumor immune responses in patients. These vaccines have the potential to treat breast cancer with minimal side effects and toxicity. However, many obstacles still need to be overcome to fully realize the vaccines' clinical benefit. A review of the literature was conducted to assess the use of vaccines in targeting transformed cells. Four vaccines currently under study were discussed, each summarizing the different vaccine platforms used to introduce target antigen to the patient's immune system. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed, although no one method was found to be superior. Additional issues addressed included overcoming tumor-induced immunosuppression, immune evasion of transformed cells, the use of vaccines in combination therapy, and the challenges of using these vaccines in various clinical settings. Vaccines may be most effective in patients with minimal residual disease, as opposed to using them in the metastatic setting. Also, specific clinical trial design considerations for the use of vaccines in cancer patients, such as time-to-failure end points, were discussed. Understanding these various elements will be important to the translation of breast cancer vaccine therapy into routine clinical practice.Keywords: breast cancer, vaccine, immunotherapy, immune tolerance, peptide vaccine, dendritic cell vaccine

  5. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (pnegative experiences with health care providers (pGender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  6. Stability evaluation of vaccines: WHO approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana

    2009-11-01

    The stability of vaccines has a major impact on the success of immunization programmes worldwide. In line with this, clear definition of the stability characteristics of a vaccine is of critical importance. One of the concerns at country level is whether vaccines will remain potent on its way from the manufacturer, through the distribution channels, to the final users and vaccine recipients. In response to the requests for assistance in defining stability profile of vaccines, the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in October 2006 agreed that new WHO guidelines be established on stability evaluation of vaccines (http://www.who.int/biologicals/publications/trs/areas/vaccines/stability/en/index.html). This document applies to all vaccines against infectious diseases. The aim of this guideline is to provide the scientific basis and guiding principles for evaluation of vaccine stability for the purpose of clinical trial approval, licensing, and post-licensure monitoring. As part of its initiative to promote use of vaccines of assured quality, WHO emphasizes the role of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) and National Control Laboratories (NCLs) in overall vaccine evaluation, including stability assessment. While recognizing that manufacturers are responsible for the quality of the vaccines they produce, compliance with vaccine quality specifications is part of regulatory oversight. This article provides basic information about WHO international standards as well as key definitions and principles for stability evaluation of vaccines that are elaborated in detail in the above mentioned guidance document.

  7. Technologies that make administration of vaccines safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C John; Larsen, Gordon; Jodar, Luis

    2004-05-01

    There is an ever-expanding technology that is aimed at making the administration of vaccines safer. Conventional ways of administering vaccines are being upgraded, modified or replaced by a wide variety of innovations. The paradigm of liquid vaccines, needles and syringes is slow to change, but already developments are occurring that will change for ever the way vaccines are administered and will improve the safety record of immunization. The oral route of vaccine administration has generally been thought of as safe, but until now only the polio vaccine has been widely used in this way. The conventional method of vaccine administration is by injection. Many ingenious devices have become available that now make injecting safer. Inventors are now looking imaginatively to alternative routes and technologies for delivering vaccines. Vaccines are generally manufactured to extremely high standards and rarely are shown to be the cause of safety issues. People remain the weakest safety link is vaccine administration. Technologies that bypasses the ability of man to make bad decisions or to behave incorrectly are of tremendous value. The vaccine world is in the middle of a radical re-think about how vaccines might best be administered. The presentation of the vaccine can be altered to fit new technologies such as powder jet guns, or skin patches. Even the conventional needle and syringe have evolved to much safer versions, and are set to continue this evolution. All this means even safer vaccines and their delivery.

  8. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) with a remarkable ability to take up antigens and stimulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted specific immune responses. Recent discoveries have shown that their role in initiating primary immune responses seems to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC.

  9. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  10. Universal influenza vaccines, science fiction or soon reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. de Vries (Rory); A.F. Altenburg; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCurrently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically disti

  11. Adult Vaccinations | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table ... cough). Are you one of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines ...

  12. Cancer vaccine THERATOPE- Biomira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Biomira is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine [THERATOPE] for treatment of breast and other cancers. This profile has been selected from R&D Insight, a pharmaceutical intelligence database produced by Adis International Ltd. THERATOPE consists of the mucin antigen, sialyl-Tn (STn), a carbohydrate located on the surface of breast, colorectal and ovarian cancer cells, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Merck KGaA has acquired a worldwide licence to THERATOPE for treatment of breast cancer. Under the terms of the licence, Biomira and Merck KGaA, via its US affiliate, EMD Pharmaceuticals, will jointly market the vaccine in the US. Merck KGaA holds exclusive marketing rights for the rest of the world, except in Canada (where Biomira retains rights), Israel and the Palestine Autonomy Area. Merck KGaA is now collaborating on phase III development for breast cancer. Biomira stands to receive $US150 million in licence, milestone payments and equity investments. The development costs will be shared between the two companies in North America but Merck KGaA will be solely responsible for these costs in countries outside the US. Previously, Chiron Corporation had purchased a licence to THERATOPE in 1997; however, Chiron terminated this agreement in June 2000. Under the terms of the termination, Biomira paid Chiron $US2.25 million to compensate the company for its investment in the development of THERATOPE. In addition, Biomira will make another payment of $US3.25 million to Chiron upon FDA approval of the vaccine. No further payments or royalties will be made. In the third quarter of 2002, an independent review of interim data from the trial was conducted. This was the fifth scheduled review of the data by the Independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), all of which produced a positive response. Following the completion of the review, the DSMB stated that the trial should continue and that it had no safety concerns regarding this trial. Although the data

  13. Novel approaches to tuberculosis prevention: DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto R

    2014-03-01

    It is estimated that there are approximately eight million new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) worldwide annually. There is only 1 vaccine available for prevention: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). This has variable efficacy and is only protective for certain extrapulmonary TB cases in children, therefore new strategies for the creation of novel vaccines have emerged. One of the promising approaches is the DNA vaccine, used as a direct vaccination or as a prime-boost vaccine. This review describes the experimental data obtained during the design of DNA vaccines for TB.

