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Sample records for chicken tissues pt

  1. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

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    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation at various temperatures on air and vacuum packed chicken tissues: Pt. 2; Fatty acid profiles of neutral and polar lipids separated from muscle and skin irradiated at 2-5 deg C

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    Maxwell, R.J. (Deaprtment of Agriculture, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Rady, A.H. (Nuclear Research Centre, Inshas (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Chicken muscle and skin were separately irradiated in air and under vacuum packaging at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 10 kGy using {sup 137}Cs (dose rate 0.1 kGy/min). Lipids were isolated as neutral and polar subclasses from muscle samples and as total lipid extracts from skin. Lipids were converted to fatty acid methyl esters, analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and the data compiled as fatty acid profiles by statistical computer analysis. Normalized reports were assembled from this data for the three lipid extract types. Only negligible changes in fatty acid profiles were observed for the neutral lipids of muscle and for the fatty acyl residues of skin lipids. Minor changes of interest, however, were observed for the polyunsaturated fatty acyl residues in the polar lipid fractions of muscle tissue, especially at higher irradiation doses (6 and 10 kGy). Comparisons were made between these results and those of an earlier study were similar tissues were irradiated at -20{sup 0}C. No new fatty acyl residues or other artifacts due to {gamma}-irradiation were found in detectable amounts by gas chromatography in any of the lipid fractions isolated. (author).

  3. Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides

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    Achanta Mallika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.

  4. Three isozymes of peptidylarginine deiminase in the chicken: molecular cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution.

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    Shimizu, Akira; Handa, Kenji; Honda, Tomonori; Abe, Naoki; Kojima, Toshio; Takahara, Hidenari

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC 3.5.3.15) is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline (deimination) in a calcium ion dependent manner. Although PADI genes are widely conserved among vertebrates, their function in the chicken is poorly understood. Here, we cloned and sequenced three chicken PADI cDNAs and analyzed the expression of their proteins in various tissues. Immunoblotting analysis showed that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 were present in cells of several central neuron system tissues including the retina; the chicken PAD2 protein was not detected in any tissue. We expressed recombinant chicken PADs in insect cells and characterized their enzymatic properties. The chicken PAD1 and PAD3 recombinant proteins required calcium ions as an essential cofactor for their catalytic activity. The two recombinant proteins showed similar substrate specificities toward synthetic arginine derivatives. By contrast to them, chicken PAD2 did not show any activity. We found that one of the conserved active centers in mammalian PADs had been altered in chicken PAD2; we prepared a reverse mutant but we did not detect an activity. We conclude that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 might play specific roles in the nervous system, but that chicken PAD2 might not be functional under normal physiological conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-related expression profile of the SLC27A1 gene in chicken tissues.

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    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2011-11-01

    The solute carrier family 27 (SLC27, also known as fatty acid transport proteins [FATPs]) plays important biological roles in cells. However, there is no report about the expression profile of SLC27 member in chicken. In this study, we quantified the expression of SLC27A1 (FATP1) mRNA in a mountainous black-boned chicken breed (MB) and a commercial meat type chicken breed (S01), to discern the tissue and age-related specific expression pattern and their potential involvement in fat deposition and muscle fatty acid metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for accurate measurement of SLC27A1 mRNA levels in different tissues from chicken with different ages (0-12 weeks). Expression of SLC27A1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined. There was a significantly age-related change of the SLC27A1 mRNAs in heart, breast muscle (BMW), leg muscle (LMW), liver, and abdominal fat (AF) tissues (P chicken had a higher expression of the SLC27A1 mRNA in breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and heart tissues than the MB chicken. Our results showed that the expression of SLC27A1 mRNA in chicken tissues exhibits specific developmental changes and age-related patterns.

  6. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

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    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  7. Metal distribution in tissues of free-range chickens near a lead-zinc mine in Kabwe, Zambia.

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    Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Mainda, Geoffrey; Kabeta, Matthew; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Umemura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and other metals in tissues of 17 free-range and 32 commercial broiler chickens from the Kabwe mining town in Zambia were determined. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd exceeded maximum levels for human consumption in some organs including muscle (Pb only) in free-range chickens, in contrast to low levels in broiler chickens. Human consumers in Kabwe could be exposed to Pb and Cd in free-range chickens.

  8. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

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    Mossad Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume concentration (PCV. Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

  9. Avidin induction by tissue injury and inflammation in male and female chickens.

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    Elo, H A; Kulomaa, M S; Tuohimaa, P J

    1979-01-01

    1. The occurrence and inducibility of the biotin-binding egg white protein (avidin) in the chicken is not restricted to the oviduct. 2. Inflammatory treatments (intestinal injury, actinomycin D) induced avidin in a number of tissues of young and adult hens and roosters, but not of female rats and mice. Highest avidin concentrations were found in the organs containing epithelial cells and serous membrane. 3. The expression of the avidin gene by tissue injury and inflammation suggests that avidin has a significant function in the injured and inflamed chicken tissues.

  10. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

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    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki;

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14...

  11. Changes in thermo-tolerance and survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 in chicken breast meat after exposure to sequential stresses.

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    Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira de; Souza, Geany Targino de; Schaffner, Donald; Oliveira, Tereza C Moreira de; Maciel, Janeeyre Ferreira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-03-29

    This study assessed changes in thermo-tolerance and capability to survive to simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 inoculated in chicken breast meat following exposure to stresses (cold, acid and osmotic) commonly imposed during food processing. The effects of the stress imposed by exposure to oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (OVEO) on thermo-tolerance were also assessed. After exposure to cold stress (5°C for 5h) in chicken breast meat the test strains were sequentially exposed to the different stressing substances (lactic acid, NaCl or OVEO) at sub-lethal amounts, which were defined considering previously determined minimum inhibitory concentrations, and finally to thermal treatment (55°C for 30min). Resistant cells from distinct sequential treatments were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The exposure to cold stress did not result in increased tolerance to acid stress (lactic acid: 5 and 2.5μL/g) for both strains. Cells of S. Typhimurium PT4 and S. Enteritidis PT4 previously exposed to acid stress showed higher (pthermo-tolerance in both strains. The cells that survived the sequential stress exposure (resistant) showed higher tolerance (pthermo-tolerance and enhance the survival under gastrointestinal conditions of S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium PT4.

  12. Comparison of the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of monensin and salinomycin in chickens and turkeys.

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    Henri, J; Maurice, R; Postollec, G; Dubreil-Cheneau, E; Roudaut, B; Laurentie, M; Sanders, P

    2012-02-01

    The current study describes the pharmacokinetic parameters of two carboxylic polyether ionophores: monensin in turkeys and salinomycin in chickens. These data can be used to understand and predict the occurrence of undesirable residues of coccidiostats in edible tissues of these animal species. Special attention is paid to the distribution of residues between the different edible tissues during and at the end of the treatment period. For the bioavailability studies, monensin was administered to turkeys intravenously, in the left wing vein, at a dose of 0.4 mg /kg and orally at a dose of 20 mg /kg. Salinomycin was administered to chickens intravenously, in the left wing vein, at a dose of 0.25 mg /kg and orally at a dose of 2.5 mg /kg. Residue studies were carried out with supplemented feed at the rate of 100 mg /kg of feed for monensin in turkeys and 70 mg /kg for salinomycin in chickens, respectively. Coccidiostats had a low bioavailability in poultry (around 30% for monensin in chickens, around 1% for monensin in turkeys and around 15% for salinomycin in chickens). Monensin in chickens had a longer terminal half-life (between 3.07 and 5.55 h) than both monensin in turkeys (between 1.36 and 1.55 h) and salinomycin in chickens (between 1.33 and 1.79 h). The tissue /plasma partition coefficients showed a higher affinity of both monensin and salinomycin for fat, followed by liver and muscle tissue. The depletion data showed a fairly rapid elimination of coccidiostats in all the tissues after cessation of treatment. According to the results of depletion studies, a withdrawal period of 1 day seems sufficient to avoid undesirable exposure of consumers.

  13. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

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    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  14. Cloning and tissue expression characterization of the chicken APOB gene.

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    Zhang, Sen; Shi, Hui; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (APOB) serves an essential role in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipids transport. This study was designed to clone the full-length cDNA of the chicken APOB gene, to characterize the expression profile, and investigate the differential expression between layer and broiler of the chicken APOB gene. The full-length cDNA sequence (14,150-bp) that contained a 13,896-bp ORF encoding 4,631 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR, RACE, and bioinformatics analysis. qReal-Time PCR analysis showed that the chicken APOB gene was highly expressed in kidney, liver, and intestine. The results of differential expression showed that the APOB gene was more highly expressed in intestine and kidney in Bai'er layer than in broiler, but there was no significant difference in liver between the two breeds. The results of this study provided basic molecular information for studying the role of APOB in the energy transportation in avian species.

  15. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates in different tissues of broiler chickens

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    A. Doosti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is an important pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. Necrotic enteritis is the most severe clinical bacterial enteric disease of poultry induced by C. perfringens.Study was done on 100 broiler chickens (400 different tissues of chickens in Southwest Iran.C. perfringens was isolated from different tissues of chickens (meats, liver, gizzard and intestine using bacterial culture methods. DNA extraction from grown colonies was carried out by boiling method and finally, PCR assay was used for definitive diagnosis of type AC. perfringens. The results of present study showed that from 400 different tissues of chickens 169(42.25%samples were positive for C. perfringens infection that is a comparatively high prevalence of C. perfringens. The highest rate of C. perfringens infection in tissues was in intestine (55% and meat 42%. The high prevalence of type A C. perfringens in different tissues observed in the present study is very disturbing, as it can cause irreparable damage to the poultry industry and human health.

  16. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of chicken adipose tissue in response to insulin neutralization and fasting.

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    Ji, Bo; Ernest, Ben; Gooding, Jessica R; Das, Suchita; Saxton, Arnold M; Simon, Jean; Dupont, Joelle; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Campagna, Shawn R; Voy, Brynn H

    2012-08-31

    Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate adipose tissue due to intensive genetic selection for rapid growth and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive addition to the suite of rodent models used for studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Furthermore, chicken adipose tissue is considered as poorly sensitive to insulin and lipolysis is under glucagon control. Excessive fat accumulation is also an economic and environmental concern for the broiler industry due to the loss of feed efficiency and excessive nitrogen wasting, as well as a negative trait for consumers who are increasingly conscious of dietary fat intake. Understanding the control of avian adipose tissue metabolism would both enhance the utility of chicken as a model organism for human obesity and insulin resistance and highlight new approaches to reduce fat deposition in commercial chickens. We combined transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterize the response of chicken adipose tissue to two energy manipulations, fasting and insulin deprivation in the fed state. Sixteen to 17 day-old commercial broiler chickens (ISA915) were fed ad libitum, fasted for five hours, or fed but deprived of insulin by injections of anti-insulin serum. Pair-wise contrasts of expression data identified a total of 2016 genes that were differentially expressed after correction for multiple testing, with the vast majority of differences due to fasting (1780 genes). Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that a short term fast impacted expression of genes in a broad selection of pathways related to metabolism, signaling and adipogenesis. The effects of insulin neutralization largely overlapped with the response to fasting, but with more modest effects on adipose tissue metabolism. Tissue metabolomics indicated unique effects of insulin on amino acid metabolism. Collectively, these data provide a foundation for further study into the molecular basis for adipose

  17. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of chicken adipose tissue in response to insulin neutralization and fasting

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    Ji Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate adipose tissue due to intensive genetic selection for rapid growth and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive addition to the suite of rodent models used for studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Furthermore, chicken adipose tissue is considered as poorly sensitive to insulin and lipolysis is under glucagon control. Excessive fat accumulation is also an economic and environmental concern for the broiler industry due to the loss of feed efficiency and excessive nitrogen wasting, as well as a negative trait for consumers who are increasingly conscious of dietary fat intake. Understanding the control of avian adipose tissue metabolism would both enhance the utility of chicken as a model organism for human obesity and insulin resistance and highlight new approaches to reduce fat deposition in commercial chickens. Results We combined transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterize the response of chicken adipose tissue to two energy manipulations, fasting and insulin deprivation in the fed state. Sixteen to 17 day-old commercial broiler chickens (ISA915 were fed ad libitum, fasted for five hours, or fed but deprived of insulin by injections of anti-insulin serum. Pair-wise contrasts of expression data identified a total of 2016 genes that were differentially expressed after correction for multiple testing, with the vast majority of differences due to fasting (1780 genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that a short term fast impacted expression of genes in a broad selection of pathways related to metabolism, signaling and adipogenesis. The effects of insulin neutralization largely overlapped with the response to fasting, but with more modest effects on adipose tissue metabolism. Tissue metabolomics indicated unique effects of insulin on amino acid metabolism. Conclusions Collectively, these data provide a foundation

  18. Chicken FTO gene: tissue-specific expression, brain distribution, breed difference and effect of fasting.

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    Wang, Yufeng; Rao, Kaiqing; Yuan, Lixia; Everaert, Nadia; Buyse, Johan; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2012-11-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues of mammals, and exhibits a range of functions, especially in energy balance. However, basic knowledge of FTO in the chicken is lacking. Therefore, we studied the tissue distribution, age and breed dependent changes, brain localization, as well as the impact of fasting on FTO mRNA expression in the chicken. FTO mRNA was expressed in all the tissues studied, and generally, with high expression in hypothalamus, liver, visceral fat and cerebellum. However it exhibited breed-specific patterns: in broilers, the highest expression was seen in the liver, while in layers, hypothalamus and cerebellum showed relatively higher FTO mRNA expression. One-week-old broilers expressed markedly higher FTO mRNA in liver compared with the layers of the same age (Pbreed difference was reversed in visceral fat and cerebellum (PBreed-specific expression of FTO mRNA was shown in PVN, but not in VMN, with higher abundance in broilers compared to layers. The decrease in FTO mRNA levels after 24h of fasting was seen only in VMN of layer chickens. These results may provide some intriguing hints for further investigation of FTO function in the chicken. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

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    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (Padipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors.

  20. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Hedemand, J.;

    1998-01-01

    This-paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non......-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense...... staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa...

  1. Expression and functional analyses of Krüppel-like factor 3 in chicken adipose tissue.

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    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Yan; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Studies in mammalian species showed that Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) regulated adipose tissue development. However, it was not reported in chicken. In the current study, we found that during the growth and development of abdominal fat tissue, chicken KLF3 (Gallus gallus KLF3, gKLF3) was consecutively expressed, and its transcripts were higher at 7 weeks of age and lower at 10 weeks of age in lean broilers than in fat broilers. In addition, gKLF3 overexpression suppressed chicken CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter activities, but increased chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) promoter activity. Additionally, point mutagenesis analysis showed that the substitution of Asp by Gly within the Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Thr (PVDLT) motif of gKLF3 significantly reduced the ability of gKLF3 to regulate the promoter activities of FABP4, FASN, LPL, C/EBPα, and PPARγ.

  2. Interdigitated array of Pt electrodes for electrical stimulation and engineering of aligned muscle tissue.

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    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ostrovidov, Serge; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2012-09-21

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues could be useful for applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and bio-robotics. It is well-known that skeletal muscle cells are able to differentiate under electrical stimulation (ES), with an increase in myosin production, along with the formation of myofibers and contractile proteins. In this study, we describe the use of an interdigitated array of electrodes as a novel platform to electrically stimulate engineered muscle tissues. The resulting muscle myofibers were analyzed and quantified in terms of their myotube characteristics and gene expression. The engineered muscle tissues stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes demonstrated superior performance and maturation compared to the corresponding tissues stimulated through a conventional setup (i.e., through Pt wires in close proximity to the muscle tissue). In particular, the ES of muscle tissue (voltage 6 V, frequency 1 Hz and duration 10 ms for 1 day) through the interdigitated array of electrodes resulted in a higher degree of C2C12 myotube alignment (∼80%) as compared to ES using Pt wires (∼65%). In addition, higher amounts of C2C12 myotube coverage area, myotube length, muscle transcription factors and protein biomarkers were found for myotubes stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes compared to those stimulated using the Pt wires. Due to the wide array of potential applications of ES for two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) engineered tissues, the suggested platform could be employed for a variety of cell and tissue structures to more efficiently investigate their response to electrical fields.

  3. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli.

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    Ding, H; Wang, L; Shen, X; Gu, X; Zeng, D; Zeng, Z

    2013-10-01

    The plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli were studied. Marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. Plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. In the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin concentrations in plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were 1.84, 1.33, 7.35, 5.61, 3.12, 2.98, and 4.51 g/mL (g); the elimination half-lives of marbofloxacin were 6.8, 2.74, 9.31, 8.45, 9.55, 11.53 and 5.46 h for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. AUC were calculated to be 9.68, 8.04, 45.1, 27.03, 20.56, 19.47, and 32.68 μg/mL (g) for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. Marbofloxacin concentration in tissues except for brain exceeded marbofloxacin concentration in plasma, with AUC(tissue) /AUC(plasma) ranging from 2.01 to 4.66 and Peak(tissue) /Peak(plasma) ranging from 1.62 to 3.99. The results showed that a marbofloxacin dosage of 5 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals may provide successful treatment of chicken with MG and E. coli infection.

  4. Pathomorphological changes in the tissues of chickens, experimentally infected with biting lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A study into the death rate and pathomorphological changes in the tissues of chickens experimentally infected with biting lice from the species Eomenacanthus stramineus Nitzsch (1818), Menacanthus cornutus Schömmer (1913), Menopon gallinae L. (1758) and Goniocotes gallinae DeGeer (1778) is presented. Five of 20 infected birds died (25% death rate). Following necropsy of dead birds and after histological investigation of skin, muscle, spleen, liver, lungs and kidney specimens, multiple wounds ...

  5. Cloning and tissue distribution of the chicken type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

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    de Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V H; Mertens, Inge; Schoofs, Liliane; Kühn, Eduard R; Darras, Veerle M

    2004-08-01

    We report the cloning of the complete coding sequence of the putative chicken type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRH-R2) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The chicken CRH-R2 is a 412-amino acid 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, showing 87% identity to the Xenopus laevis and Oncorhynchus keta CRH-R2s, and 78-80% to mammalian CRH-R2s. The distribution of CRH-R2 mRNA was studied by RT-PCR analysis and compared to CRH-R1 distribution. Both CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNA are expressed in the main chicken brain parts. In peripheral organs, CRH-R1 mRNA shows a more restricted distribution, whereas CRH-R2 mRNA is expressed in every tissue investigated, indicating that a number of actions of CRH and/or CRH-like peptides remain to be discovered in the chicken as well as in other vertebrates.

  6. Tissue- and breed-specific expression of the chicken fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Song, W T; Shu, J T; Tao, Z Y; Zhu, W Q; Di, C; Li, H F

    2015-09-08

    The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is involved in energy metabolism, but little is known about the chicken FTO gene. The objective of the current study was to detect chicken FTO expression patterns in the hypothalamus, liver, and skeletal muscle during development, and analyze the effects of age and breed on FTO expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results revealed that chicken FTO mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues tested. Chicken FTO exhibited tissue- and breed-specific patterns in the recessive White Plymouth Rock chicken and the Qingyuan partridge chicken. The highest FTO expression level was in the hypothalami of 1-week-old chicks. FTO mRNA was expressed more in the breast muscles and livers of recessive White Plymouth Rock chickens than those of Qingyuan partridge chickens at 1 and 8 weeks of age. These results indicate that FTO probably plays a significant role in energy metabolism at 1 week old, when chicks have undergone metabolic adaptations from yolk dependence to the utilization of exogenous feed.

  7. Tissue and time specific expression pattern of interferon regulated genes in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Susanne; Härtle, Stefan; Lütteke, Thomas; Kaspers, Bernd; Härtle, Sonja

    2017-03-28

    Type I interferons are major players against viral infections and mediate their function by the induction of Interferon regulated genes (IRGs). Recently, it became obvious that these cytokines have a multitude of additional functions. Due to the unique features of the chickens' immune system, available data from mouse models are not easily transferable; hence we performed an extensive analysis of chicken IRGs. A broad database search for homologues to described mammalian IRGs (common IRGs, cIRGs) was combined with a transcriptome analysis of spleen and lung at different time points after application of IFNα. To apply physiological amounts of IFN, half-life of IFN in the chicken was determined. Interestingly, the calculated 36 min are considerably shorter than the ones obtained for human and mouse. Microarray analysis revealed many additional IRGs (newly identified IRGs; nIRGs) and network analysis for selected IRGs showed a broad interaction of nIRGs among each other and with cIRGs. We found that IRGs exhibit a highly tissue and time specific expression pattern as expression quality and quantity differed strongly between spleen and lung and over time. While in the spleen for many affected genes changes in RNA abundance peaked already after 3 h, an increasing or plateau-like regulation after 3, 6 and 9 h was observed in the lung. The induction or suppression of IRGs in chickens is both tissue and time specific and beside known antiviral mechanisms type I IFN induces many additional cellular functions. We confirmed many known IRGs and established a multitude of so far undescribed ones, thus providing a large database for future research on antiviral mechanisms and additional IFN functions in non-mammalian species.

  8. Entry and survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis PT4 in chicken macrophage and lymphocyte cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Visscher, A.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various leukocytes are involved in the reaction to counter Salmonella infection in chicken. The various leukocyte types react differently after an infection, since some clear the infection while others may cause dissemination of Salmonella throughout the chicken. Therefore, we investigated in vitro

  9. The role of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 in fatty acids sensing in chicken oral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Ryo; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-03-01

    Clarification of the mechanism of chickens' taste sense will provide meaningful information for creating and improving new feedstuff for chickens, because the character of taste receptors in oral tissues affects feeding behavior in animals. Although fatty acids are partly recognized via G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) for fat taste in mammalian oral tissues, the fat taste receptor of chickens has not been elucidated. Here we cloned chicken GPR120 (cGPR120) from the chicken palate, which contains taste buds. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we identified oleic acid and linoleic acid as cGPR120 agonists. Interestingly, in a behavioral study the chickens preferred corn oil-rich feed over mineral oil (control oil)-rich feed. Because corn oil contains high amounts of oleic acid and linoleic acid, this result was thought to be reasonable. Taken together, the present results suggest that cGPR120 is one of the functional fat taste receptors in chickens.

  10. Increased expression of cysteine cathepsins in ovarian tissue from chickens with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Suzie E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine cathepsins (CTSs are involved in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and are associated with cell transformation, differentiation, motility, and adhesion. These functions are also related to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Chickens spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian cancer and are therefore a good animal model for human ovarian cancer. However, no studies have investigated the expression of CTSs in chickens with ovarian cancer. Methods Cancerous (n = 5 and normal (n = 3 ovaries were collected from 2-to 3-year-old hens, and ovarian tissue samples were collected for study. Ovarian cancers were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse transcriptase and quantitative PCR analyses, in situ hybridization analysis were performed to examine the mRNA expression pattern of three CTSs in detail, and protein expression of CTSB was evaluated. Results The CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS genes were highly expressed in cancerous chicken ovaries. Messenger RNAs for the three CTSs were localized to a nodule area, a major characteristic of cancerous ovaries, but the three CTSs showed no specific localization in normal ovaries. Immunoreactive CTSB protein was present in the nodule area of cancerous ovaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS have important functions in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Ubiquitous expression of selenoprotein N transcripts in chicken tissues and early developmental expression pattern in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuli; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Ziwei; Sun, Bo; Wang, Rihua; Jiang, Zhihui; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-05-01

    Previous results revealed a ubiquitous expression pattern of selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1) in humans, zebrafish, and mouse, suggesting that it plays a potential role during the embryogenesis of these species. However, no information is known about the tissue distribution of SelN and mRNA expression analysis in the muscle tissues during development in birds. We analyzed the mRNA expression of SelN in 26 different tissues of 90-day-old chickens and the expression of SelN in the muscle tissues of 12-day-old chicken embryos and 15-month-old adult chickens by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that SelN transcripts were expressed widely in the chicken tissues. Moreover, the expression of SelN mRNA in skeletal muscles was present at a high level in whole embryos and at a lower level in postnatal stages. However, the expression of SelN mRNA in cardiac muscle showed a different expression pattern compared with skeletal muscles. Our data indicate that the expression of the SelN gene in chicken is ubiquitous, suggesting a role of SelN in the development of chick embryo skeletal muscles.

  12. Microarray analysis of adipose tissue gene expression profiles between two chicken breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongbao Wang; Hui Li; Qigui Wang; Yuxiang Wang; Huabin Han; Hui Shi

    2006-12-01

    The chicken is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provides a major protein source from meat and eggs throughout the world. Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by the broiler industry nowadays. In order to visualize the mechanisms involved in the gene expression and regulation of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, cDNA microarray containing 9 024 cDNA was used to construct gene expression profile and screen differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue between broilers and layers of 10 wk of age. Sixty-seven differentially expressed sequences were screened out, and 42 genes were found when blasted with the GenBank database. These genes are mainly related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription and splicing factor, protein synthesis and degradation. The remained 25 sequences had no annotation available in the GenBank database. Furthermore, Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were developed to confirm 4 differentially expressed genes screened by cDNA microarray, and it showed great consistency between the microarray data and Northern blot results or semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. The present study will be helpful for clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  14. Selective photothermal interaction using near-infrared laser and laser-absorbing dye in gel phantom and chicken breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Thomas M.; Liu, Guangyu; Simmons, Sarah; Real, Jeremy; Lucroy, Michael D.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2002-06-01

    Photothermal interaction of an 805-nm diode laser with an absorptive dye, indocyanine green (ICG), has been shown to be an efficacious therapy for metastatic breast tumors in a rat model when combined with immunoadjuvant. When ICG solution was injected into the target tissue, selective tissue destruction can be achieved. To study the selective photothermal interaction, temperature change in irradiated tissue was achieved. To study the selective photothermal interaction, temperature change in irradiated tissue was studied using chicken breast tissue and phantom composed of gelatin and intralipid. ICG solution was mixed with gel phantom to simulate dye-enhanced target tissue. The target gel was then embedded in chicken breast tissue. The temperature change of irradiated chicken and gel phantom was measured by needle temperature probes at different tissue depths and radii from the center of the laser beam to construct a two-dimensional array of temperature change in a cylindrical coordinate system. It was shown that it is possible to selectively raise the temperature of deep target tissue while not substantially heating nontargeted tissue. A Nd:YAG laser was also used to irradiate the tissue-gel system and the photothermal results were compared with that using the 805-nm laser.

  15. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Studies on Broiler Chicken Tissue Suitable for the Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are essential for assessing the system performance in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Saline phantoms with insulator inhomogeneity fail to mimic the physiological structure of real body tissue in several aspects. Saline or any other salt solutions are purely resistive and hence studying multifrequency EIT systems cannot be assessed with saline phantoms because the response of the purely resistive materials do not change over frequency. Animal tissues show a variable response over a wide band of signal frequency due to their complex physiological and physiochemical structures and hence they can suitably be used as bathing medium and inhomogeneity in the phantoms of multifrequency EIT system. An efficient assessment of a multifrequency EIT system with real tissue phantom needs a prior knowledge of the impedance profile of the bathing medium as well as the inhomogeneity. In this direction Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste and broiler chicken fat tissue is conducted from 10 Hz to 2 MHz using an impedance analyzer and their impedance profiles are thoroughly studied. Results show that the broiler chicken muscle tissue paste is less resistive than the fat tissue and hence it can be successfully used as the bathing medium of the phantoms for resistivity imaging in multifrequency EIT. Fat tissue is found more resistive than the muscle tissue which makes it more suitable for the inhomogeneity in phantoms of resistivity imaging study. doi:10.5617/jeb.174 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 48-63, 2011

  16. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  17. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of a short form chicken leptin receptor mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Dunn, I C; Sharp, P J; Boswell, T

    2007-04-01

    In mammals, alternative splicing of the leptin receptor (LEPR) produces several C-terminal truncated isoforms that are believed to play a role in the transport, cellular internalisation and degradation of the hormone leptin. The chicken leptin receptor (chLEPR) is similar to its mammalian counterparts in terms of its intron/exon structure and conserved motifs. However, it is unknown whether the chLEPR also undergoes alternative splicing. To test this, structural analysis of intron 19 of the chLEPR, equivalent to the intron in which alternative splicing occurs in mammals, was combined with 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) to search for chLEPR splice variants. A 44-amino acid alternative exon 20 was identified that is spliced to generate a short isoform of the chLEPR (chLEPR-SF). Comparative sequence analysis of intron 19 identified two regions that are highly conserved between the chicken and mammals, indicating their possible importance as intronic elements in the regulation of alternative splicing of the LEPR in vertebrates. Tissue expression of the chLEPR-SF was lower and more restricted than that of the chLEPR long isoform. Collectively these data demonstrate that the chLEPR is alternatively spliced to produce at least one short isoform, as is the case in mammals.

  18. Identification of two novel chicken GPR133 variants and their expression in different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Xiao, Qihai; Zhang, Xueyou; Lan, Xi; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Li, Diyan; Yin, Huadong; Ye, Lin; Zhu, Qing

    2017-06-14

    GPR133 (G protein-coupled receptor 133) plays significant roles in various physiological processes. Alternatively splicing (AS) variants of GPR133 in many species have been predicted in multiple databases, but there is no available information about the AS events of chicken GPR133 (cGPR133). In the present study, two chicken GPR133 variants, cGPR133-va and cGPR133-vb, were identified by a combination of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA 5'-ends (5' RACE). Sequence analysis shows that cGPR133-va and cGPR133-vb are resulting from different AS modules and their sequences are predicted to encode two distinct putative proteins, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that cGPR133-va and cGPR133-vb are widely expressed in different tissues, while exhibiting specific expression profile. Altogether, our results first demonstrate the existence of novel cGPR133 variants and illustrate its transcriptional diversity and their widespread distribution, which provides a foundation for the further research of GPR133.

  19. Public Health Risk of Arsenic Species in Chicken Tissues from Live Poultry Markets of Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-03-03

    Arsenic-based feed additives, such as roxarsone (ROX), are still legally and widely used in food animal production in many countries. This study was conducted to systematically characterize the content and speciation of arsenic in chicken tissues from live poultry markets and in commercial chicken feeds in Guangdong, a major poultry production and consumption province in China, and to assess the corresponding public health risk. The total arsenic contents in the commercial feeds could be modeled as a mixture of two log-normal distributions (geometric means: 0.66 and 17.5 mg/kg), and inorganic arsenic occurred at high levels (0.19-9.7 mg/kg) in those with ROX detected. In general, chicken livers had much higher contents of total arsenic compared to the muscle tissues (breast and drumstick), and chicken muscle from the urban markets contained arsenic at much higher levels than that from the rural markets. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (bladder and lung cancer) from dietary exposure to arsenic contained in chicken meat products on local markets was above the serious or priority level (10(-4)) for 70% and 30% of the adult populations in Guangzhou and Lianzhou, respectively. These findings indicate the significant need to phase out the use of arsenic-based feed additives in China.

  20. Tissue tropism in the chicken embryo of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle diseases strains that express green fluorescence protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Garib, S.O.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Gruys, E.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Koch, G.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue tropism of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated using 8-day-old and 14-day-old embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), inoculated with an infectious clone of the non-virulent La Sota strain (NDFL-GFP) or its virulent derivative (NDFLtag-GFP). Both strains expr

  1. Tissue growth pressure drives early blood flow in the chicken yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how molecular and physical cues orchestrate vascular morphogenesis is a challenge for developmental biology. Only little attention has been paid to the impact of mechanical stress caused by tissue growth on early blood distribution. Here we study the peripheral accumulation of blood in the chicken embryonic yolk sac, which precedes sinus vein formation. We report that blood accumulation starts before heart-induced blood circulation. We hypothesized that the driving force for the primitive blood flow is a growth-induced gradient of tissue pressure in the yolk sac mesoderm. Therefore, we studied embryos in which heart development was arrested after 2 days of incubation, and found that yolk sac growth and blood peripheral accumulation still occurred. This suggests that tissue growth is sufficient to initiate the flow and the formation of the sinus vein, whereas heart contractions are not required. We designed a simple mathematical model which makes explicit the growth-induced pressure gradient and the subsequent blood accumulation, and show that growth can indeed account for the observed blood accumulation. This study shows that tissue growth pressure can drive early blood flow, and suggests that the mechanical environment, beyond hemodynamics, can contribute to vascular morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:573-584, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Localization of Avian Influenza Virus in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Chicken Tissues by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wan-po; GU Chang-qin; BI Ding-ren; SONG Nian-hua; CHENG Guo-fu

    2005-01-01

    In this study, in situ hybridization (ISH) was developed to detect avian influenza virus (AIV) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded chicken tissues. A cDNA probe corresponding to a region of AIV nucleoprotein (NP) gene was synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin. Probe specificity was determined by AIV infected MDCK cells in vitro and the results showed that strong cytoplasmic staining was only detected in AIV-infected cells. Various tissues were collected from 12 h to 3 5 days post-infection (PI) following inoculation with the H9N2 subtype AIV. AIV was localized in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and cartilage of the throat and trachea at 12 h PI. Tissues from uninfected chickens were negative. The finding of this study indicated ISH was a sensitive and specific technique to detect and localize AIV as well as to study AIV pathogenesis.

  3. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana, Vijaya; Broadway, Mary M; Bruce, Matthew P; Lowenthal, John W; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Bean, Andrew G D

    2009-07-01

    The recent European Union ban on the prophylactic use of in-feed antibiotics has escalated the search for alternatives for use within the poultry industry. When evaluating the efficacy of potential antibiotic alternatives on bird health and productivity, it is important to analyze the competence of the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), because it is routinely involved in the surveillance of colonizing microbes as well as in interacting with the ingested feed antigens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the prebiotics mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the phenotypic and functional competence of immune cells in cecal tonsil (CT), which is a major GALT. Day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomized to 4 groups. Control chickens were fed the basal diet only. Chickens in experimental groups received 0.05 g/kg zinc bacitracin or 5 g/kg of either FOS or MOS in addition to basal diet. At the end of 25 d, our comparison of the experimental groups with controls revealed that the addition of prebiotics to diet resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of B cells and in mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes in CT. Furthermore, FOS treatment significantly enhanced the IgM and IgG antibody titers in plasma. These findings emphasize the need for the analyses of the gut immune function following treatment with novel feed additives. The knowledge obtained from such analyses may aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the immune competence of the birds, which needs consideration when selecting and optimizing new feed additives instead of antibiotics for poultry production.

  4. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

  5. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (‑) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken.

  6. Influence of aflatoxin B1 on the kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue residues of doxycycline in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, M; Youssef, S A H; El-Eanna, H A; El-Maaz, A A

    2002-09-01

    1. Disposition kinetics of doxycycline (doxy) was studied in healthy chickens and chickens experimentally intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 by intravenous, oral or intramuscular (i.m.) injection, in a single dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. In addition, the tissue distribution and residual pattern of the drug were determined in healthy and intoxicated chickens. 2. The maximum serum concentrations of doxy were reached 1.97 and 2.37 h after oral, and 1.57 and 2.92 h after i.m. dosage in healthy and aflatoxic birds, respectively. 3. The volumes of distribution and total body clearances were higher in aflatoxic birds (1.75 l/kg and 14.61 ml/kg/min) than in healthy chickens (0.93 l/kg and 4.6 ml/kg/min). Data relating to intravenous injection were analysed using a two-compartment open model curve fit. 4. Lower values of systemic bioavailability were observed in intoxicated birds (30.9 and 33.9%) than healthy ones (43.7 and 57.3%) after oral and i.m. administration, respectively. 5. The highest concentration of doxy residues were present in liver, kidney and serum followed by heart and muscles. Doxy residue concentrations in edible tissues was below the EEC limit 6 d after cessation of oral or i.m. medication with 15 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 5 successive days.

  7. Fasting rapidly increases fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue of young broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchon, Emmanuelle; Ray, Rodney; Hulver, Matthew W; McMillan, Ryan P; Voy, Brynn H

    2017-01-02

    Upregulating the fatty acid oxidation capacity of white adipose tissue in mice protects against diet-induced obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Part of this capacity results from induction of brown-like adipocytes within classical white depots, making it difficult to determine the oxidative contribution of the more abundant white adipocytes. Avian genomes lack a gene for uncoupling protein 1 and are devoid of brown adipose cells, making them a useful model in which to study white adipocyte metabolism in vivo. We recently reported that a brief (5 hour) period of fasting significantly upregulated many genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation pathways in white adipose tissue of young broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to determine if the effects on gene expression manifested in increased rates of fatty acid oxidation. Abdominal adipose tissue was collected from 21 day-old broiler chicks that were fasted for 3, 5 or 7 hours or fed ad libitum (controls). Fatty acid oxidation was determined by measuring and summing (14)CO2 production and (14)C-labeled acid-soluble metabolites from the oxidation of [1-(14)C] palmitic acid. Fasting induced a progressive increase in complete fatty acid oxidation and citrate synthase activity relative to controls. These results confirm that fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue is dynamically controlled by nutritional status. Identifying the underlying mechanism may provide new therapeutic targets through which to increase fatty acid oxidation in situ and protect against the detrimental effects of excess free fatty acids on adipocyte insulin sensitivity.

  8. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorjahan Banu Alitheen

    Full Text Available The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(- and IgM(+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240 was examined.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Huan-Xian; Liu, Ran-Ran; Zhao, Gui-Ping; Zheng, Mai-Qing; Chen, Ji-Lan; Wen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY...

  10. The chicken CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein alpha gene. Cloning, characterisation and tissue distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, CF; Gringhuis, SI; Ab, G

    1997-01-01

    We present the cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the chicken CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein alpha (cC/EBP alpha). The coding region and 1.5 kb of 5' flanking DNA form a CpG island. Comparison of the chicken C/EBP alpha sequence to the homologous proteins of other species reveals several ev

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for six inorganic and organic arsenic species in chicken tissues using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-09-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for microwave-assisted extraction of six major inorganic and organic arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone) from chicken tissues, followed by detection using a high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry detection method, which allows the simultaneous analysis of both inorganic and organic arsenic species in the extract in a single run. Effects of extraction medium, solution pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, and the temperature and time of microwave-assisted extraction on the extraction of the targeted arsenic species were studied. The optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions were: 100 mg of chicken tissue, extracted by 5 mL of 22% v/v methanol, 90 mmol/L (NH4 )2 HPO4 , and 0.07% v/v trifluoroacetic acid (with pH adjusted to 10.0 by ammonium hydroxide solution), ramping for 10 min to 71°C, and holding for 11 min. The method has good extraction performance for total arsenic in the spiked and nonspiked chicken tissues (104.0 ± 13.8% and 91.6 ± 7.8%, respectively), except for the ones with arsenic contents close to the quantitation limits. Limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone in chicken tissues using this method were 0.012, 0.058, 0.039, 0.061, 0.102, and 0.240 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively.

  12. Influence of the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on experimental infections with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Imad

    2004-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung von experimentellen Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 Infektionen bei Küken durch den probiotischen Stamm Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Imad Azmi Awadein Mohamed Institut für Bakteriologie und Mykologie, Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Universität Leipzig und Institut für Geflügelkrankheiten, Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Freie Universität Berlin Eingereicht im Januar, 2004 Schlüsselworte: (E. coli Stamm Nissle 1917, Küken, S. Enteritidis, Probiotika...

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Huan-Xian; Liu Ran-Ran; Zhao Gui-Ping; Zheng Mai-Qing; Chen Ji-Lan; Wen Jie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the important factors influencing meat quality, however, for chickens, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait have not yet been determined. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Arbo...

  14. Ontogeny of growth hormone receptor gene expression in tissue of growth-selected strains of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J N; Burnside, J; Postel-Vinay, M C; Pesek, J D; Chambers, J R; Cogburn, L A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between genetic selection for growth traits and tissue expression of the chicken growth hormone receptor (cGHR) gene. Two different populations of broiler chickens were studied. One population consisted of strain (S) 80, selected for 14 generations for high 9-week body weight (BW), and its progenitor, S90 (a 1950's strain). The second population consisted of S21, selected for 10 generations for high 4-week BW and low abdominal fat, and its progenitor S20 (a 1970's strain). Tissue (liver, fat, breast and leg muscle) and blood samples were collected from six birds/strain at 2-week intervals between 1 and 11 weeks of age. An RNase protection assay was developed to measure mRNA levels of full-length cGHR (3.2 and 4.3 kb) transcripts and chicken glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (for normalization) in total RNA prepared from tissue. Analysis of the area-under-curve (AUC) was used for strain comparisons of certain developmental profiles (BW, plasma hormones and tissue cGHR mRNA). The BW AUC showed that the growth rates are different (P S20 > S80 > S90). Both slow-growing strains (S90 and S80) had a higher (P growing strains (S20 and S21). The plasma T3 AUC was highest (P S20 > S80 > S90). However, the developmental increase in cGHR mRNA in liver and fat was similar among these different populations of growth-selected broiler chickens. Steady-state levels of cGHR mRNA increased in a developmental manner in the liver (5-fold at 9 weeks of age) and abdominal fat (4.5-fold at 11 weeks of age) of all strains. In contrast, there was no developmental increase or strain difference in cGHR mRNA levels in breast and leg muscle. There is a discrepancy between GH-binding activity in liver and plasma, which is different among strains, and steady-state levels of tissue cGHR mRNA which are similar among strains. These observations suggest that the cGHR is under translational or post-translational regulation which would

  15. Distribution of Lymphocytes in the Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT of Naturally Occurring Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.

