WorldWideScience

Sample records for chicken sheds treated

  1. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  2. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis antimicrobial peptide resistance genes aid in defense against chicken innate immunity, fecal shedding, and egg deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Jessica A; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian β-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens.

  3. Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

    2010-10-01

    Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles.

  4. Characteristics of Chicken Sausage Treated with Using Tofu Dregs Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu dregs flour serve the purpose of addition-agent in sausage making, as a whole sausage yielded to accept SNI 01-3820-1995. Usage of tofu dregs flour which more and more causing protein rate to increase, so do usage of sago flour will increase carbohydrate rate. Acceptable and best composition of panelist is treatment D = chicken flesh 75% : sago flour 15% : tofu dregs flour 10%. Best sausage characteristic and panelist is with water content 66,71%, fat rate 3,54%, ash content 1,74%, protein rate 13,91%, carbohydrate rate 14,10%, cooking yield 76,24%, juiciness 22,78%, reduction diameter -1,85%, reduction thickness 3,63%, folding test 4,67%.

  5. PARAMETERS OF THE IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILE IN CHICKENS TREATED WITH A CALENDULA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru, C.; SPÎNU, M.; G BRUDAOCĂ; DOBREAN, V.; A OPRIO; ANDRU, C.

    2002-01-01

    Tests were carried out on thirty, 42 days old Rock x Cornish chickens, divided into three experimental groups: I - control injected with saline, II - injected with a Calendula officinalis extraction supplemented with Bayol and III - treated with Bayol. The effects of the in vivo treatments and simultaneous antigen priming (0.5 ml of a 5 % suspension of SRBC) on their humoral (lysozyme, anti-SRBC antibodies) and cell-mediated (leucocyte blast transformation) responses were investigated. Lysozy...

  6. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  7. Proliferation of exogenously injected primordial germcells (PGCs) into busulfan-treated chicken embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Fumta; N.Fujihara

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of busulfan treatment on the proliferation of chicken primordialgerm cells (Fgcs) in vivo, focusing on the preferential settlement of PGCs onto the germinal ridges of chicken em-bryos. Methods: Bustdfan (250 rig/egg) was injected into the egg white of freshly oviposited fertilized eggs, whichwere then incubated. Embryonic developnent and viability were examined, and exogenous PGCs collected from embry-onic blood vessels were injected into the germinal crescent region of recipient enthryos. The nttmber of PGCs residedonto germinal ridges of the right and left sides were compared. Results: Bustdfan had a slight harmful effect on theembryo viabihty and the PGCs proliferation. The number of PGCs resided onto the left side of germinal ridges wasslightly higher as compared with the right side. Conclusion: Busulfan suppressed the viability of embryos and the pro-liferation of endogenous PGCs in the recipient embryos. However, the number of exogenous PGCs proliferated washigher in embryos treated with busnlfan than those without busulfan. Data also suggest the possibihty of a preferentialresidence of PCCs toward the left side of the germinal crescent region as compared with the right, which may be due toa more advanced functional development of the left gonad than the right. (Asian JAndro11999 Dec; 1 : 187 - 190)

  8. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Wuethrich, Andrew J.; Hancock, Deana L.

    2002-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 d of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 d. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in the weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-d period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens, and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and the breast muscle groups of 12-d chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 uM clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 d, beginning on the seventh d in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes was significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast or leg muscle cultures; however, the MHC quantity was 50-150% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The B-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) population was 4000-7000 betaARs per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle Culture. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the betaAR Population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 16,000-18,000 betaARs per cell. Basal concentration of cyclic adenosine 3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) was not significantly affected by the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 uM isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP Concentration above the. basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were

  9. Human outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium associated with exposure to locally made chicken jerky pet treats, New Hampshire, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Steffany J; Daly, Elizabeth R; Seiferth, John; Nadeau, Alisha M; Mahoney, Jennifer; Finnigan, Jayne; Wikoff, Peter; Kiebler, Craig A; Simmons, Latoya

    2015-05-01

    Pet treats and pet food can be contaminated with Salmonella and other pathogens, though they are infrequently implicated as the source of human outbreaks. In 2013, the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services investigated a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium infections associated with contaminated locally made pet treats. Case-patients were interviewed with standardized questionnaires to assess food, animal, and social histories. Laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted, including testing of clinical specimens, implicated product, and environmental swabs. Between June and October 2013, a total of 43 ill persons were identified. Sixteen patients (37%) were hospitalized. Among 43 case-patients interviewed, the proportion exposed to dogs (95%) and pet treats (69%) in the 7 days prior to illness was statistically higher than among participants in a U.S. population-based telephone survey (61%, pBrand X Chicken Jerky, the maker of Brand X chicken jerky, or the facility in which it was made. Product testing isolated the outbreak strain from four of four Brand X Chicken Jerky samples, including an unopened package purchased at retail, opened packages collected from patient households, and unpackaged jerky obtained from the jerky maker. A site visit revealed inadequate processing of the chicken jerky, bare-hand contact with the finished product prior to packaging, and use of vacuum-sealed packaging, which may have enabled facultative anaerobic bacteria to proliferate. Seven (78%) of nine environmental swabs taken during the site visit also yielded the outbreak strain. Brand X Chicken Jerky was voluntarily recalled on September 9, 2013. Consumers should be made aware of the potential for locally made products to be exempt from regulation and for animals and animal food to carry pathogens that cause human illness, and be educated to perform hand hygiene after handling pet food or treats. PMID:25793722

  10. PARAMETERS OF THE IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILE IN CHICKENS TREATED WITH A CALENDULA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C DUMITRU

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Tests were carried out on thirty, 42 days old Rock x Cornish chickens, divided into three experimental groups: I - control injected with saline, II - injected with a Calendula officinalis extraction supplemented with Bayol and III - treated with Bayol. The effects of the in vivo treatments and simultaneous antigen priming (0.5 ml of a 5 % suspension of SRBC on their humoral (lysozyme, anti-SRBC antibodies and cell-mediated (leucocyte blast transformation responses were investigated. Lysozyme (51.50 ± 32.30, 56.80 ± 41.27, 29.50 ± 22.73 μg/ml(p<0.05, and anti-SRBC antibody titers (2.35 ± 0.86, 2.05 ± 0.65 and 1.90 ± 0.55 were the lowest in Bayol treated group. Spontaneous stimulation index was positively influenced by the in vivo Bayol therapy (57.20 ± 8.88 per cent, when compared to that recorded for the other groups (31.06 ± 18.93 group I, 33.37 ± 19.26 group II.

  11. Effect of land application of manure from enrofloxacin-treated chickens on ciprofloxacin resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcher, A-M; Jadas-Hécart, A; Cotinet, P; Dabert, P; Ziebal, C; Le Roux, S; Moraru, R; Heddadj, D; Kempf, I

    2014-06-01

    A field plot experiment was carried out to evaluate the impact of spreading chicken manure containing enrofloxacin (ENR) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP), on the levels of CIP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in soil. The manures from chickens treated with ENR and from untreated control chickens were applied on six plots. Total and CIP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were counted on Violet Red Bile Glucose medium containing 0 to 16mg L(-1) of CIP. A total of 145 isolates were genotyped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CIP for the isolates of each ERIC-PCR profile was determined. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae included Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent, Enterobacter and 5 other genera from environmental origin. The composition of the E. coli community differed between manure and manured soil suggesting that the E. coli genotypes determined by ERIC-PCR varied significantly in their ability to survive in soil. One of these genotypes, including both susceptible and resistant isolates, was detected up to 89 days after the manure was applied. Most of the E. coli isolated in soil amended with manure from treated chickens was resistant to CIP (with a MIC ranging between 2 and 32mg L(-1)). In contrast, despite the presence of ENR in soil at concentrations ranging from 13-518μg kg(-1), the environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates had a CIP MIC≤0.064mg L(-1), except one isolate which had a MIC of 0.25mg L(-1), These results showed that spreading manure from ENR-treated chickens enabled CIP-resistant E. coli to persist for at least three months in the soil. However, neither the presence of fluoroquinolones, nor the persistence of CIP-resistant E. coli, increased the CIP-susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae.

  12. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M; Andremont, A

    1993-07-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to their initial levels 50 days after the cessation of treatment. Cefixime did not significantly modify the frequency of fecal excretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts, or members of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftazidime or ampicillin. The proportion of subjects shedding C. difficile rose from 6% before treatment to 57% (P < 0.01) at the end of treatment but returned to 8% 50 days thereafter. No case of pseudomembranous colitis was observed. Stool changes occurred in 13 volunteers during treatment (25%) and in 2 others more than 10 days after the end of treatment (4%). These changes were not significantly associated with the shedding of toxigenic strains of C. difficile or with the presence of toxin A in feces. By contrast, during treatment, stool changes occurred in 8 of the 18 volunteers (44%) who had antibiotic activity in their feces but in only 5 of the 33 (15%) for whom no such activity was found (P < 0.05). The absence of antibiotic activity in the feces was itself linked with the presence of beta-lactamase activity in the feces. Since we had found earlier that fecal beta-lactamase activity afforded protection against alteration in stool consistency during treatments with oral cephalosporins, the present study confirmed our previous preliminary results in this respect. PMID:8363371

  13. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    OpenAIRE

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M.; Andremont, A

    1993-01-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to...

  14. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  15. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: samiramantilla@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ericaebs@hotmail.com, e-mail: mtasbm@vm.uff.br, e-mail: robsonmf@vm.uff.br; Conte Junior, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosconte@hotmail.com; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  16. Digestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy; Ndiaye, Saliou; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. PMID:26255184

  17. Effect of packaging materials and treatments on the shelf life of chicken breast treated with antimicrobial agents and stored under refrigerated condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.; Abdel-Aal H.A.; Abbas H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sliced chicken breast were treated by dippin in 8% Sodium lactate (SL) for 2 minutes or in 5 % Potassium sorbate (PS) for 5 minutes. The treated and untreated slices were packaged in two different packaging materials, Low density polyethylene bags (LDPE) at atmospheric pressure, and Laminated pouches (B-650) undervacuum, then stored refrigerated at 4oC for 24 days. Color evaluation, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), total bacterial count (TC), psychrophilic bacterial count, coliform group...

  18. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population is Up-Regulated in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells Treated with Forskolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, K. Y.; Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is promoted by in vivo administration of beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) agonists. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through the betaAR, and alterations in the population of betaAR could potentially change the ability of the cell to respond to the betaAR agonists. Since the intracellular chemical signal generated by the betaAR is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in primary chicken muscle cell cultures to determine if artificial elevation of intracellular cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter the population of functional betaAR expressed on the surface of muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were employed for the experiments because muscle cells have attained a steady state with respect to muscle protein metabolism at this stage. Cells were treated with 0-10 microM forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the 1, 2, and 3 day treatment intervals, the concentration of cAMP and the betaAR population were measured. Receptor population was measured in intact muscle cell cultures as the difference between total binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 and non-specific binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 in the presence of 1 microM propranolol. Intracellular cAMP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of forskolin also led to an increase in betaAR population, with a maximum increase of approximately 50% at 10 microM. This increase in PAR population was apparent after only 1 day of treatment, and the pattern of increase was maintained for all 3 days of the treatment period. Thus, increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP leads to up-regulation of betaAR population. The effect of forskolin on the quantity and apparent synthesis rate of the heavy chain of myosin (mhc) were also investigated. A maximum increase of 50% in the quantity of mhc

  19. Chemical and structural analysis of enhanced biochars: thermally treated mixtures of biochar, chicken litter, clay and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Munroe, P; Joseph, S; Ziolkowski, A; van Zwieten, L; Kimber, S; Rust, J

    2013-03-01

    In this study biochar mixtures comprising a Jarrah-based biochar, chicken litter (CL), clay and other minerals were thermally treated, via torrefaction, at moderate temperatures (180 and 220 °C). The objectives of this treatment were to reduce N losses from CL during processing and to determine the effect of both the type of added clay and the torrefaction temperature on the structural and chemical properties of the final product, termed as an enhanced biochar (EB). Detailed characterisation indicated that the EBs contained high concentrations of plant available nutrients. Both the nutrient content and plant availability were affected by torrefaction temperature. The higher temperature (220 °C) promoted the greater decomposition of organic matter in the CL and dissociated labile carbon from the Jarrah-based biochar, which produced a higher concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This DOC may assist to solubilise mineral P, and may also react with both clay and minerals to block active sites for P adsorption. This subsequently resulted in higher concentrations of plant available P. Nitrogen loss was minimised, with up to 73% of the initial total N contained in the feedstock remaining in the final EB. However, N availability was affected by both torrefaction temperature and the nature of the clay minerals added.

  20. Efficacy of various antimicrobials on reduction of salmonella and campylobacter and quality attributes of ground chicken obtained from poultry parts treated in a postchill decontamination tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Bauermeister, Laura J; Hill, Gretchen N; Singh, Manpreet; Bilgili, Sacit F; McKee, Shelly R

    2014-11-01

    Ground chicken is likely to have higher microbiological loads than whole carcasses and parts. Therefore, it is necessary to identify antimicrobials that reduce pathogens and overall microbial loads without negatively impacting meat quality. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of various postchill antimicrobials on reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter, and determine the impact of these treatments on shelf life and quality attributes of ground chicken. Five treatments (0.003% chlorine, 0.07 and 0.1% peracetic acid [PAA], and 0.35 and 0.6% cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC]) were evaluated. Samples (n = 120) of skin-on chicken breast and thigh meat were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (10(8) CFU/ml) and C. jejuni (10(8) CFU/ml). Following a 30-min attachment time, parts were rinsed with either chlorine, PAA, or CPC in a decontamination tank for 23 s. Parts then were ground, samples (25 g) were plated, and reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and C. jejuni was determined. Noninoculated ground breast and thigh meat were used for sensory and shelf-life determination. Samples (n = 200) for shelf-life determination were collected on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 to estimate spoilage microflora of ground chicken stored at 4°C. Additionally, color measurement and sensory evaluation were conducted on days 1, 4, and 7. Ground chicken treated with 0.07 and 0.1% PAA had the greatest reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in Salmonella and Campylobacter providing approximately a 1.5-log reduction, followed by a 0.8-log reduction after treatment with 0.35 and 0.6% CPC. Chlorine (0.003%) was the least effective treatment (P ≤ 0.05), while treatments with 0.07 and 0.1% PAA also extended the shelf life of ground chicken for 3 days. None of the treatments had negative impact on color or sensory attributes of ground chicken patties during the storage (P ≤ 0.05). Results from this study indicated that using PAA as an antimicrobial agent in a postchill decontamination tank to

  1. Fecal Carriage and Shedding Density of CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle, Chickens, and Pigs: Implications for Environmental Contamination and Food Production▿

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, R. A.; Randall, L.P.; Snary, E. L.; Cockrem, H.; S. Lotz; Wearing, H.; Duncan, D; RABIE, A.; McLaren, I.; Watson, E.; La Ragione, R.M.; Coldham, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    The number and proportion of CTX-M positive Escherichia coli organisms were determined in feces from cattle, chickens, and pigs in the United Kingdom to provide a better understanding of the risk of the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteria to humans from food animal sources. Samples of bovine (n = 35) and swine (n = 20) feces were collected from farms, and chicken cecal contents (n = 32) were collected from abattoirs. There was wide variation in the number of CTX-M-p...

  2. Evaluated the Twenty-Six Elements in the Pectoral Muscle of As-Treated Chicken by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bonan; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the impacts of dietary arsenic trioxide on the contents of 26 elements in the pectoral muscle of chicken. A total of 100 Hy-line laying cocks were randomly divided into two groups (n = 50), including an As-treated group (basic diet supplemented with arsenic trioxide at 30 mg/kg) and a control group (basal diet). The feeding experiment lasted for 90 days and the experimental animals were given free access to feed and drinking water. The elements lithium (Li), boron (B), natrum (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (AI), silicium (Si), kalium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), ferrum (Fe), cobalt (Co.), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), stannum (Sn), stibium (Sb), barium (Ba), hydrargyrum (Hg), thallium (Tl) and plumbum (Pb) in the pectoral muscles were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The resulted data indicated that Li, Na, AI, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Tl and Pb were significantly increased (P Si, K, As and Cd decreased significantly (P Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Tl, Pb, Mg, Si, K, As and Cd) in the pectoral muscles of chicken. Thus, it is needful to monitor the concentration of toxic metal (As) in chicken for human health. PMID:26123164

  3. Association of Mx1 Asn631 variant alleles with reductions in morbidity, early mortality, viral shedding, and cytokine responses in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are produced by host cells and have been shown to limit replication of influenza and other viruses. Selective breeding for the Mx polymorphism is an attractive approach to improve genetic resistance of chickens to avian influenza (AI) viruses. Following infection w...

  4. In a buffalo shed

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Sitting in a buffalo shed under a village house, Alan Macfarlane reflects on the origins of settled agriculture and the role of animals and technology. He also considers some of the effects of growing wealth on equality and work.