  14. VIROSOMES: A NOVEL VACCINATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Rathore et al

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine development has continuously shifted away from live attenuated or inactivated whole organisms. Although this approach having good efficacy but for improvement on comparison of risk/benefit ratio which needs improvement due to their highly complex compositions which result in safety concerns. As a consequence, a number of indications remained unadressed. The next generation vaccines represented as subunit vaccines, whereby the only pathogens fragments used which are relevant in inducing protective immunity. For the successful subunit vaccination two major key requirements are safe carrier and adjuvant system, since the small, isolated pathogen fragments themselves are generally weak immunogens. Pevion’s virus-like particle (VLP vaccine technology, called virosomes, and their design is specifically for the development of safe and effective subunit vaccines. Virosomes based vaccination has already been approved in more than 40 countries, including for elderly and infants. It is successful in solid regulatory & safety track record as well as the feasibility of production upscaling. The outstanding profile with combined efficacy and safety of virosomes-based vaccines are known for its origin in the unique mode of action of these multifunctional particles. It leads to a comprehensive induction of a complete immune response, in contrast to single-sided triggers. Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelopes that can serve as vaccines and as vehicles for cellular delivery of macromolecules. The prospect of drug delivery and targeting using virosomes is an interesting field of research and development. As virosomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic, and non-autoimmunogenic, and various attempts have been made to use them as vaccines or adjuvants as well as delivery system for drugs, nuleic acids, nucleic acids, or genes for therapeutic purposes. The virus of choice is influenza virus. Virosomal drug delivery depends on the methods used

  15. Vaccination Perceptions and Barriers of School Employees: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Houle, Kim; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Macintosh, Janelle; Lakin, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are where vaccine-preventable diseases can spread. Vaccination of school children has been studied; however, data are lacking on the vaccination status, perceptions, and barriers to vaccination for school employees. We surveyed school employees' vaccination perceptions, awareness of current vaccination status, and potential barriers…

  16. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  17. Parental Vaccine Hesitancy in Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Zhou, Zhou; Deceuninck, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept frequently used in the discourse around vaccine acceptance. This study aims to contribute to the ongoing reflections on tools and indicators of vaccine hesitancy by providing results of a knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) survey conducted among parents. Methods: Data were collected in 2014 through a computer-assisted telephone interview survey administered to a sample of parents of children aged between 2 months and 17 years of age. Results: The majority of the 589 parents included in the analyses agreed on the importance of vaccination to protect their children’s health and to prevent the spread of diseases in the community. The majority of the parents (81%) reported that their child had received all doses of recommended vaccines and 40% of parents indicated having hesitated to have their child vaccinated. Fear of adverse events and low perceived vulnerability of the child or severity of the disease were the most frequent reasons mentioned by these vaccine-hesitant parents. In multivariate analyses, KAB items remaining significantly associated both with an incomplete vaccination status of the child and parents’ vaccine hesitancy were: not thinking that it is important to have the child vaccinated to prevent the spreading of diseases in the community; not trusting the received vaccination information and having felt pressure to have the child vaccinated. Discussion: Further researches will be needed to better understand when, how and why these beliefs are formed in order to prevent the onset of vaccine hesitancy. PMID:27019766

  18. Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies. An Update and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berical, Andrew C; Harris, Drew; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Possick, Jennifer D

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important global pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical disease in children and adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia is by far the common presentation of noninvasive and invasive pneumococcal disease and affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised disproportionately. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are also at higher risk for pneumococcal infections. Substantial progress over the century has been made in the understanding of pneumococcal immunobiology and the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease through vaccination. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are available for individuals at risk of pneumococcal disease: the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The goal of pneumococcal vaccination is to stimulate effective antipneumococcal antibody and mucosal immunity response and immunological memory. Vaccination of infants and young children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has led to significant decrease in nasal carriage rates and pneumococcal disease in all age groups. Recent pneumococcal vaccine indication and schedule recommendations on the basis of age and risk factors are outlined in this Focused Review. As new pneumococcal vaccine recommendations are being followed, continued efforts are needed to address the vaccine efficacy in the waning immunity of the ever-aging population, the implementation of vaccines using two different vaccines under very specific schedules and their real world clinical and cost effectiveness, and the development of next generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:27088424

  19. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution. PMID:27076338

  20. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution.

  1. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  2. Live attenuated influenza vaccine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2011-09-01

    Owing to the variability of influenza viruses, vaccine composition needs to be up-dated annually. As many variables can influence their efficacy, vaccines are still considered "sub-optimal". Many studies have been carried out in recent years to improve vaccines. In particular, researchers and vaccine-producing corporations have focused on developing a live vaccine. Among the candidate vaccines, the strain developed by Maassab has recently been licensed in the USA and Europe, after extensive investigation. This vaccine is safe and well tolerated, and has shown very good genetic stability. Although vaccine recipients are able to spread the virus, transmission to close contacts is practically non-existent. Studies on cold-adapted attenuated influenza vaccines have demonstrated that such vaccines are effective, and sometimes more effective than inactivated influenza vaccines. Cold-adapted attenuated influenza vaccines therefore appear to be an important weapon against influenza. However, a more widespread use of these vaccines is to be recommended, especially in children, as the more acceptable way of administration can favour parental compliance.

  3. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  4. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, S. P.; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques with vaccinia virus-expressed Lassa virus structural proteins separately and in combination, with the object of inducing a predominantly TH1-type immune response. Following Lassa virus challenge, all unvaccinated animals died (0% survival). Nine of 10 animals vaccinated with all proteins survived (90% survival). Although no animals that received full-length glycoprotein alone had a high titer of antibody, 17 of 19 survived challenge (88%). In contrast, all animals vaccinated with nucleoprotein developed high titers of antibody but 12 of 15 died (20% survival). All animals vaccinated with single glycoproteins, G1 or G2, died, but all those that received both single glycoproteins (G1 plus G2) at separate sites survived, showing that both glycoproteins are independently important in protection. Neither group had demonstrable antibody levels prior to challenge. We demonstrate that in primates, immune responses to epitopes on both glycoproteins are required to protect against lethal challenge with Lassa virus without having untoward side effects and that this protection is likely to be primarily cell mediated. We show that an effective, safe vaccine against Lassa virus can and should be made and that its evaluation for human populations is a matter of humanitarian priority. PMID:10888616

  5. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was

  6. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets, interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

  7. SARS Immunity and Vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsheng Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious and fatal infectious disease caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-Cov), a novel human coronavirus. SARS-Cov infection stimulates cytokines (e.g., IL-10,IFN-γ, IL-1, etc.) expression dramatically, and T lymphocytes and their subsets CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are decreased after onset of the disease. SARS-specific IgG antibody is generated in the second week and persists for a long time, whereas IgM is expressed transiently. The spike protein and neucleocapsid protein are most abundant in SARS-Cov and contribute dominantly to the antibody production during the course of disease. Spike protein, especially the ACE-2 binding region (318-510aa) is capable of producing neutralizing antibody to SARS-Cov. Neucleocapsid protein induces protective specific CTL to SARS-Cov. Therefore, applications with spike subunit, neucleocapsid subunit as well as inactivated SARS-Cov are three prospective vaccination strategies for SARS.