  16. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in chickens with fowl cholera and in pig lung tissues using fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Christensen, H.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental fowl cholera in chickens and infections in pigs. In chicken lung tissues P. multocida cells were detected singly, in pairs, as microcolonies, and as massive colonies within air capillaries (septa and lumen), parabronchial septa, and blood...... and fast method for specific detection of P. multocida in histological formalin-fixed tissues. The test was replicable and reproducible and is recommended as a supplementary test for diagnosis and as a tool in pathogenesis studies of fowl cholera and respiratory tract infections in pigs due to P. multocida....

  17. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats with vitamin E supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husvéth, F; Manilla, H A; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P; Balogh, N; Wágner, L; Lóth, I; Németh, K

    2000-01-01

    The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver alpha-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.

  18. The association of SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region with thermo tolerance traits and tissue mRNA expression in two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Gan, Jian-Kang; Xiao, Xiong; Jiang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Luo, Qing-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Thermo stress induces heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression and HSP90 family is one of them that has been reported to involve in cellular protection against heat stress. But whether there is any association of genetic variation in the Hsp90β gene in chicken with thermo tolerance is still unknown. Direct sequencing was used to detect possible SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region in 3 chicken breeds (n = 663). Six mutations, among which 2 SNPs were chosen and genotypes were analyzed with PCR-RFLP method, were found in Hsp90β gene in these 3 chicken breeds. Association analysis indicated that SNP of C.-141G>A in the 5' flanking region of the Hsp90β gene in chicken had some effect on thermo tolerance traits, which may be a potential molecular marker of thermo tolerance, and the genotype GG was the thermo tolerance genotype. Hsp90β gene mRNA expression in different tissues detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay were demonstrated to be tissue dependent, implying that different tissues have distinct sensibilities to thermo stress. Besides, it was shown time specific and varieties differences. The expression of Hsp90β mRNA in Lingshan chickens in some tissues including heart, liver, brain and spleen were significantly higher or lower than that of White Recessive Rock (WRR). In this study, we presume that these mutations could be used in marker assisted selection for anti-heat stress chickens in our breeding program, and WRR were vulnerable to tropical thermo stress whereas Lingshan chickens were well adapted.

  19. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  20. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  1. A sandwich-type immunosensor using Pd-Pt nanocrystals as labels for sensitive detection of human tissue polypeptide antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoguang; Wei, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Ma, Hongmin; Guo, Aiping; Du, Bin

    2014-02-01

    A sandwich-type immunosensor was developed for the detection of human tissue polypeptide antigen (hTPA). In this work, a graphene sheet (GS) was synthesized to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and Pd-Pt bimetallic nanocrystals were used as secondary-antibody (Ab2) labels for the fabrication of the immunosensor. The amperometric response of the immunosensor for catalyzing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was recorded. And electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the fabrication process of the immunosensor. The anti-human tissue polypeptide antigen primary antibody (Ab1) was immobilized onto the GS modified GCE via cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS). With Ab1 immobilized onto the GS modified GCE and Ab2 linked on Pd-Pt bimetallic nanocrystals, the immunosensor demonstrated a wide linear range (0.0050-15 ng ml-1), a low detection limit (1.2 pg ml-1), good reproducibility, good selectivity and acceptable stability. This design strategy may provide many potential applications in the detection of other cancer biomarkers.

  2. Influence of heat stress, sex and genetic groups on reference genes stability in muscle tissue of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedraz de Oliveira, Haniel; Pinto Garcia, Antonio Amandio; Gonzaga Gromboni, Juliana Gracielle; Vasconcelos Farias Filho, Ronaldo; Souza do Nascimento, Carlos; Arias Wenceslau, Amauri

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR is an important technique for assessing gene expression. However, a proper normalization of reference genes prior to expression analyses of target genes is necessary. The best normalizer is that gene which remains stable in all samples from different treatments. The aim of this study was to identify stable reference genes for normalization of target genes in muscle tissue from three genetically divergent chickens groups (Peloco, Cobb 500® and Caneluda) under environmental (heat stress and comfort) and sex influence. Expressions of ten reference genes were tested for stability in breast muscular tissue (Pectoralis major muscle). Samples were obtained from 36 males and females of two backyard breeds (Caneluda and Peloco) and one commercial line (Cobb 500®) under two environments. The heat stress and comfort temperature were 39 and 23°C, respectively. Animals were housed in the Animal Science Department at Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. We analyzed the expression data by four statistical tools (SLqPCR, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and Comparative CT). According to these tools, genes stability varied according to sex, genetic group and environment, however, some genes remained stable in all analyzes. There was no difference between the most stable genes for sex effect, being MRPS27 more stable for both males and females. In general, MRPS27 was the most stable gene. Within the three genetic groups, the most stable genes were RPL5, HMBS and EEF1 to Cobb 500®, Peloco and Caneluda, respectively. Within the environment, the most stable gene under comfort and heat stress conditions was HMBS and MRPS27, respectively. BestKeeper and Comparative Ct were less correlated (28%) and SLqPCR and NormFinder were the most correlated (98%). MRPS27, RPL5 and MRPS30 genes were considered stable according the overall ranking and can be used as normalizer of relative expression of target genes in muscle tissue of chickens under heat stress.

  3. Induction of tissue- and stressor-specific kinomic responses in chickens exposed to hot and cold stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Scott; Dadgar, Samira; Arsenault, Ryan J; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Kusalik, Anthony; Shand, Phyllis

    2015-06-01

    Defining cellular responses at the level of global cellular kinase (kinome) activity is a powerful approach to deciphering complex biology and identifying biomarkers. Here we report on the development of a chicken-specific peptide array and its application to characterizing kinome responses within the breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (iliotibialis) muscles of poultry subject to temperature stress to mimic conditions experienced by birds during commercial transport. Breast and thigh muscles exhibited unique kinome profiles, highlighting the distinct nature of these tissues. Against these distinct backgrounds, tissue- and temperature-specific kinome responses were observed. In breast, both cold and hot stresses activated calcium-dependent metabolic adaptations. Also within breast, but specific to cold stress, was the activation of ErbB signaling as well as dynamic patterns of phosphorylation of AMPK, a key regulatory enzyme of metabolism. In thigh, cold stress induced responses suggestive of the occurrence of tissue damage, including activation of innate immune signaling pathways and tissue repair pathways (TGF-β). In contrast, heat stress in thigh activated pathways associated with protein and fat metabolism through adipocytokine and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Defining the responses of these tissues to these stresses through conventional markers of pH, glycolytic potential, and meat quality offered a similar conclusion of the tissue- and stressor-specific responses, validating the kinome results. Collectively, the results of this study highlight the unique cellular responses of breast and thigh tissues to heat and cold stresses and may offer insight into the unique susceptibilities, as well as functional consequences, of these tissues to thermal stress. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Persistence of the tissue culture origin vaccine for infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial chicken flocks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Silvana H Santander; Nuñez, Luis F; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2015-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of great importance that causes serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Its control is based on biosecurity procedures and vaccination programs that use live attenuated vaccines such as tissue culture origin (TCO), chicken embryo origin (CEO), and vectored vaccines. However, problems have been reported, such as the reversion of virulence, virus latency, and field virus outbreaks. Several molecular techniques have been developed to differentiate between the field and vaccine strains. This study was conducted to determine the presence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in Brazil from 2012 to 2014. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was used to detect and differentiate ILTV strains; DNA sequencing and predictive RFLP analysis were also used for this purpose. Molecular analysis detected the presence of ILTV in 15 samples that were characterized as strains of TCO vaccine origin. This study showed that the ILTV TCO vaccine strain has been circulating in commercial chicken flocks in Brazil since its introduction during the 2002 outbreak.

  5. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette;

    2005-01-01

    transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains...

  6. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin receptor (LPR) genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for real time RT-PCR analysis with custom-designed primers and probes. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chick...

  7. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  8. Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ∆ desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K; Filipović, N; Stojević, Z; Brozić, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ∆5 and ∆4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ∆5 and ∆5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry. Journal of Animal

  9. Transmission, serologic and tissue responses in chickens vaccinated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum F strain (MG-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: MG-F protects chickens from MG Mycoplasmosis and monitoring is done by serology (SAR and ELISA and PCR. Histopathology is used to evaluate bird response to MG. This study evaluated MG-F profile vaccination in SPF chicken. This trial used 100 chickens, being 40 unvaccinated (G1, 40 eye-drop vaccinated at 8 weeks of age with MG-F ( Ceva Animal Health , São Paulo , SP , Brazil (G2 and 20 immunized by contact (G3 . Samples were obtained on the 8th, 12th, 15th, 18th, 20th and 24th week for SAR, ELISA and PCR. Fragments of trachea and air sac, for microscopy, were got after necropsies on the 15th and 24th week. Up to 12 weeks there was no significant difference among groups by SAR. SAR reactions appeared from the 15th week with these averages: G1 (1.7, 1.76 , 0.1, 0.15 , G2 (7.81, 7.65, 8.25, 6.29 and G3 (8.1, 8.5, 9.5, 6.16, while by ELISA it occurred after the 18th week with optical densities averages: G1 (0.19, 0.14, 0.16 , G2 (0.47, 0.45, 0.41 and G3 (0.55, 0.51, 0.51 . Positivity in G3 by PCR occurred seven weeks after exposure. At the 15th week the air sac score means were 0.20, 0.55, and 0.32 and 24th week were 0.15, 0.80 and 0.66 (p>0.05. For trachea, G2 (0.48 yielded higher score average than G1 (0.10 and G3 (0.00 on the 15th week. Changes in G3 were seen only at 24th week, being this average (1.00 significantly different (p<0,05 from G1 (0.08 and G2 (0.46. SAR and PCR detected MG-F in G3 earlier than ELISA. Higher tracheal changes for G2 and G3 as compared to G1 could be ascribed to MG-F vaccine infection.

  10. Optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver tissue measured ex-vivo with diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez-Ullah; Atif, M.; Firdous, S.; Mehmood, M. S.; Hamza, M. Y.; Imran, M.; Hussain, G.; Ikram, M.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver at 720, 740, 770, 810, 825 and 840 nm wavelengths of laser irradiation. So, we were able to evaluate these optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients) with ex-vivo study using Kubelka Munk Model (KMM) from the radial dependence of the diffuse reflectance with femtosecond pulsed laser in near IR region. These coefficients were significantly increased with coagulation. The penetration depths of the diffused light have been reported to a maximum value of 8.12 ± 0.36 mm in normal liver and 2.49 ± 0.17 mm in coagulated liver at 840 nm showing increasing behavior towards IR region. The Monte Carlo simulation was used to check the theoretical validation of measured optical properties of the tissue that showed a good match with our experimental results. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding arid optimal use of laser applications in medicine and differential diagnosis of tissues by using different optical methods. Especially for the investigation of biological tissue for photodynamic therapy (PDT), the knowledge of the specific optical properties and their thermo-induced changes is important.

  11. Effect of dried extract of boldo (Peumus Boldus Mol. on growth and oxidative tissue status of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Fellenberg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of antioxidants to broiler diets has been shown to enhance their antioxidant status. Since boldo (Peumus boldus Mol. leaves contain highly antioxidant molecules, a dried extract of boldo (DEB was added to broiler diets to improve "in vivo" antioxidant tissue status and to favor animal growth. A DEB standardized for antioxidant content was prepared and added to poultry diets at three different levels (low-DELB, medium-DEMB, and high-DEHB for a period of 6 weeks. A single negative control (no added antioxidant and one positive control (supplementation with 200 mg/kg vitamin E were used. Plasma antioxidant capacity (PAC, thiol content (GHS, and basal and induced lipoperoxidation of liver, leg and breast tissues were determined in birds at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age. PAC increased with chicken age until week 6, but was unaffected by DEB addition at any level. However, DEB increased hepatic GSH content. No data indicated that DEB improved the resistance against induced lipoperoxidation in the assayed tissues. DEB contains compounds exhibiting high antioxidant activity "in vivo", as evidenced by the increase in liver thiol content. Regarding broiler performance, no differences in poultry body weight and feed consumption were detected during the assay.

  12. Alteration of HSF3 and HSP70 mRNA expression in the tissues of two chicken breeds during acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W W; Kong, L N; Zhang, X Q; Luo, Q B

    2014-11-27

    This study aimed to estimate changes in HSF3 and HSP70 mRNA expression in stress-sensitive tissues of 2 chicken breeds during acute heat stress. Lingshan chickens (LSC) and White Recessive Rock (WRR) (24 chickens of each breed) were randomly divided into 4 groups (0, 2, 3, and 6 h of heat treatment). With increasing heat treatment time, both HSF3 and HSP70 expression first declined and then showed a significant increase in both breeds. However, HSP70 expression decreased in the heart following 6 h of heat treatment, whereas HSF3 expression continued to increase. After 2 h of heat treatment, HSF3 expression was significantly higher in the brain and leg muscle of LSC compared to WRR (P heat treatment, HSF3 expression was significantly higher in the brain and leg muscle of LSC compared to WRR (P heat treatment.

  13. A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR based assay for authentication of cell lines or tissues from human, pig and chicken origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GORENJAK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction based assay was developed for authentication of cell lines or tissues from human, pig and chicken origin. Specificity was achieved by species specific primer design targeting the mitochondrial D-loop sequence. Amplicon sizes were 114 bp, 169 bp and 645-648 bp for chicken, human and pig derived cell lines, respectively. Primers were tested for species specificity and non-specificity between haplogroups of the same organisms using BLAST tool and subsequently for cross amplification DNA extracted from human, chicken and pig venous blood as a positive control. Primers were also amplifying specific products in DNA extracted from individual cell line in both functional cell models and intentionally mixed cell lines consisting functional cell models. The PCR assay developed in this study represents a low-cost species specific end-point PCR based assay of the mitochondrial D-loop for the authentication of the cell line origin.

  14. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salikin, Jamilah; Abdullah, Aminah

    2013-11-01

    A methodusingliquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)MS) for the simultaneous determination of three macrolides (tylosin, spiramycin and tilmicosin) in poultry muscle has been developed. The drugs were extracted with EDTA McIlvaine buffer, filter through celite 545 and the extracts were cleaned up by SPE Oasis HLB cartridge. Separation was carried out in end-capped silica-based C18 column and mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile with a binary gradient system at a flow rate 0.5 ml/min. Detection was performed by single mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. Several parameters affecting the mass spectra were studied. Chicken samples from the market were analyzed to check the residue of macrolide antibiotics.

  15. Alternative transcriptional initiation and alternative use of polyadenylation signals in the alphaB-crystallin gene expressed in different chicken tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macip, S; Mezquita, C; Mezquita, J

    1997-03-18

    Overexpression of alphaB-crystallin is associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases and abnormal cell growth patterns. To study the mechanisms involved in the control of the transcriptional activity of the gene we have characterized its expression in different chicken tissues. The sequence of the alphaB-crystallin cDNA isolated from chicken testis and 6-day-old chick embryo is highly homologous to the duck alphaB-crystallin cDNA and differs from the previously reported chicken lens alphaB-crystallin cDNA in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) and in one amino acid of the coding sequence. Four forms of the alphaB-crystallin cDNA detected in chicken testes arise from the use of alternative transcription initiation sites and alternative polyadenylation signals. The two principal hybridizing bands found in lens and embryonic tissues possess a short 5'-UTR and differ in the length of the 3'-UTR. Forms with longer 5'-UTR are present in testis, muscle, and heart. The use of different start sites and polyadenylation signals could modulate transcriptional activity and the stability of the messages. The expression of the alphaB-crystallin gene decreases from day 6 to day 8 of chick embryogenesis, in parallel with the expression of the polyubiquitin gene UbII.

  16. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  17. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  18. Tissue tropism of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in chickens determined by culture and nucleic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowski, Artur; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Binek, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) to colonize chosen organs of chicks infected intratracheally (group A1), or intravenously (group A2), with the use of bacteriological methods and PCR. The bacteriological methods enabled to reisolate ORT bacteria from trachea and lungs of the birds from group A1 only on day 3 and 6 after infection. The PCR technique additionally detected the bacterial genetic material in these organs on the 9th day after infection, and gave positive results in the samples from air sacs until the 6th day of the experiment. In birds infected intravenously (A2) ORT was reisolated from liver on day 3 and from spleen on day 3 and 6 after infection, whereas the reisolation from the tibiotarsal joint occurred during the entire experimental period. PCR enabled to detect the bacterial DNA in the liver, spleen and lungs of chickens until the 9th day after infection and in case of tibiotarsal joint during the whole time of the study.

  19. Characterization of the expression profiles of adipogenesis-related factors, ZNF423, KLFs and FGF10, during preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal adipose tissue development in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yusuke; Aoki, Michiru; Endo, Tonami; Sato, Kan

    2013-07-01

    Adipogenesis is controlled by a complicated process involving certain transcriptional events. In chicken adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal fat accumulation. However, in a recent study in mammals, some novel factors related to regulation of adipogenesis, including preadipocyte differentiation, were identified in mammals. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the expression profiles of these mammalian adipogenesis-related factors, such as zinc-finger protein 423 (ZNF423), Krüppel-like factor -2, -5, and -15 (KLF-2, -5, -15), and FGF10, in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Specifically, we analyzed their expression in primary preadipocyte differentiation in vitro and also analyzed their tissue distribution and their temporal expression in adipose tissue development in vivo. During chicken adipocyte differentiation, the gene expression of ZNF423, KLF-2, KLF-5 and FGF10 was found to rapidly decrease in the early stage of preadipocyte differentiation. Expression of ZNF423 then increased in the late stage of differentiation. KLF-15 expression increased in a time-dependent manner for 48 h. Protein expressions of these factors were reflected by Western blot analysis. High levels of aP2, PPARγ and FGF10 mRNA were found in adipose tissue. In addition, aP2, PPARγ and ZNF423 mRNA levels in the adipose tissue were elevated at days 10 and 20. These expression profiles of the adipogenesis-related factors in chicken are, in part, different from mammalian adipogenesis but this seems to reflect the differences in the regulation of adipogenesis and in adipose tissue functions between avians and mammals.

  20. Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Virus pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi dengan Virus Penyakit Tetelo (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF VIRAL ANTIGEN IN TISSUE OF CHICKENS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV following infection, chickenswere experimentally infected with visceretropic velogenic NDV isolate. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbsagainst the NDV LaSota vaccine strain were then produced to detect viral antigen in the infectedorgans. The mAbs were firstly tested for their specificity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA using NDV and normal allantoic fluids as antigens. Eight mAbs specific against NDVwere isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetection of NDV antigen in chicken’s tissues.By immunohistochemistry labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB staining NDV–antigen was detectedin paraffin embedded tissues of NDV-infected chickens. NDV antigen was not detected in noninfected chickens. In the infected chickens, high intensity of NDV antigen was detected in thelymphoid tissues, lung and intestine. The NDV antigen with a lesser intensity was detected in thebrain, trachea, liver and myocardium. This study shows that although viscerotropic velogenicNDV isolate can infect almost all organs, the main target of infection are lung, intestine andlymphoids tissues

  1. Infection with Some Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Pathotypes Produces Virus in Chicken Muscle Tissue and the Role of Humoral Immunity as a Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Sá E; Bertran, Kateri; Moresco, Kira; Jackwood, Daral J; Swayne, David E

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes important economic losses and negatively affects global trade in poultry and poultry products. This study determined the presence of IBDV in primary lymphoid tissues and muscle tissue of infected broilers and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In the first study, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler chickens were challenged with STC (classical [cIBDV]), Indiana (variant [varIBDV]), rA (very virulent [vvIBDV]), or Ohio (serotype 2, avirulent) IBDV. Infection was confirmed in all groups, but only the cIBDV group experienced morbidity or mortality. Virus was only isolated in low titers from a few breast and/or thigh muscle tissue samples from cIBDV and vvIBDV-infected chickens. For the second study, SPF broilers from three different treatment groups were challenged with IBDV viruses that currently circulate in the United States, varIBDV or vvIBDV: 1) maternal antibody-positive (MAb+), vaccinated with recombinant HVT-IBDV vaccine (Vaxxitek(®), Merial; MAb+/Vax); 2) MAb+, not-vaccinated (MAb+/Unvax); and 3) maternal antibody-negative, not-vaccinated chickens (MAb-/Unvax). MAb+/Vax and MAb+/Unvax chickens had significantly lower virus titers in primary lymphoid tissues compared to MAb-/Unvax chickens. No virus was detected in muscle tissues from any of the groups challenged with varIBDV, confirming the results of the first experiment. Only 1 of 36 (MAb+/Vax) and 2 of 36 (MAb+/Unvax) muscle samples were positive at minimal amounts (10(1.97) EID50/ml) in vvIBDV challenge, compared to the 9 of 36 muscle samples that were positive in the MAb-/Unvax group. This study indicates that only cIBDV and vvIBDV strains can be found in muscle at low titers of SPF meat chickens and that the breeder vaccination with MAb transfer to progeny with or without accompanying progeny vaccination, as practiced in the United States, was an effective mitigation strategy for vvIBDV-challenged birds.

  2. On radiation damage to normal tissues and its treatment. Pt. 2; Anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, A.S. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    In addition to transiently inhibiting cell cycle progression and sterilizing those cells capable of proliferation, irradiation disturbs the homeostasis effected by endogenous mediators of intercellular communication (humoral component of tissue response to radiation). Changes in the mediator levels may modulate radiation effects either by a assisting a return to normality (e.g., through a rise in H-type cell lineage-specific growth factors) or by aggravating the damage. The latter mode is illustrated with reports on changes in eicosanoid levels after irradiation and on results of empirical treatment of radiation injuries with anti-inflammatory drugs. Prodromal, acute and chronic effects of radiation are accompanied by excessive production of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxanes and leukotrienes). These endogenous mediators of inflammatory reactions may be responsible for the vasodilatation, vasoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, thrombosis and chemotaxis observed after radiation exposure. Glucocorticoids inhibit eicosanoid synthesis primarily by interfering with phospholipase A[sub 2] whilst non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent prostaglandin/thromboxane synthesis by inhibiting cycloxygenase. When administered after irradiation on empirical grounds, drugs belonging to both groups tend to attenuate a range of prodomal, acute and chronic effects of radiation in man and animals. Taken together, these two sets of observations are highly suggestive of a contribution of humoral factors to the adverse responses of normal tissues and organs to radiation. A full account of radiation damage should therefore consist of complementary descriptions of cellular and humoral events. Further studies on anti-inflammatory drug treatment of radiation damage to normal organs are justified and desirable. (orig.).

  3. Cellular transcripts of chicken brain tissues in response to H5N1 and Newcastle disease virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramaniam Vinod RMT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 and Newcastle disease (ND viruses are the two most important poultry viruses in the world, with the ability to cause classic central nervous system dysfunction in poultry and migratory birds. To elucidate the mechanisms of neurovirulence caused by these viruses, a preliminary study was design to analyze host's cellular responses during infections of these viruses. Methods An improved mRNA differential display technique (Gene Fishing™ was undertaken to analyze differentially expressed transcripts regulated during HPAI H5N1 and velogenic neurotropic NDV infections of whole brain of chickens. The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs was made possible as this technique uses annealing control primers that generate reproducible, authentic and long PCR products that are detectable on agarose gels. Results Twenty-three genes were identified to be significantly regulated during infections with both viruses, where ten of the genes have been selected for validation using a TaqMan® based real time quantitative PCR assay. Some of the identified genes demonstrated to be key factors involving the cytoskeletal system, neural signal transduction and protein folding during stress. Interestingly, Septin 5, one of the genes isolated from HPAI H5N1-infected brain tissues has been reported to participate in the pathogenic process of Parkinson's disease. Conclusions In this limited study, the differentially expressed genes of infected brain tissues regulated by the viruses were found not to be identical, thus suggesting that their neurovirulence and neuropathogenesis may not share similar mechanisms and pathways.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Huan-Xian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intramuscular fat (IMF is one of the important factors influencing meat quality, however, for chickens, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait have not yet been determined. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY, a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Arbor Acres (AA, a commercial fast-growing broiler line. Results Agilent cDNA microarray analyses were conducted to determine gene expression profiles of breast muscle sampled at different developmental stages of BJY and AA chickens. Relative to d 1 when there is no detectable IMF, breast muscle at d 21, d 42, d 90 and d 120 (only for BJY contained 1310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in BJY and 1080 DEGs in AA. Of these, 34–70 DEGs related to lipid metabolism or muscle development processes were examined further in each breed based on Gene Ontology (GO analysis. The expression of several DEGs was correlated, positively or negatively, with the changing patterns of lipid content or breast weight across the ages sampled, indicating that those genes may play key roles in these developmental processes. In addition, based on KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs in both BJY and AA chickens, it was found that in addition to pathways affecting lipid metabolism (pathways for MAPK & PPAR signaling, cell junction-related pathways (tight junction, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, which play a prominent role in maintaining the integrity of tissues, could contribute to the IMF deposition. Conclusion The results of this study identified potential candidate genes associated with chicken IMF deposition and imply that IMF deposition in chicken breast muscle is regulated and mediated not only by genes and pathways related to lipid

  5. Molecular characterization of prolactin receptor (cPRLR) gene in chickens: gene structure, tissue expression, promoter analysis, and its interaction with chicken prolactin (cPRL) and prolactin-like protein (cPRL-L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guixian; Ying Wang, Crystal; Cai, Guoqing; Leung, Frederick C; Xu, Min; Wang, Hongning; Huang, Guian; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2013-05-06

    In this study, gene structure, tissue expression, and promoter usage of prolactin receptor (PRLR) and its interaction with prolactin (PRL) and the newly identified prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) were investigated in chickens. The results showed that (1) PRLR gene was found to consist of at least 25 exons by 5'-RACE and RT-PCR assays; (2) multiple PRLR 5'-UTR sequences different in exon composition were isolated from chicken liver or intestine by 5'-RACE and could be subdivided into type I and type II transcripts according to the first exon used (exon 1G or exon 1A); (3) PRLR Type I transcripts with exon 1G were detected to be predominantly expressed in adult kidney and small intestine by RT-PCR, implying their expression is likely controlled by a tissue-specific promoter (P1). By contrast, PRLR type II transcripts containing exon 1A are widely expressed in adult and embryonic tissues examined and their expression is controlled by a generic promoter (P2) near exon 1A, which was demonstrated to display promoter activities in cultured DF-1, HEK293 and LoVo cells by the dual-luciferase reporter assay; (4) Using a 5×STAT5-luciferase reporter system, cPRLR expressed in HepG2 cells was shown to be activated by recombinant cPRL and cPRL-L via interaction with PRLR membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain, suggesting that like cPRL, cPRL-L is also a functional ligand of cPRLR. Collectively, characterization of cPRLR gene helps to elucidate the roles of PRLR and its ligands in birds and provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms of PRLR expression conserved in birds and mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of trace levels of 10 quinolones in swine, chicken, and shrimp muscle tissues using HPLC with programmable fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sijun; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Xuelian; Mi, Tiejun; Li, Cun; Shen, Jianzhong

    2007-05-16

    A HPLC method using a modified sample preparation procedure was optimized and validated for the quantification of 10 quinolones (QNs), including marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid, and flumequine, in swine, chicken, and shrimp tissues. In this method, only a small mass (residue limits (10 ng g-1) established in many countries. The method was also applied to the measurement of QN residues in commercial muscle samples. The results showed it was rapid, simple, sensitive, and suitable for use in food surveillance programs.

  7. Detection and strain differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus in tracheal tissues from experimentally infected chickens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Comparison with an immunohistochemical technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, M.W.;

    1999-01-01

    Oligonucleotide pairs were constructed for priming the amplification of fragments of nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike glycoprotein (S) genes of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One oligonucleotide pair amplified a common segment......3896 and 793B strains of IBV, respectively, Groups of specific pathogen free chickens were experimentally inoculated with the Massachusetts (H120, M41), the D1466 and the 793B strains of IBV, and tracheal tissue preparations were made from each bird for RT-PCR and for immunohistochemistry (IHC) up to 3...

  8. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  9. Effect of doxycycline concentrations in chicken tissues as a consequence of permanent exposure to enrofloxacin traces in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbylik-Sikorska Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main problem in poultry farming is the difficulty in producing food of animal origin without using antibacterial agents. Because most antibacterial compounds are dispensed in water, some water supply systems can be contaminated by antibiotics which are then administered to the animals unintentionally. This can lead to unexpected increases in antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the constant exposure of chicken broilers to enrofloxacin affects the withdrawal time of a therapeutic doxycycline that is intentionally administered to the chickens.

  10. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  11. Optical properties of tumor tissues grown on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs: tumor model to assay of tumor response to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Kariyama, Yoichiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Ishii, Takuya; Kitajima, Yuya; Inoue, Katsushi; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the optical adequacy of a tumor model prepared with tumor cells grown on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken egg is evaluated as an alternative to the mouse tumor model to assess the optimal irradiation conditions in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The optical properties of CAM and mouse tumor tissues were measured with a double integrating sphere and the inverse Monte Carlo technique in the 350- to 1000-nm wavelength range. The hemoglobin and water absorption bands observed in the CAM tumor tissue (10 eggs and 10 tumors) are equal to that of the mouse tumor tissue (8 animals and 8 tumors). The optical intersubject variability of the CAM tumor tissues meets or exceeds that of the mouse tumor tissues, and the reduced scattering coefficient spectra of CAM tumor tissues can be equated with those of mouse tumor tissues. These results confirm that the CAM tumor model is a viable alternative to the mouse tumor model, especially for deriving optimal irradiation conditions in PDT.

  12. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  13. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of a chicken strain of hepatitis E virus (HEV), avian HEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F F; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, is an important human pathogen. Increasing evidence indicates that hepatitis E is a zoonosis. Avian HEV was recently discovered in chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the USA. Like swine HEV from pigs, avian HEV is also genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. The objective of this study was to construct and characterize an infectious cDNA clone of avian HEV for future studies of HEV replication and pathogenesis. Three full-length cDNA clones of avian HEV, pT7-aHEV-5, pT7G-aHEV-10 and pT7G-aHEV-6, were constructed and their infectivity was tested by in vitro transfection of leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken liver cells and by direct intrahepatic inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with capped RNA transcripts from the three clones. The results showed that the capped RNA transcripts from each of the three clones were replication competent when transfected into LMH cells as demonstrated by detection of viral antigens with avian HEV-specific antibodies. SPF chickens intrahepatically inoculated with the capped RNA transcripts from each of the three clones developed active avian HEV infections as evidenced by seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies, viraemia and faecal virus shedding. The infectivity was further confirmed by successful infection of naïve chickens with the viruses recovered from chickens inoculated with the RNA transcripts. The results indicated that all three cDNA clones of avian HEV are infectious both in vitro and in vivo. The availability of these infectious clones for a chicken strain of HEV now affords an opportunity to study the mechanisms of HEV cross-species infection and tissue tropism by constructing chimeric viruses among human, swine and avian HEVs.

  14. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

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    Bisgaard Magne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert.

  15. Determination and confirmation of nicarbazin, measured as 4,4-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: First Action 2013.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mark R; Rodewald, John M; Brunelle, Sharon L; Nelson, Maria; Bailey, Lauryn; Burnett, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted on an LC/MS/MS method for the determination and confirmation of nicarbazin, expressed as 4,4-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), in chicken tissues, including liver, kidney, muscle, skin with adhering fat, and eggs. Linearity was demonstrated with DNC standard curve solutions using a weighted (1/x) regression and confirmed with matrix-matched standards. Intertrial repeatability precision (relative standard deviation of repeatability; RSD(r) was from 2.5 to 11.3%, as determined in fortified tissues. The precision was verified with incurred tissue, and varied from 0.53 to 2.5%. Average recoveries ranged from 82% in egg to 98% in kidney. Although the average recoveries across all concentrations were within the acceptable range, the method was improved with the inclusion of an internal standard and the use of matrix-matched standards. Accuracy for the improved method in chicken liver varied from 93 to 99% across all concentrations (100-8000 ng/g) compared to recoveries below 80% at concentrations, between 100-400 ng/g in chicken liver for the original method. The limit of detection was estimated to be less than 3.0 ng/g in all tissue types, and the limit of quantitation was validated at 20 ng/g. Based on confirmatory ion ratios and peak retention times, the false-negative rate was estimated as 0.00% (95% confidence limits 0.00, 0.74%) from 484 fortified samples and 12 incurred residue samples analyzed using the U.S. and EU confirmation criteria. Small variations to the method parameters, with the exception of injection volume, did not have a significant effect on recoveries. Stability was determined for fortified tissues, extracts, and standard curve solutions. The data collected in this study satisfy the requirements of SLV studies established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel for Veterinary Drug Residue and the method was awarded First Action Official Method status by the Expert Review Panel for Veterinary Drug Residues on

  16. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  17. Molecular characterization of three NPY receptors (Y2, Y5 and Y7) in chickens: Gene structure, tissue expression, promoter identification, and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Zhang, Jiannan; Gao, Shunyu; Meng, Fengyan; Bu, Guixian; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2016-09-15

    Six neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are suggested to mediate the biological actions of NPY, peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), such as food intake in birds, however, information regarding the structure and signaling of avian NPY receptors are rather limited. In this study, we investigated the gene structure, tissue expression and signaling property of three NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) in chickens. The results showed that 1) cY2, cY5 and cY7 contain novel non-coding exons upstream of their start codon and alternative mRNA splicing in their 5'-UTR results in the formation of multiple transcript variants; 2) cY2, cY5 and cY7 transcripts were detected to be widely expressed in adult chicken tissues including various brain regions by RT-PCR, and their expression is controlled by a promoter(s) near exon 1, which display promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 3) cY2, cY5 and cY7 expressed in HEK293 cells were preferentially (or potently) activated by cNPY1-36 and cPYY1-37, but not by cPP1-36, and their activation led to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, monitored by the cell-based luciferase reporter systems or western blots, indicating that the three NPY receptors are functional and capable of transmitting signals effectively. On the whole, our data establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the actions of three functional NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) and their ligands in birds, which helps to uncover the conserved roles of these ligand-receptor pairs in vertebrates.

  18. Responses of Giving n-Hexane Jaloh Extract on Broiler Chicken which Heat Stress Condition to Expression of iNOS Enzyme in Lung Tissue, Serum level of Glucose and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Sugito Sugito

    2008-01-01

    Giving of extract n-hexane of jaloh bark (EHJ) can lessen impact heat stress on broiler chicken. The studies of activity of EHJ in lessening heat stress impact at broiler chicken have not been conducted yet. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of extract n-hexane of jaloh bark (EHJ) administration on body temperature, level of calcium and glucose in serum, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue, and behaviors of broilers exposed to heat stress at temperature 33 ± 1o...

  19. The potency of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) 3 protein as growth promoter for chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Iswati, Sri; Hidajati, Nove; Damayanti, Ratna

    2017-09-01

    The long-term objective of this study was to produce STAT synthetic protein in chicken during growth period resulting from the increase of growth hormone (GH) as growth promoter. This study used ten male chicken Lohman from PT. Multibreeder Indonesia. The chicken were kept within batteried cage, with a capacity of one chicken in each cage. The chickens were fed twice a day, at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. with the amount of feed 10% less than standard. On day 21 the chicken were slaughtered to obtain the samples, i.e., adipose, liver and muscles for the following examinations (1) isolation of STAT-3 signaling protein from adipose, liver and muscles of the chicken, (2) analysis of STAT-3 signaling protein using SDS-PAGE method, and (3) identification of STAT-3 signaling protein using Western blot method by means of protein detection using electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels. Results of examination on protein in hepatic, muscle and adipose of chickens in growth period revealed that STAT protein was positively present in those tissues. This finding was followed-up with SDS-PAGE examination, from which we found the presence of protein band between the markers of 116 kDa and 14.4 kDa. The protein band was supposedly the STAT-3 protein. To prove that protein band formed was the STAT-3, Western blot examination was conducted using rabbit polyclonal antibody STAT-3. The result showed the formation of the protein band, indicating the presence of reaction between antigen (STAT-3 protein) and STAT-3 protein antibody. In conclusion, STAT-3 protein is present in hepatic, muscular, and adipose tissues, with molecular weight of 59.4 kDa.

  20. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  1. Phenamil, an amiloride derivative, restricts long bone growth and alters keeled-sternum bone architecture in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tara R; Moncada, Kristin; Leyva-Jimenez, Hector; Park, Kye Won; Tontonoz, Peter; Walzem, Rosemary L

    2017-03-03

    "Broiler-type" chickens are fast-grow-ing, heavy-bodied birds with high demands on bone quality. Phenamil increased mineralization in cultured murine mesenchymal stem cells. Phenamil effects were tested in 2 groups of weight and gender matched day-old broiler chickens (n = 13). Oral administration of 30 mg phenamil/kg body weight d 1 to 13 reduced growth of chicks d 5 to 14 (P = 0.002); with phenamil-treated (PT) chick body weight being 84% of vehicle-treated (VT) chicks' body weight on d 14. Tissues collected on d 15 showed that femur lengths and widths did not differ, but tibias from PT chicks were 6% shorter (P = 0.002) and 13% narrower (P = 0.012) with 18% thinner tibial cross-sections (P lower in PT chicks (P = 0.005 for both). Bone Ca, P, and Mg (ppm) in ash were similar, but Ca:P was lower (1.70 vs 1.75) in PT versus VT chicks (P lower (P = 0.020), PINP was ∼45% higher (P = 0.000) in PT chicks. Carboxy-terminal telopeptide type I collagen (ICTP) and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX1) were similar in the 2 groups. Phenamil had unexpected and detrimental effects on bone formation in growing broiler chicks, reducing linear skeletal growth and markedly changing bone architecture. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Effects of dietary organic zinc and α-tocopheryl acetate supplements on growth performance, meat quality, tissues minerals, and α-tocopherol deposition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Ferket, P

    2016-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Chicks were penned in groups of 20 with six pens per treatment. The ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, and European production efficiency factor (EPEF) were not affected by dietary treatments. In addition, supplementation of Zn and α-TOA and their interaction did not affect carcass parts yield. Drip loss of the breast and thigh muscles were significantly reduced 1.27 and 1.47% by α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) supplementation, respectively (P TOA or Zn increased deposition of α-TO in liver and the muscles. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the breast and thigh muscles and the liver were diminished by supplementation of α-TOA (P = 0.0001) and there was positive interaction between Zn and α-TOA (P TOA supplementation resulted in a reduction of TBARS values. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg dietary supplementation of α-TOA could improve drip loss, nutritional content, and oxidation stability of muscle without any adverse effect on growth performance of chickens. In addition, 120 mg/kg dietary supplementation of Zn could fortify α-TOA effect to improve oxidation stability of the breast and thigh muscles as well as it resulted to higher muscles Zn enrichment.

  3. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  4. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  5. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  6. Characterization of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene in chickens: Cloning, tissue expression, and regulation of its expression in the muscle by fasting and cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Fang, Wenqian; Hu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yajun; Li, Juan

    2015-10-10

    Irisin, a novel myokine encoded by fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 gene (FNDC5), is reported to stimulate brown fat-like development of white fat tissue and thermogenesis in mammals recently. However, information about the structure, tissue expression, and roles of FNDC5/irisin remains unknown in non-mammalian vertebrates including birds. In this study, we first cloned the FNDC5 (cFNDC5) cDNA from chickens. cFNDC5 is predicted to encode a 220-amino acid precursor containing the putative 'irisin peptide' of 112 amino acids, which shows high amino acid sequence identity with irisin of humans (97%), mice (97%), anole lizards (93%) and zebrafish (~80%). Using quantitative real-time PCR, we further examined cFNDC5 mRNA expression in chicken tissues. The results showed that in adult chickens, cFNDC5 is abundantly expressed in the muscle, heart, pituitary, ovary and various brain regions, and moderately expressed in adipose tissue, kidneys, lung, testes and small intestine. Moreover, cFNDC5 is also abundantly expressed in the muscle, brain, hypothalamus and pituitary of developing embryos and post-hatching chicks. Interestingly, we noted that cFNDC5 expression in the muscle of 3-week-old chicks could be induced by fasting and cold exposure, while its expression decreases during differentiation of pre-adipocytes cultured in vitro. Collectively, our data suggest that FNDC5/irisin is more than a 'myokine' and may be related to the development/functions of many tissues (e.g. muscle, brain, fat), as well as metabolic status of chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Computed tomography of the soft tissues of the shoulder. Pt. 3. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W.; Bandick, J.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography of the soft tissue of the shoulder in cases of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff provides the following information: 1. Localisation of the calcium deposits within the rotator cuff. 2. Contours and density of the calcium deposits correlated with the clinical findings as described by Uhthoff et al. Ill-defined contours and non-homogeneous deposits are associated with more severe clinical features. 3. Computed tomography shows that apatite particles, which are not visible radiologically, may penetrate into the shoulder joint and produce synovitis with an effusion. This is of importance in local therapy.