  5. Identification of Eimeria species and evaluation of intestinal lesion scores in vaccinated chickens and chickens treated with anticoccidial drugs in the free-range chicken systems/ Identificação de espécies de Emeria sp e avaliação do escore de lesões intestinais entre frangos vacinados e tratados com anticoccidiano, produzidos no sistema colonial/caipira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Hissashi Yamamura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the Eimeria species, in free-range chickens as well as to propose a prophylactic treatment through vaccination and the use of anticoccidial drugs, and to evaluate the intestinal damages caused by strains of vaccinal and field oocysts. In this system the occurrence of Eimeria species in chickens which were treated and vaccinated were respectively of 46% and 49% for Eimeria maxima, 35% and 28% for Eimeria tenella, 26% for Eimeria acervulina for vaccinated chickens and for those which were treated 8% for Eimeria necatrix and E. praecox. The averages of intestinal damages measured by lesion score were 0.28 and 0.80 respectively in the upper intestine for vaccinated and treated chickens, 0.07 and 0.03 for the middle intestine, and 0.05 and 0.10 for the ceca. The vaccinated chickens showed peaks of oocyst elimination in the 21th day with an average of 70,828 oocysts per gram of excretes and the chickens treated with anticoccidial drugs had an average of 7,020 in the 37th day. Although the vaccinated chickens presented an average of oocysts elimination higher than the treated chickens, the lesion score of these chickens was lower.Este trabalho tem por objetivo identificar as espécies de Eimeria que acometem os frangos criados no Sistema Colonial/Caipira que utilizam como medidas profiláticas a vacinação e medicação anticoccidiana. E avaliar as lesões intestinais causadas pelas cepas vacinais e de campo. A ocorrência das espécies de Eimeria em frangos tratados e vacinados foram respectivamente de 46% e 49% para a Eimeria maxima, 35% e 28% para a Eimeria tenella, 26% de Eimeria acervulina para frangos vacinados e para os tratados 8% de Eimeria necatrix e 8% de Eimeria praecox. As médias do escore de lesões intestinais foram de 0,28 e 0,80 na porção superior do intestino; 0,07 e 0,03 na porção média; e 0,05 e 0,10 para o ceco, em frangos vacinados e tratados, respectivamente. As aves vacinadas

  6. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  7. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  8. Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Efstathios S; Robey, Rebecca C; Skinner, Natalie G; Tomlinson, Christopher D; Goodbourn, Stephen; Skinner, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Viruses that infect birds pose major threats-to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species defend themselves. The type I interferon-coordinated response constitutes the major antiviral innate defence. Although interferon was discovered in chicken cells, details of the response, particularly the identity of hundreds of stimulated genes, are far better described in mammals. Viruses induce interferon-stimulated genes but they also regulate the expression of many hundreds of cellular metabolic and structural genes to facilitate their replication. This study focusses on the potentially anti-viral genes by identifying those induced just by interferon in primary chick embryo fibroblasts. Three transcriptomic technologies were exploited: RNA-seq, a classical 3'-biased chicken microarray and a high density, "sense target", whole transcriptome chicken microarray, with each recognising 120-150 regulated genes (curated for duplication and incorrect assignment of some microarray probesets). Overall, the results are considered robust because 128 of the compiled, curated list of 193 regulated genes were detected by two, or more, of the technologies.

  9. Shedding skin and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammlerschlag, Carl A

    2007-06-01

    I am a purported expert in change and personal growth; that's the work I do with patients, and what I lecture and write about. I say that growth has nothing to do with adding on; it's always about letting go. Alas, it's always easier to tell others how to welcome shedding their skins than it is for me to do it myself. Letting go of the old and familiar is a necessary prerequisite for growth, but it's hard to do because no matter how much we may know, we have to move on. It always makes us feel vulnerable, which can inspire fear.

  10. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  11. A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives (SHEDS-Wood...

  12. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  13. Quantitative profiling of the shedding rate of the three Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotypes reveals that challenge with virulent MDV markedly increases shedding of vaccinal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W

    2007-08-01

    The shedding profile of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1, virulent), serotype 2 (MDV2, vaccinal) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT, vaccinal) in commercial broiler chickens was determined by measuring the daily rate of production of feather dander from chickens housed in isolators and by quantifying the viral load of each of these serotypes in the dander using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). MDV1 and HVT viruses were detectable in dander filtered from isolator exhaust air from day 7 and MDV2 from day 12 after infection and thereafter until the end of the experiment at 61 days of age of the chickens. There was no difference in shedding rate among the three MDV1 isolates. Daily shedding of MDV1 increased sharply between days 7 and 28 and stabilized thereafter at about 10(9) virus copies per chicken per day, irrespective of vaccination status. Challenge with the three different MDV1 isolates markedly increased shedding of the vaccinal viruses HVT and MDV2 in dander by 38- and 75-fold, respectively. These results demonstrate the utility of qPCR for the differentiation and quantification of different MDV serotypes in feather dander and have significant implications for the routine monitoring of Marek's disease using qPCR assays of dust, for epidemiological modelling of the behaviour and spread of MDVs in chicken populations and for studies into the evolution of virulence in MDV1 in the face of blanket vaccination with imperfect vaccines that ameliorate disease but do not prevent infection and replication of virulent virus.

  14. Transgene transmission in chickens by sperm-mediated gene transfer after seminal plasma removal and exogenous DNA treated with dimethylsulfoxide or ,-dimethylacetamide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Priscila Marques Moura De Leon; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Marta G Amaral; Odir A Dellagostin; João Carlos Deschamps; Fabiana K Seixas

    2011-09-01

    Transgenic animals have been successfully produced by mass gene transfer techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). The aim of this work was to demonstrate transgene transmission by SMGT in chickens using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or ,-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as transfectants after seminal plasma removal to prevent DNase activity. Sperm samples were prepared by repetitive washes, and after each wash sperm motility, seminal plasma proteins, exogenous DNA integrity and its uptake by spermatozoa were evaluated. Laying hens were inseminated using spermatozoa transfected with pEGFP-N1 vector in the presence of DMSO or DMAc. Transgene transmission in newborn chicks was evaluated by in vivo enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, RT-PCR and PCR analysis. DNA internalization was limited to sperm samples washed twice. The presence of DMSO or DMAc during transfection had no effect on fertilization or hatching rates. PCR analysis detected the presence of EGFP DNA in 38% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group and 19% from the DMAc group. EGFP mRNA was detected in 21% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group, as against 8.5% from the DMAc group. However, in vivo expression of EGFP was only observed in a single animal from the DMSO group. Our data revealed that the plasmid DNA–DMSO combination coupled with sperm washes can be an efficient method for transfection in chickens.

  15. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  16. Effect of Product Dimensions and Surface Browning Method on Salmonella Contamination in Frozen, Surface-Browned, Breaded Chicken Products Treated with Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2015-12-01

    Not-ready-to-eat breaded chicken products formulated with antimicrobial ingredients were tested for the effect of sample dimensions, surface browning method and final internal sample temperature on inoculated Salmonella populations. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 × 5 × 5 cm), inoculated with Salmonella (7-strain mixture; 5 log CFU/g), were mixed with (5% v/w total moisture enhancement) (i) distilled water (control), (ii) caprylic acid (CAA; 0.0625%) and carvacrol (CAR; 0.075%), (iii) CAA (0.25%) and ε-polylysine (POL; 0.5%), (iv) CAR (0.15%) and POL (0.5%), or (v) CAA (0.0625%), CAR (0.075%) and POL (0.5%). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments. The mixtures were then ground and formed into 9 × 5 × 3 cm (150 g) or 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm (50 g) portions. The products were breaded, browned in (i) an oven (208 °C, 15 min) or (ii) deep fryer (190 °C, 15 s), packaged, and stored at -20 °C (8 d). Overall, maximum internal temperatures of 62.4 ± 4.0 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 46.0 ± 3.0 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) were reached in oven-browned samples, and 35.0 ± 1.1 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 31.7 ± 2.6 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) in fryer-browned samples. Irrespective of formulation treatment, total (after frozen storage) reductions of Salmonella were greater (P Salmonella reductions (0.6 to 2.8 log CFU/g) in fryer-browned samples. All antimicrobial treatments reduced Salmonella to undetectable levels (Salmonella contamination.

  17. Evaluation of quality characteristics and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meats treated with different dose rates of ionizing radiation and use of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mechanically Deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used in traditional meat products, in greater proportion in those emulsified, replacing meat raw materials more expensive. The raw material can have high MDCM the microbial load, as a result of contamination during processing or failure during the evisceration. The irradiation process is accepted as one of the most effective technologies when compared to conventional techniques of preservation, to reduce contamination of pathogens and spoilage. However, little information is available about the use and effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation processing. Irradiation causes chemical changes in food, a major cause of deterioration of quality of raw or cooked meat products during refrigerated storage, frozen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation on the production of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken added or without added antioxidants, during the cold storage and evaluation of functional properties. The results showed that among the tested dose rates using cobalt-60 source, dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h-1 was the best for processing MDCM. Furthermore, the use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to reduce lipid oxidation generated by irradiation of the samples, showed a synergistic effect to the processing with ionizing radiation in reduction of psychrotrophic bacteria count and contributed to a better sensory quality. The use of radiation in the processing FDMI did not adversely affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  18. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  19. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.

  20. Killer cells in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)

  1. Functional genomics of the muscle response to restraint and transport in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Hazard, Dominique; Fernandez, Xavier; Pinguet, Jérémy; Chambon, Christophe; Letisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Wadih-Moussa, H.; Rémignon, Hervé; Molette, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we used global approaches (proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics) to assess the molecular basis of the muscle response to stress in chickens. A restraint test, combined with transport for 2 h (RT test) was chosen as the potentially stressful situation. Chickens (6 wk old) were either nontreated (control chickens) or submitted to the RT test (treated chickens). The RT test induced a 6-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitar...

  2. Comparison of control methods for coccidiosis in native Spanish Castellana Negra chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J. A.; Asenjo, B.; Ciria, J.; Cacho, E. del; Calvo, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease responsible for serious economic losses in the poultry industry. This paper compares the effect of coccidiosis infection in a population of experimentally infected Castellana Negra chickens previously administered the ionophores antibiotic monensin (Treatment 1), Alquernat Zyox, a herb-based product (Treatment 2), or a live vaccine based on oocysts selected for precocity (Treatment 3). Fifty birds per treatment were housed in captivity and weighed individually once every two weeks. At nine weeks they were infected with pathogenic oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima. No significant differences (P<0.05) were seen in body weight between the birds in the three treatment groups after week 10. The average daily weight gain of the Alquernat Zycox-treated and vaccinated birds was similar over the entire experimental period, and more regular than that of the monensin-treated birds. The number of oocysts eliminated in the faeces and the degree of intestinal injury caused were analysed at 10, 11 and 12 weeks. The vaccine-treated birds shed a smaller number of oocysts in their faeces at 11 and 12 weeks than did those treated with monensin or Alquernat Zycox (P<0.001). At 11 and 12 weeks the vaccine- and Alquernat Zycox-treated birds showed significantly (P<0.05) less intestinal injury than the monensin-treated birds. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. Protection of avian influenza (AI vaccines for poultry against infection of field isolates A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 under laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study level of protection of avian influenza (AI commercial vaccines available in Indonesia (subtipe H5N1, H5N2 and H5N9 against infection of HPAI field isolates of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. There were 7 commercial vaccines used in this study, the each vaccines were injected in to 3 weeks old of layer chichickenen intramuscularly. At 3 weeks after vaccination, ten chichickenens from each group were challenged separately with the A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 isolates intranasaly with dose 106 ELD50 per 0,1 ml per chicken. Ten unvaccinated chicken were included in the challenge test as control. The study demonstrate that the AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 protected chicken (100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and 90-100% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding were not seen by 2 days post challenge. The AI vaccines with subtipe H5N2 protected chicken at 20-30% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 70-100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected at 8 days post challenge. The AI vaccines AI with subtipe H5N9 did not protect chicken (0% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 50% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected by 8 days post challenge. This study concluded that AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 are better than other AI subtipe vaccines in preventing HPAI virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 dan A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 infections under laboratory condition.

  4. Processing chicken at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    POŽÁRKOVÁ, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Composition of poultry flesh and its purpose on human nutrition is described in this work. The quality and factors which affects quality are described further. HACCP system takes also important role. The end of this thesis is focused on poultry meat markets. The aim of this thesis was to study and describe chicken slaughtering process and processing of chicken carcass and determine the major share of the fleshy parts of broiler chicken carcass which means shares of breast muscles and tight mu...

  5. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  6. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  7. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  8. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings. PMID:27236304

  9. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  10. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  11. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  12. Adaptive load shedding and regional protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.J.; Ledwich, G. [School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan Sanandaj, Kurdistan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The requirement for improved efficiency whilst maintaining system security necessitates the development of improved system analysis approaches and the development of advanced emergency control technologies. Load shedding is a type of emergency control that is designed to ensure system stability by curtailing system load to match generation supply. This paper presents a new adaptive load shedding scheme that provides emergency protection against excess frequency decline, whilst minimizing the risk of line overloading. The proposed load shedding scheme uses the local frequency rate information to adapt the load shedding behaviour to suit the size and location of the experienced disturbance. The proposed scheme is tested in simulation on a 3-region, 10-generator sample system and shows good performance. (author)

  13. Vortex shedding by a Savonius rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrini, M.; Beguier, C.; Chauvin, A.; Brun, R.

    1984-05-01

    A series of flow visualizations was performed to characterize the wake vortices of a Savonius rotor. The trials were undertaken in an attempt to account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimentally-derived power coefficients. The Savonius examined was two-bladed with a center offset. All tests were made in a water tunnel. Dye injection provided the visualization, and average velocities and velocity fluctuations were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer. A system of three vortices was found to be periodically shed by the rotor. Flow velocity fluctuation intensity peaked as a vortex was shed. The vortex shedding alternated from blade to blade, so that one was shed from a blade moving upstream.

  14. Vortex Shedding From a Flexible Hydrofoil

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    Video of vortex shedding in the wake of a Naca0009 hydrofoil made of polyoxymethylene type C (POM C). This video was submitted as part of the Gallery of Fluid Motion 2011 which is showcase of fluid dynamics videos.

  15. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  16. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults.

  17. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Dong U. Ahn; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ...

  18. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  19. Shedding light on antibacterial activities of cathelicidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is continuously increasing and has a tremendous impact on human and animal well-being. Attractive alternatives to conventional antibiotics are host defense peptides (HDP), such as chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) and porcine proline-rich PR-39. HDPs are small cationic molecules

  20. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found. PMID:26752227

  1. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  2. Development of Smart Underfrequency Load Shedding System

    OpenAIRE

    Čuvičins, V; Petričenko, R

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes possibility to apply innovation technology of Smart Grid for power system emergency automation. Operational characteristics of existing emergency automation and new suggested one are compared in the paper. The method for liquidation of drawback of existing automation is suggested. Paper describes developed mathematical model of intellectual underfrequency load shedding system and its operational algorithms.

  3. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  4. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  5. Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the localization and to compare methods for isolation of minute Ascaridia galli larvae in chicken intestine. Firstly, six 7-week-old layer pullets were orally infected with 2,000 embryonated A. galli eggs and necropsied either at 3, 5 or 7 days post infection...

  6. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Barjesteh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV. The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV.

  7. Superhydrophobic porous networks for enhanced droplet shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays involves complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available porous matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning.

  8. Shedding further light on late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary context......, are less understood and researched. To stimulate research on late globalization, Nikhilesh essay is a rich source for conceiving research questions. Herein I will try to do that....

  9. AMPK and mTOR: Sensors and regulators of immunometabolic changes during Salmonella infection in the chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens, but the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of clinical disease, results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and can transmit infections to naive hosts via fecal shedding of bacter...

  10. Periodic cavitation shedding in a cylindrical orifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, C.; Barber, T.; Milton, B.; Rosengarten, G. [University of New South Wales, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Cavitation structures in a large-scale (D = 8.25 mm), plain orifice style nozzle within a unique experimental rig are investigated using high-speed visualisation and digital image processing techniques. Refractive index matching with an acrylic nozzle is achieved using aqueous sodium iodide for the test fluid. Cavitation collapse length, unsteady shedding frequency and spray angles are measured for cavitation conditions from incipient to supercavitation for a range of Reynolds numbers, for a fixed L/D ratio of 4.85. Periodic cavitation shedding was shown to occur with frequencies between 500 and 2,000 Hz for conditions in which cavitation occupied less than 30% of the nozzle length. A discontinuity in collapse length was shown to occur once the cavitation exceeded this length, coinciding with a loss of periodic shedding. A mechanism for this behaviour is discussed. Peak spray angles of approximately {theta} {approx} 14 were recorded for supercavitation conditions indicating the positive influence of cavitation bubble collapse on the jet atomisation process. (orig.)

  11. Efficacy of early treatment with toltrazuril in prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, efficacy of the toltrazuril treatment for prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis was tested. Ninety-six 14-day-old commercial broiler chickens were caged and divided into eight groups (n=12), designated groups 1 to 8. Chickens of groups 1 to 6 were inoculated orally at 18 days of age with 25,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and 75,000 oocysts of Eimeria brunetti. At 22 days of age, chickens of groups 1 to 6 were infected with 10(9) colony-forming unit Clostridium perfringens. Chickens of group 1 were treated with 75 parts/10(6) toltrazuril in drinking water for 8 h on two consecutive days up to 12 h before Eimeria infection, while chickens of groups 2 to 5 were treated with the same dose of toltrazuril at 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 84 h after Eimeria infection, respectively. The non-treated group 6 served as a positive control. Chickens in group 7 were treated with toltrazuril at 17 and 18 days of age, and those of group 8 remained uninfected and non-treated as a negative control. The feed conversion ratio was higher in the positive control compared with other groups. The mortality rates were 16.8% and 41.7% in the late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) and infected non-treated chickens, respectively. Lesions scores of necrotic enteritis or coccidiosis in infected, non-treated chickens were significantly more severe compared with negative controls (Penteritis caused by C. perfringens infection.