  8. SARS Immunity and Vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinshengZhu

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious and fatal infectious disease caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-Cov), a novel human coronavirus. SARS-Cov infection stimulates cytokines (e.g., IL-10,IFN-γ, IL-1, etc.) expression dramatically, and T lymphocytes and their subsets CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are decreased after onset of the disease. SARS-specific IgG antibody is generated in the second week and persists for a long time, whereas IgM is expressed transiently. The spike protein and neucleocapsid protein are most abundant in SARS-Cov and contribute dominantly to the antibody production during the course of disease.Spike protein, especially the ACE-2 binding region (318-510aa) is capable of producing neutralizing antibody to SARS-Cov. Neucleocapsid protein induces protective specific CTL to SARS-Cov. Therefore, applications with spike subunit, neucleocapsid subunit as well as inactivated SARS-Cov are three prospective vaccination strategies for SARS.

  9. 76 FR 36367 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... papillomavirus No Condition Specified Not applicable. (HPV) vaccines. XVII. Any new vaccine No Condition... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 100 RIN 0906-AA74 National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS....

  10. A Review of Pneumococcal Vaccines: Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations and Future Protein Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Calvin C.; Rogers, P. David; Shelton, Chasity M.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes development of currently available pneumococcal vaccines, provides summary tables of current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in children and adults, and describes new potential vaccine antigens in the pipeline. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteremia, remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Introductions of unconjugated and conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine...

  11. 75 FR 55503 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., meningococcal, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The Table includes a list of covered vaccines under the..., meningococcal, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to the VICP have already occurred. The Secretary... human papillomavirus vaccines were covered under the VICP, with an effective date of February 1,......

  12. Cytokine production associated with smallpox vaccine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Whitney L; Salk, Hannah M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated 34 years ago due to the success of the smallpox vaccine; yet, the vaccine continues to be studied because of its importance in responding to potential biological warfare and the adverse events associated with current smallpox vaccines. Interindividual variations in vaccine response are observed and are, in part, due to genetic variation. In some cases, these varying responses lead to adverse events, which occur at a relatively high rate for the smallpox vaccine compared with other vaccines. Here, we aim to summarize the cytokine responses associated with smallpox vaccine response to date. Along with a description of each of these cytokines, we describe the genetic and adverse event data associated with cytokine responses to smallpox vaccination.

  13. Agility in adversity: Vaccines on Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Moise, Leonard; Olive, David; Einck, Leo; Martin, William

    2016-09-01

    Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality. Building a robust strategy to design effective biodefense vaccines from genome sequences harvested by real-time biosurveillance will benefit from technologies that are being brought to bear on the cancer cure 'moonshot'. When combined with flexible vaccine production platforms, vaccines on demand will relegate expensive and, in some cases, insufficiently effective vaccine stockpiles to the dust heap of history. PMID:27389971

  14. Shingles Vaccination: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoster or Zoster VZV=varicella zoster virus Shingles Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination. If you have a severe allergic reaction or ...

  15. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español ( ... vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) types that cause most cervical cancers as well ...

  16. Intradermal vaccination for infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Akihiko; Aizawa, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination induces a more potent immune response and requires lower vaccine doses as compared with standard vaccination routes. To deliver ID vaccines effectively and consistently, an ID delivery device has been developed and is commercially available for adults. The clinical application of ID vaccines for infants and children is much anticipated because children receive several vaccines, on multiple occasions, during infancy and childhood. However, experience with ID vaccines is limited and present evidence is sparse and inconsistent. ID delivery devices are not currently available for infants and children, but recent studies have examined skin thickness in this population and reported that it did not differ in proportion to body size in infants, children, and adults. These results are helpful in developing new ID devices and for preparing new vaccines in infants and children.

  17. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  18. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar;

    to that of the commercial vaccine with lower side effects as observed by the Speilberg scoring system. Gene expression analysis did not show a clear trend for Th1 or Th2 response in the vaccinated fish. Exposure of fish to saltwater increased the IgT production. Overall, the immune response in vaccinated fish, the side......In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...... causing furunculosis. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated with two trivalent adjuvanted experimental vaccines containing formalin-killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a and a commercial corresponding vaccine (Alpha Ject 3000). Fish were challenged by i.p. injection...

  19. Meningitis B Vaccine Falls Short of Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159976.html Meningitis B Vaccine Falls Short of Expectations 1 in ... University students given a vaccine to combat a meningitis B outbreak on campus in 2013 didn't ...

  20. Innovation Paradox in Vaccine Target Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. Pronker (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPublic health is continually threatened by re- and newly emerging infections, as well as pathogen resistance to available intervention strategies, including vaccines. This persistent threat of the unmet medical need challenges vaccine developers to anticipate future epidemiological outbr

  1. Agility in adversity: Vaccines on Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Moise, Leonard; Olive, David; Einck, Leo; Martin, William

    2016-09-01

    Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality. Building a robust strategy to design effective biodefense vaccines from genome sequences harvested by real-time biosurveillance will benefit from technologies that are being brought to bear on the cancer cure 'moonshot'. When combined with flexible vaccine production platforms, vaccines on demand will relegate expensive and, in some cases, insufficiently effective vaccine stockpiles to the dust heap of history.

  2. Global challenges of implementing human papillomavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus vaccines are widely hailed as a sweeping pharmaceutical innovation for the universal benefit of all women. The implementation of the vaccines, however, is far from universal or equitable. Socio-economically marginalized women in emerging and developing, and many advanced economies alike, suffer a disproportionately large burden of cervical cancer. Despite the marketing of Human Papillomavirus vaccines as the solution to cervical cancer, the market authorization (licensing of the vaccines has not translated into universal equitable access. Vaccine implementation for vulnerable girls and women faces multiple barriers that include high vaccine costs, inadequate delivery infrastructure, and lack of community engagement to generate awareness about cervical cancer and early screening tools. For Human Papillomavirus vaccines to work as a public health solution, the quality-assured delivery of cheaper vaccines must be integrated with strengthened capacity for community-based health education and screening.

  3. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  4. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  5. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  6. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  7. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  8. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  9. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grant Request DONATE Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis Frequently Asked Questions Eczema Living with Eczema Get ... News Research Donate Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis Frequently Asked Questions What is the traditional smallpox ...