  8. Tissue and allelic-specific expression of hsp70 gene in chickens: basal and heat-stress-induced mRNA level quantified with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, F-S; Du, H-L; Xu, H-P; Luo, Q-B; Zhang, X-Q

    2006-08-01

    1. The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (hsp70) are a family of molecular chaperones, which promote protein folding and participate in many cellular functions. The objective of the current research was to investigate the relationship between tissue or allele and the expression of chicken hsp70 under normal growth conditions and during acute heat stress (44 degrees C for 4 h). 2. A total of 279 individuals were genotyped for two single nucleotide polymorphisms (A258G and C276G) in chicken hsp70 gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. 3. The mRNA abundance of chicken hsp70 genes was evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of hsp70 gene in the liver (9.83 +/- 0.84, 10(7)) was significantly higher than that in the muscle (4.42 +/- 0.36, 10(7)) under normal growth conditions. However, during acute heat stress, the expression of hsp70 gene in the brain (1.82 +/- 0.25, 10(9)) was the highest and was significantly different from those in the liver (1.08 +/- 0.16, 10(9)) and muscle (1.08 +/- 0.13, 10(9)). 4. The expression of hsp70 among different genotypes or haplotype combinations is quite different under normal and heat-stress conditions. The haplotype H3 (GC) is probably advantageous to improving heat resistance of chickens. 5. The results from the present study indicate that the expression of hsp70 in chickens is affected by heat stress, and is tissue- and allele-dependent.

  9. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Bisgaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods: Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia...

  10. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  11. Differences in tumour and normal tissue concentrations of iodine- and indium-labelled monoclonal antibody. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimm, M.V.; Baldwin, R.W.; Perkins, A.C.

    1985-12-01

    The blood, tumour and whole-body levels and survivals of /sup 131/I- and /sup 111/In-labelled monoclonal antibody (791T/36) have been compared in mice with human tumour xenografts. The blood levels and survivals of /sup 131/I- and /sup 111/In-labelled antibody were similar when expressed as proportions of the injected doses. However, the whole-body survival of /sup 111/In following administration of /sup 111/In-labelled antibody was over twice as long as that of /sup 131/I after administration of /sup 131/I-labelled antibody, principally because free /sup 131/I was rapidly excreted but free /sup 111/In was retained, primarily in liver, spleen and kidneys. Consequently, when expressed in relation to the whole body, blood levels of /sup 111/In became progressively lower than those of /sup 131/I following administration of labelled antibodies. In mice with human tumour xenografts the proportion of the injected dose of /sup 111/In from /sup 111/In-labelled antibody deposited in tumour tissue was 4-5 times higher than that of /sup 131/I from /sup 131/I-labelled antibody. When compared with the whole-body levels of radiolabel the difference was less marked, although /sup 111/In accumulation in tumour was more rapid. The higher levels and longer retention of /sup 111/In in tumour produced tumour-to-blood ratios that were 7-8 times those achieved with /sup 131/I-labelled antibody.

  12. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  13. The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization for the detection of measles virus and chicken anaemia virus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.; McQuaid, S. [Royal Group of Hospitals, Belfast (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.]|[Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Microwave irradiation was investigated as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Two probe/tissue systems were used: a single-stranded RNA probe for the detection of measles virus nucleocapsid genome in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain tissue, and a double stranded DNA probe for chicken anaemia virus in thymus of chicken infected with the virus. Microwaving, when used as sold pretreatment, was not as effective as the more traditional enzyme pretreatments for in situ hybridization. However, when used in combination with existing pretreatments, a significant increase was found in hybridization signal in both brain and thymus tissue. This was emphasized when combination enzyme/microwave pretreatments were used prior to detection of measles virus by in situ hybridization in a series of five archival subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases. The use of microwave irradiation would be recommended as a means of supplementing in situ hybridization methods, especially when using long-term formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. (Author).

  14. A novel carbonic anhydrase II mRNA isolated from mature chicken testis displays a TATA box and other promoter sequences in a leader 5' untranslated region not present in somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Pau, M; Mezquita, C

    1994-09-30

    The primary structure of a novel carbonic anhydrase II-encoding cDNA clone (CAII) isolated from a chicken testis cDNA library is presented. The size of the CAII mRNA obtained from meiotic and haploid chicken testis cells is larger than the corresponding mRNA from immature testis and somatic tissues. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken testis CAII clone revealed a protein-coding region identical to the published sequence of CAII mRNA from erythroid cells. However, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the testis CAII mRNA is larger than the corresponding somatic sequence. The 5' UTR contains a leader sequence not present in the CAII mRNA isolated from erythroid cells or chick retina. The additional 5' UTR of the mRNA displays a TATA box, located 23-30 bp upstream from the cap site of the CAII mRNA transcribed in erythroid cells, and several G+C-rich boxes. Our results suggest that the use of a testis-specific promoter would result in the incorporation of somatic promoter sequences into the 5' UTR of the testis message.

  15. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    pt; line-height: normal; text-align: justify; mso-layout-grid-align: none;"> Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  16. Responses of Giving n-Hexane Jaloh Extract on Broiler Chicken which Heat Stress Condition to Expression of iNOS Enzyme in Lung Tissue, Serum level of Glucose and Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito Sugito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Giving of extract n-hexane of jaloh bark (EHJ can lessen impact heat stress on broiler chicken. The studies of activity of EHJ in lessening heat stress impact at broiler chicken have not been conducted yet. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of extract n-hexane of jaloh bark (EHJ administration on body temperature, level of calcium and glucose in serum, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lung tissue, and behaviors of broilers exposed to heat stress at temperature 33 ± 1oC. This study used 18 broilers aged 20 days which were divided into 3 groups. The first group was broilers given heat stress without EHJ (CP. The second group was treated heat stress and EHJ at dose 10 mg/kg BW (CP+EHJ. The EHJ was given 1 hour before cage temperature was raised. Broilers in group CP and CP+EHJ were divided into 3 periods of slaughtering i.e. 2 and 4 hours after given heat stress and 2 hours after heat stress termination. Each of slaughtering period consisted of 3 broilers as replication. Result of this research indicated that CP+EHJ lessen stress in the form of restlessness and increased expression of iNOS in the lung tissue. It was assumed that one of mechanism of EHJ in lessening stress on broiler related to forming of iNOS enzyme in the lung tissue.

  17. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  18. Identification and characterization of genes that control fat deposition in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Claire D’Andre, Hirwa; Paul, Wallace; Shen, Xu; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Liang; Zhang,Xiquan

    2013-01-01

    Background Fat deposits in chickens contribute significantly to meat quality attributes such as juiciness, flavor, taste and other organoleptic properties. The quantity of fat deposited increases faster and earlier in the fast-growing chickens than in slow-growing chickens. In this study, Affymetrix Genechip® Chicken Genome Arrays 32773 transcripts were used to compare gene expression profiles in liver and hypothalamus tissues of fast-growing and slow-growing chicken at 8 wk of age. Real-time...

  19. 武定鸡肌肉脂肪酸含量比较研究%Comparative Study on Fatty Acid in Muscle Tissues of Wuding Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁俊; 唐臻睿; 黄启超; 胡永金; 刘兴勇; 石振兴; 张伊田; 王燕; 文忠

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore the factors influencing the meat quality of Wuding chicken from the point of fatty acid. [ Method] The relative contents of fatty acid in different day-age and genders Wuding chickfn chest muscle were determined and compared. [ Result ] The unsaturated fatty acids are much higher than the saturated fatty acids in chest muscle of Wuding chicken. The gender has no significant impact on the composition and content of fatty acids, but day-age has significant impact on the composition and content of fatty acids(P <0.05), the 230-day-old Wuding chicken have the highest saturated fatty acids and 150-day-old have the lowest, for the unsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids, the 150-day-old Wuding chicken have the highest contents and 230-day-old have the lowest; castration can improve the quality of fatty acids in Wuding chicken and enhance the nutritional value of chicken. [ Conclusion] The study will provide reference basis for breeding and deeply research of Wuding chicken.%[目的]从脂肪酸的角度探讨影响武定鸡肉品质的因素.[方法]对不同日龄、性别的武定鸡胸肌脂肪酸相对含量进行测定比较.[结果]武定鸡胸肌中不饱和脂肪酸的含量都远远高于饱和脂肪酸含量;性别对鸡肉质脂肪酸的组成与含量没有显著影响,而日龄对其脂肪酸组成与含量影响显著(P<0.05):饱和脂肪酸含量以230日龄较高,150日龄含量较低,不饱和脂肪酸和必需脂肪酸含量则以150日龄含量较高,230日龄含量较低;阉割能够提高武定鸡的脂肪酸品质,提升鸡肉的营养价值.[结论]结果为武定鸡的养殖及深入研究提供重要参考依据.

  20. Distribution of avian influenza H5N1 viral RNA in tissues of AI-vaccinated and unvaccinated contact chickens after experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed K; Kilany, Walid H; Abdelwhab, E M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Selim, Abdullah; Samy, Ahmed; Samir, M; Le Brun, Yvon; Jobre, Yilma; Aly, Mona M

    2012-05-01

    Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface.

  1. Characterization of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and its receptor in chickens: Tissue expression, functional analysis, and fasting-induced up-regulation of hypothalamic MCH expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Lv, Can; Zhang, Jiannan; Mo, Chunheng; Lin, Dongliang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2017-06-05

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide expressed in the brain and exerts its actions through interaction with the two known G protein-coupled receptors, namely melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 and 2 (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of MCH and MCHR(s) remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, using RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we amplified and cloned a MCHR1-like receptor, which is named cMCHR4 according to its evolutionary origin, and a MCHR2 from chicken brain. The cloned cMCHR4 was predicted to encode a receptor of 367 amino acids, which shares high amino acid identities with MCHR4 of ducks (90%), western painted turtles (85%), and coelacanths (77%), and a comparatively low identity to human MCHR1 (58%) and MCHR2 (38%), whereas chicken MCHR2 encodes a putative C-terminally truncated receptor and is likely a pseudogene. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we further demonstrated that chicken (and duck) MCHR4 could be potently activated by chicken MCH1-19, and its activation can elevate calcium concentration and activate MAPK/ERK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways, indicating an important role of MCHR4 in mediating MCH actions in birds. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that both cMCH and cMCHR4 mRNA are expressed in various brain regions including the hypothalamus, and cMCH expression in the hypothalamus of 3-week-old chicks could be induced by 36-h fasting, indicating that cMCH expression is correlated with energy balance. Taken together, characterization of chicken MCH and MCHR4 will aid to uncover the conserved roles of MCH across vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  3. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  4. Selenite Effect on the Content of Mercury in Chicken Blood and Tissue%硒对雏鸡血液及组织汞含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武瑞; 仝宗喜; 杨爽; 王伟; 康世良

    2001-01-01

    选用雏鸡作实验动物,采用分组对比的方法,通过测定血液、羽毛、粪便和组织中汞、硒含量,研究硒对雏鸡血液及组织汞含量的影响,进而探讨硒与汞的拮抗机理。实验结果表明:汞在鸡体内的分布具有较强的选择性,主要蓄积于肝脏和肾脏,其含量分布为肾脏>肝脏>大脑>心脏>肌肉>全血。血液和组织中汞含量相关回归分析表明,血汞不能反映体内汞负荷,但可粗略地反映近期汞摄入水平;肝脏和肾脏汞含量及其动态变化可较好地反映体内的汞负荷;毛汞可反映动物生长期体内吸收的汞量;粪汞含量升高可诊断为汞吸收;这对汞中毒的诊断及环境生物学的监测有一定的意义。硒与汞之间存在拮抗作用,汞可以影响硒的吸收、分布、利用,硒也可以改变汞的积累部位和积累方式。%In the study we selected the chickens as laboratory animal, derided groups for comparison, determiated the content of selenite and mercury in the chickan blood, feather, excrements and tissue for studing the selenie effect on the content of mercury, for the more to reveal the antagonistic mechanism between selenite and mercury. The results were shown that: 1. Mercury was selectively distributed to different organs.It mainly stored up in liver and kidey. Its content were in kidney, liver, brain, chest muscle and blood in order. The mercury content in the hlood did not reflect the mercury content in the body, but it could show rcent intake of mercury;The experiment showed the mercury content in liver and kindey and its dynamic change could perfectly reflect the mercury content in the body;The mercury content in the feather could show absorb of mercury content during grow; The mercury content in the excrements could diagnosis absorb of mercury content. All there were significent in diagnoaing mercury poisoning and envirimeatal biology monitoring. 2. It exist that the

  5. Expression of AR and ER genes in the testicular tissue of chickens, quails and chicken-quail hybrids and its effects on the growth and development of testis%AR、ER基因在鸡、鹌鹑及其杂交种睾丸组织中的表达及其对睾丸生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽娜; 周玲玲; 李岩; 李兴明; 梁杜; 赵宗胜; 鲁平; 廖和荣

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the molecules influences of stunted growth testis of chicken( ♂) and quail( ♀ ) Hybrids. New Roman cocks, male Korean quails and chicken-quail hybrids of different day-age were selected and their body weight and testes weight were measured as well as total 96 testes were collected. Real time -PCR was performed to evaluate the mRNA expression patterns of androgen receptors(AR) and estrogen receptors(ER) genes in testicular tissue of chickens,quails and chicken-quail hybrids at different growth stages. The results showed that the testes of chickens and quails grew and developed normally with body weight gain, but the testes of chicken-quail hybrids had stunted growth. Real-time PCR showed AR and ER mRNA expression patterns in testes of chickens and quails at different growth stages were similar. AR mRNA expression in chickens and quails reached a significant peak,while ER gene expression showed fluctuation slightly. But the AR and ER expression of chicken-quail hybrids are extreme, namely, AR gene expression showed a gradual decline and ER gene expression gradually increased,indicating that the abnormal expression chicken-quail hybrids AR and ER gene was an important molecular factor for the testicular dys- plasia of chicken-quail hybrids.%为探讨鸡(♂)与鹌鹑(♀)属间杂交种睾丸生长发育不良的分子机理,采集新罗曼蛋用型公鸡、朝鲜公鹌鹑、鸡与鹌鹑杂交的雄性杂交种不同发育时期的睾丸组织样共计96份并测定其体质量与睾丸质量。采用实时荧光定量PCR对公鸡、公鹌鹑及其杂交种不同生长发育期睾丸组织中AR、ER基因的mRNA表达进行了检测。结果显示:(1)鸡和鹌鹑的睾丸均能随着日龄、体质量的增长而正常生长发育,但鸡与鹌鹑杂交的杂交种的睾丸却生长缓慢而发育不良;(2)鸡和鹌鹑不同生长发育期睾丸组织中AR、ER基因mRNA的表达具有相似性,AR基因均有一个

  6. High-resolution mass spectrometry applied to the identification of transformation products of quinolones from stability studies and new metabolites of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Gutiérrez, F J; Hermo, M P; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was the identification of new metabolites and transformation products (TPs) in chicken muscle from enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SAR), which are antibiotics that belong to the fluoroquinolones family. The stability of ENR, CIP, DIF and SAR standard solutions versus pH degradation process (from pH 1.5 to 8.0, simulating the pH since the drug is administered until its excretion) and freeze-thawing (F/T) cycles was tested. In addition, chicken muscle samples from medicated animals with ENR were analyzed in order to identify new metabolites and TPs. The identification of the different metabolites and TPs was accomplished by comparison of mass spectral data from samples and blanks, using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QqToF) and multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) technique as a pre-filter to remove most of the background noise and endogenous components. Confirmation and structure elucidation was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap (LC-LTQ-Orbitrap), due to its mass accuracy and MS/MS capacity for elemental composition determination. As a result, 21 TPs from ENR, 6 TPs from CIP, 14 TPs from DIF and 12 TPs from SAR were identified due to the pH shock and F/T cycles. On the other hand, 14 metabolites were identified from the medicated chicken muscle samples. Formation of CIP and SAR, from ENR and DIF, respectively, and the formation of desethylene-quinolone were the most remarkable identified compounds.

  7. Effect of dietary high copper on the oxidization in brain tissue of chickens%高铜对雏鸡脑组织氧化状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 崔伟; 彭西; 柏才敏; 崔恒敏

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the objective of examining the effect of dietary high copper on oxidation in the brain tissue of chickens.Three hundred and sixty one-day-old Avian chickens were randomly divided into six groups,and fed on diets as follows:controls(Cu 10.89 mg/kg) and high copper(Cu 100 mg/kg,high copper groupⅠ;Cu 200 mg/kg,high copper groupⅡ;Cu 400 mg/kg,high copper group Ⅲ;Cu 600 mg/kg,high copper group Ⅳ;Cu 800 mg/kg,high copper groupⅤ) for six weeks.The hydroxy radical activity and MDA content in brain tissue were higher in high copper groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴthan those in control group(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The Cu-Zn-SOD and GSH-Px activities in brain tissue were obviously increased in high copper groupsⅠand Ⅱ and significantly decreased in high copper groups Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴ(P<0.01)compared with those of control group(P<0.05 or P<0.01).At the same time,changes of the serum MDA content,Cu-Zn-SOD,GSH-Px activities were consistent with those of the brian tissue.The above results showed that the antioxydation function of the brain tissue was impaired in chickens under the dietary copper in excess of 400 mg/kg.%1日龄艾维茵肉鸡健雏360羽,随机均分为6组,分别喂以对照日粮(10.89 mg/kg)和高铜日粮(Cu 100 mg/kg,高铜Ⅰ组;Cu 200 mg/kg,高铜Ⅱ组;Cu 400 mg/kg,高铜Ⅲ组;Cu 600 mg/kg,高铜Ⅳ组;Cu 800 mg/kg,高铜Ⅴ组)6周,观察高铜对脑组织氧化状态的影响.高铜Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组脑组织MDA含量升高,与对照组比较差异显著或极显著(P<0.05或P<0.01);脑组织铜-锌-超氧化物歧化酶(Cu-Zn-SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)的活性,高铜Ⅰ、Ⅱ组显著或极显著高于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01),高铜Ⅲ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组较对照组极显著降低(P<0.01);高铜Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组脑组织羟自由基活性升高,与对照组比较差异显著或极显著(P<0.05或P<0.01).同时,血清的MDA含量及Cu-Zn-SOD和GSH-Px的活性变化与脑组织一致.

  8. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5{+-}3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.).

  9. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KEMITRAAN TERNAK AYAM BROILER PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Hanum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this research are to (1 analyze profit and BEP of plasma farmers (2 analyze internal and external strategic factors that influence development of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (3 formulate the alternative strategies of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (4 formulate selected priority strategy to develop broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. This research uses descriptive method based on case study on broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. Based on BEP analysis, BEP (production of plasma farmers is in the range 79,91%-86,58% from chick-in capacity, and BEP (price is in the range of Rp 11.684 – Rp 12.191 per chicken on market price. PT. XYZ partnership’s position in IE matric was second quadrant (grow and builds. The results of SWOT analysis are: a vertical integration strategy through feedmill, breeding and chicken slaughterhouse, b improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers, c improvement in bio-security aspects of maintenance, and d improving the quality of technical staff and improving supervision. The priority strategy from QSPM analysis is improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers. The strategy to improve production capacity can be done by maximize or add their capacity, and add the new plasma farmers.   Keywords: Broiler Partnership, Internal Environment, External Environment, Internal-external, Improvement Priority

  10. Prothrombin time (PT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR ( ...

  11. Computerized whole slide quantification shows increased microvascular density in pT2 prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Borger, E.; Huisman, H.J.; Witjes, J.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contrast enhanced imaging enables powerful, non-invasive diagnostics, important for detection and staging of early prostate cancer. The uptake of contrast agent is increased in prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate tissue. To reveal the underlying physiological mechanisms, quant

  12. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 2. Clinical application of a unique densitometry CT technique for determination of fat tissue areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Abdominal CT scanning was performed to establish normal spectra of abdominal tissue areas on 291 subjects. Using the data file of measurements of abdominal fat tissue areas of 133 normal subjects, means and their standard deviations (S.D.) were calculated for each fat tissue area at the four levels for each gender. On 158 persons with abnormal body mass index (BMI) values, S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area from the mean of the control in each age group of each gender was compared with each other. Ratios of visceral fat tissue area to subcutaneous fat tissue area (V/S ratio) were also calculated. The visceral fat tissue area of normal male subjects was significantly larger at all the four levels than those of female ones, while the subcutaneous fat tissue area were smaller at all levels. Although the area of entire and subcutaneous fat tissues of female subjects showed a peak at the age of 50 years old, those in male subjects did not show any peak at any age group. Although there was a statistically significant correlation between values of BMI and S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area at each level, the coefficient between BMI and S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area was very low at the level of 60 mm in female. Seven of 74 female subjects with abnormal BMI had more than 10 S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area at all levels and 8 of them had more S.D.-distance than of all fat tissue area at any level. The V/S ratio of the male subjects was significantly larger than that in female. Besides, there was no correlation between V/S ratio and S.D.-distance of visceral fat tissue area in both male and female subjects. These findings indicate that the V/S ratio does not reflect the size of fat tissue area. The determination of fat tissue areas by the abdominal CT at several levels is quite a useful way for accurate evaluation of obesity. (S.Y.).

  13. Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenkina, I.V.; Semionkin, V.A. [Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Faculty of Experimental Physics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M.I. [Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Klepova, Yu.V.; Sadovnikov, N.V. [Faculty of Physiology and Biotechnology, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ekaterinburg, (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S.M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Application of the Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for a study of iron-containing biological species is of great interest. Improving the velocity resolution allows to reveal small variations in the electronic structure of iron, and to obtain hyperfine parameters with smaller instrumental (systematic) errors in comparison with measurements performed in 512 channels or less. It also allows a more reliable fitting of complex Moessbauer spectra. In the present study the Moessbauer spectroscopy with the high velocity resolution was used for a comparative analysis of ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models as well as iron storage proteins in a chicken liver and a spleen. The ferritin, an iron storage protein, consists of a nanosized polynuclear iron core formed by a ferrihydrite surrounded by a protein shell. Iron-polysaccharide complexes contain {beta}-FeOOH iron cores coated with various polysaccharides. The Moessbauer spectra of the ferritin and commercial products Imferon, MaltoferR and Ferrum Lek as well as those of the chicken liver and spleen tissues were measured with the high velocity resolution at 295 and 90 K. They were fitted using two models: (1) with a homogeneous iron core (an approximation using one quadrupole doublet), and (2) with a heterogeneous iron core (an approximation using several quadrupole doublets). The model (1) can be used as the first approximation fit to visualize small variations in the hyperfine parameters. Using this model, differences in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were obtained in both 295 and 90 K Moessbauer spectra. However, this model was considered as a rough approximation because the measured Moessbauer spectra had non-Lorentzian line shapes. Therefore, the spectra of the ferritin, Imferon, MaltoferR and Ferrum Lek as well as those of the liver and spleen tissues were fitted again using the model (2) in which a different number of the quadrupole doublets was

  14. Characterization of the expression profile of calpain-3 (CAPN3) gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeng-Rong; Zhu, Qing; Yao, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Du, Hua-Rui; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Calpain-3 is a skeletal muscle-specific protease and participates in the regulation of myogenesis. In this study, we quantified the expression of calpain-3 (CAPN3) mRNA in a Chinese local chicken breed (Sichuan Mountainous Black-boned chicken [MB]), to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern. Meanwhile, we compared the CAPN3 mRNA expression pattern in MB chicken at 10 weeks with a commercial meat type chicken line (S01) of the same age to identify the unique expression pattern under different genetic background. A real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for an accurate measurement of its expression in various tissues from chickens at different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Expression of the CAPN3 mRNA was detected in the selected tissues, regardless of age. The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had a significantly higher expression than the other tissues from the same individual (P chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN3 mRNA in detected tissues than the MB chicken at 10 weeks. The present expression data of chicken CAPN3 gene may provide some information to shed light on the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern during chicken development.

  15. Lack of organ specific commitment of vagal neural crest cell derivatives as shown by back-transplantation of GFP chicken tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freem, Lucy J; Delalande, Jean Marie; Campbell, Alison M; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) are multipotent progenitors that migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo and generate a diverse range of cell types. Vagal NCC migrate from the hindbrain into the foregut and from there along the gastrointestinal tract to form the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gut, and into the developing lung buds to form the intrinsic innervation of the lungs. The aim of this study was to determine the developmental potential of vagal NCC that had already colonised the gut or the lungs. We used transgenic chicken embryos that ubiquitously express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to permanently mark and fate-map vagal NCC using intraspecies grafting. This was combined with back-transplantation of gut and lung segments, containing GFP-positive NCC, into the vagal region of a second recipient embryo to determine, using immunohistochemical staining, whether gut or lung NCC are competent of re-colonising both these organs, or whether their fate is restricted. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting efficiently labelled NCC within the gut and lung of chick embryos. When segments of embryonic day (E)5.5 pre-umbilical midgut containing GFP-positive NCC were back-transplanted into the vagal region of E1.5 host embryos, the GFP-positive NCC remigrated to colonise both the gut and lungs and differentiated into neurons in stereotypical locations. However, GFP-positive lung NCC did not remigrate when back-transplanted. Our studies suggest that gut NCC are not restricted to colonising only this organ, since upon back-transplantation GFP-positive gut NCC colonised both the gut and the lung.

  16. Identification of an alternative splicing isoform of chicken Lmbr1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Chen, Wen; Li, Ning; Deng, Xuemei; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2011-10-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene for limb development. Until now, at least five and four alternative splicing isoforms of Lmbr1 gene have been found in human and mouse, respectively. However, only two alternative splicing isoforms of this homologous gene have been reported in chicken. In the present study, one novel chicken Lmbr1 transcript variant (designated Lmbr1-1) was identified by 5' RACE and RT-PCR. Chicken Lmbr1-1 possesses one novel transcription start site different from Lmbr1-N, and was predicted to encode one 192 amino acid protein with length variation in comparison with chicken LMBR1-N protein, which was produced by 5' spliced site variation of chicken Lmbr1-N exon 10. Comparing with Lmbr1-N transcript, chicken Lmbr1-1 exhibited restricted tissue distribution of the expression. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a highly conservative intron element between chicken and mammalians from the intron 9 of chicken Lmbr1-N, indicating their possible importance as intronic elements in the regulation of alternative splicing of Lmbr1 in vertebrates. By direct PCR sequencing the exon 10 and its flanking sequences in chicken Lmbr1-N, four variation sites/haplotypes were identified from six chicken breeds. One 797A/G nonsynonymous mutation (266Arg/Gln) locating in exon 10 of chicken Lmbr1-N was predicted to affect the exon splice enhancer motif for serine/arginine-rich protein recognition. These data demonstrated that chicken Lmbr1 was alternatively spliced to generate multiple splice forms, as was the case in mammals and each of the alternative splicing isoforms might function differentially.

  17. Identification of chicken eNOS gene and differential expression in highland versus lowland chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J F; Ling, Y; Gou, W Y; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is synthesized from l-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium. The objective of the present study was to preliminarily illuminate the expression of the eNOS gene in hypoxic adaptation of chicken embryonic development. The eNOS expression profiles between the Tibet and Shouguang chickens incubated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR. In this study, the chicken eNOS gene was found by both in silico cloning and RACE approaches. From the eNOS gene, we obtained a 3,310-bp mRNA sequence and a 10,666-bp DNA sequence and discovered that it was located on chicken chromosome 2 and had 7 unique transcripts. eNOS mRNA was detected in abundant amounts in some chick embryo organs (i.e., heart, liver, chorio-allantoic membrane, and lung), and expressed stably with the lowest levels in the brain. We observed that when exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) different embryo organ tissues had various sensitivities to hypoxia as determined by their eNOS expression profiles. Compared with the Shouguang chicken, the eNOS expression in the Tibet chicken was higher in the lung and liver, lower in the heart, and similar in the brain. In chorio-allantoic membranes, eNOS expression was higher in the Shouguang chicken than the Tibet chicken under hypoxic conditions, but not markedly different under normoxic conditions. The differences of eNOS expression between the 2 breeds may be relative to the hypoxic adaptation ability in Tibet chickens during embryonic development. This work will provide reference for future studies on the role of eNOS in hypoxic adaptation and response.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation at various temperatures and packaging conditions on chicken tissues. 1. Fatty acid profiles of neutral and polar lipids separated from muscle irradiated at -20/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rady, A.H.; Maxwell, R.J.; Wierbicki, E.; Phillips, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    A lipid composition study on irradiated chicken muscle is reported. All muscle samples, packed either under air or vacuum, were gamma irradiated (-20/sup 0/C) at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 10 kGy using /sup 137/Cs (dose rate 0.1 kGymin). Lipids were isolated from the muscle using a dry column extraction method with concomitant isolation of separated neutral and polar fractions. Lipid isolates were converted to their methyl esters and analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography with computer assisted data storage, followed by data consolidation and statistical computer analysis. Separated fatty acid profiles for neutral and polar lipids were obtained as normalized reports (each fatty acid as percentage of total fatty acids) and as gravimetric reports (mg of each fatty acid100 g tissue). Normalized reports showed only negligible occurrence of significant changes in fatty acid profiles of neutral muscle lipid fractions regardless of irradiation doses (0 to 10 kGy) in either air and vacuum packaging. These differences were not apparent when the data were compiled as gravimetric reports. The polar lipid fractions containing the nutritionally significant ..omega..3 and ..omega..6 fatty acids showed only slight changes in normalized and gravimetric reports and were similarly unaffected with increasing levels of irradiation. Additionally, no new fatty acids or other artifacts due to gamma-irradiation were observed in detectable amounts by gas chromatography in any lipid fractions

  19. Invisibility and PT symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSTAFAZADEH, Ali

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012103 (2013) Invisibility and PT symmetry Ali Mostafazadeh* Department of Mathematics, Koc¸ University, Sarıyer 34450, Istanbul, Turkey (Received 9 July 2012; published 3 January 2013) For a general complex scattering potential defined on a real line, we show that the equations governing invisibility of the potential are invariant under the combined action of parity and time-reversal (PT ) transformation. We determine the PT -symmetric as well as no...

  20. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K

    2001-01-01

    Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...... tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin...

  1. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  2. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  3. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  4. Structural damage of chicken red blood cells exposed to platinum nanoparticles and cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir;

    2014-01-01

    of platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) and cisplatin with blood compartments are important for future applications. This study investigated structural damage, cell membrane deformation and haemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC) after treatment with cisplatin and NP-Pt. Cisplatin (4 μg/ml) and NP-Pt (2......Side effects and resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin are major drawbacks to its application, and recently, the possibility of replacing cisplatin with nanocompounds has been considered. Most chemotherapeutic agents are administered intravenously, and comparisons between the interactions......,6 μg/ml), when incubated with chicken embryo RBC, were detrimental to cell structure and induced haemolysis. The level of haemolytic injury was increased after cisplatin and NP-Pt treatments compared to the control group. Treatment with cisplatin caused structural damage to cell membranes...

  5. Heritable retroviral transgenes are highly expressed in chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Briskin, M J; Hsu, R Y; Boggs, T; Schultz, J. A.; Rishell, W; Bosselman, R A

    1991-01-01

    This report describes expression of heritable reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) vector ME111 in 20 independent lines of transgenic chickens. The results are strikingly different from studies of Moloney virus in transgenic mice, where restricted expression of inherited proviruses has led to their use primarily as insertional mutagens rather than general agents for gene transfer. In contrast, the REV ME111 provirus is actively transcribed in a variety of tissues from transgenic chickens, is exp...

  6. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  9. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  10. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  11. PT-symmetric strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernández, Francisco M., E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), División Química Teórica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Garcia, Javier [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), División Química Teórica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gutierrez, German [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)

    2014-04-15

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.

  12. Antibodies to two major chicken heat shock proteins cross-react with similar proteins in widely divergent species.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, P M; Schlesinger, M J

    1982-01-01

    Three of the proteins induced by heat shock of chicken embryo fibroblasts have been purified, and rabbit antibodies have been raised against them. These antibodies have been used in radioimmune precipitation reactions and in a solid-phase immune assay to detect antigenic material in non-heat-shocked chicken tissues and in extracts of widely different species ranging from yeast to mammalian tissue culture cells and human erythrocyte ghosts. Antibodies to two of the major chicken heat shock pro...

  13. Use of lytic bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally contaminated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Fiorentin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Salmonella contamination in poultry is of major importance to prevent the introduction of this microorganism into the food chain. Salmonellae may spread during storage time (shelf life whenever pre-harvest control fails or post-harvest contamination occurs. Therefore, preventive measures should also be used in the post-harvest level of poultry production in order to control salmonellae. Chicken skin samples were experimentally contaminated by immersing whole legs (thighs and drumsticks in a suspension containing 10(6 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4 at the slaughter day. One day later, samples from one group were immersed in a suspension pool containing 10(9 CFU/mL of each of three wild salmonella-lytic bacteriophages previously isolated from feces of free-range chickens. Salmonella counting was performed at three-day intervals in the chicken legs stored at 5°C and showed a significant reduction (P<0.05 of SE PT4 in bacteriophage-treated cuts on days 3, 6 and 9 post-treatment. These findings suggest that the use of bacteriophages may reduce SE PT4 in chicken skin. Further studies are encouraged and might demonstrate the potential of this approach as an efficient and safe technique to be routinelly used for Salmonella control in chicken products.

  14. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  15. PT quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P

    2013-04-28

    PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  16. New evidence for intrinsic blood coagulation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, J A; Hamilton, P B

    1981-01-01

    Coagulation of blood in chickens is considered the result of an extrinsic clotting system initiated, as in mammals, by tissue thromboplastin released from injured tissues. Blood coagulation in mammals depends principally on an intrinsic mechanism in which thromboplastin is generated from blood itself. Only a negligible role, if any, has been ascribed to an intrinsic system in chickens. A reevaluation of intrinsic coagulation in chickens was undertaken in this study. Whole blood of chickens was found to clot over 30% faster when contacted by suitable surface activators such as kaolin or glass than when such contact was omitted. Plasma recalcification times were significantly (P less than .02) shortened by contact activators. Clotting functions were measurable both by partial thromboplastin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, tests that bypass extrinsic factors. Intrinsic thromboplastin could be generated from dilute whole chicken blood although at a slower rate than that reported for human blood. Modification of whole blood thromboplastin generation techniques permitted measurement of activities that seem analogous to human intrinsic factors VIII and IX but not XI or XII. These data provide evidence of a functioning intrinsic clotting mechanism in chickens. A complete description and role for this mechanism remains to be defined.

  17. STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING RUMAH POTONG AYAM PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arli Arli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were (1 analyzing the role of parties in the value chain that affect PT XYZ competitiveness, (2 identifying the RPA PT XYZ  stakeholders’ key players, (3 analyzing internal and external (IE factors that affects the competitiveness of RPA PT XYZ , (4 formulating strategic long term objectives and goals to increase the competitiveness of RPA PT XYZ , (5 analyzing strategies’ priorities and alternatives to improve the competitiveness of RPA PT XYZ . The method used in this study was descriptive analysis. The analysis tools used in this study were global value chain, stakeholders’ analysis, internal factor evaluation, external factor evaluation, IE Matrix, SWOT, and quantitative strategic planning matrix. Based on the results of global value chain analysis, stakeholders analysis, internal and external analysis, and the company’s visions and missions, the long term objectives are (a to provide value added for customers, (b to maximize business operation’s profit, (c to increase stakeholders’ welfare, (d to operate a sustainable business operation. Results on the IE Matrix and the SWOT analysis, the strategies that can be used to achieve the strategic long term objectives and goals are (a to increase the effectiveness and the efficiencies of the supply chain management; (b to implement performance evaluation on employees and business partners; (c to strengthen the company’s image as a high quality domestic chicken-based food producer in Indonesia; (d to enhance researches and developments; (e to build strategic alliances with external live chicken suppliers; (f promote the importance of animal protein consumption to Indonesian society. Three priority strategies resulted from QSPM analysis are create enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the supply chain, implementing performance evaluation on employees and business partners, and strengthen the company’s image as a high quality domestic

  18. Probiotic feeding affects T cell populations in blood and lymphoid organs in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, F; Madjd, Z; Falak, R; Bahar, M A; Nasrabadi, M Heydari; Raiani, M; Shekarabi, M

    2016-11-30

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria as a probiotic on chicken T cell subset populations in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Thirty chickens were divided into three groups and fed sterilised cow milk, a mixture of milk and L. acidophilus (probiotic), or neither, as the control group. Chickens were euthanised after 14 and 21 days, and whole blood and ileal, bursal, and caecal tonsillar tissues were collected. The populations of T cell subsets, including CD4(+), CD8(+), and TCR1(+) cells, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. After 21 days of treatment the percentage of blood CD4(+), CD8(+), and TCR1(+) cells was significantly higher in the probiotic-fed group than in the control group. After 14 days of treatment, a significantly greater number of CD4(+) T cells were found in the ileum of probiotic-fed chickens than in chickens from the other two groups. This difference was even greater after 21 days. In addition, after 21 days, a significantly greater number of TCR1(+) cells were found in the caecal tonsils of milk-fed chickens than in chickens from the control group. The findings indicate that probiotics may alter the distribution of T cells in the blood and lymphoid tissues in young chickens; however, transient changes in lymphoid tissues indicate that probiotics likely do not permanently affect mucosal immunity.

  19. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens.

  20. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  1. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biotransfer of heavy metals along a soil-plant-insect-chicken food chain:Field study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Ping; ZOU Huiling; SHU Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the accumulation and transfer of Pb,Zn,Cu,and Cd along a soil-plant-insect-chicken food chain at contaminated sites.The study site nearing the Pb/Zn mine had been contaminated by heavy metals severely.Cadmium and Pb concentrations steadily declined with increasing trophic level (p0.05).The concentrations of heavy metals were the highest in chicken muscle,with lower values in liver and blood.Bioaccumulation of Pb was observed in the chicken livers.The eliminations of Pb,Zn,Cu,and Cd via insect and chicken feces avoid metal bioaccumulation in insect and chicken body.These results suggest that the accumulation of heavy metals in specific animal organ of tissues could not be neglected,although transfer of metals to chicken from plant and insect is limited.

  3. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  4. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  5. Regulatory elements and transcriptional control of chicken vasa homologue (CVH) promoter in chicken primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, So Dam; Lee, Bo Ram; Hwang, Young Sun; Lee, Hong Jo; Rim, Jong Seop; Han, Jae Yong

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of functional gametes, have distinct characteristics and exhibit several unique molecular mechanisms to maintain pluripotency and germness in comparison to somatic cells. They express germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) by modulating tissue-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. Studies on gene structures of chicken vasa homologue (CVH), a chicken RNA binding protein, involved in temporal and spatial regulation are thus important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate germ cell fate, but also for practical applications of primordial germ cells. However, very limited studies are available on regulatory elements that control germ cell-specific expression in chicken. Therefore, we investigated the intricate regulatory mechanism(s) that governs transcriptional control of CVH. We constructed green fluorescence protein (GFP) or luciferase reporter vectors containing the various 5' flanking regions of CVH gene. From the 5' deletion and fragmented assays in chicken PGCs, we have identified a CVH promoter that locates at -316 to +275 base pair fragment with the highest luciferase activity. Additionally, we confirmed for the first time that the 5' untranslated region (UTR) containing intron 1 is required for promoter activity of the CVH gene in chicken PGCs. Furthermore, using a transcription factor binding prediction, transcriptome analysis and siRNA-mediated knockdown, we have identified that a set of transcription factors play a role in the PGC-specific CVH gene expression. These results demonstrate that cis-elements and transcription factors localizing in the 5' flanking region including the 5' UTR and an intron are important for transcriptional regulation of the CVH gene in chicken PGCs. Finally, this information will contribute to research studies in areas of reproductive biology, constructing of germ cell-specific synthetic promoter for tracing primordial germ cells as well as

  6. PT symmetry and supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Znojil, M

    2002-01-01

    A re-formulated, non-Hermitian version of the Witten's supersymmetric quantum mechanics is presented. Its use of pseudo-Hermitian (so called PT symmetric) Hamiltonians is reviewed and illustrated via several forms of an innovated supersymmetric partnership between strongly singular ("spiked") harmonic oscillators.

  7. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  8. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  9. Immunomodulating Lactobacilli in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Koenen (Marjorie)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of a chicken starts with the beak, followed by the esophagus and crop, proventriculus (glandular stomach), gizzard (muscular stomach), duodenum, ileum, a pair of blind elongated caeca, colon and ending in the cloaca. The GI-tract

  10. Klf7 modulates the differentiation and proliferation of chicken preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhang; Haixia Wang; Yingning Sun; Hui Li; Ning Wang

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 7 (Klf7) has been extensively studied in the mammalian species,but its function in avian species is unclear.The objective of this study was to reveal the function of chicken Klf7 (Gallus gallus Klf7,gKlf7) in adipogenesis.The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the relative mRNA level of chicken Klf7 (gKlf7/gβ-Actin) in the abdominal adipose tissue was significantly associated with the abdominal fat content and the age of broilers (P <0.05),and gKlf7 was more highly expressed in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P< 0.05).In addition,Oil red O staining showed that gKlf7 inhibited chicken preadipocyte differentiation,and MTT assay indicated that gKlf7 overexpression promoted preadipocyte proliferation.Additionally,luciferase assays showed that gKlf7 overexpression suppressed the chicken CCAAT/enhancerbinding protein α (C/ebpα),fatty acid synthase (Fasn),and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) promoter activities (P < 0.05),and gKlf7 knockdown increased the chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ),C/ebpα and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) promoter activities (P < 0.05).Together,our study demonstrated that chicken Klf7 inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and promotes preadipocyte proliferation.