  12. The Immune Enhancement of Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaRong Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate feasibility of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLS as an immunoadjuvant in chickens. After treating with 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 μg/mL SLS in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation assay of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that the OD570 values of all experimental groups, as well as Con A-stimulated group, were significantly higher than that of the untreated control group. After injection with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg of SLS for 3 consecutive days, chickens were vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV, and the immunoadjuvant effects of SLS were evaluated on the basis of immune organ index, antibody response, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. The results confirmed that SLS could enhance NDV-specific antibody response and increase CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in vivo. Furthermore, SLS could improve NDV-specific antibody response in thiamphenicol-treated chickens. These data indicate that SLS not only can improve humoral immune response but also reverse the immunosuppressive effect of thiamphenicol in chickens.

  13. Acquisition of resistance after continuous infection with Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, T; Schou, T W; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;

    2014-01-01

    500 eggs. G6 was left as uninfected control. Necropsy at week 10 after first inoculation revealed a lower establishment rate, an impaired development and a more posterior localization of the larvae in G4 (trickle-infected-treated-challenged) compared with G5 (treated-challenged). IgY level in serum...... reached noticeable level at 14 dpi in G2 and G4 chickens, and in G4 chickens IgY level further increased after challenge infection. The study provides evidence that acquired resistance against A. galli in chickens leads to a significant yet incomplete protection against re-infection....

  14. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  15. Sequential treatment with intradermal incision (intracision) and 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser for chicken pox scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kim, Young Koo; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun

    2014-01-01

    Boxcar scars, such as chicken pox scars, are round to oval depressions with sharply defined vertical edges. Subcision is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of atrophic and depressed scars, but boxcar scars are generally not eliminated by subcision. Intradermal incision technique (intracision) can treat chicken pox scars by untethering fibrotic strands, raising collagen synthesis, and having additional intradermal blood pocket formation. We have found that chicken pox scars further improve when intracision is followed by laser skin resurfacing. PMID:24502307

  16. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  17. Cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood disease. It is usually a benign self limiting exanthematous illness. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT which has not been previously reported.

  18. Cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Menon; Rajeev Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood disease. It is usually a benign self limiting exanthematous illness. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT which has not been previously reported.

  19. Decontamination of fermented chicken feet by 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermented chicken feet was treated by 60Co irradiation, and the aerobic plate count, enumeration of coliforms, pathogens and TBARS value were measured during storage. The results showed that, aerobic plate count of all irradiated samples was lower than control, and enumeration of coliforms, and pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salmonella were not detected. TBARS value of all treatments was stable during 60 d storage. It could be concluded that 60Co irradiation of chicken feet was an effective method to prolong its shelf life. (authors)

  20. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  1. A recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine expressing glycoprotein B gene from CVI988/Rispens strain of MDV: protection studies in different chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Peng, D; Wu, X; Xing, L; Zhang, R

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) was constructed to express glycoprotein B (gB) gene from CVI988/Rispens strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The rFPV-gB/R alone and in combination with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) preparations were evaluated for their protective efficacy against challenge with very virulent MDV strains Md5 and RB1B in different chickens. The rFPV-gB/R alone induced protection comparable to that by HVT vaccines in both Ab- SPF chickens and Ab+ production chickens. Significant protective synergism was observed in one of these two types of commercial production chickens when rFPV-gB/R was combined with HVT of either cell-associated or cell-free preparations. Immunogenesis studies showed that rFPV-gB/R, just like conventional vaccines, significantly reduced the level of viremia, splenocytes infection and feather follicle shedding of challenge virus in vaccinated chickens.

  2. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  3. Detection of irradiated chicken by ESR spectroscopy of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Del Mastro, N. L.; Wiendl, F. M.

    1995-02-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used to treat poultry to remove harmful microorganisms, mainly Salmonella, which contaminates chicken, goose and other fresh and frozen poultry. This microorganism is sensitive to low dose radiation. Thus, irradiating these foods with doses between 1 to 7 kGy results in a large reduction of bacteria. Since it is necessary to determine whether irradiation has occurred and to what extend, this work studied the signal produced by ionizing radiation within the hard crystalline matrix of chicken's bone to establish a control method. Chicken's drumsticks were irradiated and bones separated from flesh were lyophilized and milled. ESR spectrum was then obtained. The ESR signal increased linearly with dose over the range 0.25 to 8.0 kGy. Free radicals evaluated during 30 days after irradiation showed stable in this period.

  4. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  5. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  6. Screening of Chinese Herbal Medicines Resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Methed] Conven- tional punch method, test tube method and plate dilution method were adopted for in vitro susceptibility test of chicken E, coil strains O5 and O8 using 13 kinds of Chi- nese herbal medicines including Sanguisorba officinalis, Coptis chinensis, Anemar- rhena asphodeloides, Strobilanthes cusia, Agastache rugosa, etc.; chicken embryo inoculation experiment was adopted to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to chicken infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Result] Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba Taraxaci, Anemarrhena asphode- Ioides, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain O5; Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba taraxaci and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain 08; other Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively poor or no antibacterial effect. Results of chicken embryo inoculation experiment showed that nine kinds of Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively strong anti-lLTV effect, including Forsythia suspensa, Radix Isatidis, Fofium isatidis, Flos Ionicerae, Radix codonopsis, Radix astragali, Atractylodes, Radix gly- cyrrhizae, and Pericarpium granati. [Conclusion] The study laid the foundation for fur- ther development of Chinese herbal compound preparations to treat chicken cofibacil- Iosis, infectious laryngotracheitis and other bacterial, viral diseases.

  7. Vortex shedding by matched asymptotic vortex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinjun; Mandre, Shreyas

    2014-11-01

    An extension of the Kutta condition, using matched asymptotic expansion applied to the Navier-Stokes equations, is presented for flow past a smooth body at high Reynolds number. The goal is to study the influence of unsteady fluid dynamical effects like leading edge vortex, unsteady boundary layer separation, etc. In order to capture accurately the location and strength of vortex shedding, the simplified Navier-Stokes equations in the form of boundary layer approximation are solved in the thin inner region close to the solid body. In the outer region far from the structure, the vortex methods are applied, which significantly reduces the computational cost compared to CFD in the whole domain. With this method, the flow past an airfoil with two degrees of freedom, pitching and heaving, is investigated.

  8. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  9. CFTR Modulators: Shedding Light on Precision Medicine for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disease afflicting Caucasian people. It affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, glandular and reproductive systems. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF is the respiratory disorder caused by a vicious cycle of obstruction of the airways, inflammation and infection that leads to epithelial damage, tissue remodeling and end-stage lung disease. Over the past decades, life expectancy of CF patients has increased due to early diagnosis and improved treatments; however, these patients still present limited quality of life. Many attempts have been made to rescue CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression, function and stability, thereby overcoming the molecular basis of CF. Gene and protein variances caused by CFTR mutants lead to different CF phenotypes, which then require different treatments to quell the patients’ debilitating symptoms. In order to seek better approaches to treat CF patients and maximize therapeutic effects, CFTR mutants have been stratified into six groups (although several of these mutations present pleiotropic defects). The research with CFTR modulators (read-through agents, correctors, potentiators, stabilizers and amplifiers) has achieved remarkable progress, and these drugs are translating into pharmaceuticals and personalized treatments for CF patients. This review summarizes the main molecular and clinical features of CF, emphasizes the latest clinical trials using CFTR modulators, sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying these new and emerging treatments, and discusses the major breakthroughs and challenges to treating all CF patients. PMID:27656143

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of chicken kabab and sausage; as prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken kabab and sausage were treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation in a 60CO package irradiator. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 degree centigrade). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab and sausage were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months of storage. Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the chicken kabab and sausage were also investigated, but only immediately after treatment. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab and sausage (moisture, protein and fats). Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab and sausage. The dose needed to decrease by 1 log cfu/g (D10 value) of Salmonella spp and E coli. numbers were 213 and 400 Gy in chicken kabab, while 345 and 250 Gy in chicken sausage, respectively. The chemical parameters, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 5 months for chicken kabab and sausage treated with 4 and 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  11. Response of Triatoma infestans to pour-on cypermethrin applied to chickens under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Amelotti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the effects of a pour-on formulation of cypermethrin (6% active ingredient applied to chickens exposed to Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in rural houses of the Gran Chaco Region of South America. This study was designed as a completely random experiment with three experimental groups and five replicates. Third instar nymphs were fed on chickens treated with 0, 1 and 2 cc of the formulation. Nymphs were allowed to feed on the chickens at different time intervals after the insecticide application. Third-instar nymphs fed on treated chickens showed a higher mortality, took less blood during feeding and had a lower moulting rate. The mortality rate was highest seven days after the insecticide solution application and blood intake was affected until 30 days after the application of the solution.

  12. Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetic Modification and Other Possible Production Attributes for Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, John C.; Pan, Xiqian; Sirolli, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Today's consumers face foods whose production attributes they are often largely unfamiliar with and uncertain about. This study surveyed Delaware consumers about labeling, health risk concerns, and knowledge of five potential attributes for chicken: free-range, treated with antibiotics, irradiated, fed genetically modified (GM) feed, and GM chicken. Respondents were highly in favor of labeling all attributes, and perceived a high health risk from and had a low self-reported knowledge of many ...

  13. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  14. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  15. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  16. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV. PMID:27078641

  17. Chicken-specific kinome array reveals that Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis modulates host immune signaling pathways in the cecum to establish a persistence infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early, short-lived, pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The und...

  18. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  19. Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

  20. Molecular cloning of chicken IL-7 and characterization of its antiviral activity against IBDV in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shanshan; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Jianlou; Zuo, Yuzhu; Xu, Jian; Cui, Dan; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian interleukin-7 (IL-7) is able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and maturation, and reverse immunosuppression. However, whether poultry IL-7 has similar functions remains unclear. Chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes serious immunosuppression in chicken due to virus-induced immune disorder. Whether chicken IL-7 (chIL-7) has the ability to restore the immunity during IBDV-induced immunosuppression is not clear. To test this, we amplified chIL-7 gene by RT-PCR, prepared recombinant chIL-7 using HEK293T cells and treated the chicken with the chIL-7 prior to IBDV infection. Our results indicate that chIL-7 promoted mouse B cell proliferation in vitro, and significantly reduced virus titer in bursal tissue and chicken morbidity of IBDV-infected chicken. Mechanically, chIL-7 induced chicken lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-γ production, but down-regulated TGF-β expression, suggesting that chIL-7 has the ability to reverse IBDV-induced immunosuppression and might be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of infectious bursal disease. PMID:27466431

  1. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  2. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  3. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Jagriti Jain; Shreya Thatte; Prakhar Singhai

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the ey...

  4. Vortex shedding patterns in flow past inline oscillating elliptical cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex shedding patterns in flow past inline oscillating elliptical cylinder are simulated by lattice Boltzmann and direct forcing/fictitious domain method which is validated by finite volume method when this cylinder is fixed. The modes of vortex shedding are analyzed in detail by changing the amplitude and the frequency of oscillation by using the first method in this paper.

  5. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  6. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...

  7. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  8. Extraction and clipping repair of a chicken bone penetrating the gastric wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Hiun-Suk Chae; Chang-Whan Kim; Byung-Wook Kim; Sok-Won Han; Kyu-Yong Choi

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric penetration caused by accidental ingestion of a chicken bone in a 42-year old woman with a partially wearing denture. Three days ago, she accidentally swallowed several lumps of poorly-chewed chicken. Physical examination disclosed mild tenderness in the periumbilical area. Abdominal Computed tomography (CT) showed a suspicious penetration or perforation of the stomach wall measuring about 3 cm, by a linear radiopaque material at the lesser curvature of the antrum. The end of a chicken bone was very close to but did not penetrate the liver. Endoscopic examination revealed a chicken bone that penetrated into the prepyloric antrum. The penetrating chicken bone was removed with grasping forceps. Five endoscopic clips were applied immediately at the removal site and the periumbilical pain resolved promptly. After removal of the chicken bone, the patient was treated with conservative care for three days, after which she was completely asymptomatic and discharged without complication. To treat gastric penetration by a foreign body, endoclipping can be a useful method in patients with no signs or symptoms of peritoneal irritation.

  9. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  10. August 2007 FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Recommendations for SHEDS-Dietary and SHEDS-Residential Modules (Summarized) and EPA Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past ten years, the Agency has requested the Panel to review several probabilistic dietary exposure software models. These have included DEEM-FCID™, Calendex-FCID, CARES™, LifeLine™, and an earlier (specialized) version of SHEDS (SHEDS-Wood) designed to assess exposure...

  11. USING OF COMBINED TREATMENT BETWEEN PROPOLIS (BEE GLUE) AND GAMMA RADIATION FOR EXTENDING SHELF-LIFE OF CHICKEN BURGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life of chicken burger using ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) at different concentrations (1 and 2%) as individual treatment using gamma irradiation at doses of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy as individual treatment and combined treatments. The untreated and treated samples of chicken burger were divided into three groups, the first was control, the second group was chicken burger samples treated with 1% EEP then irradiated at doses of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy and the third group was chicken burger samples treated with 2 % EEP then irradiated at doses of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy. The effects of these treatments on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken burger samples were studied post-treatment and during cold storage (4±10C). The results showed that concentrations of EEP at 1 and 2% reduced the total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae total mold and yeast count, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococccus faecalis and Bacillus cereus, and the growth of Salmonella spp, was not detected in all treated samples. Also, shelf-life periods were increased up to 27 days for chicken burger treated by 2% EEP and gamma radiation at dose of 4.5 kGy and these combined treatment were more effective as antimicrobial, consequently may be useful as natural food preservative

  12. Efficacy and Characteristics of different Methods of Coccidiosis Infection in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elmusharaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Different methods of experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria species have been described in the literature. These methods had not been compared and contrasted so as to contribute to the selection of the most appropriate model of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Identifying such a model was important to speed up the screening of potential coccidiostatics. Approach: In five different experiments with broiler chickens, we used different methods of infection with Eimeria species. In this paper the different methods and the results have been evaluated. Results: Administration through gavage into the crop of relatively low doses of either Eimeria tenella alone, or in combination with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima, did not influence body-weight gain and feed intake, but did induce intestinal lesions and faecal shedding of oocysts. The administration of an identically high number of sporulated oocysts in the form of a mixture of the three Eimeria species, either through a single dose by gavage or through the litter, produced similar lowering effects on body-weight gain or feed intake, similar degrees of severity of intestinal lesions and similar rates of faecal oocyst shedding. Conclusion: Depending on the variables considered of interest, the present data may indicate the most appropriate model. The model using infection with oocysts through the litter may optimally mimic the field situation in combination with controlled conditions and allowing experimental flexibility and a high number of experimental units within the research facility.

  13. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V;

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...

  14. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.;

    2006-01-01

    :10 or less were pooled and fed to three T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 66 chickens with titers of 1:20 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. The cat fed tissues from eight chickens with titers of 1:10 shed T. gondii oocysts. The two cats fed tissues of 24...... from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed infection in intermediate hosts such as chickens may facilitate genetic exchange between different parasite lineages...... in definitive feline hosts. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America....

  15. Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride on the liver of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was assessment of gross and microscopic pathological changes resulting from sub acute and sub chronic toxicity of carbon tetrachloride CCl4 (99.5% in the liver of chicken and its relation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels. The approximate lethal dose in three weeks old chickens was equal to (994 mg/kg i.p.. In the sub acute toxicity experiment the given dose was (497 mg/kg i.p. twice a week for one week, the liver of treated animals with CCl4 grossly appeared pale and mottled with white yellowish color patches represent the necrotic tissue, the histopathological changes was severe hepatitis with infiltration of inflammatory cells specially heterophiles and diffused coagulative necrosis. In sub chronic toxicity experiment the dose was given (248.5 mg/kg i.p. twice a week for eight weeks, in gross appearance the liver was severely congested, the histopathological changes was hypertrophy of hepatocytes, hyperplasia of lining epithelium of bile ducts and chronic venous congestion, growth depression and significant decreased in the body weight of the treated animals also noticed at this experiment in compared with control group, a significant increased in (ALT and (AST activities also recorded. The results suggests that pathological changes and response of the chicken’s liver to the CCl4 toxicity relatively differs from other laboratory animal models like rats and mice when used approximate dose in the same duration of exposure, so it didn’t appear fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver of chickens, therefore it can't use chickens as a model to induce experimental fibrosis or liver cirrhosis when treated with CCl4 according to the dose and duration of exposure of this study.