  10. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... sheet talks about whether exposure to the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (or Tdap) vaccine may increase the ...

  11. 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160252.html 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys Human trial set to ... In another key step toward a vaccine against Zika virus, scientists have found that three different experimental ...

  12. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations.

  13. Should Pneumococcal Vaccines Eliminate Nasopharyngeal Colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry S; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important human pathogen. For more than 100 years, there have been vaccine efforts to prevent pneumococcal infection. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have significantly reduced invasive disease. However, these vaccines have changed pneumococcal ecology within the human nasopharynx. We suggest that elimination of the pneumococcus from the human nasopharynx can have consequences that should be considered as the next generation of pneumococcal vaccines is developed. PMID:27222469

  14. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases.

  15. Comparison of Two Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Nikui Nejad; Gholamali Ghorbani; Reza Razaghi; Hossain Akbari

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health problem. Hepatitis B vaccine induces protective response in the majority of vaccinated persons. In our country, we do not have any evaluation for the efficacy of each type of vaccines used in adult and our objective was therefore to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines..Methods: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial 347 military personnel and their family in Kashan city, central Iran, were studied during A...

  16. Cross-protection by conventional influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, A.L.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore whether the protective efficacy of a trivalent virosomal seasonal influenza vaccine (TVV) can be broadened and thereby increase pandemic preparedness until more broadly protective influenza vaccines may become available. Chapter 2 examines the ability of a vaccination regimen comprising multiple immunizations to improve the cross-protective efficacy of TVV in mice. Chapter 3 explores whether priming a TVV with vaccine homologous HA DNA can improve its efficacy of in...

  17. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Julia E. Biggins; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious disease is now recognized as a major threat to wild gorillas and chimpanzees, safety fears have stifled the use of a powerful disease control tool, vaccination. To illustrate that safety can be rigorously evaluated before vaccines are used on wild apes, we conducted what is, to our knowledge, the first conservation-oriented vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees. We tested an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading killer of wild apes. O...

  18. HIV Vaccine-Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.

  19. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  20. Missed Opportunities: The Vaccine Act of 1813

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit K.

    1998-01-01

    This Paper simply exposes discontinuities between the theories and the history of the Vaccine Act, suggesting lines of further study. The focus throughout this Paper is on "getting the facts right," i.e., thoroughly recounting the history of the Vaccine Act. Part II of the paper provides some necessary historical background regarding the horrors of smallpox, the breakthrough of vaccination, and the difficulties encountered in implementing vaccination in early 19th century America. In particul...

  1. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in ...

  2. Influenza B vaccine lineage selection - An optimized trivalent vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Moster?n H?pping, Ana; Fonville, Judith M; Russell, Colin A.; James, Sarah; Derek J Smith

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Although it is not known which one of two influenza B lineages will circulate in any one season, only a representative virus of one of the two lineages is part of the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. • We describe three lineage selection strategies to choose which lineage to include in the seasonal vaccine, including the common strategy of using the last lineage that has been observed to dominate, and a new strategy which takes into account population immunity. • We show why...

  3. Side-effects of pertussis toxin, pertussis vaccines and haemoinfluenza type B vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    van Amsterdam JGC; te Biesebeek JD; Kuil A van de; Vleeming W; van der Laan JW; Spruyt B; Wemer J; Wildt DJ de; LEO; LGM

    1997-01-01

    Doel van de studie is de bijwerkingen van vaccins nader te bestuderen ter onderbouwing van voor te stellen richtlijnen. Bedoelde richtlijnen stellen eisen aan het verrichten van pre-klinische veiligheids-farmacologie van vaccins. Dit rapport beschrijft de cardiovasculaire en autonome effecten, die in-vivo worden waargenomen in jonge en volwassen ratten behandeld met hoge doseringen pertussis toxine, cellulair (DKTP-vaccin) en acellulair pertussis vaccin en Haemoinfluenza type b vaccin. Deze e...

  4. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zuoshuang; Hur Junguk; Feldman Eva L; He Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of va...

  5. More Parents Believe Vaccines Are Unnecessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who refused vaccines said they were worried that vaccines could cause autism -- a theory that's been debunked -- or produce serious side effects. Fewer parents gave those as reasons in 2013, although many ... too small to receive vaccines, or discomfort at having too many shots at ...

  6. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  7. [Which vaccinations for which travel-destination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crom, Susan; Veit, Olivia; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Several vaccinations are recommended to protect international travellers, especially to tropical countries, from diseases in other parts of the world. Firstly, the routine schedule of childhood vaccinations and booster shots according to the Swiss immunisation programme should be checked, updated or even completed. Additional vaccinations against hepatitis A and B, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis, rabies or Japanese encephalitis may be recommended. This will depend on a number of factors including the exact destination and route (developing countries, rural areas), planned activities (backpacker, family visit, business trip), duration of travel, season, age of the traveller and current health status including the current medication and previous vaccinations. Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, may be required for travellers to certain countries and the international certificate of vaccination may even be required when entering a country from another country where yellow fever is endemic. The international certificate of vaccination (or a letter of exemption when appropriate) is considered valid only if it is administered by an approved vaccination centre. Furthermore, the meningococcal vaccination (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. It is recommended to start the vaccinations four to six weeks before departure to ensure enough time to administer all the necessary doses for an adequate immune response. All commonly used vaccines can be administered on the same day. The basic health insurance does not usually cover travel vaccines. PMID:27268450

  8. Thermostable Subunit Vaccines for Pulmonary Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    , such as influenza, tuberculosis, and Ebola, for which no good universal vaccines exist. At least two pharmaceutical improvements are expected to help filling this gap: i) The development of thermostable vaccine dosage forms, and ii) the full exploitation of the adjuvant technology for subunit vaccines to potentiate...

  9. Recent advances in vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana S; Alonso, María J

    2016-01-01

    The field of vaccination is moving from the use of attenuated or inactivated pathogens to safer but less immunogenic protein and peptide antigens, which require stronger adjuvant compositions. Antigen delivery carriers appear to play an important role in vaccine development, providing not only antigen protection and controlled release but also an intrinsic adjuvant potential. Among them, carriers based on polymers and lipids are the most representative ones. Patent applications in this area have disclosed, either the design and preparation methods for new biocompatible antigen delivery systems or the application of the previously developed systems for the delivery of novel antigens. Some of them have also reported the use of these technologies for modern therapeutic vaccination approaches. PMID:26667309

  10. DNA vaccines for viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Donnelly

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA plasmids encoding foreign proteins may be used as immunogens by direct intramuscular injection alone, or with various adjuvants and excipients, or by delivery of DNA-coated gold particles to the epidermis through biolistic immunization. Antibody, helper T lymphocyte, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses have been induced in laboratory and domesticated animals by these methods. In a number of animal models, immune responses induced by DNA vaccination have been shown to be protective against challenge with various infectious agents. Immunization by injection of plasmids encoding foreign proteins has been used successfully as a research tool. This review summarizes the types of DNA vaccine vectors in common use, the immune responses and protective responses that have been obtained in animal models, the safety considerations pertinent to the evaluation of DNA vaccines in humans and the very limited information that is available from early clinical studies.