  11. Molecular characterization, expression, and functional analysis of chicken TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Ran, J S; Yang, C W; Jiang, X S; Zhou, Y G; Feng, Z Q; Wang, Y; Lan, D; Ren, P; Liu, Y P

    2017-02-08

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a crucial adaptor molecule of the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily, which can trigger downstream signaling cascades involved in innate immunity. The function of TRAF6 has been clarified in mammals but is poorly understood in chicken. In our study, we investigated TRAF6 function in birds, particularly in chicken innate immune responses, by cloning and characterizing chicken TRAF6 (chTRAF6). The full-length coding sequence of chTRAF6 comprised 1638 bp and encoded a 545-amino acid protein, which shares high sequence similarity with TRAF6 of other species and consists of four structurally conserved domains. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that chTRAF6 was widely expressed in all tested tissues and its expression was induced in chicken embryo fibroblast cells treated with poly(I:C) and poly(dA:dT). Increased expression of chTRAF6 was observed both in vitro and in vivo following infection with Newcastle disease virus in chickens. Taken together, these results suggest that chTRAF6 plays a vital role in host defense against viral infection in chicken.

  12. Probiotics stimulate production of natural antibodies in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Hamid R; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L; Hayes, M Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-09-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation.

  13. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  14. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  15. Determination of 5 polyether antibiotics in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry%液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法检测鸡组织中5种聚醚类药物残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春来; 程林丽; 沈建忠; 张玉洁; 张素霞

    2009-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) method for the determination of 5 polyether antibiotics (lasalocid, salinomycin, mon-ensin, narasin and maduramicin) in chicken tissues was developed. The polyether antibiotics were extracted from chicken tissues with methanol. The extract was evaporated to dry, and re-dissolved in hexane, then cleaned up on a Sep-Pak Silica solid-phase extraction cartridge. The target drugs were eluted with 6 mL methylene chloride-methanol (90= 10, v/v), and the eluate was collected and dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas, then the residue was dissolved with 1 mL acetonitrile (containing 0. 1% formic acid) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The LC sep-aration was performed on a Symmetry Shield reversed phase C18 bonded silica column with acetonitrile (containing 0. 1% formic acid) - 0. 1% formic acid (97:3, v/v) as mobile phase. The quantification was carried out by positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction mo-nitoring (MRM) mode. The validation was carried out on spiked chicken muscle (spiked at 0. 1 -1 500 μg/kg) and chicken liver (spiked at 0. 2-4 500 μg/kg), the average recoveries of tar-get drugs ranged from 71. 6%-99. 1% with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3. 2%-10. 7% and inter-day RSDs of 4. 6%-14. 7%. The limits of quantification ( LOQs) in chicken muscle and liver were 0. 1 - 1. 0 μg/kg. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of this method meet the requirements of veterinary drug residue analy-sis. The method is applicable to detect 5 polyether antibiotics in chicken muscle and liver.%建立了鸡组织中聚醚类药物多残留检测的高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱方法.采用甲醇提取鸡组织中的拉沙洛菌素、盐霉素、莫能菌素、甲基盐霉素和马杜霉素,经硅胶柱净化,以乙腈(含0.1%甲酸)-0.1%甲酸水溶液(体积比为97∶3)为流动相,Symmetry Shield RP18作为色谱分

  16. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines.

  17. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P  C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations of ABHD5 may affect fat metabolism through regulating the activity of ATGL in chickens.

  18. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  19. Biological mechanisms discriminating growth rate and adult body weight phenotypes in two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Jia, Junjing

    2017-06-20

    Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity. The Wuding chicken breed is a fast growing large chicken breed, and the Daweishan mini chicken breed is a slow growing small chicken breed. Together they form an ideal model system to study the biological mechanisms underlying broiler chicken selection responses in a natural system. The objective of this study was to study the biological mechanisms underlying differential phenotypes between the two breeds in muscle and liver tissues, and relate these to the growth rate and body development phenotypes of the two breeds. The muscle tissue in the Wuding breed showed higher expression of muscle development genes than muscle tissue in the Daweishan chicken breed. This expression was accompanied by higher expression of acute inflammatory response genes in Wuding chicken than in Daweishan chicken. The muscle tissue of the Daweishan mini chicken breed showed higher expression of genes involved in several metabolic mechanisms including endoplasmic reticulum, protein and lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, as well as specific immune traits than in the Wuding chicken. The liver tissue showed fewer differences between the two breeds. Genes displaying higher expression in the Wuding breed than in the Daweishan breed were not associated with a specific gene network or biological mechanism. Genes highly expressed in the Daweishan mini chicken breed compared to the Wuding breed were enriched for protein metabolism, ABC receptors, signal transduction, and IL6-related mechanisms. We conclude that faster growth rates and larger

  20. Expressed microRNA associated with high rate of egg production in chicken ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N; Gaur, U; Zhu, Q; Chen, B; Xu, Z; Zhao, X; Yang, M; Li, D

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing. By comparing low rate of egg production chickens with high rate of egg production chickens, 17 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found (P chickens with high rates of egg production, suggesting that these miRNAs have an important role in ovary development and reproductive management of chicken. Furthermore, we uncovered that a significantly up-regulated miRNA-gga-miR-200a-3p-is ubiquitous in reproduction-regulation-related pathways. This miRNA may play a special central role in the reproductive management of chicken, and needs to be further studied for confirmation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Distribution of hexoestrol residues in caponised chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriman, I D; Harwood, D J; Blandford, T; Lindsay, D

    1982-11-06

    A radioimmunoassay method is described for the detection and measurement of residues of hexoestrol and other stilbenes in tissues of poultry. The residues following caponisation with 12 mg hexoestrol were measured in leg muscle, liver, visceral fat and neck 44 days after implantation. They were significantly greater than values obtained from eight untreated control birds. The mean values obtained in the caponised chickens ranged from 471 pg/g net weight of leg muscle to 584,500 pg/g of tissue from the upper neck region, which included the site of implantation. Control values in untreated birds fell within the range of 8 pg/g in leg muscle to 44 pg/g in liver tissue.

  2. Development of a cDNA array for chicken gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt David

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of microarray technology to functional genomic analysis in the chicken has been limited by the lack of arrays containing large numbers of genes. Results We have produced cDNA arrays using chicken EST collections generated by BBSRC, University of Delaware and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. From a total of 363,838 chicken ESTs representing 24 different adult or embryonic tissues, a set of 11,447 non-redundant ESTs were selected and added to an existing collection of clones (4,162 from immune tissues and a chicken bursal cell line (DT40. Quality control analysis indicates there are 13,007 useable features on the array, including 160 control spots. The array provides broad coverage of mRNAs expressed in many tissues; in addition, clones with expression unique to various tissues can be detected. Conclusions A chicken multi-tissue cDNA microarray with 13,007 features is now available to academic researchers from genomics@fhcrc.org. Sequence information for all features on the array is in GenBank, and clones can be readily obtained. Targeted users include researchers in comparative and developmental biology, immunology, vaccine and agricultural technology. These arrays will be an important resource for the entire research community using the chicken as a model.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F; Michalek, Ryan D; Lee, William R

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  4. Biogenic Pt uptake and nanoparticle formation in Medicago sativa and Brassica juncea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Roza; Siegele, Rainer; Harris, Andrew T.

    2010-10-01

    The ability of the facultative metallophyte plants, Medicago sativa ( M. sativa) and Brassica juncea ( B. juncea) to accumulate and translocate platinum (Pt) from aqueous substrates is reported. The influence of Pt concentration in the substrate (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm), exposure time (24, 48 and 72 h) and substrate pH (2, 3, 5, 7 and 9) was determined. In both plants the concentration of Pt increased with substrate concentration and exposure time. Greater accumulation was detected in the roots of M. sativa than B. juncea, up to a maximum of 94.19 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) compared with 38.5 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) following exposure to 80 ppm Pt after 72 h exposure, respectively. However, at lower substrate concentrations (5 and 20 ppm) greater quantities of Pt were detected in the shoots of B. juncea, ranging between 0.02 and 0.32 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) at 5 ppm across the different time intervals studied, compared with 0.02-0.14 mg Pt g-1 (dry biomass) for M. sativa, suggesting B. juncea to be a better translocator of Pt under idealised conditions at low concentrations. Higher Pt uptake was also observed in acidic media, with a maximum at pH 2 for M. sativa and pH 3 for B. juncea, indicating the role of net surface charge on the bioaccumulation of Pt. Once sequestered Pt(II) was reduced to Pt(0) due to the action of local metabolites. TEM images of M. sativa root samples showed the in vivo formation of Pt nanoparticles between 3 and 100 nm in size and of varying morphologies in the epidermal root cells. In vivo Pt distribution profiles were assessed using proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy, which showed even distribution across all tissue systems (epidermal, cortical and vascular) within the roots of both M. sativa and B. juncea.

  5. Characterization of azo dyes on Pt and Pt/polyaniline/dispersed Pt electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J.; Fernandez, J.; Rio, A.I. del; Bonastre, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The electrochemical characterization of two organic dyes (amaranth and procion orange MX-2R) has been performed on Pt electrodes and Pt electrodes coated with polyaniline and dispersed Pt. Electrodes with different Pt loads have been synthesized and characterized obtaining that a load of 300 {mu}g cm{sup -2} was the optimum one. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to observe the distribution and morphology of the Pt nanoparticles. The electroactivity of the electrodes has also been characterized by means of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The chemical characterization of Pt dispersed Pani coated Pt electrodes (Pt-Pani-Pt) was performed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical characterization of the dyes has been performed by means of cyclic voltammetry. Voltammograms have shown that the presence of the dyes diminishes characteristic Pt oxidation and reduction peaks. However, redox processes due to the dyes, appeared in the voltammograms. The different species responsible of these redox processes were generated in the vicinity of the electrode and were not adsorbed on the electrode surface since after stirring, the different redox processes disappeared. Characterization with different scan rates showed that redox processes of both dyes were controlled by diffusion.

  6. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  7. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P growth and development: extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development.

  8. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  9. Differences between influenza virus receptors on target cells of duck and chicken and receptor specificity of the 1997 H5N1 chicken and human influenza viruses from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, A S; Tuzikov, A B; Bovin, N V; Yamnikova, S S; Lvov, D K; Webster, R G; Matrosovich, M N

    2003-01-01

    To study whether influenza virus receptors in chickens differ from those in other species, we compared the binding of lectins and influenza viruses with known receptor specificity to cell membranes and gangliosides from epithelial tissues of ducks, chickens, and African green monkeys. We found that chicken cells contained Neu5Ac alpha(2-6)Gal-terminated receptors recognized by Sambucus nigra lectin and by human viruses. This finding explains how some recent H9N2 viruses replicate in chickens despite their human virus-like receptor specificity. Duck virus bound to gangliosides with short sugar chains that were abundant in duck intestine. Human and chicken viruses did not bind to these gangliosides and bound more strongly than duck virus to gangliosides with long sugar chains that were found in chicken intestinal and monkey lung tissues. Chicken and duck viruses also differed by their ability to recognize the structure of the third sugar moiety in Sia2-3Gal-terminated receptors. Chicken viruses preferentially bound to Neu5Ac alpha(2-3)Gal beta(1-4)GlcNAc-containing synthetic sialylglycopolymer, whereas duck viruses displayed a higher affinity for Neu5Ac alpha(2-3)Gal beta(1-3)GalNAc-containing polymer. Our data indicate that sialyloligosaccharide receptors in different avian species are not identical and provide a potential explanation for the differences between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins of duck and chicken viruses.

  10. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis by a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing IBV-S1 and chicken IFNgamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei

    2009-11-23

    A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.

  11. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  12. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  13. Structure and expression of the chicken calmodulin I gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    1997-01-01

    The chicken calmodulin I (CaMI) gene has been isolated and characterized on the level of cDNA and genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence is identical to the one of chicken CaMII which consists of 148 aa. The CaMI gene contains six exons. Its intron/exon organization is identical...... to that of the chicken CaMII and the CaMI and CaMIII genes of rat and human. Expression of the CaMI gene was detected in all chicken tissues examined, although at varying levels. The gene is transcribed into four mRNAs of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7 and 4.4 kb as determined by Northern blot analysis. Our results demonstrate...... that the "multigene-one-protein" principle of CaM synthesis is not only applicable to mammals whose CaM is encoded by three different genes, but also to chickens....

  14. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan

    2006-05-01

    The stress responses and possible oxidative damage in plasma, liver and heart were investigated in broiler chickens acutely exposed to high temperature. Eighty 5-week old broiler chickens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 6h. The extent of lipid peroxidation, activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant power in plasma, liver and heart tissues were investigated. Meanwhile, the blood metabolites such as glucose, urate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, corticosterone, ceruloplasmin and creatine kinase were measured before and after 3 and 6h of heat exposure. The results showed that oxidative stress could be induced in 5-week old broiler chickens by acute heat exposure (32 degrees C, 6h). The results suggest that the elevated body temperature can induce the metabolic changes that are involved in the induction of oxidative stress. The liver is more susceptible to oxidative stress than heart during acute heat exposure in broiler chickens. The oxidative stress should be considered as part of the stress response of broiler chickens to heat exposure.

  15. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  16. Genetic architecture of gene expression in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotation of many genomes is limited, with a large proportion of identified genes lacking functional assignments. The construction of gene co-expression networks is a powerful approach that presents a way of integrating information from diverse gene expression datasets into a unified analysis which allows inferences to be drawn about the role of previously uncharacterised genes. Using this approach, we generated a condition-free gene co-expression network for the chicken using data from 1,043 publically available Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays. This data was generated from a diverse range of experiments, including different tissues and experimental conditions. Our aim was to identify gene co-expression modules and generate a tool to facilitate exploration of the functional chicken genome. Results Fifteen modules, containing between 24 and 473 genes, were identified in the condition-free network. Most of the modules showed strong functional enrichment for particular Gene Ontology categories. However, a few showed no enrichment. Transcription factor binding site enrichment was also noted. Conclusions We have demonstrated that this chicken gene co-expression network is a useful tool in gene function prediction and the identification of putative novel transcription factors and binding sites. This work highlights the relevance of this methodology for functional prediction in poorly annotated genomes such as the chicken.

  17. Characterization of Phosphate Transporters BdPT4 and BdPT8 in Mycorrhizal and Non-Mychorrhizal Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Signe Sandbech

    was observed in non-arbusculated cells of AM plants. In arbusculated cells, BdPT8 was detected in the ER while BdPT4 was localized to the plasma membrane and the periarbuscular membrane (PAM) surrounding the arbuscular trunk and thick branches, which further supported a role of both BdPTs in direct Pi uptake......PT proteins were expressed in cells where direct PTs are believed to perform their function, as well as in the vascular tissue. In NM plants, BdPT4 was localized to the plasma membrane whereas BdPT8 accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the secretory pathway. A similar expression pattern......, and for BdPT4 in AM-mediated Pi uptake as well. In conclusion, the studies suggest that BdPT4 and possibly also BdPT8 are involved in direct uptake as well as in translocation of Pi in B. distachyon. Interestingly, as BdPT4 was additionally localised to the PAM of arbusculated cells, BdPT4 may also...

  18. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  19. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence.

  20. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to

  1. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  2. Cloning and Expression of SFRP5 in Tibetan Chicken and its Relationship with IMF Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zuo, Lu-Lu; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Ya-Ou; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang; Liao, Hong-Hai; Lin, Sen; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Secreted frizzled related protein 5 (SFRP5), an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is relevant to the adipocyte differentiation. In order to clarify its role in regulating intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Tibetan chicken, the full-length sequence of the Tibetan chicken SFRP5 gene was cloned. The relative expression of SFRP5 gene was detected using quantitative RT-PCR in various tissues of 154 days old Tibetan chicken, as well as in breast muscle, thigh muscle, and adipose tissue at different growth stages. The results showed that SFRP5 gene was expressed in all examined tissues but highly enriched in adipose tissue. Temporal expression profile showed that the expression of SFRP5 was gradually decreased in breast muscle, but was fluctuated in thigh muscle and adipose tissue with the growth of Tibetan chicken. Furthermore, correlation analysis demonstrated that the expression of SFRP5 in breast muscle, thigh muscle and adipose tissue was correlated with IMF content at different levels. The results indicated that Tibetan chicken SFRP5 is involved in IMF deposition.

  3. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  4. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseed meal in the diets of broiler chickens%肉鸡日粮中添加发酵棉粕对其组织脂类代谢及肝脏代谢谱的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun-xi NIE; Wen-ju ZHANG; Yong-qiang WANG; Yan-feng LIU; Wen-xia GE; Jian-cheng LIU

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented byCandida tropicalis, and a second experi-mental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plusSaccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid me-tabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets.%目 的:旨在研究发酵棉粕对肉鸡脂类代谢的影响.创新点:将荧光定量聚合酶链反应 PCR 和代谢组学方法相结合,就采食发酵饲料(发酵棉粕)肉鸡的组织脂类代谢相关基因及肝脏代谢谱进行分析,发现发酵棉粕具有调控肉鸡脂类代谢的作用.该研究为研究日粮中复杂

  5. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of cDNA ends of chicken neuropathy target esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-An; Sun, Quan; Ni, Xiao-Min; Qv, Feng-Qiong; Wu, Yi-Jun; Song, Fang-Zhou

    2008-03-10

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was proposed as the initial target during the process of organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in human and some sensitive animals. Adult hens are usually the animal model for experimental studies of OPIDN. However, little is known about the sequence and characteristics of chicken NTE. We report here the cloning of the 5' and 3' cDNA ends of chicken NTE through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and their expression profiles in different tissues with northern blotting. The cloned 3' cDNA end of chicken NTE is 801 base pair (bp) in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 379 bp. It contains a termination codon (TAG) and a 422-nucleotide noncoding sequence with the polyA sequence (GenBank accession no. DQ126678). The chicken NTE 5' cDNA end is 665 bp in length with an ORF of 552 bp. It contains an initiation codon (ATG) and a 113-bp untranslated region (GenBank accession no. DQ126677). The deduced proteins from 5' and 3' cDNA ends have a high degree of homology to humans and mouse NTE at the amino acid level. Chicken NTE is suggested to be a transmembrane protein by the transmembrane helix prediction of the deduced N-terminal sequence. The chicken NTE gene is expressed as a 4.5k b transcript in different tissues, including brain, kidney, liver and testis. Moreover, the mRNA expression of chicken NTE is highest in brain, and the mRNA levels of chicken NTE in testis, kidney and liver are about 75%, 47% and 24% of that in brain, respectively. These results should be helpful in cloning chicken full-length NTE gene.

  7. Systematic pathogenesis and replication of avian hepatitis E virus in specific-pathogen-free adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billam, P; Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Elvinger, F; Guenette, D K; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. Due to the lack of a cell culture system and a practical animal model for HEV, little is known about its pathogenesis and replication. The discovery of a strain of HEV in chickens, designated avian HEV, prompted us to evaluate chickens as a model for the study of HEV. Eighty-five 60-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 chickens (n=28) were each inoculated with 5 x 10(4.5) 50% chicken infectious doses of avian HEV by the oronasal route, group 2 chickens (n=29) were each inoculated with the same dose by the intravenous (i.v.) route, and group 3 chickens (n=28) were not inoculated and were used as controls. Two chickens from each group were necropsied at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 35, and 42 days postinoculation (dpi), and the remaining chickens were necropsied at 56 dpi. Serum, fecal, and various tissue samples, including liver and spleen samples, were collected at each necropsy for pathological and virological testing. By 21 dpi, all oronasally and i.v. inoculated chickens had seroconverted. Fecal virus shedding was detected variably from 1 to 20 dpi for the i.v. group and from 10 to 56 dpi for the oronasal group. Avian HEV RNA was detected in serum, bile, and liver samples from both i.v. and oronasally inoculated chickens. Gross liver lesions, characterized by subcapsular hemorrhages or enlargement of the right intermediate lobe, were observed in 7 of 28 oronasally and 7 of 29 i.v. inoculated chickens. Microscopic liver lesions were mainly lymphocytic periphlebitis and phlebitis. The lesion scores were higher for oronasal (P=0.0008) and i.v. (P=0.0029) group birds than for control birds. Slight elevations of the plasma liver enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were observed in infected chickens. The results indicated that chickens are a useful model for studying HEV replication and pathogenesis. This is the first report of HEV transmission via its natural

  8. Expression of mRNA transcription of Toll-like receptors 3,7 and 21 in different tissues of chicken by Real-time quantitative PCR%雏鸡不同组织TLR3、TLR7和TLR21 mRNA转录水平研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周作勇; 聂奎; 胡世君; 周荣琼

    2011-01-01

    According to the sequences of chicken Toll-like receptors(ChTLR), the real-time PCR primers were designed and synthesized to establish a met,hod for the detection of mRNA transcription of ChTLRs by real-time quantitative PCR and analyze the transcription of ChTLR3 ,ChTLR7 and ChTLR21 in different tissues of Luo-man chicken. The result showed that the ChTLRs mRNA was transcripted in spleen, bursa, thymus and intestinal tract. The ChTLR3 was transcripted at high level in kidney, thymus,cecum,jejunum, liver and duodenum, and not detected in skin. ChTLR7 was transcripted at high level in spleen,kidney,cecum , thymus and duodenum,and very low in liver and skin. ChTLR21 was transcripted in all selected tissues , and at high level in spleen, bursa, thymus and duodenum. These results indicated that there was comparatively large difference on the transcription level of ChTLRs mRNA in different tissues,which may be asscociated with the ability to recognize pathogens in chiken.%参考GenBank登录的ChTLRs基因序列设计实时定量PCR特异性引物,建立检测鸡T011样受体(ChTLR)mRNA相对转录水平的实时定量PCR方法,分析ChTLR3、ChTLR7和ChTLR21在雏鸡不同器官组织中的转录水平。3种ChTLRs在脾脏、法氏囊、胸腺和各段肠道组织中均有转录。其中,ChTLR3 mRNA在肾脏、胸腺、盲肠、空肠、肝脏和十二指肠转录水平较高,在皮肤中未检测到转录;chTLR7 mRNA在脾脏、肾脏、盲肠、胸腺和十二指肠转录水平较高,在肝脏和皮肤中转录水平很低;ChTLR21

  9. Efficient production of transgenic chickens based on piggyBac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Ran; Li, Qingyuan; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhang, Yaqiong; Liu, Xiaofang

    2013-04-01

    Transgenic techniques in chickens have been developed much more slowly than in mammals due to chickens' unique reproduction mechanism. Retroviral methods have been the most successful. piggyBac (PB) is a transposon that has a 13 bp perfect terminal invert repeat sequence. PB can be inserted into TTAA sites and can also be precisely excised in mammals. Therefore, we have selected PB as a candidate to establish a new method to produce transgenic chickens. We constructed three donor vectors (ZGl-neo, ZGm-neo and ZGs-neo) expressing a GFP marker-gene and a neomycin resistant gene based on PB. We co-transfected each donor vector with a helper vector (CAG-PBase). We found that ZGl-neo was the most efficient PB vector. This vector could insert into TTAA sites in DF-1 cells. PB vectors were microinjected into sub-germinal cavity of newly laid eggs, and electroporation was then performed with a 20-V pulse for 5 cycles of 50 ms on and 100 ms off. GFP was expressed in different tissues of the embryos, including the gonads. Twenty-two chickens hatched after microinjection with compounds ZGl-neo and CAG-PBase (3:1). When we screened the blood DNA, 73 % (16/22) of the individuals were positive. Thirteen of the chickens grew to adulthood, 11 of which were males. 40 % (4/10) of the individuals were semen positive, and their copy numbers ranged from 0.05 to 0.21 (0.11, 0.21, 0.05, 0.06). No G1 offspring containing the integrated transposon were produced. We conclude that the PB transposon system is a novel useful tool for the efficient production of transgenic chickens.

  10. Comparative study on the pathogenesis of the generated 9a5b Newcastle disease virus mutant isolate between chickens and waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

    2013-07-01

    Lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), circulating among waterfowl, have the potential to become highly pathogenic by replication in chickens. The pathological studies that compare NDV infections in chickens and waterfowl are rare. The virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was generated by passaging the lentogenic Goose/Alaska/415/91 NDV isolate in chickens. The pathogenesis of the virulent 9a5b mutant isolate is unknown in both chickens and waterfowl. In this study, the virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally in 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. Unlike ducks, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, chickens had depression, gasping, oral discharges, and greenish-white soft feces. Gross and histologic lesion patterns as well as viral replication supported the differing clinical outcome. Ducks had slight inflammation mainly in respiratory and digestive tracts, whereas slight nonpurulent encephalitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and mild inflammation in respiratory and digestive tracts were detected in chickens. In agreement, interferon-beta (IFN-β)-immunopositive signals were more intense in lung tissue of ducks than that of chickens, and NDV replications were detected intensively in chicken tissues. These results suggest that the 9a5b mutant NDV isolate is more virulent in chickens, and slight histological lesions were induced in ducks even with virulent NDVs.

  11. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  12. Identification of {sup 166}Pt and {sup 167}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Toth, K.S.; Batchelder, J.C.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Brown, L.T.; Busse, B.C.; Conticchio, L.F.; Davids, C.N.; Davinson, T.; Henderson, D.J.; Irvine, R.J.; Seweryniak, D.; Walters, W.B.; Woods, P.J.; Zimmerman, B.E. [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)]|[Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)]|[Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)]|[Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)]|[Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)]|[University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)]|[Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    In a series of {sup 78}Kr bombardments of {sup 92}Mo the new isotopes {sup 166}Pt and {sup 167}Pt were identified via their {alpha}-decay properties. The {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of these two nuclides are as follows. (1) {sup 166}Pt, {ital E}{sub {alpha}} = 7110(15) keV, {ital T}{sub 1/2} = 0.3(1) ms, and (2) {sup 167}Pt, {ital E}{sub {alpha}} = 6988(10) keV, {ital T}{sub 1/2} = 0.7(2) ms. Also, the half-life of {sup 168}Pt, which was previously unknown, was determined to be 2.0(4) ms. In a separate but concurrent experiment involving {sup 78}Kr + {sup 96}Ru reactions, {sup 170}Pt was made and a half-life of 14.7(5) ms was measured for it; the one published value is 6{sub {minus}2}{sup +5} ms. Results for {sup 162{minus}164}Os contained in the same data sets were also analyzed and by using mother-daughter correlations, the {alpha} branches of {sup 162,163,164}Os were established to be near 100{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. CRISPR mediated somatic cell genome engineering in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véron, Nadège; Qu, Zhengdong; Kipen, Phoebe A S; Hirst, Claire E; Marcelle, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Gene-targeted knockout technologies are invaluable tools for understanding the functions of genes in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9 system of RNA-guided genome editing is revolutionizing genetics research in a wide spectrum of organisms. Here, we combined CRISPR with in vivo electroporation in the chicken embryo to efficiently target the transcription factor PAX7 in tissues of the developing embryo. This approach generated mosaic genetic mutations within a wild-type cellular background. This series of proof-of-principle experiments indicate that in vivo CRISPR-mediated cell genome engineering is an effective method to achieve gene loss-of-function in the tissues of the chicken embryo and it completes the growing genetic toolbox to study the molecular mechanisms regulating development in this important animal model.

  14. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  15. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P chicken (P chickens.

  16. 不同剂量党参、淫羊藿提取物对青脚麻鸡脾脏组织结构的影响%Effect on the Tissue Structure of Partridge Shank Chicken' s Spleen with Different Dosage Extraction from Pilose Asiabell Root.and Herba EpimedhiBrevicornus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金星; 李升和; 宁康健; 金光明

    2012-01-01

    为研究不同剂量党参、淫羊藿对青脚麻鸡脾脏组织结构的影响.将420只14日龄青脚麻鸡随机均分7组,分别为饮用党参和淫羊藿提取物大(2 g/L)、中(1 g/L)、小(0.5 9/L)浓度组和对照组(饮用自来水).于28、35、42、49、56日龄时早晨空腹随机抽样12只解剖,迅速取脾脏标本,称重后Bouin液常温固定24h,乙醇脱水、二甲苯透明、石蜡包埋,用LEICA-RM-2128型切片机切成5μm切片,HE染色,中性树胶封片,显微观察,OLYMPNS-CH30型显微摄影系统显微摄影.结果表明:党参和淫羊藿各试验组鸡脾脏红髓和白髓界限清晰,脾小体明显,动脉周围淋巴鞘数量增多,动脉周围淋巴鞘增厚,其中以2g/L组结构最为明显.说明在饮水中添加党参、淫羊藿提取物均对青脚麻鸡脾脏的发育有促进作用.%To study the effect on the tissue structure of Partridge Shank Chicken' s spleen with different dosage extraction from Pilose Asiabell Root and Herba Epimedii Brevicornus. 420 Partridge Shank Chickens of 14-day-age were randomly divided into seven groups. Control groups and experiment group were drunk water and different doses of extract from Pilose Asiabell Root and Herba Epimedii Brevicornus, Setting the I group as contrast; setting the Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ, Ⅵ,Ⅶ group as small (0.5 g/L), middle (1.0 g/L), large (2.0 g/L) doses of extraction from Pilose Asiabell Root and Herba Epimedii Brevicornus. In 21th, 28th, 35th, 42th, 49th and 56th day morning, select 12 chicken for dissection before they were fed, taking anatomical specimens quickly and keeping it under Bouin liquid in normal atmospheric temperature 24 hours to be fixed, then, Dehydrated by ethanol, Making it transparent by Xylene, paraffin embedding, Cutting it into 5um tire-road friction coefficient with the LEICA-RM-2128 type slicing machine, HE dying, sealing in piece with neutral gum, OLYMPNS-CH30 microstructure for observation, making the microstructure photography

  17. The chicken transforming growth factor-beta 3 gene: genomic structure, transcriptional analysis, and chromosomal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D W; Dey, B R; Paton, I R; Morrice, D R; Law, A S

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, we report the isolation, characterization, and mapping of the chicken transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) gene. The gene contains seven exons and six introns spanning 16-kb of the chicken genome. A comparison of the 5'-flanking regions of human and chicken TGF-beta 3 genes reveals two regions of sequence conservation. The first contains ATF/CRE and TBP/TATA sequence motifs within an 87-bp region. The second is a 162-bp region with no known sequence motifs. Identification of transcription start sites using chicken RNA isolated from various embryonic and adult tissues reveals two sites of initiation, P1 and P2, which map to these two conserved regions. Comparison of 3'-flanking regions of chicken and mammalian TGF-beta 3 genes also revealed conserved sequences. The most significant homologies were found in the 3'-most end of the transcribed region. DNA sequence analysis of chicken TGF-beta 3 cDNAs isolated by 3'-RACE revealed multiple polyadenylation sites unusually distant from a poly(A) signal motif. A Msc I restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker was used to map the TGFB3 locus to linkage group E7 on the East Lansing reference backcross. Linkage to the TH locus showed that the TGFB3 locus was physically located on chicken chromosome 5.

  18. NHE1 gene associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J infection in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Pan, Weiling; Zhang, Liangyu; Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Hongjia; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2014-10-01

    As a kind of binding protein, the type 1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) is a receptor for the highly pathogenic Avian leukosis viruses-J subgroup (ALV-J) in chicken. In order to investigate the potential effect of chicken NHE1 gene on leukosis, we compared its expression between ALV-J-affected and -unaffected chicken, screened variations across the whole gene, and then performed association analysis with ALV-J affected/unaffected trait in three un-related chicken populations. We found that the NHE1 gene expressed in four immune tissues including spleen, bursa fabricius, liver, and thymus, and its expression was significantly up-regulated in liver and thymus of ALV-J-affected chickens (with leukosis phenotype) compared to -unaffected ones (ALV-J-negative controls). Thirty-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in a 6,105 bp region of the chicken NHE1 gene, giving rise to every 170 bp per SNP. Two SNP of g.4405A>G and g.5886C>G were genotyped with PCR-RFLP method. Results showed that g.4405A>G was significantly associated (P G was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with ALV-J infection in SY. These results indicated that the NHE1 gene was related to ALV-J infection in chicken.

  19. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days. The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, and serum reduced glutathione (GSH in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress.

  20. Downregulation of chicken interleukin-17 receptor A during Eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-09-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection.

  1. Pt/C Fuel Cell Catalyst Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zana, Alessandro

    This thesis investigates the degradation behavior of Pt/C catalysts under simulated automotive conditions. By using the “tool box” synthesis method the Pt loading has been changed from low to high Pt loadings, therefore permitting to study the role of Pt on the degradation of high surface area (H...

  2. Pt/C Fuel Cell Catalyst Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zana, Alessandro

    This thesis investigates the degradation behavior of Pt/C catalysts under simulated automotive conditions. By using the “tool box” synthesis method the Pt loading has been changed from low to high Pt loadings, therefore permitting to study the role of Pt on the degradation of high surface area (H...

  3. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive sampling techniques of retail chicken carcasses for enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; de Almeida, Michelle Vieira; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The type of sampling technique used to obtain food samples is fundamental to the success of microbiological analysis. Destructive and nondestructive techniques, such as tissue excision and rinsing, respectively, are widely employed in obtaining samples from chicken carcasses. In this study, four sampling techniques used for chicken carcasses were compared to evaluate their performances in the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms. Sixty fresh chicken carcasses were sampled by rinsing, tissue excision, superficial swabbing, and skin excision. All samples were submitted for enumeration of mesophilic aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The results were compared to determine the statistical significance of differences and correlation (P sampling techniques evaluated for most of the hygiene indicators. Despite presenting a higher recovery ability, tissue excision did not present significant differences for microorganism enumeration compared with other nondestructive techniques, such as rinsing, indicating its adequacy for microbiological analysis of chicken carcasses.

  4. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... Conclusion: Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) harbor Pathogenic ... diseases from domestic Chickens for example avian ... emerged as the major cause of death in HIV/AIDS .... The mechanism by which the birds' excreta get.

  5. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in. Four Areas of ... were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken ..... Canis lupus familiaris in Mueang district ...

  6. STUDY OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES OF SLAUGHTER PRODUCTS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glotova I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For comparative evaluation of aroma-forming substances of primary and secondary products of slaughter broilers, we used the multi-channel gas analyzer "MAG-8" and the methodology "an electronic nose". The objects of study served as the heads and feet of chickens-broilers of cross "ROSS-308", subjected to hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of native tissue structure at 0,24 MPa. As a control sample when assessing the composition of the equilibrium gas phase above the heads and feet of broiler chickens used poultry, meat, broiler chickens, obtained by cutting of carcasses, with the natural ratio of bone and muscle tissue. The identification of volatile components of the equilibrium gas phase above the samples was carried out according to the following classes of organic com-pounds in accordance with the numbers of sensors in the matrix: 1 – hydrophilic compounds, water; 2 – alcohols, ketones; 3 – acid, water, light alcohols; 4 – ester; 5 – sulfur-containing compounds, esters; 6 – phenol, and other aromatic compounds; 7 – alcohols, nitrogen compounds, water; 8 – acid. The analysis shows that control and experimental samples do not have significant differences in the aromatic-skim com-pounds, ketones and sulfur-containing compounds. The comparison group of "control – leg" also has no significant differences according to the groups of compounds: ketones, alcohols, esters; nitrogen-containing compounds. The largest differences recorded for the sample "legs broiler chickens", and the moisture content and nitro-gen-containing compounds, this sample is superior and head, and the main raw mate-rial in the processing of broiler chickens. The results show that heads of broiler chickens, thermo-processed under pressure can be used to realize emulsified protein-fat products of the type Pasternak masses corresponding to the traditional products of poultry meat for sensormatics the aroma profile without the use of food additives. For

  7. Study on the preparation of Pt nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-fan; Ji, Zhen; Chen, Ke; Liu, Bo-wen; Jia, Cheng-chang; Yang, Shan-wu

    2017-01-01

    Ag@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@Pt NPs) were prepared by a co-reduction method. Pt nanocapsules with diameters of less than 10 nm were obtained by an electrochemical method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning was used to cavitate the Ag@Pt NPs, and the morphology, structure, and cavitation conditions were studied. The results indicate that the effective cavitation conditions to obtain Pt nanoparticles from Ag@Pt NPs are a scanning voltage of 0 to 0.8 V and continuous CV scanning over 2 h. This cavitation method is also applicable for the syntheses of Ir, Ru, and Ru-Pt nanocapsules.

  8. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  9. Differentiation of expression proifles of two calcineurin subunit genes in chicken skeletal muscles during early postnatal growth depending on anatomical location of muscles and breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yan-ju; XU Wen-juan; SHU Jing-ting; ZHANG Ming; SONG Wei-tao; TAO Zhi-yun; ZHU Chun-hong; LI Hui-fang

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin (Cn or CaN) is implicated in the control of skeletal muscle ifber phenotype and hypertrophy. However, little information is available concerning the expression of Cn in chickens. In the present study, the expression of two Cn subunit genes (CnAα andCnB1) was quantiifed by qPCR in the lateral gastrocnemius (LG, mainly composing of red fast-twitch myoifbers), the soleus (mainly composing of red slow-twitch myoifbers) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, mainly composing of white fast-twitch myoifbers) from Qingyuan partridge chickens (QY, slow-growing chicken breed) and Recessive White chickens (RW, fast-growing chicken breed) on different days (1, 8, 22, 36, 50 and 64 days post-hatching). Although CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions were variable with different trends in different skeletal muscles in the two chicken breeds during postnatal growth, it is highly muscle phenotype and breed speciifc. In general, the levels ofCnAαandCnB1gene expressions of the soleus were lower than those of EDL and LG in both chicken breeds at the same stages. Compared be-tween the two chicken breeds, the levels ofCnAα gene expression of the three skeletal muscles in QY chickens were higher than those in RW chickens on days 1 and 22. However, on day 64, the levels of bothCnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the three skeletal muscles were lower in QY chickens than those in RW chickens. Correlation analysis of the levels of CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the same skeletal muscle showed that there were positive correlations for al three skeletal muscle tissues in two chicken breeds. These results provide some valuable clues to understand the role of Cn in the development of chicken skeletal muscles, with a function that may be related to meat quality.

  10. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  11. Differential expression of L-FABP and L-BABP between fat and lean chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Shi, H; Liu, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Q; Li, H

    2013-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and liver bile acid-binding protein (L-BABP), in the liver intra-cytoplasm of chicken, are members of the fatty acid-binding protein subfamily. This study was designed to analyze and compare L-FABP and L-BABP expression levels between fat and lean lines in chicken liver tissue, and to determine the relationship between their expression and lipid metabolism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression in liver tissue between the lean and fat lines. Real-time PCR showed that L-FABP mRNA expression in fat male chickens was higher than that in lean male chickens at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 weeks of age (P L-FABP protein expression in fat male chickens was higher than that in lean male chickens at 3, 5, 6, and 7 weeks of age (P L-FABP and L-BABP affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in their expression level, and the possible mechanism is that a high expression level of L-FABP and L-BABP leads to a high lipogenesis rate and, ultimately, to lipid deposition.

  12. Broiler chickens (Ross strain) lack insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 and have GLUT8 cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yoshinori; Sato, Kan; Kono, Tatsuyoshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Akiba, Yukio

    2003-08-01

    Identification of insulin-responsive glucose transporter proteins, GLUT4 and GLUT8, was attempted in chickens that characteristically are hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Northern blot analysis using rat GLUT4 cDNA probe and RT-PCR using primers designed against the conserved regions in mammalian GLUT4 cDNA were not successful in identifying GLUT4 homologue(s) in various chicken tissues. Furthermore, GLUT4 homologues could not be detected in chicken tissues by genomic Southern blot analyses using a rat GLUT4 cDNA probe. These data, therefore, suggest that the GLUT4 homologous gene is deficient in chicken tissues. However, GLUT8, another insulin-responsive glucose transporter in the blastocyst, was identified with the aid of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) reactions in the chicken testis. Chicken GLUT8 was composed of 1449 bp with a coding region for a 482 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence was 58.8, 56.3, and 56.8% identical with human, rat, and mouse GLUT8, respectively. By RT-PCR, GLUT8 mRNA expressions were detected in chicken brain, kidney, adrenal, spleen, lung, testis, and pancreas; and barely detectable in skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and heart. Here we firstly report that GLUT8 was identified in chickens, while GLUT4, a major insulin-responsive transporter in mammals, is deficient in these animals. We propose the hypothesis that the hyperglycemia and insulin resistance observable in chickens is associated with their possible deficiency of GLUT4.