  16. Stochastic oscillations induced by vortex shedding in wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus

    1997-01-01

    As a fluid flows past a circular cylinder,vortices are shed alternately from each side at most values of the Reynolds number. Over a certain range of windspeeds, the periodicity in the wake is synchronized or captured by the mechanical system. The shedding abruptly deviates from the linear Strouhal...... in the wake is synchronized or captured by the mechanical system. The shedding abruptly deviates from the linear Strouhal dependence and stays constant at the mechanical natural frequency. This coupling between the velocity field and the motion of the mechanical system is referred to as the lock-in phenomenon...

  17. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  18. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  19. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  20. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  1. Marketing researcher sheds new light on rewards programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2010-01-01

    A new study by Rajesh Bagchi, assistant professor of marketing in the Pamplin College of Business, sheds new light on loyalty or rewards programs, used by airlines, hotels, and other businesses to promote customer allegiance.

  2. Guam Power Authority automatic underfrequency load shedding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.H. [Hawaiian Electric Co., Honolulu, HI (United States); Flores, J.C.; Fang, Y.; Baldevia, R.P. Jr. [Guam Power Authority, Agana (Guam)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a new automatic underfrequency load shedding scheme on the Guam Power Authority`s (GPA) system using a transient stability simulation program. The new scheme strives to minimize the amount of load shed by selecting frequency settings based on the severity of generation or load unbalance and the availability of spinning reserves. The fast speed of frequency decay due to loss of generation is shown to be particularly pronounced in an island system, requiring more careful design of any load shedding scheme than large interconnected systems. The use of a well-prepared transient stability study model allows the simulation of specific contingencies and the fine-tuning of load shedding strategies for optimality. The trade-off between equipment protection, customer service availability, and practical operating issues, such as, synchronization of generators to the grid, are discussed.

  3. Guam Power Authority automatic underfrequency load shedding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.H. [Hawaiian Electric Co., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Flores, J.C.; Fang, Y.; Baldevia, R.P. [Guam Power Authority, Agana (Guam)

    1995-12-31

    Guam Power Authority (GPA) has developed an automatic underfrequency load shedding scheme using a transient stability simulation program. This scheme strives to minimize the amount of load shed by selecting frequency settings based on the severity of generation or load imbalance and the availability of spinning reserves. The fast speed of frequency decay due to loss of generation is shown to be particularly pronounced in an island system, requiring more careful design of any load shedding scheme than large interconnected systems. The use of a well prepared transient stability study model allows the simulation of specific contingencies and the fine-tuning of load shedding strategies for optimality. The development of the scheme is described, and trade-off between equipment protection, customer service availability, and practical operating issues, such as synchronization of generators to the grid, are discussed. (author). 9 figs., 6 refs.

  4. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  5. SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Masako; Gronthos, Stan; Zhao, Mingrui; Lu, Bai; Fisher, Larry W.; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Shi, Songtao

    2003-01-01

    To isolate high-quality human postnatal stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell research. In this study we found that exfoliated human deciduous tooth contains multipotent stem cells [stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)]. SHED were identified to be a population of highly proliferative, clonogenic cells capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types including neural cells, adipocytes, and odontoblasts. After in vivo transplantation, ...

  6. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... chlorhexidine diacetate salt hydrate (1%). The most effective compounds were cetylpyridinium chloride (0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride (1%) (>4.2 log). However, when these treated samples were stored for 24 h at 5°C, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, and grapefruit seed extract were less...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  7. In vitro efficacy of allicin on chicken Eimeria tenella sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Thabet, Ahmed; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2015-10-01

    Chicken coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease caused by Eimeria spp. It is controlled and treated using chemical anticoccidial agents. Development of partial or complete resistance toward these anticoccidials is considered a major problem in poultry industry. Allicin is an organosulfur compound produced as a result of the reaction between alliin and alliinase after hacking of garlic. In this study, tenfold dilution from 180 mg/ml to 1.8 ng/ml of allicin in distilled water was tested against E. tenella in vitro. The percent of inhibition in allicin was from 99.9 to 71.53% using 180 mg/ml and 180 ng/ml, respectively. The percent of inhibition was 56.24% using 1.8 ng/ml. We used allicin as a treatment from plants against chicken coccidiosis; however, in vivo study should be performed to confirm these results. PMID:26264230

  8. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country.

  9. Asymptomatic Herpes Simplex Virus Shedding in STI Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶兴东; 颜景兰; 朱慧兰; 张莉; 佟菊贞

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study examined Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV) subclinical shedding in the genital tract of patients withgenital herpes (GH) or non-gonoccal urethritis (NGU). Method: Swabs were collected after exposure to rash andgenital tract during GH relapse or remission on a weekly basisfor four to six weeks. NGU patients with negative chlamydiaand mycoplasma tests were also swabbed for a similarduration. All swabs underwent HSV DNA detection withquantitative PCR. Result: There was a significant difference in the rate ofasymptomatic HSV shedding in urinary tracts comparing GHand the control group and comparing NGU and the controlgroup (P<0.05). The rate of HSV shedding was 22%, 9.8%and 3.3% for GH, NGU and control groups respectively. Therate of HSV shedding was 21.7% (20/92) for patients withactive GH and 23% for those in remission. The HSV positiverate was significantly higher in the group with patients whohad more than six relapses within one year compared to thegroup of patients with less than six GH relapses. Conclusion: There is HSV subclinical shedding in theirgenital tract during active GH and remission. SubclinicalHSV shedding is more common in patients with more than sixGH relapses per year compared to GH patients with fewerrelapses. Approximately 9.9% of NGU patients with negativechlamydia, mycoplasma testing was found to have subclinicalHSV infection.

  10. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. PMID:24399032

  11. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossad Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume concentration (PCV. Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

  12. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  13. The pathogenesis of low pathogenicity H7 avian influenza viruses in chickens, ducks and turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Conrad R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza (AI viruses infect numerous avian species, and low pathogenicity (LP AI viruses of the H7 subtype are typically reported to produce mild or subclinical infections in both wild aquatic birds and domestic poultry. However relatively little work has been done to compare LPAI viruses from different avian species for their ability to cause disease in domestic poultry under the same conditions. In this study twelve H7 LPAI virus isolates from North America were each evaluated for their comparative pathogenesis in chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Results All 12 isolates were able to infect all three species at a dose of 106 50% egg infectious doses based on seroconversion, although not all animals seroconverted with each isolate-species combination. The severity of disease varied among isolate and species combinations, but there was a consistent trend for clinical disease to be most severe in turkeys where all 12 isolates induced disease, and mortality was observed in turkeys exposed to 9 of the 12 viruses. Turkeys also shed virus by the oral and cloacal routes at significantly higher titers than either ducks or chickens at numerous time points. Only 3 isolates induced observable clinical disease in ducks and only 6 isolates induced disease in chickens, which was generally very mild and did not result in mortality. Full genome sequence was completed for all 12 isolates and some isolates did have features consistent with adaptation to poultry (e.g. NA stalk deletions, however none of these features correlated with disease severity. Conclusions The data suggests that turkeys may be more susceptible to clinical disease from the H7 LPAI viruses included in this study than either chickens or ducks. However the severity of disease and degree of virus shed was not clearly correlated with any isolate or group of isolates, but relied on specific species and isolate combinations.

  14. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality. PMID:27110988

  15. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  16. Relationship between levels of very virulent MDV in poultry dust and in feather tips from vaccinated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigent, Susan J; Kgosana, Lydia B; Gamawa, Ahmed A; Smith, Lorraine P; Read, Andrew F; Nair, Venugopal K

    2013-06-01

    To assess the effect of various vaccine strains on replication and shedding of virulent Marek's disease virus from experimentally infected chickens, quantitative PCR (q-PCR) methods were developed to accurately quantify viral DNA in infected chickens and in the environment in which they were housed. Four groups of 10 chickens, kept in poultry isolators, were vaccinated at 1 day old with one of four vaccines covering each of the three vaccine serotypes, then challenged with very virulent MDV strain Md5 at 8 days of age. At regular time-points, feather tips were collected from each chicken and poultry dust was collected from the air-extract prefilter of each isolator. DNA was extracted from feather and dust samples and subjected to real-time q-PCR, targeting the U(S)2 gene of MDV-1, in order to measure Md5 level per 10(4) feather tip cells or per microgram of dust. Accuracy of DNA extraction from dust and real-time q-PCR were validated by comparing either q-PCR cycle threshold values or the calculated MDV genome level; for use in q-PCR, DNA was extracted from serial dilutions of MDV-infected dust diluted with noninfected dust, or DNA from MDV-infected dust was diluted with DNA from noninfected dust. The results confirmed the accuracy and sensitivity of dust DNA extraction and subsequent q-PCR and showed that differences in virus levels between dust samples truly reflect differences in shedding. Vaccination delayed both replication of Md5 in feather tips and shedding of Md5. First detection of Md5 in feather tips always preceded or coincided with first detection in dust in each group. pCVI988 and HVT+SB-1 were the most efficient vaccines in reducing both replication and shedding of Md5. There was close correlation between mean virus level in feathers of each group and mean virus level in the dust shed by that group. This relationship was similar in each of the vaccinated groups, demonstrating that measurement of the virus in dust can be used to monitor accurately both

  17. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  18. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo

    2015-04-01

    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P salt replacement while added PHF decreased their values. Textural properties were lower (P < 0.05) in the treated products. Addition of PHF significantly (P < 0.05) decreased cholesterol and glycolipids contents at 8 % and 12 % levels, respectively. Sensory evaluation exhibited that 40 % NaCl can efficiently be replaced and 8 % PHF can be incorporated as a source of fibre in low fat chicken nuggets without significant effect on various attributes. PMID:25829611

  19. Exposure of Broiler Chickens to a Weak Electromagnetic Field Reduces the Impact of a Simulated, Commercial Eimeria Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elmusharaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a previous study, the exposure of broiler chickens to a weak Electromagnetic Field (EMF reduced the severity of a coccidiosis infection. The birds were infected by gavage into the crop which was not representative for the field situation. Approach: The possible anticoccidial activity of EMF was investigated in broiler chickens with a simulated, commercial coccidiosis infection. There was an uninfected and infected group not receiving further treatment. Another uninfected and infected group were subjected to EMF treatment. The infection was induced by adding to the litter a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella. EMF treatment lasted for 30 min day-1; the field strength within the cages was set to 5 μTesla rms. Results: Infection with Eimeria resulted in a transient reduction of growth performance in the control chickens. Exposure to EMF counteracted the effect of infection on growth performance. EMF treatment had no effect on oocyst shedding. In the infected birds exposed to EMF, the lesion scores related to the three Eimeria species were generally lower than in the infected controls. Due to cross-contamination, the uninfected birds also showed intestinal lesions, the severity being less than in the infected chickens. In the uninfected birds, EMF treatment also had reduced the severity of the lesions. Conclusion: In this study EMF exposure protected against coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Consequently, EMF was considered as a possible alternative to anticoccidial drugs.

  20. Effect of a Chinese herbal formula Astragalus immunomodulator on immune function of chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru ZHANG; Guojun JIANG; Shupeng LI; Xiuhui ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effects and the mechanism of a Chinese herbal medicine, Zengmiansan (Astragalus immunomodulator), on immune function of chickens, three hundred 1-day-old chickens were assigned randomly into 5 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the Chinese herbal medicine Zengmiansan (ZMS)-treated group, the cyclophosphamide group, the cyclophosphamide plus levamisole group, the cyclophosphamide plus ZMS group and the control group. All chickens were immunized with Lasota vaccine by nose-drip or eye-drop at the age of 6 days. Newcastle Disease (ND) antibody titers, growth indexes of the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood, and the apoptosis of splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells were observed at the ages of 14,21, 28 and 35 days, respectively. Our results indicated that the NDV antibody titers of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS-treated group at the ages of 14 and 21 days were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.01). The growth indexes of immune organs, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS- treated group at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 d were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P<0.01). The apoptotic splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells of chickens in the ZMS-treated group were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.01) at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 days.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host....

  2. A role for the non-canonical Wnt-ß-Catenin and TGF-ß signaling pathways in the induction of tolerance during the establishment of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis persistent cecal infection in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infecti...

  3. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  4. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  5. CRISP. Intelligent load shedding. Deliverable 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Load shedding has been used to mitigate the consequences of large disturbances in electric power systems, since the beginning of the electrification era. The way to execute the load shedding, i.e. open a circuit breaker, has hardly developed at all for a 100-year period. The modern society dependence on reliable electricity supply is continuously increasing. This means that the consequences of traditional load shedding are not acceptable. In the meantime computer and communication technology has developed tremendously. There is also a trend to use more and more intelligent control and less hardware, such as lines and generators, to provide the required level of reliability for the electric supply. Especially in power systems, and parts of power systems, comprising distributed generation, there seems to be a great potential to improve the overall cost/benefit-ratio for the desired level of reliability, by the use of intelligent load shedding. Intelligent load shedding is a means to improve power system stability, by providing an adapted load control along the distribution network, in situations where the power system otherwise would go unstable. The work with intelligent load shedding in this work package results in various technical principles of dedicated algorithms. These algorithms intend to bring a support tool for the operating system during critical situations. The main aspects are evaluating the right amount and location of power response for a given disturbance, and evaluating the right time response expected in order to comply with an acceptable stability recover. This time response is a main object in order to define appropriate ICT network enabling such a reliable implementation. A main problem of the intelligent load shedding is how to choose load to shed conveniently and quickly. There is a technical problem of finding the right level and location of the load to shed, and also an economical problem of giving incentives in order to have enough remote

  6. Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

  7. Suppression of vortex shedding around a square cylinder using blowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun K Saha; Ankit Shrivastava

    2015-05-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of flow past a square cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 has been carried out to explore the effect of blowing in the form of jet(s) on vortex shedding. Higher order spatial as well as temporal discretization has been employed for the discretization of governing equations. The varying number of jets, jet velocity profiles and different blowing velocities are studied to investigate the characteristics of vortex shedding. The parabolic velocity profile has been found to be more effective in suppressing the vortex shedding as compared to the uniform velocity. Complete suppression of vortex shedding along with remarkable reduction in drag coefficient has been achieved for both jet velocity profiles but at different velocities. The corresponding values for uniform and parabolic jet profiles are 0.87 and 0.6, respectively at a mass flux of 0.120. The study also reveals that there is considerable effect of the number of jets on the vortex shedding phenomena.

  8. The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR undergoes ectodomain shedding and regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Houri

    Full Text Available The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR is a cell adhesion molecule originally characterized as a virus receptor but subsequently shown to be involved in physiological processes such as neuronal and heart development, epithelial tight junction integrity, and tumour suppression. Proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules and a wide variety of other cell surface proteins serves as a mechanism for protein turnover and, in some cases, cell signaling. Metalloproteases such as A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM family members cleave cell surface receptors to release their substrates' ectodomains, while the presenilin/ɣ-secretase complex mediates regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP, releasing intracellular domain fragments from the plasma membrane. In the case of some substrates such as Notch and amyloid precursor protein (APP, the released intracellular domains enter the nucleus to modulate gene expression. We report that CAR ectodomain is constitutively shed from glioma cells and developing neurons, and is also shed when cells are treated with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and the calcium ionophore ionomycin. We identified ADAM10 as a sheddase of CAR using assays involving shRNA knockdown and rescue, overexpression of wild-type ADAM10 and inhibition of ADAM10 activity by addition of its prodomain. In vitro peptide cleavage, mass spectrometry and mutagenesis revealed the amino acids M224 to L227 of CAR as the site of ADAM10-mediated ectodomain cleavage. CAR also undergoes RIP by the presenilin/γ-secretase complex, and the intracellular domain of CAR enters the nucleus. Ectodomain shedding is a prerequisite for RIP of CAR. Thus, CAR belongs to the increasing list of cell surface molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding and that are substrates for ɣ-secretase-mediated RIP.

  9. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  10. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  11. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  12. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  13. Effects of Chicken Litter Storage Time and Ammonia Content on Thermal Resistance of Desiccation-Adapted Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Ionita, Claudia; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Broiler chicken litter was kept as a stacked heap on a poultry farm, and samples were collected up to 9 months of storage. Chicken litter inoculated with desiccation-adapted Salmonella cells was heat-treated at 75, 80, 85, and 150°C. Salmonella populations decreased in all these samples during heat treatment, and the inactivation rates became lower in chicken litter when storage time was extended from 0 to 6 months. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in thermal resistance of Salmonella in 6- and 9-month litter samples, indicating that a threshold for thermal resistance was reached after 6 months. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella in chicken litter was affected by the storage time of the litter. The changes in some chemical, physical, and microbiological properties during storage could possibly contribute to this difference. Moisture and ammonia could be two of the most significant factors influencing the thermal resistance of Salmonella cells in chicken litter. Our results emphasize the importance of adjusting time and temperature conditions for heat processing chicken litter when it is removed from the chicken house at different time intervals.