  11. Directed vaccination against pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H

    2016-06-21

    Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071

  12. Nanovaccines: recent developments in vaccination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarala D Nandedkar

    2009-12-01

    In the past 100 years, vaccination has contributed immensely to public health by preventing a number of infectious diseases. Attenuated, killed or part of the microorganism is employed to stimulate the immune system against it. Progress in biotechnology has provided protective immunity through DNA vaccines. In recent years, nanovaccine is a novel approach to the methodology of vaccination. Nanomaterials are delivered in the form of microspheres, nanobeads or micro-nanoprojections. Painless, effective and safe needle-free routes such as the intranasal or the oral route, or patches of microprojections to the skin are some of the approaches which are in the experimental stage at present but may have a great future ahead in nanovaccination.

  13. VACCINATION IN RHEUMATOLOGY: CURRENT ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Belov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases still remain a serious social and medical problem. The importance of comorbid infections in rheumatology has increased substantially in recent years, particularly due to the clinical introduction of biologicals. The investigation and active use of different vaccines are one of the ways to solve the above problem. This review considers the issues concerning the use of vaccines against influenza, infections caused by pneumococci, herpesviruses, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus in rheumatology patients. It discusses the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination associated with the prevention of airway infections as the most common cause of a poor outcome in rheumatic diseases. The main areas of future investigations in the problem under consideration are defined.

  14. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  15. Allergy vaccines: dreams and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2007-12-01

    Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.

  16. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  17. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Iyengar, Preetha; Dismer, Amber; Adrien, Paul; Hyde, Terri B; Marston, Barbara J; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Katz, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, the first government-led oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in Haiti was implemented in Petite Anse and Cerca Carvajal. To evaluate vaccination coverage, barriers to vaccination, and adverse events following vaccination, we conducted a cluster survey. We enrolled 1,121 persons from Petite Anse and 809 persons from Cerca Carvajal, categorized by 3 age groups (1-4, 5-14, >15 years). Two-dose OCV coverage was 62.5% in Petite Anse and 76.8% in Cerca Carvajal. Two-dose coverage was lowest among persons >15 years of age. In Cerca Carvajal, coverage was significantly lower for male than female respondents (69% vs. 85%; p<0.001). No major adverse events were reported. The main reason for nonvaccination was absence during the campaign. Vaccination coverage after this campaign was acceptable and comparable to that resulting from campaigns implemented by nongovernmental organizations. Future campaigns should be tailored to reach adults who are not available during daytime hours. PMID:25988350

  18. Molecular design of allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2005-12-01

    Recombinant-allergen-based diagnostic tests enable the dissection and monitoring of the molecular reactivity profiles of allergic patients, resulting in more specific diagnosis, disease monitoring, prevention and therapy. In vitro experiments, animal studies and clinical trials in patients demonstrate that allergenic molecules can be engineered to induce different immune responses ranging from tolerance to vigorous immunity. The available data thus suggest that molecular engineering of the disease-related antigens is a technology that may be applicable not only for the design of allergy vaccines but also for the design of vaccines against infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer.

  19. West Nile virus seroconversion in penguins after vaccination with a killed virus vaccine or a DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Johnson, Yvette J; Ritchie, Branson W; Van Bonn, William

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the serologic response of penguins to West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines, four species of exclusively indoor-housed penguins, negative for WNV by serology, were evaluated: Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus), Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), and Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysoscome) penguins. Birds were inoculated with either a killed virus vaccine or a plasmid-mediated DNA WNV vaccine, and postinoculation serology was evaluated. Both vaccines induced seroconversion in all four species, and no adverse reactions were noted. Postvaccination serology results varied across species and vaccine types. However, in all four species, the killed virus vaccine resulted in a greater seroconversion rate than the DNA vaccine and in a significantly shorter time period. Additionally, the duration of the seropositive titer was significantly longer in those birds vaccinated with the killed virus vaccine compared with those vaccinated with the DNA vaccine. A subset of unvaccinated penguins serving as negative controls remained negative throughout the duration of the study despite the presence of WNV in the geographic locations of the study, suggesting that indoor housing may minimize exposure to the virus and may be an additional means of preventing WNV infection in penguins. PMID:19110700

  20. Risk in vaccine research and development quantified.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther S Pronker

    Full Text Available To date, vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy to combat infectious diseases. Recently, a productivity gap affects the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity gap describes the situation whereby the invested resources within an industry do not match the expected product turn-over. While risk profiles (combining research and development timelines and transition rates have been published for new chemical entities (NCE, little is documented on vaccine development. The objective is to calculate risk profiles for vaccines targeting human infectious diseases. A database was actively compiled to include all vaccine projects in development from 1998 to 2009 in the pre-clinical development phase, clinical trials phase I, II and III up to Market Registration. The average vaccine, taken from the preclinical phase, requires a development timeline of 10.71 years and has a market entry probability of 6%. Stratification by disease area reveals pandemic influenza vaccine targets as lucrative. Furthermore, vaccines targeting acute infectious diseases and prophylactic vaccines have shown to have a lower risk profile when compared to vaccines targeting chronic infections and therapeutic applications. In conclusion; these statistics apply to vaccines targeting human infectious diseases. Vaccines targeting cancer, allergy and autoimmune diseases require further analysis. Additionally, this paper does not address orphan vaccines targeting unmet medical needs, whether projects are in-licensed or self-originated and firm size and experience. Therefore, it remains to be investigated how these - and other - variables influence the vaccine risk profile. Although we find huge differences between the risk profiles for vaccine and NCE; vaccines outperform NCE when it comes to development timelines.