  13. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  14. Amputation of polymelia in a layer chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Seida, Ashraf M

    2014-06-01

    Polymelia was rarely recorded in birds; therefore, this report records the clinical and radiographic findings in a case of polymelia in a 7-mo-old layer Fayoumi chicken and the outcome of its amputation. The hen had two pericloacal extra limbs located caudal to the normal ones in an inverted position. The extra limbs were immovable and loosely attached to the underlying tissues. The supernumerary limbs had normal skin with ill-developed feathers. The extra limbs were fused proximally and crossed distally. Plain radiographic examination showed unequal numbers of bones and digits in both extra limbs. The right extra limb had a femur and tarsometatarsus while the left extra one had femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus bones. The extra limbs appeared smaller than the normal ones and had neither muscles nor tendons. Amputation of the extra limbs under local infiltration analgesia was easy, safe, and curative.

  15. Pt···Pt vs Pt···S contacts between Pt-containing heterobimetallic lantern complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, Frederick G; Fiedler, Stephanie R; Shores, Matthew P; Bacon, Jeffrey W; Golen, James A; Rheingold, Arnold L; Doerrer, Linda H

    2013-12-01

    A trio of Pt-based heterobimetallic lantern complexes of the form [(py)PtM(SAc)4(py)] (M = Co, 1; Ni, 2; Zn, 3) with unusual octahedral coordination of Pt(II) was prepared from a reaction of [PtM(SAc)4] with excess pyridine. These dipyridine lantern complexes could be converted to monopyridine derivatives with gentle heat to give the series [PtM(SAc)4(py)] (M = Co, 4; Ni, 5; Zn, 6). An additional family of the form [PtM(SAc)4(pyNH2)] (M = Co, 7; Ni, 8; Zn, 9) was synthesized from reaction of [PtM(SAc)4(OH2)] or [PtM(SAc)4] with 4-aminopyridine. Dimethylsulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide were also determined to react with [PtM(SAc)4] (M = Co, Ni), respectively, to give [PtCo(SAc)4(DMSO)](DMSO), 10, and [PtNi(SAc)4(DMF)](DMF), 11. Structural and magnetic data for these compounds and those for two other previously published families, [PtM(tba)4(OH2)] and [PtM(SAc)4(L)], L = OH2, pyNO2, are used to divide the structures among three distinct categories based on Pt···Pt and Pt···S distances. In general, the weaker donors H2O and pyNO2 seem to favor metallophilicity and antiferromagnetic coupling between 3d metal centers. When Pt···S interactions are favored over Pt···Pt ones, no coupling is observed and the pKa of the pyridine donor correlates with the interlantern S···S distance. UV-vis-NIR electronic and (1)H NMR spectra provide complementary characterization as well.

  16. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  17. Expression pattern of genes of RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in different-breed chicken response to Marek's disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  18. Effect of Pt coverage in Pt-deposited Pd nanostructure electrodes on electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah-Reum; Lee, Young-Woo; Kwak, Da-Hee; Park, Kyung-Won [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We have fabricated Pt-deposited Pd electrodes via a two-gun sputtering deposition system by separately operating Pd and Pt target as a function of sputtering time of Pt target. For Pt-deposited Pd electrodes (Pd/Pt-X), Pd were first deposited on the substrates at 20 W for 5min, followed by depositing Pt on the Pd-only electrodes as a function of sputtering time (X=1, 3, 5, 7, and 10min) at 20W on the Pt target. As the sputtering time of Pt target increased, the portion of Pt on the Pd electrodes increased, representing an increased coverage of Pt on the Pd electrodes. The Pd/Pt-7 electrode having an optimized Pt coverage exhibits an excellent electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction.

  19. Distribution of viral antigen gp85 and provirus in various tissues from commercial meat-type and experimental white leghorn line 0 chickens with different subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test for the presence of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV J) envelope antigen gp85 and provirus, respectively in various tissues (adrenal gland, bone marrow, gonad, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, proventriculus, s...

  20. Electron transport in a Pt-CO-Pt nanocontact: Density functional theory calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    We have performed first-principles calculations for the mechanic and electric properties of pure Pt nanocontacts and a Pt contact with a single CO molecule adsorbed. For the pure Pt contacts we see a clear difference between point contacts and short chains in good agreement with experiments. We i...... of the transmission function for the Pt-CO-Pt contact, and show that the conductance is largely determined by the local d band at the Pt apex atoms....

  1. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  2. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  3. Experimental infection of SPF and Korean native chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Woo, Sang-Hee; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In 2014, an H5N8 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in South Korea. The H5N8 strain produced mild to moderate clinical signs and mortality rates in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken farms. To understand the differences between their pathogenicity in SPF chicken and Korean native chicken., we evaluated the mean bird lethal doses (BLD50) of the Korean representative H5N8 virus (A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014) The BLD50values of the H5N8 virus were 10(5.3)EID50 and 10(6.7)EID50 in SPF and Korean native chickens, respectively. In addition, the mean death time was much longer, and the viral titers in tissues of H5N8-infected chickens were significantly lower, in the Korean group than in the SPF group. These features of the H5N8 virus likely account for its mild-to-moderate pathogenicity in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken flocks, despite the fact that it is a highly pathogenic virus according to the OIE criteria. To improve current understanding and management of HPAI, pathogenic characterization of novel emerging viruses should be performed by natural route in major poultry species in each country.

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  5. Electrodeposited CoPt and FePt alloys nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnon, L. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: laurent.cagnon@grenoble.cnrs.fr; Dahmane, Y. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Laboratoire de Materiaux, Electrochimie et Corrosion, BP 17, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Voiron, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Pairis, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Bacia, M. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Ortega, L. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Benbrahim, N. [Laboratoire de Materiaux, Electrochimie et Corrosion, BP 17, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Kadri, A. [Laboratoire de Materiaux, Electrochimie et Corrosion, BP 17, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2007-03-15

    We have investigated CoPt and FePt alloys with the face centered tetragonal phase L10, which present very large magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Equiatomic CoPt nanowires exhibiting large coercive fields up to 1.1 T have been successfully prepared by electrodeposition into nanopores of commercial and home-made alumina membranes from a very simple electrolyte. The as-deposited material has the FCC structure with soft magnetic properties. An annealing treatment at 700 deg. C is crucial to transform this phase into the L1{sub 0} phase, which presents hard magnetic properties. Nanowires of annealed samples consist of small grains around 20 nm, with their c axes randomly distributed. The coercivity does not depend on the morphology and porosity of the two types of membranes but only on the deposited material elaborated with the appropriate thermal annealing process. Our preliminary results with FePt alloy indicate a more complicated system since the as-deposited material shows no magnetization. Magnetism appears only after annealing at 700-750 deg. C. Coercivity up to 0.85 T has been obtained at room temperature but with inhomogeneous phase composition. To achieve a single hard phase L1{sub 0}, it is essential to get for the as-deposited sample the equiatomic composition and then to employ the suitable annealing parameters (temperature and time) to change the whole FCC phase into the FCT ordered L1{sub 0} phase.

  6. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  7. Ab-initio study of the coadsorption of Li and H on Pt(001), Pt(110) and Pt(111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Farida [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Zemirli, Mourad, E-mail: zemirlimourad@mail.ummto.dz [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Benakki, Mouloud; Bouarab, Said [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2012-02-15

    The coadsorption of Li and H atoms on Pt(001), Pt(110) and Pt(111) surfaces is studied using density functional theory with generalised gradient approximation. In all calculations Li, H and the two topmost layers of the metal were allowed to relax. At coverage of 0.25 mono-layer in a p(2 Multiplication-Sign 2) unit cell, lithium adsorption at the hollow site for the three surfaces is favoured over top and bridge sites. The most favoured adsorption sites for H atom on the Pt(001) and Pt(110) surfaces are the top and bridge sites, while on Pt(111) surface the fcc site appears to be slightly favoured over the hcp site. The coadsorption of Li and atomic hydrogen shows that the interaction between the two adsorbates is stabilising when they are far from each other. The analysis of Li, H and Pt local density of states shows that Li strongly interacts with the Pt surfaces.

  8. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Pineda, N; Kyvsgaard, N C; Luna, L A; Rimbaud, E; Oliveira, J B; Kwok, O C H; Qi, Y; Su, C

    2006-11-30

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in 84 (85.7%) of 98 chickens with titers of 1:5 in 10, 1:10 in eight, 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in nine, 1:80 in 11, 1:160 in one, 1:200 in 27, 1:400 in six, 1:800 four, and 1:3200 in one bird. Hearts and brains of 32 chickens with titers of 1:10 or less were pooled and fed to three T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 66 chickens with titers of 1:20 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. The cat fed tissues from eight chickens with titers of 1:10 shed T. gondii oocysts. The two cats fed tissues of 24 chickens with titers of 1:5 or less did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 47 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from six isolates died of toxoplasmosis. Overall, 41 of 170 (24.1%) mice that became infected after inoculation with chicken tissues died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 48 isolates (47 from mice and 1 from pooled tissues) using polymorphisms at the loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 revealed eight genotypes. Six isolates had Type I alleles, three isolate had Type II alleles and six isolates had Type III alleles at all loci. Four isolates had mixed infections. Two isolates have a unique allele at SAG1 locus and combination of I and III alleles at other loci. The rest 27 isolates contained the combination of Type I and III alleles and were divided into four genotypes. More than one genotypes were often isolated in chickens from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed

  9. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  10. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  11. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  12. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  13. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  14. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  15. PT-symmetric quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.

    2015-07-01

    The average quantum physicist on the street would say that a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian must be Dirac Hermitian (invariant under combined matrix transposition and complex conjugation) in order to guarantee that the energy eigenvalues are real and that time evolution is unitary. However, the Hamiltonian H = p2 + ix3, which is obviously not Dirac Hermitian, has a positive real discrete spectrum and generates unitary time evolution, and thus it defines a fully consistent and physical quantum theory. Evidently, the axiom of Dirac Hermiticity is too restrictive. While H = p2 + ix3 is not Dirac Hermitian, it is PT symmetric; that is, invariant under combined parity P (space reflection) and time reversal T. The quantum mechanics defined by a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is a complex generalization of ordinary quantum mechanics. When quantum mechanics is extended into the complex domain, new kinds of theories having strange and remarkable properties emerge. In the past few years, some of these properties have been verified in laboratory experiments. A particularly interesting PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is H = p2 - x4, which contains an upside-down potential. This potential is discussed in detail, and it is explained in intuitive as well as in rigorous terms why the energy levels of this potential are real, positive, and discrete. Applications of PT-symmetry in quantum field theory are also discussed.

  16. Biogenic Pt uptake and nanoparticle formation in Medicago sativa and Brassica juncea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, Roza [University of Sydney, Laboratory for Sustainable Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Australia); Siegele, Rainer [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Institute for Environmental Research (Australia); Harris, Andrew T., E-mail: a.harris@usyd.edu.a [University of Sydney, Laboratory for Sustainable Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The ability of the facultative metallophyte plants, Medicago sativa (M. sativa) and Brassica juncea (B. juncea) to accumulate and translocate platinum (Pt) from aqueous substrates is reported. The influence of Pt concentration in the substrate (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm), exposure time (24, 48 and 72 h) and substrate pH (2, 3, 5, 7 and 9) was determined. In both plants the concentration of Pt increased with substrate concentration and exposure time. Greater accumulation was detected in the roots of M. sativa than B. juncea, up to a maximum of 94.19 mg Pt g{sup -1} (dry biomass) compared with 38.5 mg Pt g{sup -1} (dry biomass) following exposure to 80 ppm Pt after 72 h exposure, respectively. However, at lower substrate concentrations (5 and 20 ppm) greater quantities of Pt were detected in the shoots of B. juncea, ranging between 0.02 and 0.32 mg Pt g{sup -1} (dry biomass) at 5 ppm across the different time intervals studied, compared with 0.02-0.14 mg Pt g{sup -1} (dry biomass) for M. sativa, suggesting B. juncea to be a better translocator of Pt under idealised conditions at low concentrations. Higher Pt uptake was also observed in acidic media, with a maximum at pH 2 for M. sativa and pH 3 for B. juncea, indicating the role of net surface charge on the bioaccumulation of Pt. Once sequestered Pt(II) was reduced to Pt(0) due to the action of local metabolites. TEM images of M. sativa root samples showed the in vivo formation of Pt nanoparticles between 3 and 100 nm in size and of varying morphologies in the epidermal root cells. In vivo Pt distribution profiles were assessed using proton induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy, which showed even distribution across all tissue systems (epidermal, cortical and vascular) within the roots of both M. sativa and B. juncea.

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the insulin gene with chicken early growth and fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F F; Nie, Q H; Luo, C L; Zhang, D X; Lin, S M; Zhang, X Q

    2006-06-01

    Growth rate, body composition, and fat deposition are important traits in chickens. Insulin plays important roles in hepatic cells, muscle cells, and adipose tissue cells. The purpose of the present study was to analyze association of the insulin (INS) gene with chicken growth and body composition traits. Using a F2 design resource population constructed with the crossing of Chinese native Xinghua chickens and White Recessive Rock chickens, the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; A+428G, C+1549T, T+3737C, and A+3971G) of INS gene with 13 growth and body composition traits was studied. The T+3737C genotypes were significantly associated with small intestine length (P = 0.0002), and the A+3971G genotypes were significantly associated with early growth (hatch weight and BW at 28 d of age) (P 0.05). The haplotypes based on the 4 SNP were also significantly associated with early growth (hatch weight and BW at 28 d of age; P < 0.0001) and breast angle (P < 0.0001) but not with small intestine length (P = 0.0505). These results suggested that variation of the insulin gene was significantly associated with chicken early growth but not with fat deposition. In addition, the data from the present study supported the inference that both the one-SNP-at-a-time and the haplotype-based approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages when association analysis of one SNP and haplotypes with chicken complex traits was conducted.

  18. Identification and SNP association analysis of a novel gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xingxing; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Jia, Lijuan; Li, Hong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiang, Ruirui

    2016-02-01

    A novel gene that was predicted to encode a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript was identified in a previous study that aimed to detect candidate genes related to growth rate differences between Chinese local breed Gushi chickens and Anka broilers. To characterise the biological function of the lncRNA, we cloned and sequenced the complete open reading frame of the gene. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to analyse the expression patterns of the lncRNA in different tissues of chicken at different development stages. The qPCR data showed that the novel lncRNA gene was expressed extensively, with the highest abundance in spleen and lung and the lowest abundance in pectoralis and leg muscle. Additionally, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the 5'-end of the gene and studied the association between the SNP and chicken growth traits using data from an F2 resource population of Gushi chickens and Anka broilers. The association analysis showed that the SNP was significantly (P chickens at 1 day, 4 weeks and 6 weeks of age. We concluded that the novel lncRNA gene, which we designated pouBW1, may play an important role in regulating chicken growth.

  19. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  20. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  1. γ-Crystallins of the chicken lens: remnants of an ancient vertebrate gene family in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingwei; Sagar, Vatsala; Len, Hoay-Shuen; Peterson, Katherine; Fan, Jianguo; Mishra, Sanghamitra; McMurtry, John; Wilmarth, Phillip A; David, Larry L; Wistow, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    γ-Crystallins, abundant proteins of vertebrate lenses, were thought to be absent from birds. However, bird genomes contain well-conserved genes for γS- and γN-crystallins. Although expressed sequence tag analysis of chicken eye found no transcripts for these genes, RT-PCR detected spliced transcripts for both genes in chicken lens, with lower levels in cornea and retina/retinal pigment epithelium. The level of mRNA for γS in chicken lens was relatively very low even though the chicken crygs gene promoter had lens-preferred activity similar to that of mouse. Chicken γS was detected by a peptide antibody in lens, but not in other ocular tissues. Low levels of γS and γN proteins were detected in chicken lens by shotgun mass spectroscopy. Water-soluble and water-insoluble lens fractions were analyzed and 1934 proteins (chicken lens proteome 30-fold. Although chicken γS is well conserved in protein sequence, it has one notable difference in leucine 16, replacing a surface glutamine conserved in other γ-crystallins, possibly affecting solubility. However, L16 and engineered Q16 versions were both highly soluble and had indistinguishable circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and heat stability (melting temperature Tm ~ 65 °C) profiles. L16 has been present in birds for over 100 million years and may have been adopted for a specific protein interaction in the bird lens. However, evolution has clearly reduced or eliminated expression of ancestral γ-crystallins in bird lenses. The conservation of genes for γS- and γN-crystallins suggests they may have been preserved for reasons unrelated to the bulk properties of the lens.

  2. Experimental-confirmation and functional-annotation of predicted proteins in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Fiona M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken genome was sequenced because of its phylogenetic position as a non-mammalian vertebrate, its use as a biomedical model especially to study embryology and development, its role as a source of human disease organisms and its importance as the major source of animal derived food protein. However, genomic sequence data is, in itself, of limited value; generally it is not equivalent to understanding biological function. The benefit of having a genome sequence is that it provides a basis for functional genomics. However, the sequence data currently available is poorly structurally and functionally annotated and many genes do not have standard nomenclature assigned. Results We analysed eight chicken tissues and improved the chicken genome structural annotation by providing experimental support for the in vivo expression of 7,809 computationally predicted proteins, including 30 chicken proteins that were only electronically predicted or hypothetical translations in human. To improve functional annotation (based on Gene Ontology, we mapped these identified proteins to their human and mouse orthologs and used this orthology to transfer Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations to the chicken proteins. The 8,213 orthology-based GO annotations that we produced represent an 8% increase in currently available chicken GO annotations. Orthologous chicken products were also assigned standardized nomenclature based on current chicken nomenclature guidelines. Conclusion We demonstrate the utility of high-throughput expression proteomics for rapid experimental structural annotation of a newly sequenced eukaryote genome. These experimentally-supported predicted proteins were further annotated by assigning the proteins with standardized nomenclature and functional annotation. This method is widely applicable to a diverse range of species. Moreover, information from one genome can be used to improve the annotation of other genomes and

  3. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases. The test was divided into proficiency test 1 (PT1) and proficiency test 2 (PT2). The number of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) participating in PT1 and PT2 was 43...

  4. Oxygen reduction activity of Pt and Pt-alloys in acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Ursula A. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schmidt, Thomas J.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Ross, Philip N. [Material Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been studied on polycrystalline (pc) Pt, Pt{sub 3}Ni and Pt{sub 3}Co bulk alloy electrodes and on carbon supported Pt, PtNi and PtCo alloy catalysts. Base voltammetry measurements as well as complementary Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) on bulk electrodes and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)-analysis on the supported catalysts allow an estimation of the surface composition. By using the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique both the kinetic analysis of the ORR and in parallel the detection and quantification of the amount of peroxide produced during the ORR are possible. The activity for the ORR increases in the order Pt < Pt{sub 3}Ni < Pt{sub 3}Co for equally prepared bulk alloys and Pt < Pt{sub 3}Ni {approx} Pt{sub 3}CO < PtCo for the carbon supported catalysts, respectively. It was proposed that the mechanism for the ORR is the same on pure Pt and the PtNi and PtCo alloys. (author)

  5. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  6. Hydrogen Adsorption on Pt, Rh and Pt-Rh Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾梦秋; A.M.Meretskyi

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen adsorption on Pt-Rh alloys in sulfuric acid aqueous solutions was studied by the method of cathode pulses. Hydrogen adsorption on the electrode with all ratio of alloy components (ωRh = 0-100%) is well described by the Temkin logarithmic isotherm. The surface coverage by adsorbed hydrogen at the same potential is decreased with increasing content of rhodium in the system. A linear dependence of adsorption peak potential on the alloy compositions in the case of weakly bonded adsorbed hydrogen is established. Hydrogen adsorption heat as a function of surface coverage for Pt-Rh-electrodes was obtained. The shape of the current-potential curve and position of the weakly bonded hydrogen adsorption on the potential scale are all related to alloy compositions, thus can serve as the basis for the determination surface composition of allovs.

  7. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  8. Surface termination of CePt5/Pt (111 ): The key to chemical inertness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, C.; Zinner, M.; Held, G.; Fauth, K.

    2015-11-01

    The surface termination of CePt5/Pt (111 ) is determined experimentally by LEED-IV. In accordance with recent theoretical predictions, a dense Pt terminated surface is being found. Whereas the CePt5 volume lattice comprises Pt kagome layers, additional Pt atoms occupy the associated hole positions at the surface. This finding provides a natural explanation for the remarkable inertness of the CePt5 intermetallic. Implications of the structural relaxations determined by LEED-IV analysis are discussed with regard to observations by scanning tunneling microscopy and electron spectroscopies.

  9. Effects of zinc and calcium minerals intake on cadmium accumulation in the liver of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rachmawati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal which can accumulate in animal tissues, may have an effect the growth of chicken, causes a residual problems and is danger for human consumption. Study on evaluating the effect of mineral zinc (Zn and calcium (Ca intake on cadmium (Cd accumulation in the liver of broilers and their growth was carried out. One hundred and eighty of day old chicks (DOC were divided into 6 groups, group I was used as control, group II, III, IV, V and VI were given feed containing of 5 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Cd and 10 ppm Zn, 5 ppm Cd and 15 ppm Zn, 5 ppm Cd and 10 ppm Ca, 5 ppm Cd and 15 ppm Ca respectively in their feed. Cd, Zn and Ca were added as CdCl2, ZnCl2 and CaCl2. During the experiment, at week -0, -1,-2,-3 and -4, five chickens from each group were weighed and then they were slaughtered and livers were collected. The liver samples were analyzed for Cd content by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result indicated that Cd exposed to chickens caused the accumulation of that Cd in their liver. The addition of 15 ppm Zn in feed reduced the accumulation of Cd in liver significantly (P<0.05. However the addition of Ca in chicken feed gave greater effect in reducing the Cd accumulation in liver compared to that of Zn supplementation. 10 ppm Ca and 15 ppm Ca in chicken feed caused the accumulation of Cd in liver chicken significantly decreased (P<0.05. Ca supplementation also caused of increasing body weight of chickens. The body weight of five weeks old chickens given 15 ppm Ca in their feed as in average of 1,820 grams is higher than that of chickens in control group, which was 1,761 grams. Whereas the body weight of chickens in group IV, which was given with 15 ppm Zn in their diet was in average of 1,745 grams. It was concluded that Zn and Ca can reduce the accumulation of Cd in broiler chicken liver.

  10. Studies of surface processes of electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Pt(210), Pt(310) and Pt(510)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; ChunJie; FAN; YouJun; ZHEN; ChunHua; ZHENG; QingWei; SUN; ShiGang

    2007-01-01

    Surface processes of CO2 reduction on Pt(210), Pt(310), and Pt(510) electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Different surface structures of these platinum single crystal electrodes were obtained by various treatment conditions. The experimental results illustrated that the electrocatalytic activity of Pt single crystal electrodes towards CO2 reduction is decreased in an order of Pt(210)>Pt(310)>Pt(510), i.e., with the decrease of (110) step density on well-defined surfaces. When the surfaces were reconstructed due to oxygen adsorption, the catalytic activity of all the three electrodes has been enhanced to a certain extent. Although the activity order remains unchanged, the electrocatalytic activity has been enhanced more significantly as the density of (110) step sites is more intensive on the Pt single crystal surface. It has revealed that the more open the surface structure is, the more active the Pt single crystal electrode will be, and the easier for the electrode to be transformed into a surface structure that exhibits higher activity under external inductions. However, the relatively ordered surfaces of Pt single crystal electrode are comparatively stable under the same external inductions. The present study has gained knowledge on the interaction between CO2 and Pt single crystal electrode surfaces at a microscopic level, and thrown new insight into understanding the surface processes of electrocatalytic reduction of CO2.

  11. A complex genomic rearrangement involving the endothelin 3 locus causes dermal hyperpigmentation in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals.

  12. Highly active Pt3Pb and core-shell Pt3Pb-Pt electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijin; Qi, Liang; Li, Meng; Diaz, Rosa E; Su, Dong; Adzic, Radoslav R; Stach, Eric; Li, Ju; Murray, Christopher B

    2012-03-27

    Formic acid is a promising chemical fuel for fuel cell applications. However, due to the dominance of the indirect reaction pathway and strong poisoning effects, the development of direct formic acid fuel cells has been impeded by the low activity of existing electrocatalysts at desirable operating voltage. We report the first synthesis of Pt(3)Pb nanocrystals through solution phase synthesis and show they are highly efficient formic acid oxidation electrocatalysts. The activity can be further improved by manipulating the Pt(3)Pb-Pt core-shell structure. Combined experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the high activity from Pt(3)Pb and the Pt-Pb core-shell nanocrystals results from the elimination of CO poisoning and decreased barriers for the dehydrogenation steps. Therefore, the Pt(3)Pb and Pt-Pb core-shell nanocrystals can improve the performance of direct formic acid fuel cells at desired operating voltage to enable their practical application. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Zoalene ant Its Metabolite in Chicken Tissues by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography%超高效液相色谱法测定鸡组织中二硝托胺及其代谢产物残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴银良; 皇甫伟国; 杨挺

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of zoalene and its metabolite (3-Amino-5-nitro-o-toluamide, ANOT) in chicken tissues by ultra performance liquid chromatog-raphy (UPLC). Samples were extracted twice with acidic phosphate buffer solution and then the extracts were adjusted to pH 7. 0 and purified through HLB cartridge after centrifugation. The residues were eluted from cartridge with 0. 1% formic acid solution/acetonitrile (80 : 20, V/V). The samples were analyzed by UPLC with photodiode-array detector (PDA) and quantified with the exter-nal standard calibration curve method. The detection limits of ANOT and zoalene were 55. 0 and 25. 0 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of zoalene and ANOT in chicken tissues were 79. 2% - 88. 1%, the intra-assay relative standard deviations were 2. 7% - 5. 2% and the inter-assay relative standard deviations were 4. 1% - 6. 9% at spiked levels of 1500 - 9000 μg/kg. There was a good linear correlation (the calibration coefficient is above 0. 9998) between the peak areas and concentration of zoalene and ANOT in the range of 20 to 2000 μg/L.%建立了超高效液相色谱同时测定鸡组织中二硝托胺及其代谢产物(3-Amino-5-nitro-o-toluamide,ANOT)的方法.样品用酸性磷酸盐缓冲液提取两次,离心后合并提取液,并调至pH 7.0,过HLB固相萃取小柱,用0.1%甲酸溶液-乙腈(80:20,V/V)洗脱,洗脱液过滤膜后进行超高效液相色谱分析,二极管阵列检测器检测,外标法定量.二硝托胺和ANOT的检出限分别为25和55μg/kg.在添加浓度1500~9000 μg/kg范围内,二硝托胺和ANOT的平均添加回收率为79.2%~88.1%,批内相对标准偏差(RSD)在2.7%~5.2%之间,批间RSD在4.1%~6.9%之间.峰面积与样品浓度在20~2000 μg/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,二硝托胺和ANOT的线性回归系数均大于0.9998.

  15. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  16. CD107a as a marker of activation in chicken cytotoxic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattrang, Eva; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2015-01-01

    mobilisation on chicken CTL isolated from different tissues. Moreover, CD107a mobilisation was analysed on CTL isolated from airways of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-infected birds direct ex vivo and upon in vitro stimulation. Results showed that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in combination...

  17. Expression of interferon gamma by a highly virulent Newcastle disease virus decreases its pathogenicity in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of chickens with highly virulent NDV results in rapid death, which is preceded by increased expression of interferon gamma (IFN-g) in target tissues. IFN-g is a cytokine that has pleiotropic biological effects including intrinsic antiviral activity and immunomodulatory effects. Here we a...

  18. PT Symmetry as a Generalization of Hermiticity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jie-hong

    2010-01-01

    The Hilbert space in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is formulated as a linear vector space with a dynamic weight function in the inner product. The most general PT-symmetric matrix Hamiltonians are constructed for 2*2 and 3*3 cases. In the former case, the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian represents the most general matrix Hamiltonian with a real spectrum. In both cases, the Hermitian matrix is shown to be a special case of PT-symmetric matrices. This finding confirms and strengthens the early belief that the PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is a generalization of the conventional Hermitian quantum mechanics.

  19. Functional genomics in chickens: development of integrated-systems microarrays for transcriptional profiling and discovery of regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogburn, L A; Wang, X; Carre, W; Rejto, L; Aggrey, S E; Duclos, M J; Simon, J; Porter, T E

    2004-01-01

    The genetic networks that govern the differentiation and growth of major tissues of economic importance in the chicken are largely unknown. Under a functional genomics project, our consortium has generated 30 609 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and developed several chicken DNA microarrays, which represent the Chicken Metabolic/Somatic (10 K) and Neuroendocrine/Reproductive (8 K) Systems (http://udgenome.ags.udel.edu/cogburn/). One of the major challenges facing functional genomics is the development of mathematical models to reconstruct functional gene networks and regulatory pathways from vast volumes of microarray data. In initial studies with liver-specific microarrays (3.1 K), we have examined gene expression profiles in liver during the peri-hatch transition and during a strong metabolic perturbation-fasting and re-feeding-in divergently selected broiler chickens (fast vs. slow-growth lines). The expression of many genes controlling metabolic pathways is dramatically altered by these perturbations. Our analysis has revealed a large number of clusters of functionally related genes (mainly metabolic enzymes and transcription factors) that control major metabolic pathways. Currently, we are conducting transcriptional profiling studies of multiple tissues during development of two sets of divergently selected broiler chickens (fast vs. slow growing and fat vs. lean lines). Transcriptional profiling across multiple tissues should permit construction of a detailed genetic blueprint that illustrates the developmental events and hierarchy of genes that govern growth and development of chickens. This review will briefly describe the recent acquisition of chicken genomic resources (ESTs and microarrays) and our consortium's efforts to help launch the new era of functional genomics in the chicken.

  20. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  1. Research of blastocyte-like structure in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jia; PAN; Qiuzhen; LI; Junying; HAN; Hongbing; SUN; Shu

    2005-01-01

    The chicken embryo is a classic model used to investigate embryonic development, gene expression, and tissue differentiation, and is also an important research tool in studying the animal functional genomics. The whole blastoderms of fresh unincubated eggs from White Leghorn chickens were collected with a paper ring, mechanically broken into small pieces and cultured in medium. Then the small pieces would develop into blastocyte-like structures (BLS), which could be facilitated by an addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the primary culture and their diameter was nearly doubled from 12 to 24 h. The additional yolk had no positive effect on the development in the first 12 h but encouraged the BLSs attaching and inner cells differentiating instead in 24 h. The inner cells of the BLS showing a high alkaline-phosphatase activity similar to those in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and also expressing a large amount of the specific stage embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) on the surface, which was known to be the characteristic of non-differentiated mouse and avian ES cells, could finally differentiate into nerve-like cells, fibroblast cells and so on in the medium. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) facilitated the cells' proliferation and prevented differentiation in the suspended culture of the BLSs. So we drew the conclusion that the BLS obtained from broken blastoderm can be used to amplify avian ES cells so as to initiate a new method of producing transgenic chickens.

  2. Genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Li

    Full Text Available Cytosine DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification termed as the fifth base that functions in diverse processes. Till now, the genome-wide DNA methylation maps of many organisms has been reported, such as human, Arabidopsis, rice and silkworm, but the methylation pattern of bird remains rarely studied. Here we show the genome-wide DNA methylation map of bird, using the chicken as a model organism and an immunocapturing approach followed by high-throughput sequencing. In both of the red jungle fowl and the avian broiler, DNA methylation was described separately for the liver and muscle tissue. Generally, chicken displays analogous methylation pattern with that of animals and plants. DNA methylation is enriched in the gene body regions and the repetitive sequences, and depleted in the transcription start site (TSS and the transcription termination site (TTS. Most of the CpG islands in the chicken genome are kept in unmethylated state. Promoter methylation is negatively correlated with the gene expression level, indicating its suppressive role in regulating gene transcription. This work contributes to our understanding of epigenetics in birds.

  3. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co85Cr15/Pt multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pol Hwang; Baohe Li; Tao Yang; Zhonghai Zhai; Fengwu Zhu

    2004-01-01

    The CoCr/Pt bilayers and (CoCr/Pt)20 multilayers with Pt underlayer were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of prepared condition on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were investigated. The results show that the thickness of Pt underlayer has a great effect on the microstructure and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoCr/Pt bilayers and (CoCr/Pt)20 multilayers.When the thickness of Pt underlayer increases, Pt(111) and CoCr(002) peaks of both CoCr/Pt bilayers and (CoCr/Pt)20 multilayers increase and the bilayer periodicity of the multilayers is improved. The effective magnetic anisotropy of (CoCr/Pt)20 multilayers with Pt underlayer was much larger than that of CoCr/Pt bilayers. The (CoCr/Pt)20 multilayers has a stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy than that of CoCr/Pt bilayers. This is ascribed to the interface magnetic anisotropy of the multilayers.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of a chicken pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, K; Gerets, H H; Princen, K; Vandesande, F

    1999-08-25

    Although, since the isolation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a wealth of literature has been published describing its localization, binding sites, and biological activities in a variety of mammalian tissues, only very little is known about PACAP in avian species. Therefore, in order to find out the sites of actions of PACAP and to elucidate its physiological significance in birds, we identified a chicken PACAP receptor homologue of the mammalian type I receptors (PAC(1)-Rs). The chicken PACAP type I cDNA sequence was obtained using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in combination with 3'- and 5'-RACE PCR. This cDNA encodes a 471 amino acid precursor protein, sharing 81-83% sequence identity with mammalian analogs and 76% amino acid identity with the goldfish type I PACAP receptor. Northern blot analysis of chicken brain poly(A)(+)-rich RNA revealed the presence of a 5.5 kb and 7.5 kb PAC(1) receptor transcript. RT-PCR revealed that the chicken PACAP receptor is mainly expressed in the brain and gonads. A smaller amount of the receptor mRNA was found in pituitary, adrenal gland, kidney, intestine, pancreas, lung, and heart tissue. In situ hybridization with specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes showed a widespread distribution of PAC(1) receptor mRNA in the chicken brain, with the highest expression being found in the dorsal telencephalon, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, optic tectum, and cerebellar cortex. These findings suggest that PACAP affect a variety of functions both in the brain and peripheral tissues of the chicken.

  6. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  7. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  8. PT AND PT/NI "NEEDLE" ELETROCATALYSTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES WITH HIGH ACTIVITY FOR THE ORR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2011-11-10

    Platinum and platinum/nickel alloy electrocatalysts supported on graphitized (gCNT) or nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (nCNT) are prepared and characterized. Pt deposition onto carbon nanotubes results in Pt 'needle' formations that are 3.5 nm in diameter and {approx}100 nm in length. Subsequent Ni deposition and heat treatment results in PtNi 'needles' with an increased diameter. All Pt and Pt/Ni materials were tested as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The Pt and Pt/Ni catalysts showed excellent performance for the ORR, with the heat treated PtNi/gCNT (1.06 mA/cm{sup 2}) and PtNi/nCNT (0.664 mA/cm{sup 2}) showing the highest activity.

  9. Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus replication in feathers of infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-03-01

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) cause systemic diseases in chickens with high mortality. However, little is known about persistence of NDVs in contaminated tissues from infected birds. In this study, we examined viral replication in the feather pulp of chickens inoculated with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) genotype VII. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate viral persistence in the samples. vvNDV was detected in the oropharynx and cloaca and viral antigens were detected in the feathers, suggesting that feathers act as sources of viral transmission.

  10. Cholesterol deregulation induced by chronic corticosterone (CORT) stress in pectoralis major of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yujing; Fu, Wenyan; Wang, Song; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-10-01

    Chronic endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess in mammals is associated with metabolic dysfunction and dyslipidemia that are characterized by increased plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (Tch) levels. However, the effects of chronic GC administration on cholesterol metabolism, particularly in muscle tissues of broiler chickens, are unknown. In this study, broiler chickens were treated chronically with vehicle (CON) or corticosterone (CORT) for 2 weeks. Chronic CORT treatment significantly increased Tch levels in pectoralis major muscle (PMC) (p0.05). Western blot results showed that the levels of total GR (p=0.08) tended to be increased and nuclear GR protein (pchickens by increasing cholesterol synthesis and uptake.

  11. Pyridoxine-responsive seizures as the first symptom of infantile hypophosphatasia caused by two novel missense mutations (c.677T>C, p.M226T; c.1112C>T, p.T371I) of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Sigl, Sara; Haberlandt, Edda; Mumm, Steven; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Sergi, Consolato; Ryan, Lawrence; Ericson, Karen L; Whyte, Michael P; Högler, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    Pyridoxine-responsive seizures (PRS) and the role of pyridoxine (PN, vitamin B(6)) in hypophosphatasia (HPP) are incompletely understood. Typically, PRS and HPP are rare, independent, metabolic disorders. In PRS, seizures resist standard anticonvulsants apart from PN, yet have a good prognosis. In HPP, inactivation of the tissue nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) impairs skeletal mineralization and causes rickets in infants that can be fatal. Here, we report a 7-month-old girl, newly diagnosed with infantile HPP, who presented as a neonate with PRS but without bony abnormalities. Analysis of biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested brain pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) deficiency, although PLP in CSF was not decreased. She had normal cognitive milestones but failure to thrive and rickets. Nearly undetectable serum ALP activity, elevated plasma PLP and urinary phosphoethanolamine (PEA) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis were consistent with infantile HPP. Only prednisolone reduced serum calcium levels. Despite improved growth and weight gain, she developed rib fractures and died from respiratory failure at age 9 months. Sequence analysis of the TNSALP gene revealed novel missense mutations in exon 7 (c.677T>C, p.M226T) and exon 10 (c.1112C>T, p.T371I). Our patient demonstrated that PRS in neonates may not necessarily be "idiopathic"; instead, such seizures can be caused by severe HPP that becomes clinically apparent later in infancy. The pathophysiology of PRS in HPP differs from the three other genetic defects known to cause PRS, but all may lead to brain PLP deficiency reducing seizure thresholds. All reported HPP patients with neonatal seizures died within 18 months of birth, suggesting that PRS is an indicator of HPP severity and lethal prognosis. We recommend that assessment of any neonate with PRS should include measurement of serum ALP activity.

  12. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  13. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  14. Chicken leukemia inhibitory factor maintains chicken embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Tategaki, Airo; Yamashita, Yusuke; Hisamatsu, Hikaru; Ogawa, Mari; Noguchi, Takashi; Aosasa, Masayoshi; Kawashima, Tsuyoshi; Akita, Sachiko; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Mitsui, Naoko; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2004-06-04

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained in an undifferentiated state in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family. In other mammals, this is not possible with LIF alone. Chicken ES-like cells (blastodermal cells) have only been cultured with mouse LIF because chicken LIF was not available. However the culture system is imperfect and chicken ES-like cells equivalent to mouse ES cells were not observed. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA-encoding chicken LIF using mRNA subtraction and RACE methodology. The chicken LIF cDNA encodes a protein with approximately 40% sequence identity to mouse LIF. It has 211 amino acids including a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 24 residues. Chicken blastodermal cells were cultured in the presence of bacterially expressed chicken LIF or mouse LIF. The expression of alkaline phosphatase and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 and the activation of STAT3 were examined, all of which are indices of the undifferentiated state. Exposure in the blastodermal cells to recombinant chicken LIF but not to mouse LIF maintained the expression of these various markers. After 9 days of incubation, the blastodermal cells formed cystic embryoid bodies in the presence of mouse LIF but not in the presence of recombinant chicken LIF. We conclude that chicken LIF is able to maintain chicken ES cell cultures in the undifferentiated state.

  15. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  16. Histopathological features of Marek’s disease infections in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.

  17. Laser weldability of Pt and Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noolu, N.J. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada)]. E-mail: nnoolu@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca; Kerr, H.W. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Xie, J. [Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, Street Jude Medical Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

    2005-04-25

    Crack susceptibility of laser spot welds between Pt and Ti alloys was studied by characterizing the surface and the cross-sections of the welds produced at different pulse energies. Increase in laser pulse energy increased the dilution by the Ti alloy, giving rise to the evolution of microstructures with varying Ti contents across the entire fusion zone. Hardness results showed that regions with 66-75% Ti, i.e. consisting of primary Ti{sub 3}Pt and/or Ti{sub 3}Pt + TiPt eutectic, have a hardness higher than 700 Vickers hardness numbers (VHN), while regions with 42-66% Ti, i.e. consisting of primary TiPt, possessed hardness between 400 and 700 VHN. The extent of cracking increased with the increase in pulse energy and the cracked regions consisted of Ti contents between 50 and 75%. Brittle cracking in microstructures consisting of Ti{sub 3}Pt and TiPt phases suggested that one or both of the constituent phases are susceptible to cracking. However, crack arrest in microstructures predominantly consisting of TiPt showed that Ti{sub 3}Pt is the most susceptible phase to cracking in Pt-Ti alloy welds.