  14. 贝氏隐孢子虫鸡胚和雏鸡增殖模型筛选抗隐孢子虫药物试验%Evaluation of curative anticryptosporidial activity of four kinds of potential drugs in chick embryo and chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素梅; 赵金凤; 黄磊; 张龙现; 宁长申; 菅复春; 齐萌; 王俊霞; 李寒松

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of oocyst multiplication and pathogenicity of Cryplosporidium baileyi derived from chicken in chick embryo and chicken by compound sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfadimidine, diclazuril and azithromycin,the anticryptosporidial activity of these potential drugs were observed in chick embryo and chicken infected artificially with C. baileyi oocyst from chicken. The develepment of chick embryo and Cryptosporidium baileyi were both evaluated,and the number of oocysts in chick embryo were counted. In addition, main clinical symptoms of cough,sneezing,dyspnea, pattern of shedding oocysts, weight gains, morbidity and mortality in chicken infected with the oocysts were observed. The results showed that the number of oocysts in chick embryo treated with compound sulfame-thoxydiazine, sulfadimidine, diclazuril and azithromycin in comparison to control were 15.O5 %, 88. 71 %,77.42 % and 68.82 %, respectively. Moreover, compound sulfamethoxydiazine can reduce morbidity ( 20 % ), mortality ( 13.13 %)and clinical signs of respiratory tract disease observed in chickens orally inoculated 40 × 101 oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi at 4 days of age (30 chickens/group). It was also found that the intensity of oocyst discharge from chickens in treated group with compound sulfamethoxydiazine was lower than that in untreated group. Sulfamethoxydiazine may be recommended in the prevention of avian cryptosporidiosis,as the compound is administered continuously in an adapted dose.%为探讨复方磺胺对甲氧嘧啶、磺胺二甲基嘧啶、地克珠利和阿奇霉素4种药物对鸡胚和雏鸡人工感染模型中鸡源贝氏隐孢子虫的作用,筛选有效防治隐孢子虫药物,采用鸡胚培养和人工感染雏鸡模型,分别以各组鸡胚发育状况、鸡胚中卵囊量、雏鸡精神状态、排卵囊规律、体质量变化、发病率、死亡率等为观察指标,考察这4种药物对隐孢子虫的作用.结果显示,使用复

  15. Amelioration of Heat Stress Induced Disturbances of Antioxidant Defense System in Chicken by Brahma Rasayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramnath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the range of comfort zone or thermo neutral zone of domestic chickens is narrow, they become easily susceptible to heat and cold environmental stress. We evaluated Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation on concentrations of certain oxidative stress markers associated with heat stress. A total of 48 egg type male chickens of local strain were divided into six groups (n = 8 for the study. Three groups were fed with BR orally at the rate of 2 g/kg bw daily for 10 days prior to and during the period of experiment. Two of the four groups that were exposed to heat stress (HST i.e. to a temperature of 40 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 5% in an environmental chamber for 4 h daily for 5 or 10 days, received BR orally. The other two groups remained as BR treated and untreated non-heat stressed (NHST controls. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood such as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as liver CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with untreated controls. A great deal of significant (P < 0.05 variations were seen in serum and liver reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher in HST-untreated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with other groups. Thus BR supplementation during HST brings about enhanced action of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullified the undesired side effects of free radicals that are generated during HST.

  16. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  17. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  18. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  19. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham M Ittyachen; Mohan B Jose; Varghese Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  20. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  1. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  2. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  3. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160719.html Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term 10-year follow- ... 31, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps people drop a significant amount of ...

  4. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  5. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  6. The transmembrane domain of TACE regulates protein ectodomain shedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojin Li; Liliana Pérez; Zui Pan; Huizhou Fan

    2007-01-01

    Numerous membrane proteins are cleaved by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), which causes the release of their ectodomains. An ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family member, TACE contains several noncatalytic domains whose roles in ectodomain shedding have yet to be fully resolved. Here, we have explored the function of the transmembrane domain (TM) of TACE by coupling molecular engineering and functional analysis. A TM-free TACE construct that is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylino-sitol (GPI)-binding polypeptide failed to restore shedding of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and L-selectin in cells lacking endogenous TACE activity. Substitution of the TACE TM with that of the prolactin receptor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) also resulted in severe loss of TGF-α shedding, but had no effects on the cleavage of TNF-α and L-selectin. Replacement of the TM in TGF-a with that of L-selectin enabled TGF-a shedding by the TACE mutants carrying the TM of prolactin receptor and PDGFR. Taken together, our observations suggest that anchorage of TACE to the lipid bilayer through a TM is required for efficient cleavage of a broad spectrum of substrates, and that the amino-acid sequence of TACE TM may play a role in regulatory specificity among TACE substrates.

  7. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Atkinson, Joseph F; Croley Ii, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    We apply a concept derived from food web ecology to large-scale spatial patterns of material supply within and between watersheds and coasts by generalizing the definition "resource shed" to source areas for materials supplied to a receptor (e.g., a point location) over a specified time interval. Independent hydrologic and hydrodynamic models, coupled with a particle tracking model, were used to delimit resource shed total spatial extent and relative contributory importance for selected receptors in Lake Erie (North America) over varying time intervals. One resource shed was extended into the Maumee River watershed (OH) by integrating the lake and hydrologic models. Model validation was achieved through comparison with data from the 2005 International Field Years on Lake Erie (IFYLE) study. Resource shed size, orientation, and internal structure varied with receptor location, in-lake circulation, terrestrial precipitation, time interval, and season. River plume extent and interaction were illustrated, and model integration revealed the relative contributory importance of subwatershed catchments to an off-shore receptor. PMID:19958021

  8. Vortex Shedding from Tapered Cylinders at high Reynolds Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Christensen, Silas Sverre;

    2015-01-01

    percent for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The present investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine...

  9. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  10. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  11. Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of marinated chicken breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, Zied; Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    The possibilities of replacing soy protein isolate (SPI) and reducing the amount of phosphate in marinated chicken breasts using poultry protein isolate (PPI) were investigated. PPI, prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat through the pH-shift technology, was used as a marinade ingredient for chicken breasts at 2 different concentrations (1.0% and 1.5%, w/w on a dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared to samples marinated with salt, phosphate, or SPI. All the 5 treatments were subjected to instrumental and sensory analyses. Tumbling yield, drip, and cooking losses as well as expressible moisture showed that PPI can be used as a substitute for SPI in brine. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no differences among treatments in terms of appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the marinated chicken breasts. However, chicken breasts marinated with phosphate had significantly higher aroma acceptability scores than those treated with 1% PPI.

  12. 25 CFR 247.15 - May I reserve a campsite or drying shed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? 247.15 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.15 May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? No. You may not reserve a campsite, drying shed, or other facility. (a) You must use campsites, drying sheds, and...

  13. Differential expression of alpha 2 macroglobulin in response to dietylstilbestrol and in ovarian carcinomas in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha 2 macroglobulin (A2M; also known as ovostatin, a homotetrameric protein with four disulfide-linked subunits, has the unique feature of inactivating/inhibiting most known proteases including serine-, threonine-, cysteine-, aspartic- and metalloproteases. In chickens, A2M has been identified and characterized biochemically, but little is known of its functional role(s in the oviduct, hormonal regulation of expression or its expression in ovarian carcinomas in chickens. Therefore, we investigated estrogen regulation of A2M gene expression during development of the chicken oviduct, and its expression in normal and cancerous ovaries from chickens. Methods To determine tissue-specific expression of A2M in chickens, we collected various organs from male and female chickens and performed RT-PCR analyses. To examine A2M gene expression in the oviduct of 1-week-old female chicks that received a subcutaneous implant of 15 mg DES in the abdominal region for 20 days, we performed RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization analyses using cDNAs from control- (n = 5 and DES-treated oviducts (n = 5, and then each segment of the oviduct from DES-treated chicks. To determine if A2M is a biomarker of ovarian cancer in hens, we collected cancerous (n = 10 ovaries from a total of 136 chickens which had completely stopped egg-laying and performed RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. Results We found that A2M is most abundant in the chicken oviduct, specifically luminal (LE and glandular epithelia (GE, but it was not detected in any other tissues of either sex. We then determined that DES (dietylstilbestrol, a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen increased A2M mRNA only in LE and GE of the oviduct of chicks. Further, expression of A2M was most abundant in GE of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal ovaries of hens. Conclusions Collectively, results of the present study indicate that A2M is novel estrogen-stimulated gene

  14. Constitutive Endocytosis of VEGFR2 Protects the Receptor against Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2016-08-01

    VEGFR2 plays a fundamental role in blood vessel formation and in life threatening diseases, such as cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disorders. Although inactive growth factor receptors are mainly localized at the plasma membrane, VEGFR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis (in the absence of ligand) and recycling. Intriguingly, the significance of these futile transport cycles of VEGFR2 remains unclear. Here we found that, unexpectedly, the function of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2 is to protect the receptor against plasma membrane cleavage (shedding), thereby preserving the functional state of the receptor until the time of activation by VEGF. Inhibition of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2, by interference with the function of clathrin, dynamin, or Rab5, increases dramatically the cleavage/shedding of VEGFR2. Shedding of VEGFR2 produces an N-terminal soluble fragment (100 kDa, s100), which is released in the extracellular space, and a residual C-terminal part (130 kDa, p130) that remains integrated at the plasma membrane. The released soluble fragment (s100) co-immunoprecipitates with VEGF, in line with the topology of the VEGF-binding domain at the N terminus of VEGFR2. Increased shedding of VEGFR2 (via inhibition of constitutive endocytosis) results in reduced response to VEGF, consistently with the loss of the VEGF-binding domain from the membrane remnant of VEGFR2. These data suggest that constitutive internalization of VEGFR2 protects the receptor against shedding and provides evidence for an unprecedented mechanism via which endocytosis can regulate the fate and activity of growth factor receptors. PMID:27298320

  15. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna;

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  16. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika;

    2007-01-01

    with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host......A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...

  17. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Efficacy of crude extract of Aloe secundiflora against Salmonella gallinarum in experimentally infected free-range chickens in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waihenya, R K; Mtambo, M M A; Nkwengulila, G; Minga, U M

    2002-03-01

    The ethnoveterinary use of Aloe species extract in free-range local chickens against fowl typhoid was investigated. Five-months-old local chickens, free of antibodies against fowl typhoid were used. The chickens were randomly assorted into five groups including pretreated and infected (G1, n=21), infected and untreated (G2, n=21), infected and treated (G3, n=21), untreated and uninfected (G4, n=10) and treated uninfected (G5, n=10). Groups 1, 2 and 3 were inoculated with 5.0 x 10(8) c.f.u/ml of Salmonella gallinarum, following which the chickens were monitored for 15 days. There was a delay on the occurrence of the clinical signs and reduced severity of the disease in the Aloe treated chickens (G1 and G3). The mortality rates were 23.8% (5/21) in G1 (pretreated and infected), 42.8% (9/21) in G2 (infected and untreated) and 14.2% (3/21) in G3 (infected and treated). Antibody levels were raised among the infected and untreated group (G2) while they remained relatively low in the Aloe treated groups (G1 and G3). However, there was a sharp increase in the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the Aloe treated groups (G1 and G3) as compared to the untreated group (G2) until day 9 post-infection. The results of this work indicate that the extract of Aloe secundiflora may be used in the control of fowl typhoid in chickens. Studies to determine the active ingredients of the plant extract are in progress.

  19. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  20. Functional genomics of the muscle response to restraint and transport in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, D; Fernandez, X; Pinguet, J; Chambon, C; Letisse, F; Portais, J-C; Wadih-Moussa, Z; Rémignon, H; Molette, C

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we used global approaches (proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics) to assess the molecular basis of the muscle response to stress in chickens. A restraint test, combined with transport for 2 h (RT test) was chosen as the potentially stressful situation. Chickens (6 wk old) were either nontreated (control chickens) or submitted to the RT test (treated chickens). The RT test induced a 6-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. The RT test decreased the relative abundance of several hexose phosphates [glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), and mannose-6-P (M6P)] in thigh muscle. In addition, 55 transcripts, among which 39 corresponded to unique annotated genes, were significantly up- (12 genes) or downregulated (27 genes) by treatment. Similarly, 45 proteic spots, among which 29 corresponded to unique annotated proteins, were overexpressed (11 proteins), underexpressed (14 proteins), or only expressed in treated chickens. Integrative analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins showed that most transcripts and proteins belong to 2 networks whose genes were mainly related with cytoskeleton structure or carbohydrate metabolism. Whereas the decrease in energetic metabolites suggested an activation of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in response to the RT test, the reduced expression of genes and proteins involved in these pathways suggested the opposite. We hypothesized that the prolonged RT test resulted in a repression of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in thigh muscle of chickens. The down-expression of genes and proteins involved in the formation of fiber stress after the RT test suggests a reinforcement of myofibrils in response to stress. PMID:21512117

  1. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken...

  2. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest numbers of TI induction trial

  3. Protection patterns in duck and chicken after homo- or hetero-subtypic reinfections with H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Chaise

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are circulating continuously in ducks, inducing a mostly asymptomatic infection, while chickens are accidental hosts highly susceptible to respiratory disease. This discrepancy might be due to a different host response to the virus between these two bird species and in particular to a different susceptibility to reinfection. In an attempt to address this question, we analyzed, in ducks and in chickens, the viral load in infected tissues and the humoral immune response after experimental primary and secondary challenge infections with either homologous or heterologous low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV. Following homologous reinfection, ducks were only partially protected against viral shedding in the lower intestine in conjunction with a moderate antibody response, whereas chickens were totally protected against viral shedding in the upper respiratory airways and developed a stronger antibody response. On the contrary, heterologous reinfection was not followed by a reduced viral excretion in the upper airways of chickens, while ducks were still partially protected from intestinal excretion of the virus, with no correlation to the antibody response. Our comparative study provides a comprehensive demonstration of the variation of viral tropism and control of the host humoral response to LPAIV between two different bird species with different degrees of susceptibility to avian influenza.

  4. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  5. Reduced Proteolytic Shedding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases is a Post-Translational Mechanism of Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Miles A.; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Wang, Stephanie J.; Meyer, Aaron S.; Im, Hyungsoon; Frederick, Dennie T.; Tadros, Jenny; Griffith, Linda G.; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph; Flaherty, Keith T.; Gertler, Frank B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase inhibitor resistance often involves upregulation of poorly understood “bypass” signaling pathways. Here, we show that extracellular proteomic adaptation is one path to bypass signaling and drug resistance. Proteolytic shedding of surface receptors, which can provide negative feedback on signaling activity, is blocked by kinase inhibitor treatment and enhances bypass signaling. In particular, MEK inhibition broadly decreases shedding of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including HER4, MET, and most prominently AXL, an ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrate, thus increasing surface RTK levels and mitogenic signaling. Progression-free survival of melanoma patients treated with clinical BRAF/MEK inhibitors inversely correlates with RTK shedding reduction following treatment, as measured non-invasively in blood plasma. Disrupting protease inhibition by neutralizing TIMP1 improves MAPK inhibitor efficacy, and combined MAPK/AXL inhibition synergistically reduces tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models. Altogether, extracellular proteomic rewiring through reduced RTK shedding represents a surprising mechanism for bypass signaling in cancer drug resistance. PMID:26984351

  6. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  7. The Expression of CaN and CaMK is Associated with Lipogenesis in the Muscle of Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye YANG; Jiao SONG; Ruiqi FUl; Yanfa SUN; Jie WEN

    2015-01-01

    IntramuscuIar fat (IMF) content in chickens significantIy contributes to meat quality. The maln objective of this study was to assess the expression of calcineurin (CaN) and Ca2+/calmoduIin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) in Iipogene-sis in chicken muscIe. The chickens were sIaughtered and sampIed at the ages of 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectiveIy. IMF content and the expression of CaN subunits and CaMK isoforms were measured in thigh muscIe tissue. The resuIts showed that the IMF contents were higher in chickens at the age of 16 weeks compared with those in chickens at the ages of 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The expression IeveIs of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid transIocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) mRNA in 16-week-oId chickens were al significantIy up-reguIated compared with those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). The mRNA IeveIs of CaNB and CaMK IV in 16-week-oId chickens were significantIy Iower than those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). But the CaMK II mRNA IeveIs in 16-week-oId chickens were significantIy higher than those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). To investigate the roIes of CaMK and CaN in adipogenesis, SV ceI s were incubated in standard adipogenesis medium for 24 h and treated with specific inhibitor of CaMK and CaN. The ex-pressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β(C/EBPβ), steroI reguIatory eIement-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proIiferation-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) were dramatical y enhanced by CsA and CaN inhibitor (P<0.05). KN93, a CaMK II inhibitor, dramatical y repressed the expression of those Iipogenic genes (P<0.05). al the resuIts above indicated that CaN and CaMK had different effects on adipogenesis in the muscIe of chickens.

  8. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  9. Vortex shedding flowmeters for liquids at high flow velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vortex shedding flowmeter designs for flow measurements in liquid oxygen ducts on the space shuttle main engines have been tested in a high head water flow test facility. The results have shown that a vortex shedding element or vane spanning the duct can give a linear response to an average flow velocity of 46 m/s (150 ft/s) in a 1 1/2 inch nominal (41 mm actual) diameter duct while a vane partially spanning the duct can give a linear response to velocities exceeding 55 m/s (180 ft/s). The maximum pressure drops across the flow sensing elements extrapolate to less than 0.7 MPa (100 psi) at 56 m/s (184 ft/s) for liquid oxygen. The test results indicate that the vanes probably cannot be scaled up with pipe size, at least not linearly.