  1. Experimental vaccines for sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are major global public health problems. Present strategies for prevention have limitations. Vaccines are an attractive addition to the current prevention armamentarium because they provide durable protection and do not require repetitive adherence to be effective. Challenges for vaccination include induction and long-term maintaince of mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract. Vaccines: a realistic goal?. For the time being, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended only hepatitis and HPV immunization to be routinely offered. Final, III stage trials are underway on other prophylactic vaccines for human papillomavirus and genital herpes. Though vaccines against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are in early stages of development they do offer the hope of preventing pelvic inflammations. The high incidence of HIV-infection for which a vaccine would not be readily available, 'cries out' for an effective vaccine. Vaccines for HPV infections. According to a recent meta-analysis of worldwide prevalence data, vaccinating with HPV-16/18 VLP against HPV-16 and HPV-18 could prevent over 70% of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. The latest release of data from the phase III trial of a quadrivalent recombinant non-infectious vaccine HPV-6/11/ 16/18 L1 VLP, including HPV types 6,11,16,18 have given complete protection against HPV-16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1, 2/3, and adenocarcinoma in situ and cancer through 2 years of post-vaccination follow up. Conclusion. Despite the fact that the development of vaccines for STI prevention was rather slow in the past, the ideal vaccine would decrease transmission of the infection between partners and would prevent complications of disease. Moreover, in future decades, increasingly successful universal vaccination of newborns and children will substantially reduce the need for vaccination of persons

  2. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services...... and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...

  3. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  4. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for GBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. Intrapartum antibiotic strategies have reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS in a number of countries but have had no impact on late onset GBS infection (LOD). In low/middle income settings, the disease burden remains uncertain although in several countries of Southern Africa appears comparable to or higher than that of high-income countries. As disease may be rapidly fulminating cases can be missed before appropriate samples are obtained and this may lead to underestimation of the true burden. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth as well as the deficiencies in IAP strategies and absence of a solution for preventing LOD, it is clear that administration of a suitable vaccine in pregnancy could provide a better solution in all settings; it should also be cost effective. The current leading vaccine candidates are CPS-protein conjugate vaccines but protein-based vaccines are also in development and one has recently commenced clinical trials. PMID:26988258

  5. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks

  6. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, I.P.; Leite, L.C.C. [Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-07

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  7. Influenza B vaccine lineage selection-An optimized trivalent vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mosterín Höpping (Ana); J.M. Fonville (Judith); C.A. Russell (Colin); S.L. James (Sarah ); D.R. Smith (Derek Richard)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEpidemics of seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality each year. Various types and subtypes of influenza circulate in humans and evolve continuously such that individuals at risk of serious complications need to be vaccinated annually to keep protection up to

  8. Ny Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae vaccine forebygger ikke halthed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Jungersen, Gregers;

    Vaccination af smågrise mod Mykoplasma-ledbetændelser viste sig ikke at kunne forebyggede halthed hos slagtesvin. Smitte med Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) er ofte årsag til ledbetændelse hos slagtesvin. Der er ingen kommerciel vaccine til grise, der beskytter mod mykoplasma......-ledbetændelse. I et forskningsprojekt har forskere på Danmarks Tekniske Universitet udviklet en vaccine mod M. hyosynoviae. Vaccinen indeholder et hjælpestof, der er udviklet af Statens Seruminstitut. Den nye vaccine er testet i en slagtesvinebesætning. I alt 399 smågrise blev vaccineret med enten vaccine eller...

  9. Forebyggelse af herpes zoster med vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Rønholt, Finn; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    been shown to halve the risk of HZ, and the risk of PHN is reduced by two thirds in people = 60 years. The vaccine is approved for persons aged = 50 years. However, the clinical efficacy of the vaccine is best studied in people aged = 60 years. The vaccine has so far not shown any serious side-effects.......Herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are frequently occurring diseases in elderly and in immuno-compromised persons. The live attenuated HZ vaccine boosts an existing immune response, so that the already established varicella-zoster virus infection is kept latent. Vaccination has...

  10. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  11. Impact of vaccination on meningococcal epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Paola; Rezza, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Neisseria meningitidis may cause invasive disease (meningitis and sepsis), leading to considerable disease burden and mortality. However, effective vaccines are available against most pathogenic serogroups. Large-scale vaccination campaigns with the MCC vaccine conducted in UK and with MenAfriVac in the Sahel have clearly demonstrated the direct and indirect effect of immunization programmes on disease and carriage. Moreover, the introduction of novel subcapsular vaccines against serogroup B, which may cross-protect against other serogroups, is likely to have a further effect on trends. Accurate data collection is key to elaborate vaccination strategies able to reduce meningococcal disease burden through direct protection and herd immunity. PMID:26512927

  12. Forebyggelse af herpes zoster med vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Rønholt, Finn; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are frequently occurring diseases in elderly and in immuno-compromised persons. The live attenuated HZ vaccine boosts an existing immune response, so that the already established varicella-zoster virus infection is kept latent. Vaccination has...... been shown to halve the risk of HZ, and the risk of PHN is reduced by two thirds in people = 60 years. The vaccine is approved for persons aged = 50 years. However, the clinical efficacy of the vaccine is best studied in people aged = 60 years. The vaccine has so far not shown any serious side-effects....

  13. Use of vaccines as probes to define disease burden

    OpenAIRE

    Feikin, Daniel R.; J Anthony G Scott; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine probe studies have emerged in the past 15 years as a useful way to characterise disease. By contrast, traditional studies of vaccines focus on defining the vaccine effectiveness or efficacy. The underlying basis for the vaccine probe approach is that the difference in disease burden between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals can be ascribed to the vaccine-specific pathogen. Vaccine probe studies can increase understanding of a vaccine’s public health value. For instance, even whe...

  14. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  15. Interference of an ERM-vaccine with a VHS-DNA vaccine in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Rasmussen, Jesper Skou;

    -vaccine against challenge with VHSV 11 weeks post vaccination (pv). This experiment was performed with rainbow trout of 30 g injected with 0.5 g VHS-DNA vaccine. The experiment was later repeated with smaller fish (2.5g) and using two different doses of DNA-vaccine, 1 g and 0.05 g. Both doses provided good...... are vaccinated with a VHS-DNA vaccine dose according to their size, a simultaneous intraperitoneal vaccination against ERM can compromise the protective effect of the DNA-vaccine. The negative effect appears to be strongest in the early phase following vaccination. The immune mechanisms behind this interference...