  18. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases from chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Masaharu; Osago, Harumi; Hara, Nobumasa; Tanigawa, Yoshinori; Shimoyama, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2005-08-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that regulates the functions of target proteins or peptides by attaching an ADP-ribose moiety. Here we report the purification, molecular cloning, characterization and tissue-specific distribution of novel arginine-specific Arts (ADP-ribosyltransferases) from chicken. Arts were detected in various chicken tissues as GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored forms, and purified from the lung membrane fraction. By molecular cloning based on the partial amino acid sequence using 5'- and 3'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), two full-length cDNAs of chicken GPI-anchored Arts, cgArt1 (chicken GPI-anchored Art1) and cgArt2, were obtained. The cDNA of cgArt1 encoded a novel polypeptide of 298 amino acids which shows a high degree of identity with cgArt2 (82.9%), Art6.1 (50.2%) and rabbit Art1 (42.1%). In contrast, the nucleotide sequence of cgArt2 was identical with that of Art7 cloned previously from chicken erythroblasts. cgArt1 and cgArt2 proteins expressed in DT40 cells were shown to be GPI-anchored Arts with a molecular mass of 45 kDa, and these Arts showed different enzymatic properties from the soluble chicken Art, Art6.1. RNase protection assays and real-time quantitative PCR revealed distinct expression patterns of the two Arts; cgArt1 was expressed predominantly in the lung, spleen and bone marrow, followed by the heart, kidney and muscle, while cgArt2 was expressed only in the heart and skeletal muscle. Thus GPI-anchored Arts encoded by the genes cgArt1 and cgArt2 are expressed extensively in chicken tissues. It may be worthwhile determining the functional roles of ADP-ribosylation in each tissue.

  19. Low Pt content direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst: nanophase PtRuNiZr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Whitacre, Jay F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a metallic material having catalytic activity that includes synthesizing a material composition comprising a metal content with a lower Pt content than a binary alloy containing Pt but that displays at least a comparable catalytic activity on a per mole Pt basis as the binary alloy containing Pt; and evaluating a representative sample of the material composition to ensure that the material composition displays a property of at least a comparable catalytic activity on a per mole Pt basis as a representative binary alloy containing Pt. Furthermore, metallic compositions are disclosed that possess substantial resistance to corrosive acids.

  20. Chicken parvovirus and its associations with malabsorption syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, F; Lima, D A; Cerva, C; Moraes, L B; Cibulski, S P; Teixeira, T F; Santos, H F; Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M; Franco, A C

    2016-08-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial syndrome which is characterized by enteric disorders and reduced growth rates of broilers. Such condition is responsible for significant economic losses to the poultry industry. A possible association between chicken parvovirus (ChPV) infections and the occurrence of MAS has been proposed. However, such association has not to date been elucidated in view that ChPV has been detected in healthy as well as in MAS-affected chickens. This study aimed to detect and quantify ChPV loads in sera and tissues of MAS-affected, as well as in healthy broilers. Fifty nine, 39-day-old broilers (50 diseased, 9 healthy birds), obtained from the same flocks, were examined. The highest ChPV DNA loads were detected in MAS-affected broilers, particularly in fecal samples and intestinal tissues (~5500 genomic copies/300ng of total DNA). The average viral genome load in serum in MAS-affected birds was 1134copies/mL, whereas no viral DNA was found in sera and thymus tissues from healthy animals. These findings reveal that MAS-affected broilers consistently carry ChPV DNA is serum, whereas healthy animals do not. In addition, viral loads in tissues (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, intestine and liver) of MAS-affected birds were significantly higher in comparison to the same tissues from healthy broilers. Although preliminary, the results obtained here indicate an association between the detection of ChPV DNA in serum, in addition to high ChPV viral loads in tissues, and the occurrence of MAS in broilers. Further experiments should be performed to confirm such results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Direct Determination of the Ionization Energies of PtC, PtO, and PtO2 with VUVRadiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citir, Murat; Metz, Ricardo B.; Belau, Leonid; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-07-21

    Photoionization efficiency curves were measured for gas-phase PtC, PtO, and PtO2 using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at the Advanced Light Source. The molecules were prepared by laser ablation of a platinum tube, followed by reaction with CH4 or N2O and supersonic expansion. These measurements providethe first directly measured ionization energy for PtC, IE(PtC) = 9.45 +- 0.05 eV. The direct measurement also gives greatly improved ionization energies for the platinum oxides, IE(PtO) = 10.0 +- 0.1 eV and IE(PtO2) = 11.35 +- 0.05 eV. The ionization energy connects the dissociation energies of the neutral and cation, leading to greatly improved 0 K bond dissociation energies for the neutrals: D0(Pt-C) = 5.95 +- 0.07 eV, D0(Pt-O)= 4.30 +- 0.12 eV, and D0(OPt-O) = 4.41 +- 0.13 eV, as well as enthalpies of formation for the gas-phase molecules Delta H0 f,0(PtC(g)) = 701 +- 7 kJ/mol, Delta H0f,0(PtO(g)) = 396 +- 12 kJ/mol, and Delta H0f,0(PtO2(g)) = 218 +- 11 kJ/mol. Much of the error in previous Knudsen cell measurements of platinum oxide bond dissociation energies is due to the use of thermodynamic second law extrapolations. Third law values calculated using statistical mechanical thermodynamic functions are in much better agreement with values obtained from ionization energies and ion energetics. These experiments demonstrate that laser ablation production with direct VUV ionization measurements is a versatile tool to measure ionization energies and bond dissociation energies for catalytically interesting species such as metal oxides and carbides.

  2. Irradiation-induced off-odour in chicken and its possible control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R L; Stevenson, M H

    1995-07-01

    1. Volatiles isolated from irradiated raw chicken were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) in conjunction with olfactory assessment of the effluent carrier gas to locate compounds with strong smells. 2. Sixteen odours of differing intensities were registered, some, but not others, coinciding with recognisable GC peaks. Identifications were made on the basis of retention data, mass spectrometric information and odour quality agreement. 3. Dimethyltrisulphide was found to be the most potent and obnoxious compound (foul gas, sulphurous), followed by cis-3- and trans-6-nonenals (soapy), oct-1-en-3-one (mushroom) and bis(methylthio-)methane (foul). With the exception of oct-1-en-3-one, none of these compounds has been reported before in irradiated raw chicken. 4. alpha-Tocopherol and ascorbic acid induce stability in tissues in vivo and post mortem. Chickens were reared on diets supplemented with high concentrations (800 mg/kg food) of each of these vitamins. Yields of irradiation volatiles from the tissues of these birds were very much reduced, compared to yields from similar tissues from birds fed unsupplemented diets. 5. Concomitantly with the reduced yield of volatiles, less odour was associated with the samples when analysed by GC-olfactory analysis. 6. The use of enhanced concentrations of the two vitamins in combination in the diet of poultry may provide a means of controlling development of off-odour in irradiated raw chicken, thus improving acceptability to the consumer.

  3. Histone H1c decreases markedly in postreplicative stages of chicken spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, J; Mezquita, C

    1991-03-01

    The relative proportions of four major chicken histone H1 subtypes (referred to as H1a, H1b, H1c and H1d) change markedly in different chicken tissues. The relative amount of H1c is higher in nonreplicating somatic tissues, such as liver, than in replicating immature testis. The proportion of H1c sharply decreases as spermatogenesis proceeds, being much lower in mature than in immature testis. It has been proposed that the relative increment of H1c correlates with low rates of cell division in chicken tissues. It was assumed that the sharp decrease in H1c observed during maturation of chicken testis was a consequence of the intensification of proliferative activity in spermatogonia (Berdnikov et al., 1976). Our results, however, clearly show that the decrease of H1c during maturation is due to the low levels of this protein in postreplicative stages of spermatogenesis, where H1c is barely detectable. These results suggest that the presence of the arginine-rich H1c subtype would neither be compatible with the relaxed structure of acetylated chromatin present in active replicating cells nor with the hyperacetylated chromatin characteristic of postreplicative late spermatids undergoing the nucleohistone nucleoprotamine transition.

  4. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  5. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  6. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  7. Germline Gene Editing in Chickens by Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Homologous Recombination in Primordial Germ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn H; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Leighton, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been applied in a large number of animal and plant species for genome editing. In chickens, CRISPR has been used to knockout genes in somatic tissues, but no CRISPR-mediated germline modification has yet been reported. Here we use CRISPR to target the chicken immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in primordial germ cells (PGCs) to produce transgenic progeny. Guide RNAs were co-transfected with a donor vector for homology-directed repair of the double-strand break, and clonal populations were selected. All of the resulting drug-resistant clones contained the correct targeting event. The targeted cells gave rise to healthy progeny containing the CRISPR-targeted locus. The results show that gene-edited chickens can be obtained by modifying PGCs in vitro with the CRISPR/Cas9 system, opening up many potential applications for efficient genetic modification in birds.

  8. Comparative study of ethanol oxidation at Pt: Based nanoalloys and UPD modified Pt nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Amalija V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of two alloys, Pt3Sn/C and Pt3Ru2/C, was compared with the activity of Pt/C modified with corresponding amounts of SnUPD (≈25 % and RuUPD (≈40 % in oxidation of ethanol. Pt3Sn/C, Pt3Ru2/C and Pt/C catalysts were characterized by XRD. To establish the activity and stability of the catalysts, potentiodynamic, quasi steady-state and chronoamperometric measurements were performed. Both alloys are more active than SnUPD or RuUPD modified Pt/C catalysts. Electronic effect determining dominantly the activity of Pt3Sn/C is the main reason for its higher activity compared to Pt3Ru2/C. Since SnUPD and RuUPD do not provoke any significant modification of electronic environment, both modified Pt/C catalysts are less active than corresponding alloys. More pronounced difference in activity between Pt3Sn/C and SnUPD modified Pt/C than between Pt3Ru2/C and RuUPD modified Pt/C is caused by electronic effect in Pt3Sn/C. High activity of Pt3Sn/C modified with small amount of SnUPD (≈10% can be explained by combining the electronic effect, causing less strongly bonded adsorbate on Pt sites and easier mobility of SnUPD, with enhanced amount of oxygen-containing species on Sn sites resulting finally in reinforcement of bifunctional mechanism.

  9. Electrodeposited Pt and Pt-Sn nanoparticles on Ti as anodes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanaa B HASSAN

    2009-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of methanol was studied on titanium supported nanocrystallite Pt and Ptx-Sny catalysts prepared by electrodeposition techniques. Their electro-catalytic activities were studied in 0.5mol/L H2SO4 and compared to those of a smooth Pt, Pt/Pt and Pt-Sn/Pt electrodes. Platinum was deposited on Ti by galvanostatic and potentiostatic techniques. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques were applied in order to investigate the chemical composition and the phase structure of the modified electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology and to correlate the results obtained from the two electrochemical deposition methods. Results show that modified Pt/Ti electrodes prepared by the two methods have comparable performance and enhanced catalytic activity towards methanol electro-oxidation compared to Pt/Pt and smooth Pt electrodes. Steady state Tafel plots experiments show a higher rate of methanol oxidation on a Pt/Ti catalyst than that on a smooth Pt. Introduction of a small amount of Sn deposited with Pt improves the catalytic activity and the stability of prepared electrode with time as indicated from the cyclic votlammetry and the chronoamperometric experiments. The effect of variations in the composition for binary catalysts of the type Ptx-Sny/Ti towards the methanol oxidation reaction is reported. Consequently, the Ptx-Sny/Ti (x∶y (8∶1), molar ratio) catalyst is a very promising one for methanol oxidation.

  10. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  11. Messenger RNA expression of chicken CLOCK gene in the response to Campylobacter jejuni inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Maozhi; Yang, Ning; Qi, Yukai; Sun, Yu; Li, Xianyao

    2015-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous research has shown that circadian rhythm plays a critical role in host response to C. jejuni colonization. The CLOCK gene is one of the core genes regulating circadian rhythms and shows significant expression on 7 d post-C. jejuni inoculation. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of chicken CLOCK gene post-C. jejuni inoculation. Cecal and splenic RNA were isolated from 2 distinct chicken breeds and used to compare the mRNA expression of CLOCK gene between inoculated and noninoculated chickens within each breed and between breeds within each of inoculated and noninoculated groups. Our results showed that the CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 h postinoculation (hpi) in cecum and spleen in Jiningbairi chicken. CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 4 and 16 hpi and up-regulated at 8 hpi in cecum and spleen in specific pathogen free white leghorn noninoculated chicken. The findings suggested that expression of CLOCK gene was significantly changed post C. jejuin inoculation. This change was affected by genetic background, tissue, and time points postinoculation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  13. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  14. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene: a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Mu, Y; Li, H; Ding, N; Wang, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, N

    2008-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is regarded as a "master regulator" of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. The current study was designed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of PPARgamma in chicken adipogenesis by RNA interference. Preadipocytes were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of 12-d-old chickens and cultured. Small-interference PPARgamma RNA (siPPARgamma) was synthesized by in vitro transcription and transfected into chicken preadipocytes by using liposomes. The suppressive effect of siPPARgamma was detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that transient transfection with siPPARgamma significantly inhibited differentiation and enhanced proliferation of chicken preadipocytes (P adipogenesis-associated adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene was down-regulated when PPARgamma was silenced. The current work indicates that PPARgamma is a key regulator of chicken preadipocyte differentiation.

  16. Expression profiles and associations of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors with intramuscular fat in Tibetan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Lin, Y; Zhi, L; Liao, H; Zuo, L; Li, Z; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined. 2. Quantitative real-time PCR detected chicken adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA transcripts in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. 3. Adipose tissue contained the highest amount of adiponectin mRNA followed by the kidney and liver. The expression levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA were significantly higher in adipose tissue, lung and spleen, and adipose tissue exhibited significantly higher levels of ADIPOR2 mRNA followed by the spleen and lung compared with other tissues. 4. Temporal expression profiles of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA showed gender differences in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle at certain ages. In adipose tissue, adiponectin mRNA was higher in 154-d-old females and ADIPOR1 mRNA was higher in 154-d-old males: Adiponectin and ADIPOR2 mRNA were higher, and ADIPOR1 mRNA was lower, in thigh muscle in female compared with male chickens. 5. The correlation data showed that, except for adiponectin mRNA, the levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA in thigh muscle of males were significantly positively correlated with IMF (r = 0.206 for the ADIPOR1 gene and r = 0.676 for the ADIPOR2 gene). 6. Taken together, it was concluded that adiponectin and the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of Tibetan chicken and the expression of the adiponectin system is gender-dependant at certain ages

  17. Campylobacters and their bacteriophages from chicken liver: The prospect for phage biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlieyanti, Antung S; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2016-11-21

    Consumption of foods containing chicken liver has been associated with Campylobacter enteritis. Campylobacters can contaminate the surface of livers post-mortem but can also arise through systemic infection of colonising bacteria in live birds. The use of bacteriophage to reduce levels of Campylobacter entering the food chain is a promising intervention approach but most phages have been isolated from chicken excreta. This study examined the incidence and contamination levels of Campylobacter and their bacteriophage in UK retail chicken liver. Using enrichment procedures, 87% of 109 chicken livers were surface contaminated with Campylobacter and 83% contaminated within internal tissues. Direct plating on selective agar allowed enumeration of viable bacteria from 43% of liver samples with counts ranging from 1.8->3.8log10CFU/cm(2) for surface samples, and 3.0->3.8log10CFU/g for internal tissue samples. Three C. jejuni isolates recovered from internal liver tissues were assessed for their ability to colonise the intestines and extra-intestinal organs of broiler chickens following oral infection. All isolates efficiently colonised the chicken intestines but were variable in their abilities to colonise extra-intestinal organs. One isolate, CLB104, could be recovered by enrichment from the livers and kidneys of three of seven chickens. Campylobacter isolates remained viable within fresh livers stored at 4°C over 72h and frozen livers stored at -20°C over 7days in atmospheric oxygen, and therefore constitute a risk to human health. Only three Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated, and these exhibited a limited host range against the Camplylobacter chicken liver isolates. All were identified as group III virulent bacteriophage based on their genome size of 140kb. The application of broad host range group II virulent phages (8log10PFU/g) to liver homogenates containing C. jejuni strains of diverse origin at 4°C resulted in modest but significant reductions

  18. High-performance core-shell PdPt@Pt/C catalysts via decorating PdPt alloy cores with Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Ni; Liao, Shi-Jun; Liang, Zhen-Xing; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Rong-Fang

    A core-shell structured low-Pt catalyst, PdPt@Pt/C, with high performance towards both methanol anodic oxidation and oxygen cathodic reduction, as well as in a single hydrogen/air fuel cell, is prepared by a novel two-step colloidal approach. For the anodic oxidation of methanol, the catalyst shows three times higher activity than commercial Tanaka 50 wt% Pt/C catalyst; furthermore, the ratio of forward current I f to backward current I b is high up to 1.04, whereas for general platinum catalysts the ratio is only ca. 0.70, indicating that this PdPt@Pt/C catalyst has high activity towards methanol anodic oxidation and good tolerance to the intermediates of methanol oxidation. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The core-shell structure of the catalyst is revealed by XRD and TEM, and is also supported by underpotential deposition of hydrogen (UPDH). The high performance of the PdPt@Pt/C catalyst may make it a promising and competitive low-Pt catalyst for hydrogen fueled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) or direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications.

  19. $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric mode-locking

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetry is one of the most important accomplishments in optics over the past decade. Here the concept of $\\mathcal{PT}$ mode-locking of a laser is introduced, in which active phase locking of cavity axial modes is realized by asymmetric mode coupling in a complex time crystal. $\\mathcal{PT}$ mode-locking shows a transition from single to double pulse emission as the $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry breaking point is crossed. The transition can show a turbulent behavior, depending on a dimensionless modulation parameter that plays the same role as the Reynolds number in hydrodynamic flows.

  20. Expression Pattern of Genes of RLR-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in Different-Breed Chicken Response to Marek’s Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qing Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that the chicken’s resistance to disease was affected by chicken’s genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  1. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  2. Remarks on the PT-pseudo-norm in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc Tai Trinh [Department of Mathematics, Teacher Training College of Dalat, 29 Yersin, Dalat (Viet Nam)]|[Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)

    2005-04-22

    This paper presents an underlying analytical relationship between the PT-pseudo-norm associated with the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian H = p{sup 2} + V(q) and the Stokes multiplier of the differential equation corresponding to this Hamiltonian. We show that the sign alternation of the PT-pseudo-norm, which has been observed as a generic feature of the PT-inner product, is essentially controlled by the derivative of a Stokes multiplier with respect to the eigenparameter.

  3. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch...

  4. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Göbel, Thomas W; Viertlboeck, Birgit C

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50-70%.

  5. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Turowski

    Full Text Available Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1 and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50-70%.

  6. The Expression of CaN and CaMK is Associated with Lipogenesis in the Muscle of Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye YANG; Jiao SONG; Ruiqi FUl; Yanfa SUN; Jie WEN

    2015-01-01

    IntramuscuIar fat (IMF) content in chickens significantIy contributes to meat quality. The maln objective of this study was to assess the expression of calcineurin (CaN) and Ca2+/calmoduIin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) in Iipogene-sis in chicken muscIe. The chickens were sIaughtered and sampIed at the ages of 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectiveIy. IMF content and the expression of CaN subunits and CaMK isoforms were measured in thigh muscIe tissue. The resuIts showed that the IMF contents were higher in chickens at the age of 16 weeks compared with those in chickens at the ages of 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The expression IeveIs of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid transIocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) mRNA in 16-week-oId chickens were al significantIy up-reguIated compared with those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). The mRNA IeveIs of CaNB and CaMK IV in 16-week-oId chickens were significantIy Iower than those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). But the CaMK II mRNA IeveIs in 16-week-oId chickens were significantIy higher than those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). To investigate the roIes of CaMK and CaN in adipogenesis, SV ceI s were incubated in standard adipogenesis medium for 24 h and treated with specific inhibitor of CaMK and CaN. The ex-pressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β(C/EBPβ), steroI reguIatory eIement-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proIiferation-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) were dramatical y enhanced by CsA and CaN inhibitor (P<0.05). KN93, a CaMK II inhibitor, dramatical y repressed the expression of those Iipogenic genes (P<0.05). al the resuIts above indicated that CaN and CaMK had different effects on adipogenesis in the muscIe of chickens.

  7. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  8. Extrapituitary growth hormone in the chicken reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects.

  9. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Ouyang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2 gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat, hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05 in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05 than that in the control (fed a basal diet, but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens.

  10. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  11. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  12. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  13. Room-temperature formation of Pt$_3$Si/Pt$_2$Si films on poly-Si substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubkov, V P; Chizh, K V; Yuryev, V A

    2016-01-01

    We propose a way of formation of thin bilayer Pt$_3$Si/Pt$_2$Si films at room temperature on poly-Si substrates by Pt magnetron sputtering and wet etching, obtain such film, investigate its structure and phase composition and estimate the thickness of its layers. We verify by direct x-ray photoelectron-spectroscopic measurements our previous observation of the Pt$_2$Si layer formaton between Pt and poly-Si films as a result of Pt magnetron sputtering at room temperature. This layer likely appears due to high enough temperature of Pt ions in the magnetron plasma sufficient for chemical reaction of the silicide film formation on the Si surface. The Pt$_3$Si layer likely forms from the Pt--Pt$_3$Si layer (Pt$_{95}$Si$_5$), which arises under Pt film during the magnetron sputtering, as a result of Pt removal by wet etching.

  14. Consumer attitudes and behaviours--key risk factors in an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12 infection sourced to chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, B; Hall, R; Cameron, S

    1999-04-01

    To identify the source and intervention methods for an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 12 in South Australia. Ten cases of S. Typhimurium phage type (PT) 12 infection were notified in South Australia in a four-week period from 7 May 1998. Nine cases and 27 controls were included in a case control study to test the hypothesis that illness was associated with the consumption of chicken nuggets. A significant association between illness and the consumption of one brand of chicken nuggets was determined, odds ratio undefined (95% CI undefined; p = undefined). Nine of nine cases and one of 27 controls reported eating these chicken nuggets. S. Typhimurium PT 12 was isolated from an opened sample of this particular brand of nuggets which had been retrieved from the home of one case. The implicated nuggets were essentially a raw product which had been 'flash fried' in contrast with other brands which were fully cooked. The investigation highlighted issues of inadequate labelling and consumer responses to labelling information which affect food safety. A media release to highlight to the consumer the need to cook frozen food properly and a voluntary recall of the 'flash fried' product was instigated as a result of these conclusions. Further action is needed to eliminate the potential hazard that consumers will perceive and handle 'flash fried' nuggets as if they are a cooked chicken product.

  15. A comparative study of Pt and Pt-Pd core-shell nanocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Nguyen Viet, E-mail: nguyenviet_long@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Posts and Telecommunications Institute of Technology, km 10 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Dong, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ohtaki, Michitaka [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hien, Tong Duy [Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Randy, Jalem [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nogami, Masayuki, E-mail: nogami@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > The syntheses of Pt (4-8 nm) and Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles (15-25 nm) are showed. > Pt-Pd core-shell catalysts possess catalytic property much better than Pt catalysts. > Pt-Pd core-shell catalysts exhibit fast and highly stable catalytic activity. > Fascinatingly, size effect is not as really important as nanostructuring effect. > Fast, stable, sensitive hydrogen adsorption is very crucial for fuel cells. - Abstract: This comparative study characterizes two types of metallic and core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles prepared with our modified polyol method. These nanoparticles consist of Pt and Pt-Pd core-shell nanocatalysts exhibiting polyhedral morphologies. The controlled syntheses of Pt metallic nanoparticles in the 10-nm regime (4-8 nm) and Pt-Pd bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles in the 30-nm regime (15-25 nm) are presented. To realize our ultimate research goals for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), we thoroughly investigate the dependence of the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles on the structure, size and morphology. Significant differences in the electrocatalysis are also explained in experimental evidences of both Pt and Pt-Pd nanocatalysts. We suggested that the core-shell controlled morphologies and nanostructures of the Pd nanoshell as the Pd atomic monolayers will not only play an important role in producing inexpensive, novel Pt- and Pd-based nanocatalysts but also in designing more efficient Pt- and Pd-based nanocatalysts for practical use in DMFC technology. Our comparative results show that Pt-Pd nanocatalysts with Pd nanoshells exhibited much better electrocatalytic activity and stabilization compared to Pt nanocatalysts. Interestingly, we found that the size effect is not as strong as the nanostructuring effect on the catalytic properties of the researched nanoparticles. A nanostructure effect of the core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles was identified.

  16. AN ANIMAL MODEL OF PLATINUM (PT) HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Pt salts has been associated with occupational asthma. Pt, the most active component and widely used metal in catalytic converters, is released in automobile exhaust and is a proposed diesel fuel additive. Thus, with the potential for widespread environmental distrib...

  17. Priority in selenium homeostasis involves regulation of SepSecS transcription in the chicken brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Long Li

    Full Text Available O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS is critical for the biosynthesis and transformation of selenocysteine (Sec and plays an important role in the biological function of Se through the regulation of selenoprotein synthesis. Selenium (Se and Selenoprotein play a pivotal role in brain function. However, how intake of the micronutrient Se affects gene expression and how genetic factors influence Se metabolism in the brain is unknown. To investigate the regulation of SepSecS transcription induced by Se in the chicken brain, we determined the Se content of brain tissue, SepSecS gene expression levels and mRNA stability in the chicken brain and primary cultured chicken embryos neurons receiving Se supplements. These results showed that Se content in the brain remains remarkably stable during Se supplementation. A significant increase in SepSecS mRNA levels was observed in all of the brain tissues of chickens fed diets containing 1-5 mg/kg sodium selenite. Most strikingly, significant changes in SepSecS mRNA levels were not observed in neurons treated with Se. However, Se altered the SepSecS mRNA half-life in cells. These data suggest that Se could regulate SepSecS mRNA stability in the avian brain and that SepSecS plays an important role in Se homeostasis regulation.

  18. Metrology with PT-Symmetric Cavities: Enhanced Sensitivity near the PT-Phase Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Peng, Bo; Jing, Hui; Lü, Xin-You; Li, Chun-Wen; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-Xi

    2016-09-09

    We propose and analyze a new approach based on parity-time (PT) symmetric microcavities with balanced gain and loss to enhance the performance of cavity-assisted metrology. We identify the conditions under which PT-symmetric microcavities allow us to improve sensitivity beyond what is achievable in loss-only systems. We discuss the application of PT-symmetric microcavities to the detection of mechanical motion, and show that the sensitivity is significantly enhanced near the transition point from unbroken- to broken-PT regimes. Our results open a new direction for PT-symmetric physical systems and it may find use in ultrahigh precision metrology and sensing.

  19. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Jo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models.

  20. GADD45β, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Zhuanqiang; Li, Xinjian; Lin, Wencheng; Dai, Zhenkai; Yan, Yiming; Lu, Piaopiao; Chen, Weiguo; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-10-18

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retroviruses that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that promote resistance to ALV-J infection in chickens, we bred ALV-J resistant and susceptible chickens (F3 generation). RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of liver tissue from the ALV-J resistant and susceptible chickens identified 216 differentially expressed genes; 88 of those genes were up-regulated in the ALV-J resistant chickens (compared to the susceptible ones). We screened for significantly up-regulated genes (P J resistant chickens, based on their involvement in biological signaling pathways. Functional analyses showed that overexpression of GADD45β inhibited ALV-J replication. GADD45β could enhance defense against ALV-J infection and may be used as a molecular marker to identify ALV-J infections.

  1. Histopathology of liver and kidney on broiler chicken exposed to heat stress and fed extract of Jaloh (Salix tetrasperma Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the effects of jaloh extract (Salix tetrasperma Roxb on broiler chicken exposed to heat stress in constant temperature of 33 ± 1oC for 4 hours per day for 10 days. Fifteen chickens aged 20 days old (strain Cobb were divided randomly into 5 groups. The first group was external control (tCP of the chickens received neither heat stress nor jaloh extract. The second group was internal control (CP representing chickens given heat stress without jaloh extract. The third, fourth, and fifth groups consisted of chickens given heat stress and 10 mg/kg BB of hexane (CP+Hek, ethyl acetate (CP+EtOAc, and ethanol (CP+EtOH fractions, respectively. Heat stress and jaloh extract were given every day. Extract of jaloh were given 1 hour before temperature in the cage was raised. On 10th day of the experiment, 3 chickens were killed and necropted. Liver and kidney tissues from each treatment were analyzed for histological condition. The results indicated that heat stress can induce injury degeneration, necrosis, and infiltration of inflammation cells of liver and kidney. It is concluded that the hexane fraction of jaloh extract could protect the detrimental effects on heat stress.

  2. The robust PT-symmetric chain

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Yogesh N

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of a parity- and time-reversal- (PT) symmetric tight-binding chain of size N with position-dependent hopping amplitude. In contrast to the fragile PT-symmetric phase of a chain with constant hopping and imaginary impurity potentials, we show that, under very general conditions, our model is {\\it always} in the PT-symmetric phase. We numerically obtain the energy spectrum and the density of states of such a chain, and show that they are widely tunable. By studying the size-dependence of inverse participation ratios, we show that although the chain is not translationally invariant, most of its eigenstates are extended. Our results indicate that tight-binding models with non-Hermitian PT-symmetric hopping have a robust PT-symmetric phase and rich dynamics.

  3. Electrochemical study of the Pt and Pt-Ni upon multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Norani Muti; Mumtaz, Asad; Ansari, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz

    2016-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells have attracted great interest in the recent development of portable devices. New routes are being developed for synthesizing the catalysts used in the methanol oxidation. In this work, the electrochemical behavior of the Pt and Pt-Ni upon multiwalled carbon nanotubes, synthesized via a new modified route, has been studied. The results showed that Pt-Ni 10% has the comparable current density to the Pt 20%-loading which is nearly 3 times greater than 10% Pt loading. The transfer of the polarization curve of Pt-Ni 10% towards lower polarization region following the catalyst with 20% Pt loading indicates the higher activity of the nano-electro-catalysts in the alkaline media. Also the long term efficiency and activity of the Pt-Ni with 10% loading is nearly reaching the 20% Pt-loading which is almost 10 folds greater than the 10% Pt loading. The study revealed that Ni in Pt-based nanoalloy impart not only an enhanced activity but also better durability of catalyst in direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  4. Contribution of Salmonella Enteritidis virulence factors to intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination in 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addwebi, Tarek M; Call, Douglas R; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common serovars associated with poultry and poultry product contamination in the United States. We previously identified 14 mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) with significantly reduced invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), chicken macrophages (HD-11), and chicken hepatocellular epithelial cells (LMH). These included Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with transposon insertions in 6 newly identified Salmonella Enteritidis-specific genes (pegD and SEN1393), and genes or genomic islands common to most other Salmonella serovars (SEN0803, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) along with 8 genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (hilA, pipA, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN). We hypothesized that Salmonella Enteritidis employs both common Salmonella enterica colonization factors and Salmonella Enteritidis-specific traits to establish infection in chickens. Four Salmonella Enteritidis mutants (SEN0034::Tn5, fliH::Tn5, SEN1393::Tn5, and spvR::Tn5) were indistinguishable from the isogenic wild-type strain when orally inoculated in 1-d-old chickens, whereas 2 mutants (CsgB::Tn5 and PegD::Tn5) were defective for intestinal colonization (P Salmonella Enteritidis pathogenesis, and the target genes identified here could potentially serve as targets for the development of live-attenuated or subunit vaccine.

  5. Magnetic moments in chemically ordered mass-selected CoPt and FePt clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, V., E-mail: Veronique.Dupuis@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Khadra, G.; Linas, S.; Hillion, A. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Gragnaniello, L. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tamion, A.; Tuaillon-Combes, J.; Bardotti, L.; Tournus, F. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Otero, E.; Ohresser, P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2015-06-01

    By combining high photon flux and chemical selectivity, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) have been used to study the magnetism of CoPt and FePt clusters before and after their transition to the chemically ordered L1{sub 0}-like phase. Compared to the bulk, we find larger magnetic spin and orbital moments of Fe, Co and Pt atoms in nanoalloys. - Highlights: • Study of magnetism on well-defined CoPt and FePt clusters embedded in carbon matrix • X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at each specific Fe, Co and Pt edges, before and after annealing to induce transition to the chemically L1{sub 0}-like phase. • Quantitative values of the spin and orbital magnetic moments of Co (resp. Fe) and Pt after the chemical ordering transition. • Specific nanoalloy effects.

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION OF ETHYLENE AT PANI/Pt AND Ag/PANI/Pt MODIFIED ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenys Fernández

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of ethylene on PANI/Pt and Ag/PANI/Pt modified electrodes was investigated in different media. Morphology of the deposits of PANI were observed by SEM analysis, complemented by the EDX techniques to obtain the Ag composition that shows that Ag is deposited in the polymeric matrix which covered the whole platinum surface. The electrodic system comprising Ag/PANI/ Pt electrode exhibited a more important electrocatalytic response for ethylene oxidation in neutral solutions than the PAN/Pt and Pt electrodes at 20 ºC.The results suggest that the oxidation of ethylene on Ag/PANI/Pt electrode is limited by adsorption-controlled reaction while the oxidation at PANI/Pt is mass transport-limited.

  7. Tafsir Kritis Privatisasi Berdasarkan Hermeneutika Gadamerian: Kasus Privatisasi PT Telkom dan PT Indosat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayudia Sokarina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Privatization Under Critical Meaning by Using Gadamerian Hermeneutics: The Case for Privatization of PT. Telkom And PT. Indosat. The objectives of the study are to search critical meanings of privatisation in PT Telkom and PT Indosat. This research is using an interpretive approach and critical analysis by using Gadamerian hermeneutics. The study finds that there is other reality which shows that the Government views privatisation as a tool to achieve economic rents. Privatisation has failed to enable the distribution of ownership. At the same time, there is exploitation of consumers in the form of higher rates (as in the case of PT Telkomsel. As a result of privatisation of PT Telkom and PT Indosat has failed to provide justice and prosperity for the people and state.

  8. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  9. Reduction of Pt2+ species in model Pt-CeO2 fuel cell catalysts upon reaction with methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Armin; Johánek, Viktor; Lykhach, Yaroslava; Skála, Tomáš; Tsud, Nataliya; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Matolín, Vladimír; Libuda, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The stability of atomically dispersed Pt2+ species on the surface of nanostructured CeO2 films during the reaction with methanol has been investigated by means of synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The isolated Pt2+ species were prepared at low Pt concentration in Pt-CeO2 film. Additionally, Pt2+ species coexisting with metallic Pt particles were prepared at high Pt concentration. We found that adsorption of methanol yields similar decomposition products regardless of Pt concentration in Pt-CeO2 films. A small number of oxygen vacancies formed during the methanol decomposition can be replenished in the Pt-CeO2 film with low Pt concentration by diffusion of oxygen from the bulk. In the presence of supported Pt particles, a higher number of oxygen vacancies leads to a partial reduction of the Pt2+ species. The isolated Pt2+ species are reduced under rather strongly reducing conditions only, i.e. during annealing under continuous exposure to methanol. Reduction of isolated Pt2+ species results in the formation of ultra-small Pt particles containing around 25 atoms per particle or less. Such ultra-small Pt particles demonstrate excellent stability against sintering during annealing of Pt-CeO2 film with low Pt concentration under reducing conditions.

  10. Pt/MOx/SiO2, Pt/MOx/TiO2, and Pt/MOx/Al2O3 Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongmei Qin; Xiaoshuang Qian; Tao Meng; Yi Lin; Zhen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Conventional supported Pt catalysts have often been prepared by loading Pt onto commercial supports, such as SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and carbon. These catalysts usually have simple metal-support (i.e., Pt-SiO2) interfaces. To tune the catalytic performance of supported Pt catalysts, it is desirable to modify the metal-support interfaces by incorporating an oxide additive into the catalyst formula. Here we prepared three series of metal oxide-modified Pt catalysts (i.e., Pt/MOx/SiO2, Pt/MOx/TiO2, a...

  11. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using

  12. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  13. Selection of lactobacilli for chicken probiotic adjuncts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriga; Pascual; Monfort; Hugas

    1998-01-01

    ...: their ability to inhibit all the indicator strains; a high adhesion efficiency to the epithelial cells of chickens and also their resistance to a number of antibiotics, monensin, bile salts and pH 3·0...

  14. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... 1College of Animal Science and Technology, Beijing University of ... After being screened by yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) containing high concentrations of Zeocin ... nucleic acid vaccine of the chicken infectious bronchial.

  15. Engineering the Activity and Stability of Pt-Alloy Cathode Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts by Tuning the Pt-Pt Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Malacrida, Paolo; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    2014-01-01

    with a thickness of few Pt layers is formed. Accordingly, the effect of alloying Pt is to impose strain onto the Pt overlayer [3,4]. It is likely that this strain would be relaxed by defects [6]. Moreover, the activity of the Pt5Ln catalysts vs. the Pt-Pt distance shows a volcano relationship (Fig. A) [5]. Pt5Ln......One of the main obstacles to the commercialisation of low-temperature fuel cells is the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In order to decrease the ORR overpotential and reduce the Pt loading we need to develop more active and stable electrocatalysts. A fruitful strategy...... for enhancing the cathode activity is to alloy Pt with transition metals [1-2]. However, alloys of Pt and late transition metals are typically unstable under fuel-cell conditions. Herein, we present experimental and theoretical studies showing the trends in activity and stability of novel cathode catalysts...

  16. Characterization of the novel duplicated PRLR gene at the late-feathering K locus in Lohmann chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guixian; Huang, Guian; Fu, Hao; Li, Juan; Huang, Simiao; Wang, Yajun

    2013-10-01

    A partial duplication of the prolactin (PRL) receptor gene (designated as dPRLR) has been identified at the late-feathering (LF) K locus on chromosome Z of some chicken strains recently, implying that dPRLR is probably a candidate gene associated with LF development in chickens. However, little is known about the structure, functionality, and spatiotemporal expression of the dPRLR gene in chickens. In this study, using 3'-RACE and RT-PCR, the full-length cDNA of the dPRLR obtained from the kidneys of male Lohmann layer chickens carrying a K allele was cloned. The cloned dPRLR is predicted to encode a membrane-spanning receptor of 683 amino acids, which is nearly identical to the original PRLR, except for its lack of a 149-amino acid C-terminal tail. Using a 5× STAT5-Luciferase reporter system and western blot analysis, we demonstrated that dPRLR expressed in HepG2 cells could be potently activated by chicken PRL and functionally coupled to the intracellular STAT5 signaling pathway, suggesting that dPRLR may function as a novel receptor for PRL. RT-PCR assays revealed that similar to the original PRLR gene, dPRLR mRNA is widely expressed in all embryonic and adult tissues examined including the skin of male Lohmann chickens with a K allele. These findings, together with the expression of PRL mRNA detected in the skin of embryos at embryonic day 20 and 1-week-old chicks, suggest that skin-expressed dPRLR and PRLR, together with plasma and skin-derived PRL, may be involved in the control of the LF development of chicks at hatching. Moreover, the wide tissue expression of dPRLR implies that dPRLR may regulate other physiological processes of chickens carrying the K allele.

  17. Association of estradiol on expression of melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins in the liver of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Naiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Cuicui; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Zhuanjian; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that MRAP was expressed in the adrenal gland, liver, spleen, glandular stomach and lungs, while MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland. All five MCRs were present in the adrenal gland, but showed different expression patterns in other tissues. The MC5R was the only MCR member that was expressed in the chicken liver. The expression levels of MRAP in chicken liver were significantly increased at sexual maturity stage, and were significantly up-regulated (Pchickens and chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in vivo and in vitro, respectively; however, expression levels of PPARγ were down-regulated, and no effect on MC5R was observed. Our results suggested that estrogen could stimulate the expression of MRAP in the liver of chicken through inhibiting the expression of transcription regulation factor PPARγ, and MRAP might play its biological role in a different way rather than forming an MRAP/MC2R complex in chicken liver during the egg-laying period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Heat Stress on the Expression of GABA Receptor mRNA in the HPG Axis of Wenchang Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Xie

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the effect of heat stress (HS on the expression of the GABA receptor in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of Wenchang chickens. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to quantify the GABA receptor mRNA levels along the HPG axis of chickens under HS (40±0.5 °C for 1-6 weeks. Our results showed that the expression of GABAA and GABAB receptor at the mRNAs levels in the tissues of HPG axis exhibited fluctuation and variability. After HS, the mRNA level of GABAA receptor was significantly reduced in the hypothalamus of 1-week-old and in the pituitary of 3-week-old chickens, but significantly increased in the pituitary of 1-, 4-, and 5-week-old chickens. The GABAB receptor mRNA level significantly declined in the hypothalamus of 1-week-old and in the pituitary of 3-week-old chickens, but was significantly upregulated in the pituitary and testis of 1- and 2-week-old chickens. At other time points, the expressions of GABAA receptor and GABAB receptor showed no significant differences compared with control group. These results indicated that the levels of GABAA receptor and GABAB receptor mRNAs varied in different tissues of the HPG axis in chickens of different ages, displaying temporal and spatial variations. GABA receptor behaved as a positively-regulated gene by HS, i.e., its mRNA was increased by HS; similarly, it was a negatively-regulated gene by HS, when its expression was reduced by HS.