  10. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  11. Birds shed RNA-viruses according to the pareto principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Mark D; Williams, Christopher J; Fair, Jeanne M; Owen, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in disease ecology is to understand the role of individual variation of infection load on disease transmission dynamics and how this influences the evolution of resistance or tolerance mechanisms. Such information will improve our capacity to understand, predict, and mitigate pathogen-associated disease in all organisms. In many host-pathogen systems, particularly macroparasites and sexually transmitted diseases, it has been found that approximately 20% of the population is responsible for approximately 80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness, an area that has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian) - pathogen (RNA-virus) studies, including 17 bird species and five important zoonotic viruses. We determined that viral count data followed the Weibull distribution, the mean Gini coefficient (an index of inequality) was 0.687 (0.036 SEM), and that 22.0% (0.90 SEM) of the birds shed 80% of the virus across all studies, suggesting an adherence of viral shedding counts to the Pareto Principle. The relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by factors extrinsic to the host, such as exposure to corticosterone and to a lesser extent reduced food availability, but not to intrinsic host factors including age, sex, and migratory status. These data provide a quantitative view of heterogeneous virus shedding in birds that may be used to better parameterize epidemiological models and understand transmission dynamics.

  12. Post-Modernising the Museum: The Ration Shed

    OpenAIRE

    Carly Smith

    2014-01-01

    The application of postmodern critical theory to the essentially modernist construct of the museum has significantly impacted the role of the contemporary museum within society. This article briefly describes the movement toward a ‘new museology’ and the subsequent emergence of the ‘post-museum’. It then presents a case study of the Ration Shed Museum in the historical precinct of Cherbourg, Queensland, as an example of this new ‘post-museum’. Through its application of postmodern critical th...

  13. Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: cytokines and viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K L; Moe, C L; Kirby, A E; Flanders, W D; Parkos, C A; Leon, J S

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis world-wide. NoV infections are often asymptomatic, although individuals still shed large amounts of NoV in their stool. Understanding the differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals would help in elucidating mechanisms of NoV pathogenesis. Our goal was to compare the serum cytokine responses and faecal viral RNA titres of asymptomatic and symptomatic NoV-infected individuals. We tested serum samples from infected subjects (n = 26; 19 symptomatic, seven asymptomatic) from two human challenge studies of GI.1 NoV for 16 cytokines. Samples from prechallenge and days 1-4 post-challenge were tested for these cytokines. Cytokine levels were compared to stool NoV RNA titres quantified previously by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). While both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups had similar patterns of cytokine responses, the symptomatic group generally exhibited a greater elevation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines and IL-8 post-challenge compared to the asymptomatic group (all P viral RNA titre was associated positively with daily IL-6 concentration and negatively with daily IL-12p40 concentration (all P viral RNA titre, duration of viral shedding or cumulative shedding. Symptomatic individuals, compared to asymptomatic, have greater immune system activation, as measured by serum cytokines, but they do not have greater viral burden, as measured by titre and shedding, suggesting that symptoms may be immune-mediated in NoV infection. PMID:26822517

  14. Autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after open heart surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵康丽; 许建屏; 胡盛寿; 吴清玉; 魏以桢; 刘迎龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety and effectiveness of autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after open heart surgery. Methods Sixty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were selected randomly to receive either nonwashed shed mediastinal blood (Group 1, n=30) or banked blood (Group 2, n=30). Drainage and transfusion volume were determined after the operation. Hb, RBC, HCT and PLT were detected immediately before and after the operation, as well as 24 hours and 7 days after the operation. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. A P0.05). In the two groups, no significant difference in the mean blood loss was observed during 24 hours after the operation (660±300 ml in Group 1 and 655±280 ml in Group 2, P>0.05). In Group 1, the mean volume autotransfused was 280±160 ml, and the patients required 360±80 ml banked blood compared with 660±120 ml in Group 2. In other words, the banked blood requirement in Group 1 was 40% lower. Conclusions Autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after an open heart operation is safe and effective.

  15. Vortex shedding from two surface-mounted cubes in tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic vortex shedding from two surface-mounted cubes, of height H, in tandem arrangement placed in a thin boundary layer is investigated for a spacing 2H using phase-averaged Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Tests were conducted for a Reynolds number of 22,000, based on H and the freestream velocity, and an approximately 0.07H thick laminar boundary layer. For obstacle separations between 1.5H and 2.5H, the shedding frequency scales inversely with the obstacle spacing, S, such that the Strouhal number based on S is constant or geometrically locked. In this locked regime, periodic shedding is triggered by the interference between a vertical flow stream along the front face of the downstream obstacle and the vortex in the inter-obstacle cavity. This three-dimensional mechanism is not observed for two-dimensional geometries and helps explain why a locked regime cannot be observed for square cylinders in tandem arrangement. Furthermore, it is shown that the structure of the turbulent field in the cavity region differs significantly from that in the base region of a two-dimensional obstacle

  16. Globally shed wakes for three distinct retracting foil geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Stephanie; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In quickly retracting foils at an angle of attack, the boundary layer vorticity along with the added mass energy is immediately and globally shed from the body into the surrounding fluid. The deposited vorticity quickly reforms into lasting vortex structures, which could be used for purposes such as manipulating or exploiting the produced flow structures by additional bodies in the fluid. The globally shed wake thus entrains the added mass energy provided by the initially moving body, reflected by the value of the circulation left in the wake. In studying experimentally as well as numerically this phenomenon, we find that the three different tested geometries leave behind distinct wakes. Retracting a square-ended foil is undesirable because the deposited wake is complicated by three-dimensional ring vorticity effects. Retracting a tapered, streamlined-tipped foil is also undesirable because the shape-changing aspect of the foil geometry actually induces energy recovery back to the retracting foil, leaving a less energetic globally shed wake. Finally, a retracting hollow foil geometry avoids both of these detrimental effects, leaving relatively simple, yet energetic, vortex structures in the wake.

  17. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chicken embryo fibroblasts from chickens resistant and susceptible to Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the innate immune defense mechanisms against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the role of TLR in non-MHC genetic resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the chicken is yet to be elucidated. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from MD susceptible and resistant lines were infected either with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or treated with polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of dsRNA, and the expression of TLR and pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied at 8 and 36 h posttreatment by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Findings of the present study reveal that MDV infection and polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment significantly elevated the mRNA expression of TLR3, IL6, and IL8 in both susceptible and resistant lines. Furthermore, basal expression levels in uninfected CEF for TLR3, TLR7, and IL8 genes were significantly higher in resistant chickens compared with those of susceptible chickens. Our results suggest that TLR3 together with pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a significant role in genetic resistance to MD.

  18. Passive secondary biological treatment systems reduce estrogens in dairy shed effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Jennifer B; Northcott, Grant L; Tremblay, Louis A

    2010-10-01

    Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were collected from the systems and analyzed for free estrogens, conjugated estrogens and total estrogenic activity using E-Screen assay. Both systems showed increases of up to 8000% in aqueous free estrogens and estrogenic activity after anaerobic treatment, followed by decreases after aerobic treatment (36-83%). The complete systems decreased total steroid estrogen concentrations by 50-100% and estrogen activity by 62-100%, with little difference between systems. Removal rates were lower in winter for both systems. Final effluents from the advanced pond system contained total estrogens at <15-1400 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.2-43 ng/L. Final effluent from the two-pond system contained total estrogens at <15-300 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.3-25 ng/L. At times the final effluent EEQs exceeded guideline values for protection of freshwater fish and suggest further treatment may be required.

  19. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey...

  20. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macropha...

  1. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  2. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  4. FREQÜÊNCIA DE Salmonella EM GRANJAS DE POSTURA COMERCIAL LOCALIZADAS NO MUNICÍPIO DE GOIÂNIA E ENTORNO FREQUENCY OF Salmonella IN COMMERCIAL LAYIND SHED IN GOIÂNIA AND AROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aires Manoel de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivando o isolamento de Salmonella, foram analisadas bacteriologicamente 1.304 swabs cloacais de aves de postura comercial de seis granjas localizadas no município de Goiânia - GO e entorno. A freqüência do patógeno nas granjas sem histórico de problemas sanitários foi de 3,98% (34/854 e nas granjas com histórico de problemas sanitários, de 11,33% (51/450. Os sorotipos mais comuns foram S. nchanga e S.pullorum.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Salmonella; aves de postura; salmonelose aviária.

    It was analysed 1,304 retal swabs of broiler chicken from six commercial laying shed of Goiânia - GO, and around. Frequency of the pathogen in commercial laying shed without historic of sanitary problems was 3.98% (34/854, while in commercial laying shed with sanitary problems it was 11.33% (51/450. S. nchanga and S. pullorum were the most frequent serovars isolated.

    KEY-WORDS: Salmonella; broiler chicken; chicken salmonelosis.

  5. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  6. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Skånseng

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level. We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature (treated with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which multiple C. jejuni strains can colonise a single host, with the dominant strains being replaced as a consequence of strain-specific immune responses. This model represents a new understanding of C. jejuni epidemiology, with future implications for the development of novel intervention strategies.

  7. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem;

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  8. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  9. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  11. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens.

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  13. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  14. ADAPTATION OF EIMERIA TENELLA (LOCAL ISOLATE SPOROZOITES IN CHICKEN EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Akhtar, M. M. Ayaz, C.S. Hayat, M. Ashfaq1 and I. Hussain1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Emieria (E tenella ( local isolate} oocysts were recovered from the cases of chicken coccidiosis. Oocysts were sporulated in 2.5 per cent potassium dichromate solution at 37°C with 60 per cent humidity. Excystation of the sporulated oocysts was done with sodium hypochlorite. Sporozoites were released by treating with 1 percent Trypsin ( 1:250 followed by sodium taurocholate at 41 ºC, The final concentrations of the sporozoites were maintained at 1.8x 103-2.0 x 103per 0.1 ml. Ten chicken embryos (12 days old were inoculated each with 0.1 mi suspension of sporozoites into the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM along with penicillin and streptomycin, The embryos were maintained at 41ºC with daily candling. Death of the embryo occurred on 5th day post inoculation in six out of ten embryos. Severe hemorrhages were seen on all dead embryos. Total numbers of oocysts harvested from the CAM were 6.1 x 104-7.2 x 104 per ml. The remaining four embryos died on the 7th day post-inoculation and had mild haemorrhages. Total numbers of oocysts harvested were 3.0 x 104-3.5x104

  15. Cholesterol induces proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Meijuan; Lu, Zhenping; Yang, Mengmeng; Xie, Long; Zhang, Wenxin; Xu, Huiyan; Lu, Kehuan; Lu, Yangqing

    2016-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of sperm and eggs and may serve as suitable cells for use in research in developmental biology and transgenic animals. However, the long-term propagation of PGCs in vitro has so far been plagued by the loss of their germ cell characteristics. This is largely because of the scarcity of knowledge concerning cell division and proliferation in these cells and the poor optimization of the culture medium. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in proliferation of many types of cells, but little is known about its role in chicken PGCs. The results of the current study indicate that the proliferation of chicken PGCs increases significantly when cholesterol, a molecule that facilitates the trafficking of HH ligands, is supplemented in the culture medium. This effect was attenuated when an SHH antagonist, cyclopamine was added, suggesting the involvement of SHH signaling in this process. The characterization of PGCs treated with cholesterol has shown that these cells express germ-cell-related markers and retain their capability to colonize the embryonic gonad after re-introduction to vasculature of stage-15 HH embryos, indicating that proliferation of PGCs induced by cholesterol does not alter the germ cell characteristics of these cells. PMID:27269880

  16. Post-Modernising the Museum: The Ration Shed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of postmodern critical theory to the essentially modernist construct of the museum has significantly impacted the role of the contemporary museum within society. This article briefly describes the movement toward a ‘new museology’ and the subsequent emergence of the ‘post-museum’. It then presents a case study of the Ration Shed Museum in the historical precinct of Cherbourg, Queensland, as an example of this new ‘post-museum’. Through its application of postmodern critical theory, the Ration Shed Museum has détourned the construct of the modernist museum and applied its cultural logics in order to meet the specific needs of its local community. This museum presents a history previously overlooked by western grand narratives and offers insight into a contemporary local indigenous community on its own terms. It presents a public pedagogy where the agency of both the viewer and the museum itself is embraced, and promotes active engagement – a form of dialogue – between the viewer, the community and the museum’s curators.

  17. Some effects of vortex shedding in grid-generated turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Gianfrancesco; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Vassilicos, John Christos

    2015-11-01

    We perform hot-wire measurements in a wind tunnel downstream of different types of turbulence-generating grids: a regular grid (RG60), a fractal square grid (FSG17) and a single square grid (SSG). We characterize the flow highlighting similarities and differences between the grids and between the production and the decay regions of turbulence. We focus on the effects of vortex shedding from the bars of the grids. For this purpose we design a novel 3D configuration formed by the SSG and a set of four splitter plates detached from the grid. We show that, by placing the splitter plates, the peak of turbulence intensity on the centerline is reduced and its location is moved downstream. We compare data from the different turbulence generators and find that a reduction of vortex shedding energy correlates with an increase in the magnitudes of the skewness and flatness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the production region. The authors acknowledge support form the EU through the FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (grant agreement No. 317269).

  18. Measurement on the cavitating vortex shedding behind rectangular obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, F; Hos, C; Pandula, Z; Kullmann, L, E-mail: hegedusf@hds.bme.h [Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Muegyetem rkp. 1, Budapest 1111 (Hungary)

    2010-08-15

    Measurement results on the cavitating vortex shedding behind sharp-edged rectangular bodies are presented, intended to provide benchmark cases for the validation of unsteady cavitation models of CFD codes. Rectangular bodies of increasing aspect ratio (1, 2, 3 and 4) were used with a constant 25mm height (12.5% blockage ratio). The water velocity in the 0.2x0.05m test section of the channel was varied between 1 and 12 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number in the range of (0.4-3.5)x105. Pressure signals were measured at several locations, notably in the wake. Dominant frequencies and Strouhal numbers are reported from cavitation-free flow (classic von Karman vortex shedding) up to supercavitation as a function of the free-stream Reynolds number. The results are in good agreement with the literature in case of the square cylinder. We experienced a slight increase of the dominant Strouhal number with increasing aspect ratio. This result is somewhat inconsistent with the literature, in which a fall of the Strouhal number can be observed at side ratio 2. This may be the consequence of the different ranges of Reynolds numbers. It was also found that between the inception of cavitation and the formation of supercavitation the Strouhal number is not affected by cavitation.

  19. Backyard chickens in the United States: a survey of flock owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Blatchford, R A; Pitesky, M E; Mench, J A

    2014-11-01

    Although it has become increasingly popular to keep backyard chickens in the United States, few studies have provided information about these flocks. An online survey of backyard chicken owners was conducted, advertised through Master Gardeners' websites, social platforms, and other sites. The survey had 56 questions about flock history, husbandry, health care, and owner attitudes and demographics. Surveys received (n = 1,487) came almost equally from urban, suburban, and rural areas. Most (71%) respondents owned fewer than 10 chickens and had kept chickens for less than 5 yr (70%). Major reasons for keeping chickens were as food for home use (95%), gardening partners (63%), pets (57%), or a combination of these. Rural respondents had larger flocks (P ≤ 0.001) and were more likely to keep chickens as a source of income or for show (P ≤ 0.001) than urban and suburban respondents. Owners thought that eggs/meat from their chickens were more nutritious (86%), safer to consume (84%), and tasted better (95%) than store-bought products, and also that the health and welfare of their chickens was better (95%) than on commercial farms. The majority (59%) indicated no flock health problems in the last 12 mo. However, there was a lack of awareness about some poultry health conditions. Many knew either little or nothing about exotic Newcastle or Marek's disease, and most (61%) did not vaccinate against Marek's. Respondents wanted to learn more about various flock management topics, especially how to detect (64%) and treat (66%) health problems. The Internet was the main source of information (87%) used by backyard flock owners, followed by books/magazines (62%) and feed stores (40%). Minimizing predation was the most cited challenge (49%), followed by providing adequate feed at low cost (28%), dealing with soil management (25%), and complying with zoning regulations (23%). The evidence obtained from this survey will help to determine what information and resources are

  20. Effect of microgravity on primordial germ cells (PGCs) in silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Li, Zandong

    2011-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of germline cells, display a variety of antigens during their migration to target gonads. Here, we used silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos subjected to space microgravity to investigate the influence of microgravity on PGCs. The ShenZhou-3 unmanned spaceship carried nine fertilized silk chicken eggs, named the flight group, returned to Earth after 7 days space flight. And the control group has the same clan with the flight group. PGCs from flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos were examined during migration by using two antibodies (2C9 and anti-SSEA-1), in combination with the horseradish peroxidase detection system, and using periodic acid-Schiff's solution (PAS) reaction. After incubation for about 30 h, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in the germinal crescent of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 2-2.5 days, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in embryonic blood vessels of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 5.5 days, PGCs in the dorsal mesentery and gonad could also be identified in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos by using SSEA-1 and 2C9 antibodies. Based on location and PAS staining, these cells were identified as PGCs. Meanwhile, at the stage of PGCs migration and then becoming established in the germinal ridges, no difference in SSEA-1 or 2C9 staining was detected between female and male PGCs in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. Although there were differences in the profiles of PGC concentration between male and female embryos during the special circulating stage, changing profile of PGCs concentration was similar in same sex between flight and control group offspring embryos. We concluded that there is little effect on PGCs in offspring embryos of microgravity-treated chicken and that PGC development appears