  16. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  17. Novel Vaccine Against Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae: The Immunogenic Effect of Iscom-Based Vaccines in Swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Vinther Heydenreich, Annette; Riber, Ulla;

    Arthritis in swine is frequently caused by Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (Mhs). For the development of an effective vaccine we investigated the immunogenic effect of three vaccine preparations with the ISCOM adjuvant Posintro™ from Nordic Vaccine. A: formalin fixed whole-cells Mhs (300 µg/dose) mixed...... with Posintro, B: Deoxycholate extracted lipoproteins from Mhs organisms (DOC-antigen, 300 μg/dose) in Posintro and C: DOC-antigen (50 μg/dose) in Posintro. Each vaccine-group contained three pigs. Vaccinations (i.m.) were performed at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The development of specific IgG and secretion...... of IFNγ were measured. Three weeks after the second vaccination, pigs were euthanised and autopsied. Vaccine B induced a high level of specific serum IgG in all pigs a week after boost. Vaccine C gave a variable response after boost, with two pigs seroconverting, while no response was seen by vaccine A...

  18. Recent update in HIV vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results obtained from the correlate of risk analysis have reinvigorated the HIV vaccine research field leading to various novel strategies. This paper will review the brief history and recent advances in HIV vaccine development. PMID:26866018

  19. Smallpox: clinical highlights and considerations for vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox virus has gained considerable attention as a potential bioterrorism agent. Recommendations for smallpox (vaccinia vaccination presume a low risk for use of smallpox as a terrorist biological agent and vaccination is currently recommended for selected groups of individuals such as health care workers, public health authorities, and emergency/rescue workers, among others. Information about adverse reactions to the smallpox vaccine is based upon studies completed during the 1950s and 1960s. The prevalence of various diseases has changed over the last four decades and new disease entities have been described during this period. The smallpox vaccination may be contra-indicated in many of these conditions. This has made pre-screening of potential vaccines necessary. It is believed that at present, the risks of vaccine-associated complications far outweigh the potential benefits of vaccination in the general population.

  20. Bioinformatics in New Generation Flavivirus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Koraka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavivirus infections are the most prevalent arthropod-borne infections world wide, often causing severe disease especially among children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. In the absence of effective antiviral treatment, prevention through vaccination would greatly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with flavivirus infections. Despite the success of the empirically developed vaccines against yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus, there is an increasing need for a more rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines. Several bioinformatic tools are available to support such rational vaccine design. In doing so, several parameters have to be taken into account, such as safety for the target population, overall immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine, and efficacy and longevity of the immune responses triggered. Examples of how bio-informatics is applied to assist in the rational design and improvements of vaccines, particularly flavivirus vaccines, are presented and discussed.

  1. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

  2. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  3. Influenza DNA vaccine:an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈则

    2004-01-01

    @@ A series of global studies on the influenza DNA vaccine have revealed that it is capable of eliciting persistent humoral and cell mediated immune responses to influenza following delivery by various routes. DNA vaccines may not only serve as potentially safer alternatives to immunization with certain live virus vaccines, but may also provide a promising approach to the development of effective vaccines. The suggestions, based on our experiment, that both hemagglutinin (HA)- and neuraminidase (NA)- DNAs (or both HA and NA molecules) are highly protective against the influenza virus and are useful in the development of a more efficient vaccine against the influenza virus. In this article, we reviewed DNA vaccine against the influenza A and B viruses and the characteristics of the immune response induced by the DNA vaccine. Moreover, we discussed the importance of neutralizing antibodies to protect the host against a lethal influenza infection.

  4. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup Schmidt, Signe; Foged, Camilla; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens...... for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce...... been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly...

  5. Uniqueness of Nash equilibrium in vaccination games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan

    2016-12-01

    One crucial condition for the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium set in vaccination games is that the attack ratio monotonically decreases as the vaccine coverage level increasing. We consider several deterministic vaccination models in homogeneous mixing population and in heterogeneous mixing population. Based on the final size relations obtained from the deterministic epidemic models, we prove that the attack ratios can be expressed in terms of the vaccine coverage levels, and also prove that the attack ratios are decreasing functions of vaccine coverage levels. Some thresholds are presented, which depend on the vaccine efficacy. It is proved that for vaccination games in homogeneous mixing population, there is a unique Nash equilibrium for each game. PMID:27465224

  6. The Effects of Vaccine Characteristics on Adult Women's Attitudes about Vaccination: A Conjoint Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Sturm, Lynne A; Mays, Rose M; Bair, Rita M; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of current and future vaccines for adults has been steadily increasing. Yet, vaccine coverage rates for adult vaccinations have historically been low, and less is known about how adults in the mid-adult age range make vaccine decisions for themselves. The purpose of this study was to assess which vaccine characteristics affect vaccine decision-making among mid-adult women. Adult women, aged 27–55 (n=258) rated 9 hypothetical vaccine scenarios, each of which was defined along 4 dimensions: mode of transmission (STI or non-STI), severity of infection (curable, chronic, or fatal), vaccine efficacy (50%, 70%, or 90%), and availability of behavioral methods for prevention (available or not available). Ratings ranged from 0 to 100. Conjoint analysis was used to assess the effect of relative preferences for the vaccine scenario characteristics on participant ratings of scenarios. The mean vaccine scenario rating was 78.2. Nearly half (40%, n =104) of participants rated all nine scenarios the same, with the majority of those (84%) holding strongly positive views. Conjoint analysis of the other 154 participants who discriminated between scenarios indicated that the main drivers for vaccine acceptability were severity of the disease and the efficacy of the vaccine to prevent the disease. Mode of transmission and availability of a preventative behavioral measure did not play a significant role. Future studies should further assess how women's understanding of severity of the disease and efficacy of the vaccine to prevent disease may be useful for increasing vaccine acceptability. PMID:21527303

  7. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Operating Room Personnel in Nigeria and Their Vaccination Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka B. Kesieme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a well recognised occupational health hazard preventable by vaccination. Objectives. To determine the knowledge of operating room personnel (ORP in Nigeria about the Hepatitis B vaccine, their perception of Hepatitis B vaccination and vaccination status against HBV. Methods. Four university hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 228 ORP after obtaining consent. Result. Only 26.8% of ORP were vaccinated against HBV. The primary reason for not being vaccinated or for defaulting from vaccination was lack of time. Differences in age, sex, duration of practice and respondent's institution between vaccinated and unvaccinated ORP were not significant (P>0.05. The majority (86.8% had the awareness of the existence of Hepatitis B vaccine. 83.8% of respondents believed that the vaccine should be given to the ORP as part of work place safety measures. The majority were aware of the modes of transmission of HBV infection. 78.9% of respondents believed that Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and 81.1% would recommend it to another staff. Conclusion. Despite a good knowledge about HBV infection and vaccine, most of ORP are still not vaccinated. Hepatitis B vaccination should be a prerequisite for working in the theatre, hence putting surgical patients at reduced risk.