  19. Chicken cyclophilin A is an inhibitory factor to influenza virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of enhancing influenza resistance in domestic flocks is quite clear both scientifically and economically. Chicken is very susceptible to influenza virus. It has been reported that human cellular cyclophilin A (CypA impaired influenza virus infection in 293T cells. Whether chicken CypA (chCypA inhibits influenza virus replication is not known. The molecular mechanism of resistance in chicken to influenza virus remains to be studied. Results The chCypA gene was isolated and characterized in the present study. It contained an ORF of 498 bp encoding a polypeptide of 165 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.8 kDa sharing high identity with mammalian CypA genes. The chCypA demonstrated an anti-influenza activity as expected. ChCypA protein was shown to be able to specifically interact with influenza virus M1 protein. Cell susceptibility to influenza virus was reduced by over-expression of chCypA in CEF cells. The production of recombinant influenza virus A/WSN/33 reduced to one third in chCypA expressing cells comparing to chCypA absent cells. ChCypA was widely distributed in a variety of chicken tissues. It localized in cytoplasm of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells. Avian influenza virus infection induced its translocation from cytoplasm into nucleus. ChCypA expression was not significantly up-regulated by avian influenza virus infection. The present study indicated that chCypA was an inhibitory protein to influenza virus replication, suggesting a role as an intrinsic immunity factor against influenza virus infection. Conclusion The present data demonstrates that chCypA possesses anti-influenza virus activity which allows the consideration of genetic improvement for resistance to influenza virus in chickens.

  20. Glucagon-related peptides and the regulation of food intake in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa

    2016-09-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying food intake in chickens have been a focus of research in recent decades to improve production efficiency when raising chickens. Lines of evidence have revealed that a number of brain-gut peptides function as a neurotransmitter or peripheral satiety hormone in the regulation of food intake both in mammals and chickens. Glucagon, a 29 amino acid peptide hormone, has long been known to play important roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals and birds. However, the glucagon gene encodes various peptides that are produced by tissue-specific proglucagon processing: glucagon is produced in the pancreas, whereas oxyntomodulin (OXM), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 are produced in the intestine and brain. Better understanding of the roles of these peptides in the regulation of energy homeostasis has led to various physiological roles being proposed in mammals. For example, GLP-1 functions as an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain and as a postprandial satiety hormone in the peripheral circulation. There is evidence that OXM and GLP-2 also induce anorexia in mammals. Therefore, it is possible that the brain-gut peptides OXM, GLP-1 and GLP-2 play physiological roles in the regulation of food intake in chickens. More recently, a novel GLP and its specific receptor were identified in the chicken brain. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of glucagon-related peptides in the regulation of food intake in chickens. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Magnetic susceptibility and hardness of Au-xPt-yNb alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Emi; Inui, Shihoko; Hamada, Kenichi; Honda, Eiichi; Asaoka, Kenzo

    2013-09-01

    Metal devices in the human body induce serious metal artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Metals artifacts are mainly caused by a volume magnetic susceptibility (χv) mismatch between a metal device and human tissue. In this research, Au-xPt-yNb alloys were developed for fabricating MRI artifact-free biomedical metal devices. The magnetic properties, hardness and phase constitutions of these alloys were investigated. The Au-xPt-8Nb alloys showed satisfactory χv values. Heat treatments did not clearly change the χv values for Au-xPt-8Nb alloys. The Vickers hardness (HV) of these two alloys was much higher than that of high-Pt alloys; moreover, aging at 700°C increased the HV values of these two alloys. A dual phase structure consisting of face-centered cubic α1 and α2 phases was observed and aging at 700°C promoted phase separation. The Au-5Pt-8Nb and Au-10Pt-8Nb alloys showed satisfactory χv values and high hardness and are thus suggested as candidates for MRI artifact-free alloys for biomedical applications.

  2. High fat diet deviates PtC-specific B1 B cell phagocytosis in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hung; Chiu, Joanna; Allaimo, Danielle; Mao, Changchuin; Wang, Yaqi; Gong, Yuefei; Ow, Hooisweng; Porter, Tyrone; Zhong, Xuemei

    2014-12-01

    Phagocytosis had been attributed predominantly to "professional" phagocytes such as macrophages, which play critical roles in adipose tissue inflammation. However, recently, macrophage-like phagocytic activity has been reported in B1 B lymphocytes. Intrigued by the long-established correlation between high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and immune dysfunction, we investigated how HFD affects B1 B cell phagocytosis. A significant number of B1 B cells recognize phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common phospholipid component of cell membrane. We report here that unlike macrophages, B1 B cells have a unique PtC-specific phagocytic function. In the presence of both PtC-coated and non-PtC control fluorescent nano-particles, B1 B cells from healthy lean mice selectively engulfed PtC-coated beads, whereas B1 B cells from HFD-fed obese mice non-discriminately phagocytosed both PtC-coated and control beads. Morphologically, B1 B cells from obese mice resembled macrophages, displaying enlarged cytosol and engulfed more beads. Our study suggests for the first time that HFD can affect B1 B cell phagocytosis, substantiating the link of HFD-induced obesity and immune deviation.

  3. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  4. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  5. Persistence of avian oncoviruses in chicken macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzolo, L; Moscovici, C; Moscovici, M G

    1979-01-01

    Inoculation of avian oncoviruses into 1- to 2-month old chickens led to a rapid production of antiviral humoral antibodies. Under these conditions it was found that avian leukosis viruses are sequestered in macrophages of peripheral blood, in which they can persist for a long period of time (up to about 3 years). In contrast, avian sarcoma viruses were never found in macrophages from chickens during the progression of sarcomas or after regression of the tumors. PMID:217827

  6. A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 Targets Chicken Embryonic Somatic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo and generates Phenotypic Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bonsrah, Kwaku Dad; Zhang, Dongcheng; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved. We also achieved targeted modification by homology-directed repair (HDR), producing MEN2A and MEN2B mutations of the RET gene. We also targeted DGCR8 in neural cells of the chicken embryo by in vivo electroporation. After FACS isolation of transfected cells, we observed appropriate sequence changes in DGCR8. Wholemount and frozen section antibody labelling showed reduction of DGCR8 levels in transfected cells. In addition, there was reduced expression levels of DGCR8-associated genes DROSHA, YPEL1 and NGN2. We also observed morphological differences in neural tissue and cardiac-related tissues of transfected embryos. These findings demonstrate that precisely targeted genetic manipulation of the genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be extended to the highly adaptable in vivo chicken embryo model. PMID:27694906

  8. Engineering the Activity and Stability of Pt-Alloy Cathode Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts by Tuning the Pt-Pt Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Malacrida, Paolo; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    2014-01-01

    based on alloys of Pt and lanthanides. Sputter-cleaned, polycrystalline Pt5Gd shows a five-fold increase in ORR activity [3], relative to Pt at 0.9 V in 0.1 M HClO4. The rest of the Pt5Ln (Ln = lanthanide) tested present at least a 3-fold enhancement in activity [4,5]. In all cases, a Pt overlayer...

  9. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  11. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  12. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. D

  13. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  14. Gene Expression in Chicken Reveals Correlation with Structural Genomic Features and Conserved Patterns of Transcription in the Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, H.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Lammers, A.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Neerincx, P.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The chicken is an important agricultural and avian-model species. A survey of gene expression in a range of different tissues will provide a benchmark for understanding expression levels under normal physiological conditions in birds. With expression data for birds being very scant, thi

  15. Post-mortem changes in chicken muscle : some key biochemical processes involved in the conversion of muscle to meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, F.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact that muscl

  16. Dynamics of the YSZ-Pt Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Jacobsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-Pt point electrodes were examined by linear potential sweep, potential step and impedance measurements at 1000 degrees C in air. Inductive loops and hysteresis phenomena with long relaxation times were found. Atomic force microscopy showed changes of the interface...... between Pt and YSZ induced by the current passage. These changes involve transport of solid and are slow enough to explain the large time constants. The low frequency capacitance and inductive loop forming an entire circle indicate the presence of gas reservoirs at the YSZ-Pt interface....

  17. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  18. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  19. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-11-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring tissues. Furthermore, stage 6 Hensen's node contains approximately 3 times more retinoid than that of stage 4 embryos. These endogenous retinoids may establish a concentration gradient from Hensen's node to adjacent tissues and play a role in establishing the primary embryonic axis in the vertebrate. The results also suggest that the retinoid concentration in Hensen's node is developmentally regulated.

  20. Expression of Thyroid Hormone Responsive SPOT 14 Gene Is Regulated by Estrogen in Chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Xu, Naiyi; Zheng, Hang; Tian, Weihua; Li, Hong; Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yadong; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-08-31

    Thyroid hormone responsive spot 14 (THRSP) is a small nuclear protein that responds rapidly to thyroid hormone. It has been shown that THRSP is abundant in lipogenic tissues such as liver, fat and the mammary gland in mammals. The THRSP gene acts as a key lipogenic activator and can be activated by thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), glucose, carbohydrate and insulin. Here we report that chicken THRSP is also abundant in lipogenic tissues including the liver and the abdominal fat, and its expression levels increased with sex maturation and reached the highest level at the peak of egg production. Structure analysis of the THRSP gene indicates that there is a conscious estrogen response element (ERE) located in the -2390 - -2402 range of the gene promoter region. Further studies by ChIP-qPCR proved that the ERα interacts with the putative ERE site. In addition, THRSP was significantly upregulated (P estrogen and is involved in the estrogen regulation network in chicken.

  1. Development of an in vivo model for study of intestinal invasion by Salmonella enterica in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    An in vivo loop test model for the investigation of the invasiveness of Salmonella enterica in chickens was developed. Ten jejunal loops were made in 10- to 12-week-old Lohman Brown chickens under isofluoran anaesthesia. Salmonella at 5.0 x 10(7) CFU was inoculated into each loop and left for 2 h......, followed by a 1-h incubation with gentamicin in order to kill noninvading bacteria. After euthanasia, Salmonella invasiveness was measured as tissue-associated counts relative to a reference strain. The ability of Salmonella invasion was 1 log(10) CFU higher per 42-mm(2) mucosal tissue in the anterior than...... in the posterior part of jejunum. A statistically significant (P model was shown to be able to show small differences in invasive capability and allows...

  2. The developmental neurotoxicity study of platinum compounds. Effects of cisplatin versus a novel Pt(II) complex on rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Silvia; Piccolini, Valeria M; Santin, Giada; Bottone, Maria G; De Pascali, Sandra A; Migoni, Danilo; Iadarola, Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    In the field of experimental oncology, many efforts are being carried out to search new platinum-based drugs overcoming the CNS toxicity and drug resistance. One of the adopted strategies is the synthesis of platinum compounds able to form Pt-DNA adducts different from the cisplatin ones or to react with other subcellular targets. In this context a novel Pt(II) complex, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)](PtAcacDMS), was synthesized which reacts preferentially with protein thiols or thioethers. In this work we investigated the in vivo effects of cisplatin and PtAcacDMS on normal development. Moreover, to verify the dose-dependence of the effects, different groups of animals were treated with 5 μg/g or 10 μg/g body weight of cisPt and PtAcacDMS. We have focused our attention on the cerebellum because it provides a useful model system to evaluate the outcomes of perinatal treatment with chemotherapeutic agents on key CNS developmental processes such as neural cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. We have demonstrated the ability of both cisPt and PtAcacDMS to reach the brain tissue once injected. The brain platinum content after PtAcacDMS treatment was notably higher (approximately 4-fold as much) than after cisPt. The platinum accumulation in the brain was still considerable 7 days after PtAcacDMS administration. However, compared with cisplatin, PtAcacDMS induces less severe changes on fundamental events of neuroarchitecture development, such as no high apoptotic events, less altered granule cell migration and Purkinje cell dendrite growth, suggesting a low neurotoxicity of this new Pt complex for normal CNS. The mild damages could be attributable to the different subcellular target of this compound as well as to a greater efficiency of the cell repair system to recognize the drug-target adducts and to repair them. Together with the previously demonstrated antineoplastic effectiveness in vitro, the findings here reported suggest PtAcacDMS as a potential

  3. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  4. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  5. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  6. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  7. PT-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, C M; Milton, K A; Shajesh, K V; Bender, Carl M.; Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A.

    2005-01-01

    The Hamiltonian for quantum electrodynamics becomes non-Hermitian if the unrenormalized electric charge $e$ is taken to be imaginary. However, if one also specifies that the potential $A^\\mu$ in such a theory transforms as a pseudovector rather than a vector, then the Hamiltonian becomes PT symmetric. The resulting non-Hermitian theory of electrodynamics is the analog of a spinless quantum field theory in which a pseudoscalar field $\\phi$ has a cubic self-interaction of the form $i\\phi^3$. The Hamiltonian for this cubic scalar field theory has a positive spectrum, and it has recently been demonstrated that the time evolution of this theory is unitary. The proof of unitarity requires the construction of a new operator called C, which is then used to define an inner product with respect to which the Hamiltonian is self-adjoint. In this paper the corresponding C operator for non-Hermitian quantum electrodynamics is constructed perturbatively. This construction demonstrates the unitarity of the theory. Non-Hermit...

  8. Altered development and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) by corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H; Lin, H; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Zhao, J P; Jiang, K J

    2007-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on protein metabolism and the amino acid composition in muscle tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In Trial 1, two groups of 30 broiler chickens were subjected to control or CORT treatment (30 mg/kg diet) from 28 to 39 days of age. In Trial 2, three groups of chickens of 28 days of age were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 7 days: CORT (30 mg/kg diet), pair-fed (maintaining the same feed intake as CORT treatment) and control treatments. The body mass gain and feed efficiency was significantly decreased by CORT treatment, while the food intake was decreased. The breast and thigh masses (% body mass) were significantly suppressed by CORT treatment, while the abdominal fat and liver masses (%) were obviously increased. The plasma levels of glucose, urate and total amino acid were significantly elevated by CORT treatment. The capacity for protein synthesis, estimated by RNA:protein ratio, were significantly suppressed by CORT in M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris. The 3-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in both M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris of CORT chickens, compared to control but not the pair-fed chickens. The amino acid composition of M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris was not significantly affected by CORT treatment. In conclusion, the arrested growth in skeletal muscles induced by CORT administration has tissue specificity. The CORT treatment retards the growth of skeletal muscle by suppressed protein synthesis and augmented protein catabolism.

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  10. [Whole cDNA sequence cloning and expression of chicken L-FABP gene and its relationship with lipid deposition of hybrid chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is closely related to intracellular transportation and deposition of lipids. A positive differential displayed fragment was found in the liver tissue among Silkie (CC), CAU-brown chicken (CD), and their reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) at 8 weeks-old using differential display RT-PCR techniques (DDRT-PCR). Through recycling, sequencing, and alignment analysis, the fragment was identified as chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (L-FABP, GenBank accession number AY321365). Reverse Northern dot blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the avian L-FABP gene was over-expressed in the liver tissue of the reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) compared to their parental lines (CC and DD), which was consistent with the fact that higher abdomen fat weight and wider inter-muscular fat width observed in the reciprocal hybrids. Considering the higher expression of L-FABP may contribute to the increased lipid deposition in the hybrid chickens, the functional study of avian L-FABP is warranted in future.

  11. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  12. Mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru alloy electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Esteban A. [Grupo de Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Planes, Gabriel A. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Agencia Postal No 3, 5800, Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica-Fisica, INQUIMAE CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corti, Horacio R. [Grupo de Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica-Fisica, INQUIMAE CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-15

    Mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts with 2D-hexagonal mesostructure were synthesized using a triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (Pluronic F127 {sup registered}) template, on a gold support. Large electrochemical surface areas were observed for the catalysts prepared at high overpotentials. Compared to the Pt catalyst, the Pt/Ru alloy containing 3 at% of Ru exhibited lower onset potential and more than three times the limit mass activity for methanol oxidation. This behavior is assigned to the larger pore size of the mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts obtained with this template that seems to improve the methanol accessibility to the active sites compared to those obtained using lyotropic liquid crystals. (author)

  13. The Development of the Ciliary Epithelium in the Embryonic Chicken Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    experiment was to test the role of I extraocular tissues in eye growth. The periocular mesoderm ! I I was stripped away from a small area on one surface...Eichhorn and Barany , 1985). The cells in the pigmented and nonpigmented layers of the ciliary epithelium begin to differentiate from the adjacent...Statistics: The data from the individual chicken embryos in each experimental group were compared to each other and then pooled. Student’s T- test

  14. Bitter, sweet and umami taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: Expression in embryonic and growing chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Druyan, Shelly; Uni, Zehava

    2015-08-01

    Taste perception is a crucial biological mechanism affecting food and water choices and consumption in the animal kingdom. Bitter taste perception is mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family-the taste 2 receptors (T2R)-and their downstream proteins, whereas sweet and umami tastes are mediated by the GPCR family -taste 1 receptors (T1R) and their downstream proteins. Taste receptors and their downstream proteins have been identified in extra-gustatory tissues in mammals, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their GIT activation has been linked with different metabolic and endocrinic pathways in the GIT. The chicken genome contains three bitter taste receptors termed ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, and ggTas2r7, and the sweet/umami receptors ggTas1r1 and ggTas1r3, but it lacks the sweet receptor ggTas1r2. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the expression of genes related to taste perception in the chicken GIT, both at the embryonic stage and in growing chickens. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time, using real-time PCR, expression of the chicken taste receptor genes ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7, ggTas1r1, and ggTas1r3 and of their downstream protein-encoding genes TRPM5, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 in both gustatory tissues-the palate and tongue, and extra-gustatory tissues-the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of embryonic day 19 (E19) and growing (21 d old) chickens. Expression of these genes suggests the involvement of taste pathways for sensing carbohydrates, amino acids and bitter compounds in the chicken GIT. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Post-transcriptional regulation of the chicken thymidine kinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudine, M; Casimir, C

    1984-02-10

    In attempting to understand the molecular basis of the control of chicken thymidine kinase (cTK) gene expression, we have examined the steady state cTK RNA content, and the patterns of DNA methylation, chromatin structure and endogenous nuclear runoff transcription of this gene in dividing and non-dividing cells. Our results reveal that the steady state level of cTK poly A+ RNA is correlated with the divisional activity of normal avian cells and tissues. However, no differences in the pattern of Hpa II site methylation or chromatin structure are found among cells containing high or undetectable levels of steady state cTK RNA. In addition, no differences in cTK transcription as assayed by nuclear runoff experiments are detectable in isolated nuclei derived from dividing or non-dividing cells containing high or low levels of steady state cTK RNA. These results suggest that the principal control of chicken thymidine kinase gene expression is post-transcriptional in nature.

  16. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  17. Chicken essence improves exercise performance and ameliorates physical fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Lin, Ching-I; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ting; Huang, Wei-Kai; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2014-07-18

    Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  18. Necrotic Enteritis in Chickens Associated with Clostridium sordellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Uzal, Francisco; Chin, R P; Palombo, Enzo A; Awad, Milena; Lyras, Dena; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-09-01

    Three outbreaks of necrotic enteritis-like disease associated with Clostridium sordelii were diagnosed in commercial broiler chicken flocks with 18,000 to 31,000 birds between 18 and 26 days old. Clinical signs in the affected flocks included high mortality up to 2% a day, depression, and diarrhea. The main gross changes included segmental dilation of the small intestine with watery contents, gas, mucoid exudate, and roughened and uneven mucosa, occasionally covered with a pseudomembrane. Microscopic lesions in the small intestine were characterized by extensive areas of coagulative necrosis of the villi, fibrinous exudate in the lumen, and high numbers of large, Gram-positive rods, occasionally containing subterminal spores, seen in the necrotic tissue and lumen. These rods were identified as C. sordellii by immunohistochemistry. Clostridium sordellii was isolated in an almost pure culture from the intestine of affected birds. A retrospective study of commercial broiler chicken and turkey submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System revealed that C. sordellii had been isolated from intestinal lesions in outbreaks of necrotic enteritis-like disease in 8 of 39 cases, 5 times together with Clostridium perfringens and 3 times alone. The latter three cases are reported here.

  19. Isolation and biological characterization of chicken amnion epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs express Oct4, Nanog and Sox-2, which are necessary for maintaining the undifferentiated state of pluripotent stem cells. AECs additionally express CK19, which is a specific marker of epithelial cells, both in vivo and in vitro. In this research, we investigated the biological characteristics and potential for cell therapy of AECs from 6-day-old chicken embryos. We induced the AECs to differentiate into pancreatic islet-like cells (endoderm, adipocytes and osteoblasts (mesoderm and neural-like cells (ectoderm, and used immunofluorescence and RT-PCR to detect the expression of AECs specific markers. To assess the differentiation capacity of AECs, passage 3 cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, pancreatic islet-like cells and neural-like cells. The AEC markers, Oct4, Nanog, Sox-2 and CK19, were all positively expressed. Cloning efficiency decreased with increasing passage number. Passage 3 AECs were successfully induced to differentiate into pancreatic islet-like cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neural-like cells. These results suggested that AECs isolated from chicken embryos exhibited the characteristics of the multipotent stem cells. AECs may therefore be ideal candidates for cellular transplantation therapy and tissue engineering.

  20. PT-Symmetry Quantum Electrodynamics--PTQED

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Parashar, Prachi; Shajesh, K V; Wagner, Jef

    2007-01-01

    The construction of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum electrodynamics is reviewed. In particular, the massless version of the theory in 1+1 dimensions (the Schwinger model) is solved. Difficulties with unitarity of the $S$-matrix are discussed.

  1. PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the PT-symmetric version of quantum electrodynamics, it is argued that the C operator introduced in order to define a unitary inner product has nothing to do with charge conjugation.

  2. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  3. PT-Symmetric Optomechanically-Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, H; Özdemir, S K; Zhang, J; Lü, X -Y; Peng, B; Yang, L; Nori, F

    2014-01-01

    Optomechanically-induced transparency (OMIT) and the associated slow-light propagation provide the basis for storing photons in nanofabricated phononic devices. Here we study OMIT in parity-time (PT)-symmetric microresonators with a tunable gain-to-loss ratio. This system features a reversed, non-amplifying transparency: inverted-OMIT. When the gain-to-loss ratio is steered, the system exhibits a transition from the PT-symmetric phase to the broken-PT-symmetric phase. We show that by tuning the pump power at fixed gain-to-loss ratio or the gain-to-loss ratio at fixed pump power, one can switch from slow to fast light and vice versa. Moreover, the presence of PT-phase transition results in the reversal of the pump and gain dependence of transmission rates. These features provide new tools for controlling light propagation using optomechanical devices.

  4. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fon Abi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993, 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ∞3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure.

  5. Adsorption of formaldehyde and formyl intermediates on Pt, PtRu-, and PtRuMo-alloy surfaces: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanto, Wahyu Tri; Shukri, Ganes; Agusta, Mohammad Kemal; Kasai, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Stable binding configuration for formaldehyde (H2CO) and formyl (HCO) adsorption on Pt, PtRu, and PtRuMo are studied within the frame of density functional theory (DFT). We address this study to investigate the role of Ru and Mo on the binding characteristic of formaldehyde and formyl adsorption with respect to interaction strength and charge analysis. Several binding conformation on all possible surface adsorption sites are considered in determining the most stable adsorption geometry on three surfaces. Our results show that the presence of Ru in PtRu and Mo in PtRuMo stabilize the formaldehyde and formyl, which are indicated by stronger bond strength. Further electronic structure analysis shows that the addition of Ru in PtRu and Mo in PtRuMo modifies the electronic structure of Pt's surface significantly. The presence of both impurities shifted the derived anti-bonding state - which is originally located below the fermi level in pure Pt surface - to be above the fermi level in PtRu and PtRuMo systems. This fact explains the stronger adsorption found on PtRu & PtRuMo as compared to pure Pt surface.

  6. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  7. Superior long-term activity for a Pt-Re alloy compared to Pt in methanol oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Audrey S.; Xie, Kangmin; Monnier, John R.; Chen, Donna A.

    2017-03-01

    Pt-Re bimetallic catalysts have shown enhanced activity compared to pure Pt for reactions involving oxidation, but the origins of this improved activity are not fully understood. Methanol oxidation on a Pt-Re alloy surface and pure Pt foil was studied in a microreactor coupled to an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. For reaction at 60 °C, the Pt-Re alloy surface exhibits superior long-term activity over a 24 h reaction period compared to pure Pt. The initial activity of Pt is 10-15% higher than on Pt-Re; however, the Pt surface gradually loses activity after 10 h online, whereas the activity of Pt-Re does not diminish. Post-reaction XPS shows that more carbon accumulates on the Pt than on Pt-Re, and the improved long-term activity is attributed to a greater ability of Pt-Re to oxidize the carbonaceous intermediates that eventually poison active sites. Both Pt and Pt-Re surfaces have almost no activity for methanol oxidation until a minimum coverage of oxygen is achieved from O2 dissociation. A comparison with methanol oxidation studies on Pt and Pt-Re in a pressure regime that is 150 times lower than in this work demonstrates that more carbon and less oxygen accumulate on the surfaces during reaction at the lower pressures.

  8. The CO/Pt(111) Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEIBELMAN,PETER J.; HAMMER,B.; NORSHOV,J.K.; WAGNER,F.; SCHEFFLER,M.; STUMPF,R.; DUMESIC,J.; WATWE,R.

    2000-07-12

    Notwithstanding half a dozen theoretical publications, well-converged density-functional calculations, whether based on a local or generalized-gradient exchange-correlation potential, whether all-electron or employing pseudopotentials underestimate CO's preference for low-coordination binding sites on Pt(111) and vicinals to it. For example, they imply that CO should prefer hollow- to atop-site adsorption on Pt(111), in apparent contradiction to a host of low temperature experimental studies.

  9. Scattering properties of PT-symmetric objects

    CERN Document Server

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Facao, Margarida; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Bakry, Ahmed; Razvi, Mir A N; Alshahrie, Ahmed; Alù, Andrea; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scattering response of parity-time (PT) symmetric structures. We show that, due to the local flow of energy between gain and loss regions, such systems can deflect light in unusual ways, as a function of the gain/loss contrast. Such structures are highly anisotropic and their scattering patterns can drastically change as a function of the angle of incidence. In addition, we derive a modified optical theorem for PT-symmetric scattering systems, and discuss its ramifications.

  10. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  11. The ability of genetically lean or fat slow-growing chickens to synthesize and store lipids is not altered by the dietary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Gondret, F; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Gabriel, I; Narcy, A; Lessire, M; Métayer-Coustard, S; Collin, A; Jégou, M; Lagarrigue, S; Duclos, M J

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken's diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and

  12. Development of Local Chicken Production Based on Local Feed Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of local chicken production based on local feed ingredient is in line with the vision of Indonesian goverment to fulfill meat and egg national requirement based on local resources. There are two big problem which become stumblingblock in developing local chicken production. The first problem is the difficulty to get day old chick of local chicken. This problem can be solved by integrating breeder institutions belong to goverment with research institution and with local chicken producer association. The second problem is the low performance of local chicken. To improve local chicken performance, it can be done by improving the breed, feed and management. Several research results show that good performance of local chicken were obtained by inclusion of local feed ingredients in the ration. Therefore, development of local chicken production based an local feed resources can be applied.

  13. Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary foods for ... on weight basis according to predetermined proportions of the raw ingredients. ... the chicken powder (an animal source quality protein) in their children's diet, if not ...

  14. Potential probiotic of Lactobacillus johnsonii LT171 for chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... chicken nutrition. Hamidreza ... probiotic properties of L. johnsonii LT171 for chicken nutrition. Hence this ..... resistance to pathogens and performance in animals.

  15. Reduction of Pt Usage in Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Carbon Nanotubes and Non-Pt Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Nakamura; Y. Nagashima; T. Yamazaki; T. Matsumoto; E. Yoo

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The high-priced and limited Pt constitutes a high barrier to commercialization of fuel cells. Pt is essential for the electrode catalyst of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). A reduction in Pt usage is one of the key requirements for the commercialization of fuel cells for use in everyday life, because of its high price and limited availability, and the difficulty of finding suitable substitutes. Non-Pt fuel cell catalysts will decrease the demand for Pt by PEFCs, enabling more Pt to be available for use in other essential products, and make fuel cells more popular[1]. The cheaper Mo2C is known to possess similar catalytic activities and electronic structures to Pt[2]. Carbon black (CB) is widely used as the support for Pt nanoparticles. However, we found that when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rather than CB are used as the support, the performance is improved, especially below 600 mA/cm2[3,4]. Here, we show that a combination of Mo2C catalyst and carbon nanotubes in the anode provides performance as high as half that of the current PEFCs with Pt catalysts below 600mA/cm2.

  16. Electrocatalysis of fuel cells reaction on Pt and Pt-bimetallic anode catalysts: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Vojislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we selectively summarize recent progress, primarily from our laboratory, in the development of interrelationships between the kinetics of the fuel cells reactions and the structure/composition of anode catalysts. The focus is placed on two types of metallic surfaces: platinum single crystals and bimetallic surfaces based on Pt. In the first part it was illustrated that the hydcogen reaction is structure sensitive process, with Pt(110 being an order of magnitude more active than either of the atomically "flatter" (100 and (111 surfaces. The hydrogen reaction on Pt(hkl modified by pseudomorphic Pd (submonolayers shows the "volcano-like" behavior, having the maximum rate on Pt(111 modified by 1 ML of Pd. The Pt(111-Pd system is used to demonstrate how the energetics of intermediates formed in the hydrogen reaction is affected by interfacial bonding and energetic constraints produced between pseudomorphic Pd films and the Pt(111 substrate. In the second part it was shown that the oxidation of Ha in the presence of CO occurs concurrently with CO oxidation on Pt and Pt bimetallic surfaces. The Pt-Ru system is used to demonstrate that both the bifunctional effect and the ligand effect contribute to the influence of Ru on the CO oxidation rate and for Hz oxidation process in the presence of CO. The knowledge is then used to create the real-life catalyst with the catalytic activities which are, to the greatest extend possible similar to the tailor-made surface.

  17. Dependence of Magnetic Properties of Co/Pt Multilayers on Deposition Temperature of Pt Buffer Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tomotaka; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Morio

    1993-04-01

    A 15-nm-thick Pt buffer layer was deposited on a glass slide at temperature Ts(Ptbuf) ranging from 30 to 300°C by e-gun evaporation. Following the cooling in vacuum to ambient temperature, Co and Pt layers have been alternately deposited on it. Very large perpendicular anisotropy and coercivity have been obtained at Ts(Ptbuf) higher than 200°C. The (111) preferred orientation of the Co/Pt multilayer as well as the Pt buffer layer became more pronounced with elevating Ts(Ptbuf), to which the enhancement of perpendicular anisotropy with elevating Ts(Ptbuf) might be ascribable.

  18. Bone computed tomography mineral content evaluation in chickens: effects of substances in homeopathic concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Sergio; Gasparini, Gabriele; Luisetto, Patrizio; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Pomerri, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Ninety-six cobb race chickens were equally divided in 4 groups and randomly assigned to receive a standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Symphytum (S.) officinalis (9CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Tricalcarea (4CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Calcarea (C.) carbonica (30CH) or a placebo (the same feed but without any homeopathic compound) in order to assess the ability of the homeopathic compounds to increase the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue. We measured the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue of all chickens by means of a computed tomography (CT). 30%, 36% and 63% increase of sternum spongy-bone mineralization was observed after a 2 years period in the treatment groups with S. officinalis (9CH), Tricalcarea (4CH) (*P chickens reared in commercial poultry-sheds, creating a weakness of the whole animal supporting apparatus. Homeopathic preparations with bone-tissue tropism may improve their health quality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of lignin on oxidative stress in chickens fed a diet contaminated with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Bořutová, Radka; Faix, Stefan; Plachá, Iveta; Cobanová, Klaudia; Košíková, Božena; Leng, L'ubomír

    2012-03-01

    The effect of lignin supplementation to a diet contaminated with zearalenone (ZEA) on antioxidant status was studied in female chickens of the ISA BROWN laying strain. From the day of hatching to 2 weeks of age, four groups of chickens were fed the same uncontaminated control diet. After 14 days, Group 1 (control) continued to receive the uncontaminated diet, while Group 2 was fed an identical diet enriched with 0.5% chemically modified lignin. Simultaneously, chickens of Group 3 were switched to a diet contaminated with 7.9 mg/kg ZEA and those of Group 4 to an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin. At 6 weeks of age blood and tissue samples were collected. Feeding of a diet contaminated with a high level of ZEA resulted in elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the duodenal mucosa and kidney tissues, and an increased γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in the plasma, indicative of oxidative stress. In the liver tissue, no mycotoxin-induced response in GPx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities occurred, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was even reduced. Neither the plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol nor the activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and GPx in blood were affected in birds fed the contaminated diet. The only effect of lignin supplemented to the contaminated feed was that it prevented the increase of GPx activity in the duodenal mucosa as an indicator of oxidative stress.

  20. Nanoparticulate CoPt Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Yasaman; Hadjipanayis, George; Magnetics bLab Team

    Equiatomic FePt and CoPt alloys are very attractive for application in high density recording media because of the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy K of their fct(L10) structure with values exceeding 2MJ/m3.The aim of this study is to fabricate a nanoparticulate CoPt film consisting of CoPt nanoparticles embedded in a matrix. To obtain this we have used co-sputtering of CoPt with different materials M = BN,C, Cu and SiO2. Our first experiments were done on CoPt films with thickness of 200 nm. The as-sputtered films had the fcc structure and a coercivity of 150 Oe. Annealing at 700 oC for 30 min led to an increase in coercivity to 4 kOe. Optimization studies are under way to find the optimum sputtering conditions to obtain a fully ordered tetragonal structure with the highest value of coercivity which can then be used in the nanoparticulate composites. Work supported by DOE BES- FG02-04ERU4612 DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612.

  1. PT -symmetric model of immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.; Ghatak, Ananya; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna

    2017-01-01

    The study of PT -symmetric physical systems began in 1998 as a complex generalization of conventional quantum mechanics, but beginning in 2007 experiments began to be published in which the predicted PT phase transition was clearly observed in classical rather than in quantum-mechanical systems. This paper examines the classical PT phase transition in dynamical-system models that are moderately accurate representations of antigen-antibody systems. A surprising conclusion that can be drawn from these models is that it might be possible treat a serious disease in which the antigen concentration grows out of bounds (and the host dies) by injecting a small dose of a second (different) antigen. In this case a PT -symmetric analysis shows there are two possible favorable outcomes. In the unbroken-PT -symmetric phase the disease becomes chronic and is no longer lethal, while in the appropriate broken-PT -symmetric phase the concentration of lethal antigen goes to zero and the disease is completely cured.

  2. PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...

  3. Dietary mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal improves growth and increases muscle weights in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Yoshimoto, Yu; Inui, Mariko; Fukui, Kensuke; Yonemoto, Hiroko; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The utilization of copra meal as a feed ingredient is limited because it contains a high level of mannan. However, recent findings indicate that the effect of copra meal on growth performance in broiler chickens can be improved by the supplementation of mannanase in the diet. In the present study, we examined the effect of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MCM) on growth performance and muscle protein metabolism in growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty 8-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups (four birds in each pen, five replicates) and fed either a commercial diet (as a control diet) or a diet containing MCM at 0.2% until 22 days of age. Dietary MCM significantly increased the weights of body, breast muscle, and thighs in chickens, whereas the weights of abdominal adipose tissue and liver were not affected. Cumulative feed intake was significantly increased by MCM. Dietary MCM significantly decreased plasma 3-methylhistidine level. The messenger RNA and protein levels of muscle protein metabolism-related factors were not altered by MCM. These findings suggest that the growth-promoting effect of MCM is related to the suppression of muscle proteolysis in growing broiler chickens.

  4. Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nätt Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Results In Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differed substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences were largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences were tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci were little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Conclusions Our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication.

  5. High pressure CO hydrogenation over bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Medford, Andrew James; Studt, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts for production of higher alcohols in high pressure CO hydrogenation has been assessed. Two catalysts (Pt3Co/SiO2 and PtCo/SiO2) were tested, and the existing literature on CO hydrogenation over Pt-Co catalysts was reviewed. It is found that the catalyst...

  6. Modeling of PEM fuel cell Pt/C catalyst degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; Fuller, Thomas F.

    Pt/C catalyst degradation remains as one of the primary limitations for practical applications of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Pt catalyst degradation mechanisms with the typically observed Pt nanoparticle growth behaviors have not been completely understood and predicted. In this work, a physics-based Pt/C catalyst degradation model is proposed with a simplified bi-modal particle size distribution. The following catalyst degradation processes were considered: (1) dissolution of Pt and subsequent electrochemical deposition on Pt nanoparticles in cathode; (2) diffusion of Pt ions in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA); and (3) Pt ion chemical reduction in membrane by hydrogen permeating through the membrane from the negative electrode. Catalyst coarsening with Pt nanoparticle growth was clearly demonstrated by Pt mass exchange between small and large particles through Pt dissolution and Pt ion deposition. However, the model is not adequate to predict well the catalyst degradation rates including Pt nanoparticle growth, catalyst surface area loss and cathode Pt mass loss. Additional catalyst degradation processes such as new Pt cluster formation on carbon support and neighboring Pt clusters coarsening was proposed for further simulative investigation.

  7. Amorphous Pt@PdCu/CNT Catalyst for Methanol Electrooxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-supported, Pt decorated nano-sized ... alloy cores (denoted as Pt@PdCu/CNT) catalyst with lower Pt loading is synthesized via a ... The electrochemical activity of the Pt@PdCu/CNT catalyst is tested by cyclic ...