  1. Backyard chickens in the United States: a survey of flock owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Blatchford, R A; Pitesky, M E; Mench, J A

    2014-11-01

    Although it has become increasingly popular to keep backyard chickens in the United States, few studies have provided information about these flocks. An online survey of backyard chicken owners was conducted, advertised through Master Gardeners' websites, social platforms, and other sites. The survey had 56 questions about flock history, husbandry, health care, and owner attitudes and demographics. Surveys received (n = 1,487) came almost equally from urban, suburban, and rural areas. Most (71%) respondents owned fewer than 10 chickens and had kept chickens for less than 5 yr (70%). Major reasons for keeping chickens were as food for home use (95%), gardening partners (63%), pets (57%), or a combination of these. Rural respondents had larger flocks (P ≤ 0.001) and were more likely to keep chickens as a source of income or for show (P ≤ 0.001) than urban and suburban respondents. Owners thought that eggs/meat from their chickens were more nutritious (86%), safer to consume (84%), and tasted better (95%) than store-bought products, and also that the health and welfare of their chickens was better (95%) than on commercial farms. The majority (59%) indicated no flock health problems in the last 12 mo. However, there was a lack of awareness about some poultry health conditions. Many knew either little or nothing about exotic Newcastle or Marek's disease, and most (61%) did not vaccinate against Marek's. Respondents wanted to learn more about various flock management topics, especially how to detect (64%) and treat (66%) health problems. The Internet was the main source of information (87%) used by backyard flock owners, followed by books/magazines (62%) and feed stores (40%). Minimizing predation was the most cited challenge (49%), followed by providing adequate feed at low cost (28%), dealing with soil management (25%), and complying with zoning regulations (23%). The evidence obtained from this survey will help to determine what information and resources are

  2. Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) in chicken: Evaluation of an ancestral H9-MVA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Becker, Jens; Freudenstein, Astrid; Delverdier, Maxence; Delpont, Mattias; Sutter, Gerd; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Volz, Asisa

    2016-06-30

    Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has proven its efficacy as a recombinant vector vaccine for numerous pathogens including influenza virus. The present study aimed at evaluating a recombinant MVA candidate vaccine against low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 in the chicken model. As the high genetic and antigenic diversity of H9N2 viruses increases vaccine design complexity, one strategy to widen the range of vaccine coverage is to use an ancestor sequence. We therefore generated a recombinant MVA encoding for the gene sequence of an ancestral hemagglutinin H9 protein (a computationally derived amino acid sequence of the node of the H9N2 G1 lineage strains was obtained using the ANCESCON program). We analyzed the genetics and the growth properties of the MVA vector virus confirming suitability for use under biosafety level 1 and tested its efficacy when applied either as an intra-muscular (IM) or an oral vaccine in specific pathogen free chickens challenged with A/chicken/Tunisia/12/2010(H9N2). Two control groups were studied in parallel (unvaccinated and inoculated birds; unvaccinated and non-inoculated birds). IM vaccinated birds seroconverted as early as four days post vaccination and neutralizing antibodies were detected against A/chicken/Tunisia/12/2010(H9N2) in all the birds before challenge. The role of local mucosal immunity is unclear here as no antibodies were detected in eye drop or aerosol vaccinated birds. Clinical signs were not detected in any of the infected birds even in absence of vaccination. Virus replication was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens, suggesting the MVA-ancestral H9 vaccine may not stop virus spread in the field. However vaccinated birds showed less histological damage, fewer influenza-positive cells and shorter virus shedding than their unvaccinated counterparts. PMID:27259828

  3. Prior infection of chickens with H1N1 or H1N2 avian influenza elicits partial heterologous protection against highly pathogenic H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nfon

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to have vaccines that can protect against emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Commonly used influenza vaccines are killed whole virus that protect against homologous and not heterologous virus. Using chickens we have explored the possibility of using live low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI A/goose/AB/223/2005 H1N1 or A/WBS/MB/325/2006 H1N2 to induce immunity against heterologous highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A/chicken/Vietnam/14/2005 H5N1. H1N1 and H1N2 replicated in chickens but did not cause clinical disease. Following infection, chickens developed nucleoprotein and H1 specific antibodies, and reduced H5N1 plaque size in vitro in the absence of H5 neutralizing antibodies at 21 days post infection (DPI. In addition, heterologous cell mediated immunity (CMI was demonstrated by antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in PBMCs re-stimulated with H5N1 antigen. Following H5N1 challenge of both pre-infected and naïve controls chickens housed together, all naïve chickens developed acute disease and died while H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens had reduced clinical disease and 70-80% survived. H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens were also challenged with H5N1 and naïve chickens placed in the same room one day later. All pre-infected birds were protected from H5N1 challenge but shed infectious virus to naïve contact chickens. However, disease onset, severity and mortality was reduced and delayed in the naïve contacts compared to directly inoculated naïve controls. These results indicate that prior infection with LPAI virus can generate heterologous protection against HPAI H5N1 in the absence of specific H5 antibody.

  4. The chicken alimentary tract and factors that influence feed passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chicken alimentary track differs in several ways from most other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although their stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used ...

  5. Successful treatment with interferon of chicken pox in children with acute leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byung Soo

    1984-01-01

    Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphocytic leukemia, can now be completely cured by a multimodality approach in one out of every two patients. Since prolonged maintenance therapy with anti-cancer agents for three years is required for complete cure, a significant problem during this course of treatment is death due to secondary infection. Those with childhood leukemia receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy who became secondarily injected with chicken pox can now be treated successfully with...

  6. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches

    OpenAIRE

    Prestes, R. C.; Silva, L. B.; Torri, A. M. P.; Kubota, E. H.; C.S. ROSA; S.S. ROMAN; Kempka, A. P.; I.M. DEMIATE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded...

  7. Perturbations in the antioxidant metabolism during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken. Protective role of vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Kadiam C. Venkata; Raniprameela, D.; Visweswari, Gopalareddygari; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Lokanatha, Valluru

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on pro/anti-oxidant status in the liver, brain and heart of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infected chickens. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- S-transferase (GST) and the levels of reduced glutathione and malonaldehyde were estimated in selected tissues of uninfected, NDV-infected and NDV + vit. E-treated chickens. A significant increase in MDA levels in brain and liver ( p < 0.05) was observed in NDV-infected chickens when compared to controls. The activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST and levels of GSH were significantly ( p < 0.05) decreased in brain and liver of NDV-infected chickens over controls. On the other hand, a significant decreased MDA levels and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity levels were observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals compared to NDV-infected chickens. Histopathological studies revealed that liver of NDV infected chicken shows focal coagulation and infiltration of hepatocytes, whereas neuronal necrosis and degeneration of Purkinje cells were observed in brain and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in heart. However such histological alterations were not observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals. The results of the present study, thus demonstrated that antioxidant defense mechanism is impaired after the induction of NDV, suggesting its critical role in cellular injury in brain and liver. Further, the results also suggest that vitamin E treatment will ameliorate the antioxidant status in the infected animals. The findings could be beneficial to understand the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of NDV and therapeutic interventions of antioxidants.

  8. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  9. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...

  10. Effects of Aluminum Trichloride on Structure and Function of Kidney in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji-hong; Luo Ji-long; Yu Hong-xiang; Bai Chong-sheng; Han Yan-fei; Xia Shi-liang; Li Yan-fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) on renal structure and function in chickens, the chickens were injected continuously with different gradient AlCl3 for 60 days to establish sub-chronic aluminum (Al) intoxication model. The AI concentration in serum and kidney, contents of creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum were detected, and the renal structure was also observed by optical microscope. The results showed that the A1 concentration in serum and kidney, the contents of Cr and BUN in serum were significantly higher in Al-treated chickens than those in the control group (P〈0.05; P〈0.01) and there was an AlCl3 dose-depended manner. Histopathologically, in the low dose group, acinus renis swelled mildly and there were no apparent pathological changes in nephric tubule and proximal convoluted tubule. In the middle and high dose group, acinus renis swelled, glomerular cells increased, nephric tubule cloudy swelled, and epithelial cells of proximal convoluted tubule swelled. The results indicated that sub-chronic Al exposure impaired the renal structure and function in chickens.

  11. Effects of Immunopotentiator of the Traditional Chinese Medicine on T Lymphocytes in Chicken Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiumei; LI Chunling; GAO Guisheng; SHEN Ping; TANG Shengling

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of action of immunoenhancer, the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine immunopromoter on the quantity and the transformation rates of T lymphocytes in the chicken blood were determined. Total 120 chickens were randomly assigned into three groups. The 1% and the 0.5% of the Chinese medicine immunopromoter were added to the chicken drinking water, respectively. The quantity of T lymphocytes in each group was measured by a-Naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining. The results showed that the percentages of T lymphocytes of the treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the percentage of the 1% group significantly higher than that of the 0.5% group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the transformation rates of T lymphocytes showed that the Chinese medicine immunopromoter had the significant enhancing effect on the transformation rates of T lymphoeytes of the treated chickens. The traditional Chinese medicine immunopromoter had the distinct function to promote the quantity and the transformation rate of T iymphocytes.

  12. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage.

  13. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage. - Highlights: • We evaluate the combined effects of gamma irradiation and antioxidant combination. • Gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the nitrite levels. • Combination of antioxidants might be helpful in enhancing the oxidative stability

  14. Administration of a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain by coarse spray to newly hatched broilers reduces colonization and shedding of a Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cort, W; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; van Immerseel, F

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans. Colonization inhibition (CI) occurs when a live Salmonella strain is administered to chickens and subsequently protects against challenge with another Salmonella strain belonging to the same serotype. A Salmonella Enteritidis hilAssrAfliG deletion mutant has previously been proven to reduce colonization and shedding of a wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis strain in newly hatched broilers after experimental infection. In this study, we compared two administration routes for this strain. Administering the Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain through drinking water on the first day of life resulted in decreased fecal shedding and cecal colonization of a wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain administered 24 h later using a seeder-bird model. When administering the CI strain by coarse spray on newly hatched broiler chicks, an even more pronounced reduction of cecal colonization was observed, and fecal shedding of the Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain ceased during the course of the experiment. These data suggest that administering a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to newly hatched chicks using a coarse spray is a useful and effective method that reduces colonization and shedding of a wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis strain after early challenge. PMID:25535402

  15. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  16. Evaluation of quality characteristics and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meats treated with different dose rates of ionizing radiation and use of antioxidants; Avaliacao de caracteristicas de qualidade e propriedades funcionais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango tratada com diferentes taxas de dose de radiacao ionizante e uso de antioxidantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula

    2012-07-01

    The Mechanically Deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used in traditional meat products, in greater proportion in those emulsified, replacing meat raw materials more expensive. The raw material can have high MDCM the microbial load, as a result of contamination during processing or failure during the evisceration. The irradiation process is accepted as one of the most effective technologies when compared to conventional techniques of preservation, to reduce contamination of pathogens and spoilage. However, little information is available about the use and effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation processing. Irradiation causes chemical changes in food, a major cause of deterioration of quality of raw or cooked meat products during refrigerated storage, frozen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation on the production of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken added or without added antioxidants, during the cold storage and evaluation of functional properties. The results showed that among the tested dose rates using cobalt-60 source, dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h-1 was the best for processing MDCM. Furthermore, the use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to reduce lipid oxidation generated by irradiation of the samples, showed a synergistic effect to the processing with ionizing radiation in reduction of psychrotrophic bacteria count and contributed to a better sensory quality. The use of radiation in the processing FDMI did not adversely affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  17. A single R36Q mutation in the matrix protein of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 reduces virus replication and shedding in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haixu; Song, Qingqing; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Jiajia; Cheng, Xin; Hu, Shunlin; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-07-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) is considered an antigenic and variant of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) that has adapted to pigeons as hosts. However, how this host-specific adaption of PPMV-1 is related to its biological characteristics is unknown. In this study, seven unique amino acids in PPMV-1 that are not present in other APMV-1 strains (n = 39 versus n = 106) were identified. R36 of the M protein was found to be not only a unique amino acid but also a positive-selection site. To investigate the role of R36 in host adaptation, a recombinant PPMV-1 with R36Q mutation was constructed. Our results indicated that the an R36Q mutation significantly attenuates pathogenicity in chickens, viral growth in both chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and pigeon embryo fibroblasts (PEFs), and virus replication and shedding in pigeons in comparison with the wild-type virus, suggesting that R36 is a key residue that evolved during the adaptation of PPMV-1 in pigeons. PMID:27038826

  18. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  19. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were…

  20. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging by the application of lytic bacteriophage preparation SalmoFreshTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets, as a surface and dip application. The effectiveness of phage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the ability of phage preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets at room temperature was also evaluated. Chicken breast fillets inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis were treated with bacteriophage (10(9) PFU/mL) as either a dip or surface treatment. The dip-treated samples were stored at 4°C aerobically and the surface-treated samples were stored under aerobic and MAP conditions (95% CO2/5% O2) at 4°C for 7 d. Immersion of Salmonella-inoculated chicken breast fillets in bacteriophage solution reduced Salmonella (P chicken breast fillets when the samples were surface treated with phage and stored under MAP conditions. The Salmonella counts were reduced by 1.2, 1.1, and 1.2 log CFU/g on d 0, 1, and 7 of storage, respectively. Bacteriophage surface application on chicken breast fillets stored at room temperature reduced the Salmonella counts by 0.8, 0.9, and 0.4 log CFU/g after 0, 4, and 8 h, respectively, compared to the untreated positive control. These findings indicate that lytic phage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere conditions.

  1. Analysis of Phosphorus Flows through Minnesota's Twin Cities Urban Food-Shed: Three Scenarios for Improving Nutrient Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, H. M.; Baker, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, essential for agriculture and human food production. Although it is being depleted globally, urban P use is inefficient and contributes to water resources degradation, particularly accelerated eutrophication of receiving waters. A paradox in the P cycle is that although P enters the system through fertilizer application to agricultural land or livestock manure production in rural areas, the resulting food produced is consumed within urban households. Dietary food consumption is the largest P input to, and output from, Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota, households. This 7-county area has a population of 2.9 million (2010), which is over half of the State's population. Human food accounts for 41% of the P input to and 46% of the P output from the TCMA; only about 1% of the P in food waste is recycled. Expanding on previous work by the Twin Cities Household Ecosystem Project (TCHEP), this P flow analysis aims to quantify nutrient inputs required throughout the agricultural system to produce the amount of food consumed by TCMA households, while examining P use efficiency by summarizing the extent of leakage (waste), storage, and reuse throughout these systems. Food corresponding to a minimum of 80% of the total dietary P-input for TCMA households can be produced entirely within Minnesota's agricultural system, hence our "food-shed" is more-or-less directly connected to urban consumers. The top food products which contribute the largest input of dietary P are milk, cheese, wheat flour, beef, chicken, caloric sweeteners and pork. Mapping out an agricultural footprint which can support this urban ecosystem enables P use to be conceptualized through a circular economy model, in this case with Minnesota as the food-shed boundary. Using state-level data, augmented with intensive interview data collected from local livestock and food production experts, a detailed P balance was developed for each major animal and

  2. Leading-edge vortex shedding from rotating wings

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical investigation of the leading-edge vortices generated by rotating triangular wings at Reynolds number $Re=250$. A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. The transition from stable attachment of the leading-edge vortex to periodic vortex shedding is explored, as a function of the wing aspect ratio and the angle of attack. It is found that, in a stable configuration, the spanwise flow in the recirculation bubble past the wing is due to the centrifugal force, incompressibility and viscous stresses. For the flow outside of the bubble, an inviscid model of spanwise flow is presented.

  3. Leading-edge vortex shedding from rotating wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke W., Montreal, QC H3A 0B9 (Canada); Elimelech, Yossef [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Schneider, Kai, E-mail: dkolom@gmail.com [M2P2–CNRS, Université d' Aix-Marseille, 39, rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the leading-edge vortices generated by rotating triangular wings at Reynolds number Re = 250. A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. The transition from stable attachment of the leading-edge vortex to periodic vortex shedding is explored, as a function of the wing aspect ratio and the angle of attack. It is found that, in a stable configuration, the spanwise flow in the recirculation bubble past the wing is due to the centrifugal force, incompressibility and viscous stresses. For the flow outside of the bubble, an inviscid model of spanwise flow is presented. (papers)

  4. Shedding light on restoring respiratory function after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren J Alilain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of respiratory function is one of the leading causes of death following spinal cord injury. Because of this, much work has been done in studying ways to restore respiratory function following SCI - including pharmacological and regeneration strategies. With the emergence of new and powerful tools from molecular neuroscience, new therapeutically relevant alternatives to these approaches have become available, including expression of light sensitive proteins called channelrhodopsins. In this article we briefly review the history of various attempts to restore breathing after C2 hemisection, and focus on our recent work using the activation of light sensitive channels to restore respiratory function after experimental spinal cord injury. We also discuss how such light induced activity can help shed light on the inner workings of the central nervous system respiratory circuitry that controls diaphragmatic function.