  8. HPV and Herpes Zoster Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genital warts and Herpes Zoster are relatively frequent encountered diseases in dermatology practice. Cervical cancers are also caused by some spesific types of human papillomaviruses. The purpose of this review is to give some knowledge about the vaccines which were developed for these diseases. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 108-12

  9. Commercialization of veterinary viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, P H

    2004-12-01

    If vaccines are to reliably prevent disease, they must be developed, produced and quality-controlled according to very strict regulations and procedures. Veterinary viral vaccine registrations are governed by different rules in different countries, but these rules all emphasize that the quality of the raw materials--the cells, eggs, animals or plants that are used in production--need to be carefully controlled. The veterinary vaccine business is also very cost-conscious. Emphasis over the last 5-10 years has therefore been to develop culture systems that minimize labor and sterility problems and thus provide for reliable and cost-effective production. Implementing these often more complex systems in a production environment takes considerable effort, first in scale-up trials and further down the line in convincing production personnel to change their familiar system for something new and possibly untried. To complete scale-up trials successfully, it is absolutely necessary to understand the biochemistry of the cells and the influence of the virus on the cells under scale-up and later production conditions. Once a viral product can be produced on a large scale, it is imperative that the quality of the end-product is controlled in an intelligent way. One needs to know whether the end-product performs in the animal as was intended during its conception in the research and development department. The development of the appropriate tests to demonstrate this plays an important role in the successful development of a vaccine.

  10. Malaria vaccine: a current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhona Sharma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The observation that inactivated Plasmodium sporozoites could protect against malaria is about a hundred years old. However, systematic demonstration of protection using irradiated sporozoites occurred in the nineteen-sixties, providing the impetus for the development of a malaria vaccine. In 1983, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP, a major sporozoite surface antigen, became the first Plasmodium gene to be cloned, and a CSP-based vaccine appeared imminent. Today, 25 years later, we are still without an effective malaria vaccine, despite considerable information regarding the genomics and proteomics of the malaria parasites. Although clinical immunity to malaria has been well-documented in adults living in malaria endemic areas, our understanding of the host-immune responses operating in such malaria immune persons remains poor, and limits the development of immune control of the disease. Currently, several antigen and adjuvant combinations have entered clinical trials, in which efficacy against experimental sporozoite challenge and/or exposure to natural infection is evaluated. This review collates information on the recent status of the field. Unresolved challenges facing the development of a malaria vaccine are also discussed.

  11. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  12. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  13. Immunity to avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys following in ovo vaccination with an attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Karen J; Sargent, Barbara A; Davelaar, F G; Jones, R C

    2003-03-28

    Fertile turkey eggs after 24 days of incubation were vaccinated in ovo with a commercial live attenuated subtype A avian pneumovirus (APV) vaccine. Hatchability was not adversely affected. When a high dose (10 times maximum commercial dose) of vaccine was tested in maternal antibody negative (MA-) eggs, mild clinical signs developed in a small proportion of the poults for 1-4 days only. Post-vaccination antibody titres at 3 weeks of age were significantly higher than those seen when the same dose was administered by eyedrop or spray at day-old. A low dose (end of shelf-life titre) of vaccine given to MA- eggs did not cause disease and vaccinated poults were 100% protected against virulent APV challenge at 3 or 5 weeks of age. Post-vaccination antibody titres reached significant levels at 3 weeks of age, whereas those from MA- poults vaccinated by spray at day-old with a similar low dose did not. In a 'worst-case' scenario, maternal antibody positive (MA+) poults vaccinated in ovo with the low dose were still 77% protected against clinical disease, despite lack of seroconversion. The recommended commercial dose of vaccine given to MA- eggs in ovo induced 100% protection against virulent APV challenge for up to 14 weeks of age, even though post-vaccination antibody titres had dropped to insignificant levels at this age. In ovo vaccination with a mixture of the recommended commercial doses of live APV and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines had no detrimental affect on the efficacy of the APV vaccine. This is the first report of the successful use of an APV vaccine being given in ovo. The results indicate that for turkeys, in ovo vaccination with a live attenuated APV vaccine is safe and effective against virulent challenge and comparable with vaccination by conventional methods.

  14. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Sayers; Guerlain Ulysse; Zuoshuang Xiang; Yongqun He

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bi...

  15. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed. PMID:27076303

  16. Improving pandemic H5N1 influenza vaccines by combining different vaccine platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Catherine J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-07-01

    A variety of platforms are being explored for the development of vaccines for pandemic influenza. Observations that traditional inactivated subvirion vaccines and live-attenuated vaccines against H5 and some H7 influenza viruses were poorly immunogenic spurred efforts to evaluate new approaches, including whole virus vaccines, higher doses of antigen, addition of adjuvants and combinations of different vaccine modalities in heterologous prime-boost regimens to potentiate immune responses. Results from clinical trials of prime-boost regimens have been very promising. Further studies are needed to determine optimal combinations of platforms, intervals between doses of vaccines and the logistics of deployment in pre-pandemic and early pandemic settings.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  18. Childhood lichen planus pemphigoides triggered by chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohanarao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP is a rare autoimmune bullous disorder that is rarer in children characterized by bullae on lichen planus like papules and the normal looking skin. Clinical, histopathological and direct immunoflourescence evaluation is important for the diagnosis of this entity. We report a case of LPP in a 5-year-old girl child probably triggered by an episode of preceding varicella. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunofluorescence examination. Histological findings were typical of lichen planus from the biopsy taken from a violaceous to erythematous papule and characteristic of bullous pemphigoid in the biopsy taken from a bullous lesion with evidence of immunoglobulin G and C3 deposition along the basement membrane zone on direct immunofluorescence.

  19. Efficacy in the field of two anticoccidial vaccines for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared two attenuated anticoccidial vaccines, administered to broilers by spray into the incubator (88,000 males and 210,100 females. Vaccine A container five species of Eimeria and vaccine B three. Zootechnical performance was similar in the two groups, with mean lesion scores no higher than 1; vaccine A caused only duodenal lesions, while vaccine B also caused typhlitis. Maximum oocyst count was 23,000/g feces at age 28 days with vaccine A and 38,000 at 21 days with vaccine B. Broilers vaccinated with vaccine B had more frequent enteric symptoms, and C. perfringens isolation.

  20. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65... Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella Abortus Vaccine. Brucella Abortus Vaccine shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine from smooth colonial forms of the Brucella abortus...