  8. Surface Segregation in Supported Pd-Pt Nanoclusters and Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oetelaar, L.C.A.; Nooij, O.W.; Oerlemans, S.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Roosenbrand, A.G.; van Veen, J.A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Surface segregation processes in Pd-Pt alloys and bimetallic Pd-Pt nanoclusters on alumina and carbon supports (technical catalysts) have been investigated by determining the metal surface composition of these systems by low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). Both Pd-rich (Pd80Pt20) and Pt-rich

  9. Resistive switching in Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Doo Seok

    2008-08-15

    Recently, the resistive switching behavior in TiO{sub 2} has drawn attention due to its application to resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. TiO{sub 2} shows characteristic non-volatile resistive switching behavior, i.e. reversible switching between a high resistance state (HRS) and a low resistance state (LRS). Both unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) are found to be observed in TiO{sub 2} depending on the compliance current for the electroforming. In this thesis the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis in three different states of TiO{sub 2}, pristine, URS-activated, and BRS-activated states, was investigated and understood in terms of the migration of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}. The I-V hysteresis of pristine TiO{sub 2} was found to show volatile behavior. That is, the temporary variation of the resistance took place depending on the applied voltage. However, the I-V hysteresis of URS- and BRS-activated states showed non-volatile resistive switching behavior. Some evidences proving the evolution of oxygen gas during electroforming were obtained from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis and the variation of the morphology of switching cells induced by the electroforming. On the assumption that a large number of oxygen vacancies are introduced by the electroforming process, the I-V behavior in electroformed switching cells was simulated with varying the distribution of oxygen vacancies in electroformed TiO{sub x} (x Pt/TiO{sub x} interface. The oxygen-related reactions given as a function of the applied voltage affect the distribution of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub x}, consequently, the Schottky barrier height at the cathode/TiO{sub x} interface is influenced by the oxygen vacancy distribution. Therefore, the BRS behavior including the

  10. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  11. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  12. The GTPase activating Rap/RanGAP domain-like 1 gene is associated with chicken reproductive traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abundant evidence indicates that chicken reproduction is strictly regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG axis, and the genes included in the HPG axis have been studied extensively. However, the question remains as to whether any other genes outside of the HPG system are involved in regulating chicken reproduction. The present study was aimed to identify, on a genome-wide level, novel genes associated with chicken reproductive traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH, genome-wide association study (GWAS, and gene-centric GWAS were used to identify novel genes underlying chicken reproduction. Single marker-trait association analysis with a large population and allelic frequency spectrum analysis were used to confirm the effects of candidate genes. Using two full-sib Ningdu Sanhuang (NDH chickens, GARNL1 was identified as a candidate gene involved in chicken broodiness by SSH analysis. Its expression levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary were significantly higher in brooding chickens than in non-brooding chickens. GWAS analysis with a NDH two tail sample showed that 2802 SNPs were significantly associated with egg number at 300 d of age (EN300. Among the 2802 SNPs, 2 SNPs composed a block overlapping the GARNL1 gene. The gene-centric GWAS analysis with another two tail sample of NDH showed that GARNL1 was strongly associated with EN300 and age at first egg (AFE. Single marker-trait association analysis in 1301 female NDH chickens confirmed that variation in this gene was related to EN300 and AFE. The allelic frequency spectrum of the SNP rs15700989 among 5 different populations supported the above associations. Western blotting, RT-PCR, and qPCR were used to analyze alternative splicing of the GARNL1 gene. RT-PCR detected 5 transcripts and revealed that the transcript, which has a 141 bp insertion, was expressed in a tissue-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings

  13. The GTPase Activating Rap/RanGAP Domain-Like 1 Gene Is Associated with Chicken Reproductive Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xu; Zeng, Hua; Xie, Liang; He, Jun; Li, Jian; Xie, Xiujuan; Luo, Chenglong; Xu, Haiping; Zhou, Min; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2012-01-01

    Background Abundant evidence indicates that chicken reproduction is strictly regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and the genes included in the HPG axis have been studied extensively. However, the question remains as to whether any other genes outside of the HPG system are involved in regulating chicken reproduction. The present study was aimed to identify, on a genome-wide level, novel genes associated with chicken reproductive traits. Methodology/Principal Finding Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), genome-wide association study (GWAS), and gene-centric GWAS were used to identify novel genes underlying chicken reproduction. Single marker-trait association analysis with a large population and allelic frequency spectrum analysis were used to confirm the effects of candidate genes. Using two full-sib Ningdu Sanhuang (NDH) chickens, GARNL1 was identified as a candidate gene involved in chicken broodiness by SSH analysis. Its expression levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary were significantly higher in brooding chickens than in non-brooding chickens. GWAS analysis with a NDH two tail sample showed that 2802 SNPs were significantly associated with egg number at 300 d of age (EN300). Among the 2802 SNPs, 2 SNPs composed a block overlapping the GARNL1 gene. The gene-centric GWAS analysis with another two tail sample of NDH showed that GARNL1 was strongly associated with EN300 and age at first egg (AFE). Single marker-trait association analysis in 1301 female NDH chickens confirmed that variation in this gene was related to EN300 and AFE. The allelic frequency spectrum of the SNP rs15700989 among 5 different populations supported the above associations. Western blotting, RT-PCR, and qPCR were used to analyze alternative splicing of the GARNL1 gene. RT-PCR detected 5 transcripts and revealed that the transcript, which has a 141 bp insertion, was expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that

  14. Associations of chicken Mx1 polymorphism with antiviral responses in avian influenza virus infected embryos and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Brahmakshatriya, V; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S; Okimoto, R; Li, X; Chiang, H; Zhou, H

    2012-12-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major respiratory disease of poultry that causes catastrophic losses to the poultry industry. The Mx protein has been shown to confer antiviral responses to influenza viruses in mice. One nonsynonymous substitution (S631N) in the chicken Mx protein is reported to be associated with resistance to AIV infection in vitro. The previous studies suggested controversy over whether this substitution in the Mx protein plays an important antiviral role in AIV infection in the chicken. It would be intriguing to investigate if the substitution is associated with resistance to AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in chickens. In this study, the embryos and young chicks were generated from the cross of Mx1 heterozygous (S631N) parents with an expected segregating ratio of 1:2:1 in the progeny. A PCR length polymorphism was developed to genotype the Mx1 gene from 119 embryos and 48 chickens. The embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose (EID(50)) H5N9 AIV on d 13. Hemagglutinating units in allantoic fluid were determined at 48 h postinoculation. For the in vivo study, twenty-four 1-wk-old broilers were inoculated with 10(6) EID(50) H5N3, and virus titers in lungs were evaluated at d 4 postinoculation. This is the first report revealing no significant association between Mx1 genotypes and low pathogenesis AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in the chicken. Total RNA samples were isolated from chicken lung tissues in the in vivo study, and the Mx1 mRNA expression assay among 3 genotypes also suggested that only heterozygote birds had significantly greater expression with AIV infection than noninfected birds. A recombination breakpoint within Mx1 gene was also first identified, which has laid a solid foundation for further understanding biological function of the Mx1 gene in chickens. The current study provides valuable information on the effect of the Mx1 gene on the genetic resistance to AIV in chickens, and

  15. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  16. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  17. Microwave sinthesys and characterization of Pt and Pt-Rh-Sn electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pt and Pt-Rh-Sn catalysts were synthesized by microwave-polyol method in ethylene glycol solution and investigated for the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction. The catalysts were characterized in terms of structure, morphology and composition by employing XRD, STM and EDX techniques. STM analysis indicated rather uniform particles and particle size of below 2 nm for both catalysts. XRD analysis of the Pt/C catalyst revealed two phases, one with the main characteristic peaks of face centered cubic crystal structure (fcc of platinum and another related to graphite like structure of carbon support Vulcan XC-72R. However, in XRD pattern of the Pt-Rh-Sn/C catalyst diffraction peaks for Pt, Rh or Sn cannot be resolved, indicating an extremely low crystallinity. The small particle sizes and homogeneous size distributions of both catalysts should be attributed to the advantages of microwave assisted modified polyol process in ethylene glycol solution. Pt-Rh- Sn/C catalyst is highly active for the ethanol oxidation with the onset potential shifted for more than 150 mV to negative values and with currents nearly 5 times higher in comparison to Pt/C catalyst. The stability tests of the catalysts, as studied by the chronoamperometric experiments, reveal that the Pt-Rh-Sn/C catalyst is evidently less poisoned then Pt/C catalyst. The increased activity of Pt-Rh-Sn/C in comparison to Pt/C catalyst is most probably promoted by bifunctional mechanism and the electronic effect of alloyed metals.

  18. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2{theta} =40 deg, 47 deg, 67 deg and 82 deg, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2-3 nm. For Pt Sn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2 = 34 deg and 52 deg that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. Pt Sn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electro catalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature Pt Ru/C, Pt Sn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  19. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  20. Immunological Detection of Newcastle Disease Viral Antigen in the Naturally Infected Chickens by Monoclonal Antibodies against Fusion-2 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against Fusion (F2 protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV wereproduced for the detection of the viral antigen in infected chickens. Cells derived from spleen of Balb/c miceimmunized with the virus were fused with mouse myeloma cells to generate hybridomas capable ofproducing mAbs against the virus. The hybridomas were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA for anti-NDV specific mAbs using crude viral antigen (allantoic fluid of NDV-infected fertile eggsand normal uninfected allantoic fluid of fertile eggs as negative control. The NDV proteins reactive withmAbs were then determined by Western Blotting using purified NDV as antigen. The mAbs reactive withF2 (12.5 KDa protein of NDV were then used for the detection of NDV antigen in both the allantoic fluidof NDV- infected chicken embryos and in organs of naturally infected chickens. The results showed that 2out of 5 mAbs produced were against F2 protein of NDV. By indirect ELISA, the mAbs were able to detectthe viral antigen in allantoic fluid of NDV infected fertile chicken eggs at the titre as low as 2-2 to 2-4 HAunits per 0.1 mL. NDV–antigen was also detected by immunoperoxidase staining in paraffin-embeddedtissues of NDV-infected chickens but not in normal uninfected chickens. The most prominent infection wasdetected in the gastrointestinal tract and the lung. The NDV antigen was also detected in other organssuch as the brain, spleen, and several other tissues. It is evident that mAbs produced against F2 proteinof NDV were applicable for use in the detection of NDV antigen in infected chickens.

  1. Identification of a novel pituitary-specific chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and its splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mamiko; Bédécarrats, Grégoy Y

    2006-11-01

    In all vertebrates, GnRH regulates gonadotropin secretion through binding to a specific receptor on the surface of pituitary gonadotropes. At least two forms of GnRH exist within a single species, and several corresponding GnRH receptors (GNRHRs) have been isolated with one form being pituitary specific. In chickens, only one type of widely expressed GNRHR has previously been identified. The objectives of this study were to isolate a chicken pituitary-specific GNRHR and to determine its expression pattern during a reproductive cycle. Using a combined strategy of PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), a new GNRHR (chicken GNRHR2) and two splice variants were isolated in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Full-length GNRHR2 and one of its splice variant mRNAs were expressed exclusively in the pituitary, whereas mRNA of the other splice variant was expressed in most brain tissues examined. The deduced amino acid sequence of full-length chicken GNRHR2 reveals a seven transmembrane domain protein with 57%-65% homology to nonmammalian GNRHRs. Semiquantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of full-length chicken GNRHR2 in the pituitary correlate with the reproductive status of birds, with maximum levels observed during the peak of lay and 4 wk postphotostimulation in females and males, respectively. Furthermore, GnRH stimulation of GH3 cells that were transiently transfected with cDNA that encodes chicken GNRHR2 resulted in a significant increase in inositol phosphate accumulation. In conclusion, we isolated a novel GNRHR and its splice variants in chickens, and spatial and temporal gene expression patterns suggest that this receptor plays an important role in the regulation of reproduction.

  2. Pt skin coated hollow Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Huang, Jianxing; Lai, Shaobo; Zhang, Size; Fang, Jun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-10-01

    The catalytic activity and stability of electrocatalyst is critical for the commercialization of fuel cells, and recent reports reveal the great potential of the hollow structures with Pt skin coat for developing high-powered electrocatalysts due to their highly efficient utilization of the Pt atoms. Here, we provide a novel strategy to prepare the Pt skin coated hollow Ag-Pt structure (Ag-Pt@Pt) of ∼8 nm size at room temperature. As loaded on the graphene, the Ag-Pt@Pt exhibits a remarkable mass activity of 0.864 A/mgPt (at 0.9 V, vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is 5.30 times of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, and the Ag-Pt@Pt also shows a better stability during the ORR catalytic process. The mechanism of this significant enhancement can be attributed to the higher Pt utilization and the unique Pt on Ag-Pt surface structure, which is confirmed by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations and other characterization methods. In conclusion, this original work offers a low-cost and environment-friendly method to prepare a high active electrocatalyst with cheaper price, and this work also discloses the correlation between surface structures and ORR catalytic activity for the hollow structures with Pt skin coat, which can be instructive for designing novel advanced electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  3. Pt and PtRu catalyst bilayers increase efficiencies for ethanol oxidation in proton exchange membrane electrolysis and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Rakan M.; Pickup, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    Polarization curves, product distributions, and reaction stoichiometries have been measured for the oxidation of ethanol at anodes consisting of Pt and PtRu bilayers and a homogeneous mixture of the two catalysts. These anode structures all show synergies between the two catalysts that can be attributed to the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced at the PtRu catalyst by the Pt catalyst. The use of a PtRu layer over a Pt layer produces the strongest effect, with higher currents than a Pt on PtRu bilayer, mixed layer, or either catalyst alone, except for Pt at high potentials. Reaction stoichiometries (average number of electrons transferred per ethanol molecule) were closer to the values for Pt alone for both of the bilayer configurations but much lower for PtRu and mixed anodes. Although Pt alone would provide the highest overall fuel cell efficiency at low power densities, the PtRu on Pt bilayer would provide higher power densities without a significant loss of efficiency. The origin of the synergy between the Pt and PtRu catalysts was elucidated by separation of the total current into the individual components for generation of carbon dioxide and the acetaldehyde and acetic acid byproducts.

  4. Micro RNA research in cattle, pig, sheep, and chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neža POGOREVC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play key roles in regulating gene expression. Polymorphisms in miRNA precursors, target genes or within components of silencing machinery contribute significantly to the phenotypic diversity in animals. Due to this role miRNAs became the subject of increased research interest in association with production traits in livestock. In this article we presented examples of associations between miRNA genes and phenotypes of four livestock species: cattle, pig, sheep, and chicken. Most miRNA research studies are focused on their functioning in muscle, adipose tissues, gonads, fetal development and immune system. MicroRNA functions also impact animal productivity and consequently economic success of farming. With understanding miRNA functions in various biological pathways it is possible to develop new strategies for improving the productivity of livestock.

  5. Characterization of a chicken polyubiquitin gene preferentially expressed during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Mezquita, C

    1991-02-11

    We have previously reported that a chicken polyubiquitin gene (Ub II) not expressed under normal or heat shock conditions in chick fibroblasts is transcribed during spermatogenesis [(1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 9604]. The level of Ub II mRNA is several-fold higher in testis cells than in somatic tissues. The gene Ub II possesses characteristic features not seen in the polyubiquitin gene expressed in heat shock conditions (Ub I). The 5' noncoding region of Ub II shows the consensus cAMP regulatory element (CRE) followed immediately downstream by a CA dinucleotide. It has been proposed that this extended CRE may be involved in the coordinate expression of various genes during spermatogenesis.

  6. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  7. Photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mul, Frits F. M.; Pilatou, Magdalena C.; Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2002-10-01

    To localize and monitor the blood content in tissue we developed very sensitive photoacoustical detectors. In these detectors a PVdF-layer has been used as piezo-electric material and also fibers for the illumination of the sample are integrated. The resolution is about 20 im in depth and about 50-100 im laterally. The wavelengths ofthe laser light were 532and 1064 nm. With these colors we can measure at different depths in tissue. We will report measurements on real tissue: vessels in chicken breast, in the human arm, and in test animals at various positions.

  8. EFEKTIVITAS IMPLEMENTASI CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPOSIBILITY PT. ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkiaji Rikky Djunaedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were 1 to analyze public perceptions on the effectiveness of the implementation of CSR of PT. A B C; 2 to analyze the implementation of CSR activities by PT. A B C; 3 to formulate strategies to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of CSR of PT. A B C. The method used in this research was descriptive analysis with a survey approach to measure expectations and performance assessment on the CSR implemented programs by the public, and there were respondents 104 respondents involved in this study. This study used the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA aiming to determine the effectiveness of the programs that have been implemented and to map the relationship between the expectations and the performance of each variable. Furthermore, using a SWOT analysis of the data processing and of the objectives of the program made by CSR is expected to provide recommendations to develop strategies in order to increase the effectiveness of CSR program of ABC Company.Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR, mining industry, implementation analysis, IPA, SWOTAbstrakTujuan dari  penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis persepsi masyarakat teradap efektivitas implementasi CSR PT. ABC; 2 menganalisis pelaksanaan  kegiatan CSR oleh PT. ABC; 3 merumuskan strategi untuk meningkatkan efektivitas implementasi CSR PT. ABC. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis deskriptif dengan pendekatan survey untuk mengukur harapan dan penilaian kinerja oleh masyarakat atas program CSR yang diterapkan. Jumlah responden sebanyak 104 orang.  Dalam penelitian ini digunakan Analisis Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas dari program-program yang telah dijalankan serta  memetakan hubungan antara harapan dengan kinerja dari masing-masing variabel. Selanjutnya menggunakan analisis SWOT dari hasil pengolahan data dan dari tujuan program dibuat oleh CSR sehingga dapat memberikan rekomendasi

  9. Green fluorescent protein gene-transfected peafowl somatic cells participate in the development of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongmei; Nada, Yoich; Soh, Tomoki; Fujihara, Noboru; Hattori, Masa-Aki

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the embryonic somatic cells are capable of reconstituting and participating in the embryonic development of chickens to produce chimeras. In order to track the migration behavior of the donor cells, a cell line, originally isolated from an Indian peafowl embryo, was fluorescent-labeled by transfection of the cells with enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and Neomycin resistant (Neo) genes prior to injection into the stage X blastoderm of White Leghorn chickens. The injection was performed with a medium in the presence of 1-5% polyethylene glycol. The development of putative chimeric embryos between the stages three and 24 was examined for GFP expression under fluorescent light. To trace the peafowl cells in the developing chicken embryos, both a species-specific genetic marker originating from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and a DNA fragment of GFP gene were used. Of the 185 fertile eggs manipulated, 173 developed into embryos. Fifty-five of them showed positive GFP patches in extra-embryonic tissues, and 15 expressed GFP in intra-embryonic tissues such as those of the head, heart, and gonad. PCR analysis revealed that PCR fragments for the peafowl mitochondrial DNA cyt b and GFP genes were detected in the samples of the GFP positive extra- and intra-embryonic tissues of the chimeras. The present results provide evidence that fluorescent-labeled peafowl embryonic cells carrying GFP and Neo genes are able to participate in the development of chicken embryos to generate chimeras. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Dinuclear Pt(II)-bisphosphonate complexes: a scaffold for multinuclear or different oxidation state platinum drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinonna, Sara; Margiotta, Nicola; Pacifico, Concetta; Lopalco, Antonio; Denora, Nunzio; Fedi, Serena; Corsini, Maddalena; Natile, Giovanni

    2012-08-28

    Geminal bisphosphonates (BPs), used in the clinic for the treatment of hypercalcaemia and skeletal metastases, have been also exploited for promoting the specific accumulation of platinum antitumor drugs in bone tissue. In this work, the platinum dinuclear complex [{Pt(en)}(2)(μ-AHBP-H(2))](+) (1) (the carbon atom bridging the two phosphorous atoms carrying a 2-ammonioethyl and a hydroxyl group, AHBP-H(2)) has been used as scaffold for the synthesis of a Pt(II) trinuclear complex, [{Pt(en)}(3)(μ-AHBP)](+) (2), and a Pt(IV) adamantane-shaped dinuclear complex featuring an oxo-bridge, [{Pt(IV)(en)Cl}(2)(μ-O)(μ-AHBP-H(2))](+) (3) (X-ray structure). Compound 2 undergoes a reversible, pH dependent, rearrangement with a neat switch point around pH = 5.4. Compound 3 undergoes a one-step electrochemical reduction at E(pc) = -0.84 V affording compound 1. Such a potential is far lower than that of glutathione (-0.24 V), nevertheless compound 3 can undergo chemical reduction to 1 by GSH, most probably through a different (inner-sphere) mechanism. In vitro cytotoxicity of the new compounds, tested against murine glioma (C6) and human cervix (HeLa) and hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines, has shown that, while the Pt(IV) dimer 3 is inactive up to a concentration of 50 μM, the two Pt(II) polynuclear compounds 1 and 2 have a cytotoxicity comparable to that of cisplatin with the trinuclear complex 2 generally more active than the dinuclear complex 1.

  11. Theoretical Study of CO Adsorption on Ni(111), Pt(111) and Pt/Ni(111) Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, G. F.; Castellani, N. J.; Légaré, P.

    CO adsorption on a pseudomorphic Pt overlayer supported by Ni(111) has been studied with the use of extended Huckel calculations. Experimental information on the pure Pt(111) and Ni(111) single crystals was employed to select a consistent parameter set for our bimetallic system. This gives a good description of the chemisorption bond changes between the various systems considered in our study. The CO chemisorption energy on Pt/Ni(111) was found to be lowered in comparison with Pt(111) and Ni(111), in good agreement with experimental data on Pt-rich Pt-Ni surface alloys. This observation could be justified by the electronic changes of the Pt states (valence band broadening and decreasing density at the Fermi level). Indeed, they induce, in comparison with the pure substrates, a repulsion between Pt and CO although the 2π* population of the chemisorbed molecule increases. This points to the necessity of going beyond arguments based on an analysis of the 5σ donation and 2π* backdonation for a complete description of the chemisorption bond.

  12. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions with Pt/C (or Pt/Ru/C)//PBI catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Bandur, Viktor;

    2007-01-01

    The paper is an overview of the results of the investigation on electrochemical promotion of three catalytic reactions: methane oxidation with oxygen, NO reduction with hydrogen at 135 degrees C and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) at 170 degrees C in the [CH4/O-2(or NO/H-2 or CO/H-2)/Ar//Pt(or Pt...

  13. Cyclic voltammograms for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100) from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill;

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental method for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Despite its wide use, a way to quantitatively and directly relate cyclic voltammetry to ab initio calculations has been lacking. We derive the cyclic voltammogram for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100), based...

  14. Copper dusting effects on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Pt/Co/Pt tri-layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Mohanan Parakkat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cu dusting on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of sputter grown Pt/Co/Pt stack in which the Cu layer is in proximity with that of Co is investigated in this work. We used magneto optic Kerr effect microscopy measurements to study the variation in the reversal mechanisms in films with Co thicknesses below 0.8nm by systematically varying their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy using controlled Cu dusting. Cu dusting was done separately above and below the cobalt layer in order to understand the role of bottom and top Pt layers in magnetization reversal mechanisms of sputtered Pt/Co/Pt stack. The introduction of even 0.3nm thick Cu layer below the cobalt layer drastically affected the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as evident from the nucleation behavior. On the contrary, even a 4nm thick top Cu layer had little effect on the reversal mechanism. These observations along with magnetization data was used to estimate the role of top and bottom Pt in the origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as well as magnetization switching mechanism in Pt/Co/Pt thin films. Also, with an increase in the bottom Cu dusting from 0.2 to 0.4nm there was an increase in the number of nucleation sites resulting in the transformation of domain wall patterns from a smooth interface type to a finger like one and finally to maze type.

  15. Copper dusting effects on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Pt/Co/Pt tri-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakkat, Vineeth Mohanan; Ganesh, K. R.; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Cu dusting on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of sputter grown Pt/Co/Pt stack in which the Cu layer is in proximity with that of Co is investigated in this work. We used magneto optic Kerr effect microscopy measurements to study the variation in the reversal mechanisms in films with Co thicknesses below 0.8nm by systematically varying their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy using controlled Cu dusting. Cu dusting was done separately above and below the cobalt layer in order to understand the role of bottom and top Pt layers in magnetization reversal mechanisms of sputtered Pt/Co/Pt stack. The introduction of even 0.3nm thick Cu layer below the cobalt layer drastically affected the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as evident from the nucleation behavior. On the contrary, even a 4nm thick top Cu layer had little effect on the reversal mechanism. These observations along with magnetization data was used to estimate the role of top and bottom Pt in the origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as well as magnetization switching mechanism in Pt/Co/Pt thin films. Also, with an increase in the bottom Cu dusting from 0.2 to 0.4nm there was an increase in the number of nucleation sites resulting in the transformation of domain wall patterns from a smooth interface type to a finger like one and finally to maze type.

  16. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  17. Endogenous retroviruses of the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan I King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence to search for previously uncharacterized endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences using ab initio and combined evidence approaches. We discovered 11 novel families of ERVs that occupy more than 21 million base pairs, approximately 2%, of the chicken genome. These novel families include a number of recently active full-length elements possessing identical long terminal repeats (LTRs as well as intact gag and pol open reading frames. The abundance and diversity of chicken ERVs we discovered underscore the utility of an approach that combines multiple methods for the identification of interspersed repeats in vertebrate genomes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Igor Zhulin and Itai Yanai.

  18. Production of germline transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein using a MoMLV-based retrovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Choi, Bok Ryul; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Cho, Seong-Keun; Sohn, Sea Hwan; Cho, Eun Jung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Chang, Wonkyung; Jeon, Iksoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jae Bok; Kim, Teoan

    2006-11-01

    The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) -based retrovirus vector system has been used most often in gene transfer work, but has been known to cause silencing of the imported gene in transgenic animals. In the present study, using a MoMLV-based retrovirus vector, we successfully generated a new transgenic chicken line expressing high levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). The level of eGFP expression was conserved after germline transmission and as much as 100 microg of eGFP could be detected per 1 mg of tissue protein. DNA sequencing showed that the transgene had been integrated at chromosome 26 of the G1 and G2 generation transgenic chickens. Owing to the stable integration of the transgene, it is now feasible to produce G3 generation of homozygous eGFP transgenic chickens that will provide 100% transgenic eggs. These results will help establish a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies of embryonic development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors.

  19. Circular RNA alterations are involved in resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup-J-induced tumor formation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Yiming; Lei, Xiaoya; Li, Aijun; Zhang, Huanmin; Dai, Zhenkai; Li, Xinjian; Chen, Weiguo; Lin, Wencheng; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-05-23

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup (ALV-J) is an oncogenic neoplasm-inducing retrovirus that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent studies have demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in pathogenic processes; however, no research has indicated circRNAs are involved in resistance to disease. In this study, over 1800 circRNAs were detected by circRNA sequencing of liver tissues from ALV-J-resistant (n = 3) and ALV-J-susceptible chickens (n = 3). 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were selected for analyzing including 12 upregulated in ALV-J-resistant chickens and 20 upregulated in ALV-J-susceptible chickens, besides, the top five microRNAs (miRNAs) for 12 upregulated circRNAs in ALV-J-resistant chickens were analyzed. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses were performed for miRNA target genes, the predicted genes were mainly involved in immune pathways. This study provides the first evidence that circRNA alterations are involved in resistance to ALV-J-induced tumor formation. We propose circRNAs may help to mediate tumor induction and development in chickens.

  20. Molecular characterization of two suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 genes (SOCS1a and SOCS1b in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue XU,Jiannan ZHANG,Juan LI,Yajun WANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1 protein can inhibit the signal transduction triggered by some cytokines or hormones and thus are important in many physiological/pathological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, and development in mammals. However, there is sparse information about their structure, tissue expression, in birds, where their biological functions remain unknown. In this study, we cloned and characterized two SOCS1 genes (named cSOCS1a and cSOCS1b from chickens. SOCS1a is predicted to encode a 207-amino acid protein, which shares high amino acid sequence identity (64%–67% with human and mouse SOCS1. Besides SOCS1a, a novel SOCS1b gene was also identified in chickens and other non-mammalian vertebrates including Xenopus tropicalis. Chicken SOCS1b is predicted to encode a 212-amino acid protein, which shares only 30%–32% amino acid sequence identity with human SOCS1 and cSOCS1a. RT-PCR assay revealed that both cSOCS1a and cSOCS1b are widely expressed in all chicken tissues. Using a luciferase reporter assay system, we further demonstrated that transient expression of cSOCS1a and cSOCS1b can significantly inhibit chicken growth hormone (GH- or prolactin (PRL-induced luciferase activities of Hep G2 cells expressing cGH receptor (or cPRL receptor, indicating that SOCS1a and SOCS1b proteins can negatively regulate GH/PRL signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that both cSOCS1a and cSOCS1b may function as negative regulators of cytokine/hormone actions, such as modulation of GH/PRL actions in chickens.

  1. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  2. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  3. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  4. Liposomes containing recombinant gp85 protein vaccine against ALV-J in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limei; Cai, Dongjie; Zhao, Xiaona; Cheng, Ziqiang; Guo, Huijun; Qi, Chunhua; Liu, Jianzhu; Xu, Ruixue; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-05-01

    To study the potential of liposome vaccines in the clinical prevention of ALV-J, the effect of recombinant gp85 protein of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) entrapped by liposomes in chickens against ALV-J infection was investigated in this paper. A recombinant plasmid (PET28a-gp85) containing the PET28a vector and gp85 gene was constructed and then expressed in Rosetta (DE3) cells with 0.5mM IPTG to produce recombinant gp85 proteins that could be entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. The chickens were inoculated intramuscularly either once or twice with the liposomes or with Freund's adjuvant emulsion containing recombinant gp85 protein. Sixty chickens were raised to one week old for the first inoculation and to three weeks old for the second inoculation. Chickens raised to five weeks old were challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of ALV-J. Blood samples were collected from each chicken at weekly intervals for serum antibody and viremia analyses. Changes in serum antibodies showed that positive serum antibodies (S/P value >0.6) could be induced in all groups regardless of the frequency of inoculation but improved significantly in the twice-inoculated groups. As well, high levels of antibodies emerged earlier in the Freund's adjuvant groups but persisted longer in the liposome groups. Detection of viremia indicated that the liposomes provide better protection against ALV-J than Freund's adjuvant emulsion and that this protection is directly influenced by serum antibody levels. Overall, this study reveals the potential of liposome vaccines containing recombinant gp85 protein in the clinical prevention of ALV-J.

  5. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide on Autophagy in Liver Injuries Induced by Selenium Deficiency in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzhong, Wang; Tong, Zhang; Hongjin, Lin; Ying, Chang; Jun, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an indispensable trace mineral that was associated with liver injuries in animal models. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in many liver diseases, and autophagy can maintain liver homeostasis with a stress stimulation. However, little is known about the correlation between H2S and autophagy in the liver injury chicken models induced by Se deficiency. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between H2S and autophagy in the liver injury chicken models. We randomly divided 120 1-day-old chickens into two equal groups. The control group was fed with complete food with a Se content of 0.15 mg/kg, and the Se-deficiency group (lab group) was fed with a Se-deficient diet with a Se content of 0.033 mg/kg. When the time comes to 15, 25, and 35 days, the chickens were sacrificed (20 each). The liver tissues were gathered and examined for pathological observations, the mRNA and protein levels of H2S synthases (CSE, CBS, and 3-MST) and the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes. The results showed that the expression of CSE, CBS, and 3-MST and H2S production were higher in the lab group than in the control group. Swellings, fractures, and vacuolizations were visible in the mitochondria cristae in the livers of the lab group and autophagosomes were found as well. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATG5, LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin1, and Dynein) was higher in the lab group than in the control group (p liver injury chicken models, and H2S was correlated with autophagy.

  6. AMPK Subunit Expression Regulates Intramuscular Fat Content and Muscle Fiber Type in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye YANG; Jiao SONG; Ruiqi FU; Yanfa SUN; Jie WEN

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of AMPK in intramus-cular fat (IMF) and fiber type in chicken muscle. The chickens were slaughtered and their muscles were col ected at the ages of 4, 8, and 16 weeks so as to de-termine the IMF contents, as wel as the expression levels of AMPK subunits, regu-lators of adipogenesis. In addition, the myosin heavy chains (MyHCs) in thigh mus-cle tissues were also measured. The results showed that the IMF contents in 16-week old chickens were higher than those in 4 and 8-week-old chickens (P<0.05). The expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty aicd translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) mRNA were increased significantly in samples col ected at the ages of 4 and 16 weeks (P<0.05). The expression levels of MyHC IIa and IIb differed sig-nificantly among al the developmental stages (P<0.05). The AMPKα2, AMPKγ1, and AMPKγ3 mRNA levels were dramatical y decreased with the increase of age (P<0.05). To examine the role of AMPK in adipogenesis regulation, the SV cel s were cultured in an adipogenesis medium and treated with AICAR and Compound C respectively, the specific activator and inhibit of AMPK. The Compound C induced dramatical y a greater expression of C/EBPβ, SREBP1 and PPARγ (P<0.05). In conclusion, the expression of AMPKα2, AMPKγ1, and AMPKγ3 mRNA is signifi-cantly correlated with the adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of chickens.

  7. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-05-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  8. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  9. In situ construction of Ir@Pt/C nanoparticles in the cathode layer of membrane electrode assemblies with ultra-low Pt loading and high Pt exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Dai; Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Xiaoyuan; Tian, Xinlong; Qu, Chong; Nan, Haoxiong; Shu, Ting; Hou, Sanying; Yang, Lijun; Zeng, Jianhuang; Liao, Shijun

    2017-07-01

    A novel membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with ultra-low Pt loadings and high Pt exposure in the cathode layer is prepared by spraying Ir/C catalyst ink on the membrane surface to form a substrate layer, followed by in situ pulse electrochemical deposition of a Pt shell layer on the Ir core nanoparticles in the substrate layer. It makes the Pt loadings on cathode lower to 0.044 mg/cm2. In our system, the MEA with our novel cathode exhibits excellent performance in a H2/air single fuel cell, which is comparable to that of the MEA prepared with commercial Pt/C catalyst (Johnson Matthey 40% Pt) with Pt loadings of 0.1 mg/cm2. The electrode with core-shell structured catalysts is characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, EDS line-scan, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Based on the characterization results, it is found that the Pt is highly dispersed on the Ir NPs, and the electronic feature of Pt at shell layer can be tuned by the Ir core particle. Furthermore, the DFT calculation results also reveal the interaction between Pt at shell layer and Ir core. This work may provide a novel pathway to realize low Pt and high Pt utilization in low temperature fuel cells.

  10. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day......-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown...... to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  12. Experimental demonstration of PT-symmetric stripe lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Zhiyuan; Lyu, Quan; Li, Meng; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the coexistence of parity-time (PT) symmetric laser and absorber has gained tremendous research attention. While the PT symmetric absorber has been observed in microwave metamaterials, the experimental demonstration of PT symmetric laser is still absent. Here we experimentally study PT-symmetric laser absorber in stripe waveguide. Using the concept of PT symmetry to exploit the light amplification and absorption, PT-symmetric laser absorbers have been successfully obtained. Different from the single-mode PT symmetric lasers, the PT-symmetric stripe lasers have been experimentally confirmed by comparing the relative wavelength positions and mode spacing under different pumping conditions. When the waveguide is half pumped, the mode spacing is doubled and the lasing wavelengths shift to the center of every two initial lasing modes. All these observations are consistent with the theoretical predictions and confirm the PT-symmetry breaking well.

  13. Evolution of Newcastle Disease Virus Quasispecies Diversity and Enhanced Virulence after Passage through Chicken Air Sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Shengqing; Li, Chuanfeng; Sun, Yingjie; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiangle; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Liu, Guangqing; Ding, Chan

    2015-12-09

    It has been reported that lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates have the potential to become velogenic after their transmission and circulation in chickens, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, a highly velogenic NDV variant, JS10-A10, was generated from the duck-origin lentogenic isolate JS10 through 10 consecutive passages in chicken air sacs. The velogenic properties of this selected variant were determined using mean death time (MDT) assays, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI), histopathology, and the analysis of host tissue tropism. In contrast, JS10 remained lentogenic after 20 serial passages in chicken eggs (JS10-E20). The JS10, JS10-A10, and JS10-E20 genomes were sequenced and found to be nearly identical, suggesting that both JS10-A10 and JS10-E20 were directly generated from JS10. To investigate the mechanism for virulence enhancement, the partial genome covering the F0 cleavage site of JS10 and its variants were analyzed using ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and the proportions of virulence-related genomes in the quasispecies were calculated. Velogenic NDV genomes accumulated as a function of JS10 passaging through chicken air sacs. Our data suggest that lentogenic NDV strains circulating among poultry might be a risk factor to future potential velogenic NDV outbreaks in chickens. An avirulent isolate, JS10, was passaged through chicken air sacs and embryos, and the pathogenicity of the variants was assessed. A virulent variant, JS10-A10, was generated from consecutive passage in air sacs. We developed a deep-sequencing approach to detect low-frequency viral variants across the NDV genome. We observed that virulence enhancement of JS10 was due to the selective accumulation of velogenic quasispecies and the concomitant disappearance of lentogenic quasispecies. Our results suggest that because it is difficult to avoid contact between natural waterfowl reservoirs and sensitive

  14. Probing superstructure of chicken corneal stroma by Fourier transform second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Lin; Chen, Yang-Fang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    The unique organization of the corneal stromal collagen is responsible for mechanical strength and optical clarity of the eye. However, factors and reasons on formation of the corneal stroma is still not fully understood. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a nonlinear second order optical process occurring in noncentrosymmetric systems with a large hyperpolarizability. Through the combination of the second harmonic generation (SHG) microcopy and optimized Fourier-transform analysis, mature chicken corneas are investigated to probe the depth-dependent collagen organization of the corneal stroma. Our results show that the anterior stroma behaves like a fan-like distribution of successively and counterclockwisely rotated fibrous lamellae for paired corneas from the same chicken. However, the posterior stroma maintains a non-rotating pattern while increasing in depth. Surprisingly, the thickness of the anterior stroma remains almost constant throughout the temporal-nasal direction, but the posterior stroma does not behave the same. Through quantitative analysis, the natural transition of the anterior and posterior stroma is also determined. These findings enhance our understanding of the collagen-rich tissue in the chicken cornea model. Moreover, the Fourier-transformbased modality, in combination with SHG microscopy, serves as a promising tool to determine collagen alignment in embryonic development, tissue engineering and corneal diseases.

  15. Sixteen additional enhancers associated with the chicken Sox2 locus outside the central 50-kb region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuji; Uchikawa, Masanori; Kondoh, Hisato

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 plays a central role in the regulation of neuro-sensory development, and many other developmental processes. To gain an in depth understanding of the Sox2 gene regulation, we previously investigated the Sox2-proximal 50-kb region of the chicken genome to determine enhancers based on functional assays using chicken embryo electroporation. We identified 11 enhancers with specificity for neuro-sensory tissues. In this study, we extended the analysis of Sox2 locus-associated enhancers to a 200-kb region and identified 16 additional enhancers with functions in neuro-sensory development. These enhancers roughly correspond to a fraction of the sequence blocks that are highly conserved between chicken and mammalian genomes. The neural enhancers were activated in sequence, thereby creating a complex pattern of functional overlaps in the developing central nervous system (CNS). The variations in the specificities of the sensory enhancers also reflected the intermediate steps of sensory tissue development. This study provides an example where a single transcription factor gene has numerous regulatory elements that allow it to fulfill many functional roles in different biological contexts.

  16. Electrodeposition and electrocatalytic activity of Pt and Pt-alloy nanoparticles and thin films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin

    Pt and Pt-based alloy catalysts were synthesized by electrodeposition on HOPG. The nucleation and growth, morphology, composition and crystal structure, and electrocatalytic activity (towards relevant reactions in the frame of PEMFCs and DMFCs) of these model electrodes were systematically investigated. The presence of chlorides inhibits the Pt reduction processes. There is a transition from progressive to instantaneous nucleation with increasing overpotential for the deposition from 1 mM H2PtCl6 electrolytes. The possibility of instantaneous nucleation at large overpotential by using electrolytes with large chloride concentration is advantageous for the growth of small, well dispersed nanoparticles. The electrochemical data were confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging studies. Relatively narrow size distributed nanoparticles can be obtained from the current system. While MOR activity decreases with decreasing particle size, the HER and HOR activity of deposited Pt particles increases with decreasing deposition period. The ORR activity first increases then decreases with increasing deposition time. Interactions between Pt and Ru, or Ni or Co are observed and they form solid solution as verified by XRD. Underpotential deposition occurs for Pt-Ni or Pt-Co co-electrodeposition. Pt-Ru deposition can be described as progressive nucleation at low overpotential and instantaneous nucleation at high overpotentials. Through direct morphological observations, the Pt-Ni or Pt-Co nucleation can be approximately described as progressive. Pt-Ru deposits are superior to Pt towards MOR. The optimum Ru content is about 50 at.%. Pt-Ni and Pt-Co deposits are more active than Pt for ORR. The optimum content is about 30 at.% Ni or 50 at.% Co. Dealloying of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ni or Pt-Co electrodeposit is observed after electrochemical characterization. The extent of dealloying increases with the content of the alloying element.

  17. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Surface Chemistry of Aromatic Reactants on Pt- and Mo-Modified Pt Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Allison M.; Mark, Lesli; Rasmussen, Mathew J.; Hensley, Jesse E.; Medlin, J. Will

    2016-11-01

    Supported catalysts containing an oxophilic metal such as Mo and a noble metal such as Pt have shown promising activity and selectivity for deoxygenation of biomass-derived compounds. Here, we report that PtMo catalysts also promote hydrogenolysis of the model compound benzyl alcohol, while decarbonylation is most prevalent over unmodified Pt. A combination of single crystal surface science studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vapor phase upgrading experiments using supported catalysts was carried out to better understand the mechanism by which Mo promotes deoxygenation. Molybdenum was deposited in submonolayer quantities on a Pt(111) surface and reduced at high temperature. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments using benzyl alcohol as a reactant showed greatly enhanced yields of the deoxygenation product toluene at moderate Mo coverages. To understand how the interaction of the aromatic group with the surface influenced this reactivity, we investigated the adsorption of toluene as a probe molecule. We found that the addition of Mo to Pt(111) resulted in a significant decrease in toluene decomposition. DFT calculations indicated that this decrease was consistent with decreased aromatic adsorption strengths that accompany incorporation of Mo into the Pt subsurface. The weaker aromatic-surface interaction on Pt/Mo surfaces led to a tilted adsorption geometry for benzyl alcohol, which presumably promotes hydrogenolysis to produce toluene instead of decarbonylation to produce benzene and CO. Alumina-supported Pt and PtMo catalysts were also tested for benzyl alcohol deoxygenation. PtMo catalysts had a higher rate of toluene production and lower rates of benzene and benzaldehyde production. Additionally, when benzaldehyde was used as the reactant to measure decarbonylation activity the mass-normalized rate of benzene production was 2.5 times higher on Pt than PtMo. Overall, the results of TPD, DFT, and supported catalyst experiments

  19. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  20. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  1. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  2. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  3. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  4. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  5. Studies of radioactive cisplatin ({sup 191}Pt) for tumour imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areberg, J

    2000-01-01

    A radioactive variant of the cytostatic agent cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), cisplatin, was synthesised from {sup 191}PtCl{sub 4}. The {sup 191}Pt-cisplatin was found to be a sterile product of high radionuclide, radiochemical and chemical purity. The pharmacokinetics of platinum in tumour tissue and organs at risk of fourteen patients undergoing treatment with cisplatin were studied by exchanging a small fraction of the prescribed amount of cisplatin with {sup 191}Pt-cisplatin. The uptake and retention of platinum were investigated by gamma camera measurements up to ten days after infusion of {sup 191}Pt-cisplatin. Highest concentration of platinum was found in the liver, on average 5.7 {+-} 0.5 {mu}g/g normalised to a given amount of 180 mg cisplatin. Corresponding value for the kidneys was 1.9 {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/g. Uptake of platinum in tumours was visualised in five patients with an average maximum concentration of 4.9 {+-} 1.0 {mu}g/g normalised to a given amount of 180 mg cisplatin. The data from the pharmacokinetic study was used together with data from the literature to estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose to patients receiving radioactive cisplatin. The effective doses were calculated to be 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mSv/MBq, 0.17 {+-} 0.04 mSv/MBq and 0.23 {+-} 0.05 mSv/MBq for {sup 191}Pt-, {sup 193m}Pt-, and {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin respectively. The combined effect of the radio- and chemotoxicity from {sup 191}Pt-cisplatin was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. A cervical cancer cell line was incubated with cisplatin or {sup 191}Pt-cisplatin with various concentrations and specific activities. It was shown that the surviving fraction was smaller for cells treated with {sup 191}Pt-cisplatin than for cells treated with the same concentration of non-radioactive cisplatin. The surviving fraction decreased with increasing specific activity. Isobologram technique showed that the radio- and chemotoxicity interacted in a supra-additive (synergistic) manner. In

  6. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  7. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  8. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chicke