  5. Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Geng, Z Y

    2015-11-01

    Cold stress triggers an anti-oxidative response in animals regulated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2-like, NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. To identify chicken Nrf2-regulated genes, 3 genetically related experimental groups (EG) with 40 Huainan partridge chickens in each group were chosen. The chickens were maintained at 20°C environmental temperature from 5 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 10 chickens from each EG were still maintained at 20°C as control, and the other 30 chickens from each EG were exposed to 6 ± 2°C. Liver samples were collected from the control and from chickens exposed to 6 ± 2°C for 12, 24, and 72 h for co-immuno-precipitation (CoIP) analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiment in liver cells treated with Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were carried out. A de novo motif was discovered which closely matched the core Nrf2 consensus binding motif. Genes involved in de novo motif discovery were further analyzed for their enrichment in the anti-oxidative response pathway and the lipid anabolism pathway. There were 14 genes found which are related to oxidative stress. To examine the downstream factors of the 14 responsive genes, one of them, UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase), was further analyzed by CoIP experiment and nano LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It was detected that fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, 127 AA) might be the potential UGT1A1 downstream interaction proteins. In conclusion, it is proposed that chickens under cold stress generate anti-oxidative stress and thus trigger the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which further up-regulates the expression of L-FABP to inactivate lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and promote fatty acid storage against the cold environment. PMID:26453599

  6. Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Geng, Z Y

    2015-11-01

    Cold stress triggers an anti-oxidative response in animals regulated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2-like, NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. To identify chicken Nrf2-regulated genes, 3 genetically related experimental groups (EG) with 40 Huainan partridge chickens in each group were chosen. The chickens were maintained at 20°C environmental temperature from 5 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 10 chickens from each EG were still maintained at 20°C as control, and the other 30 chickens from each EG were exposed to 6 ± 2°C. Liver samples were collected from the control and from chickens exposed to 6 ± 2°C for 12, 24, and 72 h for co-immuno-precipitation (CoIP) analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiment in liver cells treated with Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were carried out. A de novo motif was discovered which closely matched the core Nrf2 consensus binding motif. Genes involved in de novo motif discovery were further analyzed for their enrichment in the anti-oxidative response pathway and the lipid anabolism pathway. There were 14 genes found which are related to oxidative stress. To examine the downstream factors of the 14 responsive genes, one of them, UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase), was further analyzed by CoIP experiment and nano LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It was detected that fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, 127 AA) might be the potential UGT1A1 downstream interaction proteins. In conclusion, it is proposed that chickens under cold stress generate anti-oxidative stress and thus trigger the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which further up-regulates the expression of L-FABP to inactivate lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and promote fatty acid storage against the cold environment.

  7. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagriti Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the eyeball and orbital involvement which would have necessitated orbital exenteration. However delayed presentation resulted in necrosis of orbicularis oculi and underlying tissue which resulted in graft retraction and lid dysfunction. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but fulminating condition to minimise the sight and life threatening complications associated with it.

  8. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Jagriti; Thatte, Shreya; Singhai, Prakhar

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the eyeball and orbital involvement which would have necessitated orbital exenteration. However delayed presentation resulted in necrosis of orbicularis oculi and underlying tissue which resulted in graft retraction and lid dysfunction. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but fulminating condition to minimise the sight and life threatening complications associated with it. PMID:25709281

  9. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier;

    2015-01-01

    since mold can develop when frozen foods are allowed to attain temperatures of -10ºC, or above. The growth of fungi on the food surface results in economic losses and represents a hazard to public health due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to identify the species of......Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  10. Aetheroleum and fat oxidation of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with   aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum  contained  aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline;

    2002-01-01

    encompassing the entire cDNA of 3 kb. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 201 amino acids. The cytoplasmic domain is identical with that of mammalian syndecan-2, and highly similar to those of Xenopus laevis and zebrafish syndecan-2. The transmembrane domain is identical with that of mammalian...... and zebrafish syndecan-2, and highly similar to that of Xenopus laevis syndecan-2. The ectodomain is 45-62% identical with that of zebrafish, Xenopus laevis and mammalian syndecan-2. Two coding single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. In vitro transcription and translation yielded a product of 30 k......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  12. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 250C during summer and about 200C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s-1 and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin

  13. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  14. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  15. Treating Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Treating meningitis Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID THE AUTHORS STUDY? ... study, “ Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, ” Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ...

  16. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  17. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier;

    2015-01-01

    of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...... the isolates in Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA) and yeast extract agar and sucrose (YESA) and extracting the extrolites with a solution of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol, and formic acid. Some isolates of these species showed an ability to synthesize mycotoxins such as cyclopiazonic acid...

  18. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  19. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  20. Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-α and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18 as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-α or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-α and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2.

  1. Analysis and Prediction of Ice Shedding for a Full-Scale Heated Tail Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Work, Andrew; Douglass, Rebekah; Gazella, Matthew; Koster, Zakery; Turk, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    When helicopters are to fly in icing conditions, it is necessary to consider the possibility of ice shed from the rotor blades. In 2013, a series of tests were conducted on a heated tail rotor at NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The tests produced several shed events that were captured on camera. Three of these shed events were captured at a sufficiently high frame rate to obtain multiple images of the shed ice in flight that had a sufficiently long section of shed ice for analysis. Analysis of these shed events is presented and compared to an analytical Shedding Trajectory Model (STM). The STM is developed and assumes that the ice breaks off instantly as it reaches the end of the blade, while frictional and viscous forces are used as parameters to fit the STM. The trajectory of each shed is compared to that predicted by the STM, where the STM provides information of the shed group of ice as a whole. The limitations of the model's underlying assumptions are discussed in comparison to experimental shed events.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2006-01-01

    -old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown...... to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...... to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines....

  3. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  4. Transgenic Chickens Overexpressing Aromatase Have High Estrogen Levels but Maintain a Predominantly Male Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten R; Wise, Terry G; Cummins, David M; O'Neil, Terri E; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterized steroidogenic pathway, which is a multistep process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of aromatase in male chicken embryos induces gonadal sex reversal, and male embryos treated with estradiol become feminized; however, this is not permanent. To test whether a continuous supply of estrogen in adult chickens could induce stable male to female sex reversal, 2 transgenic male chickens overexpressing aromatase were generated using the Tol2/transposase system. These birds had robust ectopic aromatase expression, which resulted in the production of high serum levels of estradiol. Transgenic males had female-like wattle and comb growth and feathering, but they retained male weights, displayed leg spurs, and developed testes. Despite the small sample size, this data strongly suggests that high levels of circulating estrogen are insufficient to maintain a female gonadal phenotype in adult birds. Previous observations of gynandromorph birds and embryos with mixed sex chimeric gonads have highlighted the role of cell autonomous sex identity in chickens. This might imply that in the study described here, direct genetic effects of the male chromosomes largely prevailed over the hormonal profile of the aromatase transgenic birds. This data therefore support the emerging view of at least partial cell autonomous sex development in birds. However, a larger study will confirm this intriguing observation. PMID:26556534

  5. Transgenic Chickens Overexpressing Aromatase Have High Estrogen Levels but Maintain a Predominantly Male Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten R; Wise, Terry G; Cummins, David M; O'Neil, Terri E; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterized steroidogenic pathway, which is a multistep process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of aromatase in male chicken embryos induces gonadal sex reversal, and male embryos treated with estradiol become feminized; however, this is not permanent. To test whether a continuous supply of estrogen in adult chickens could induce stable male to female sex reversal, 2 transgenic male chickens overexpressing aromatase were generated using the Tol2/transposase system. These birds had robust ectopic aromatase expression, which resulted in the production of high serum levels of estradiol. Transgenic males had female-like wattle and comb growth and feathering, but they retained male weights, displayed leg spurs, and developed testes. Despite the small sample size, this data strongly suggests that high levels of circulating estrogen are insufficient to maintain a female gonadal phenotype in adult birds. Previous observations of gynandromorph birds and embryos with mixed sex chimeric gonads have highlighted the role of cell autonomous sex identity in chickens. This might imply that in the study described here, direct genetic effects of the male chromosomes largely prevailed over the hormonal profile of the aromatase transgenic birds. This data therefore support the emerging view of at least partial cell autonomous sex development in birds. However, a larger study will confirm this intriguing observation.

  6. AMPK Subunit Expression Regulates Intramuscular Fat Content and Muscle Fiber Type in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye YANG; Jiao SONG; Ruiqi FU; Yanfa SUN; Jie WEN

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of AMPK in intramus-cular fat (IMF) and fiber type in chicken muscle. The chickens were slaughtered and their muscles were col ected at the ages of 4, 8, and 16 weeks so as to de-termine the IMF contents, as wel as the expression levels of AMPK subunits, regu-lators of adipogenesis. In addition, the myosin heavy chains (MyHCs) in thigh mus-cle tissues were also measured. The results showed that the IMF contents in 16-week old chickens were higher than those in 4 and 8-week-old chickens (P<0.05). The expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty aicd translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) mRNA were increased significantly in samples col ected at the ages of 4 and 16 weeks (P<0.05). The expression levels of MyHC IIa and IIb differed sig-nificantly among al the developmental stages (P<0.05). The AMPKα2, AMPKγ1, and AMPKγ3 mRNA levels were dramatical y decreased with the increase of age (P<0.05). To examine the role of AMPK in adipogenesis regulation, the SV cel s were cultured in an adipogenesis medium and treated with AICAR and Compound C respectively, the specific activator and inhibit of AMPK. The Compound C induced dramatical y a greater expression of C/EBPβ, SREBP1 and PPARγ (P<0.05). In conclusion, the expression of AMPKα2, AMPKγ1, and AMPKγ3 mRNA is signifi-cantly correlated with the adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of chickens.

  7. Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo

    2014-08-01

    Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P≤0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response.

  8. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4–14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  9. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.

  10. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and α-tops (including α-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels.

  11. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  12. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Abdul; Hailemariam Zerihun; Hair-Bejo Mohd; Giap Tan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 ...

  13. Differential effects of age on chicken heterophil functional activation by recombinant chicken interleukin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Kogut, Michael; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) exercises an array of biological effects on many cells including the functional activation of cells of the innate immune response. Heterophils, the avian equivalent of the neutrophil, function as professional phagocytes to aid in regulation of innate host defenses. The objective of the present studies was to examine the effects of recombinant chicken IL-2 (rChIL-2) on functional activities of heterophils from chickens during the first 3 weeks after hatch. Peripheral blood...

  14. Immunological Competence of Different Domestic Chicken Breeds Against Avian Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Ulrike; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for high laying performance on the capacity to respond to an infection with avian influenza virus (AIV), four different chicken lines were tested: A white layer and a brown layer breed originating from a commercial breeding program, and a white layer and a brown layer line maintained as a conservation flock for decades without any selection. The different chicken breeds were infected with AIV of different pathotypes (low pathogenic to high pathogenic) to evaluate and compare their immunological competence. Morbidity and mortality rates, as well as viral shedding, were investigated as parameters of virus infection. Immune cells in blood samples collected after different time points following inoculation were identified. In general, the chickens of the two phylogenetically related brown layer lines (irrespective of the performance type) were more resistant to infection with the selected AIVs, reflected by a lower mortality rate (low virulent AIV) or a prolonged length of survival before succumbing to the disease (highly virulent AIV). Corresponding to these results, CD8-positive cell counts were reduced in both white layer lines. This observation was also confirmed in an in vivo allogenic transfer experiment, in which brown layers eliminated the transferred cells in a shorter time period. In conclusion, our results do not support the theory of reduced immunological competence of high-performance layer breeds, at least against AIV infection. Instead, brown layer strains had a faster CD8-positive immune cell response after viral or allogenic stimulus than the phylogenetically distant white layers, resulting in better resistance against AIV infection. PMID:27309066

  15. Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

  16. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken offal at the retail level in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S

    2013-06-01

    A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from Malaysia. PMID:23687164

  17. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  18. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging by the application of lytic bacteriophage preparation SalmoFreshTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets, as a surface and dip application. The effectiveness of phage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the ability of phage preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets at room temperature was also evaluated. Chicken breast fillets inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis were treated with bacteriophage (10(9) PFU/mL) as either a dip or surface treatment. The dip-treated samples were stored at 4°C aerobically and the surface-treated samples were stored under aerobic and MAP conditions (95% CO2/5% O2) at 4°C for 7 d. Immersion of Salmonella-inoculated chicken breast fillets in bacteriophage solution reduced Salmonella (P effective in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere conditions. PMID:26706362

  19. Substitution of sugar cane bagasse in the chicken diet and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, R A; el-Faramawy, A A

    2001-10-01

    Total proteins and protein electrophoresis were made in the sera of broiler chicken (Arber Acres) to evaluate the effect of substitution of basal diet for 4 weeks by either 8% sugar cane bagasse +2% wheat germ or 16% sugar cane bagasse +4% wheat germ whether untreated or incubated with rumen liquor for 72 h and then sterilized with 2 Mrad gamma-irradiation (treated). Both levels of untreated sugar can bagasse (8 and 16%) showed significant decrease in gamma globulins but this decrease had no effect on broiler chicken (45 days) while there was significant increase in total proteins in treated sugar cane bagasse 8% with concomitant increase in alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma globulins. These results denoted that addition of rumen liquor to 8% sugar cane bagasse diet have resulted in an improvement in the transportation of micro nutrients and immune response most probably due to its high content of microorganisms constituting high quality animal protein; also more vaccines were recommended in feeding of chicken with sugar cane bagasse for a longer period e.g. laying hens to overcome its suppressive effect on the gamma globulins. PMID:11715352

  20. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  1. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  2. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  3. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K;

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  4. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  5. Precise Centromere Positioning on Chicken Chromosome 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.A.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the progress of the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequencing project, the centromeric sequences of most macrochromosomes remain unknown. This makes it difficult to determine centromere positions in the genome sequence assembly. Using giant lampbrush chromosomes from growing oocytes, we anal

  6. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  7. Effects of high pressure treatment on the quality of chicken patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, D.; Cegiełka, A.; Fonberg-Broczek, M.; Ziarno, M.

    2011-06-01

    The effects of high pressure treatment (500 MPa, 10 min, 20 °C) on the quality of commercial chicken patties (breaded and unbreaded) were evaluated. Physical, chemical and microbiological tests were performed 24 h after high pressure processing (HPP), as well as after 14 and 21 days of storage in refrigerated conditions. It was concluded that the use of high pressures extends the shelf life of vacuum-packaged chicken patties by up to 3 weeks, based on the condition of storage during refrigeration. After this period, the number of mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria in the pressure-treated patties was five to six logarithmic cycles lower than that in the control products. HPP did not considerably influence the amount of storage drip loss, texture or colour of the patties; however, it quickened the process of lipid oxidation.

  8. Successful treatment with interferon of chicken pox in children with acute leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Byung Soo

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphocytic leukemia, can now be completely cured by a multimodality approach in one out of every two patients. Since prolonged maintenance therapy with anti-cancer agents for three years is required for complete cure, a significant problem during this course of treatment is death due to secondary infection. Those with childhood leukemia receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy who became secondarily injected with chicken pox can now be treated successfully with interferon in the four cases reported here. Chicken pox was cured even while one of them was in relapse. Therefore, it can be said that a bright prospect, namely interferon, is on the horizon in the treatment of secondary viral diseases associated with acute leukemia.

  9. Effects of Subchronic Aluminum Exposure on Amino Acids Neurotransmitters in Chicken Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yan-fei; Xia Shi-liang; Bai Chong-sheng; Zhang Ji-hong; Li Yan-fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of aluminium (Al) exposure on amino acid neurotransmitters, the chickens with different levels of subchronic Al poisoning were estabolished by continuous peritoneal injection of fixed volume and different concentrations of gradient of aluminium trichloride (AlCl3). The levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in chicken brains were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after being exposed of Al for 60 days, and Al levels in serum and brain tissue were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed that Glu levels increased with the increase of Al, but there was no significant difference compared with the control. The levels of Al, Asp, Gly, GABA and Tau were significantly higher in Al-treated groups than those in the control. The results indicated that Al intoxication led to excitatory neurotoxicity.

  10. Demand Response an Alternative Solution to Prevent Load Shedding Triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mollah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an alternative solution to prevent Load Shedding (LS triggering during underfrequency and proposes a new technique to restore the frequency during emergency events. Demand response (DR is considered as one of the most promising Smart Grid concepts that can be used to support the peak demand, whereas, LS is an existing last resort method during emergency grid situations. Both schemes aim to balance the load and generation in real-time and restore the frequency very quickly. This paper incorporates integrating Incentive based Demand Response (IDR with spinning reserve for smaller underfrequency events to manage the system peak demand. It also introduces a new frequency band for an Emergency Demand Response (EDR as an alternative inexpensive solution that can replace costly spinning reserves and help to prevent LS. An energy index factor is used to identify the consumption pattern of consumers to enable them to participate in IDR. An illustrative example of the performance of the proposed scheme on a modified 15 bus test system is shown. Simulation results on different scenarios confirm that the proposed method is effective to improve the frequency restoration process along with enabling participation of new services.

  11. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  12. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  13. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy nanostructural study of shed microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Issman

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are sub-micron membrane vesicles (100-1000 nm shed from normal and pathologic cells due to stimulation or apoptosis. MPs can be found in the peripheral blood circulation of healthy individuals, whereas elevated concentrations are found in pregnancy and in a variety of diseases. Also, MPs participate in physiological processes, e.g., coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Since their clinical properties are important, we have developed a new methodology based on nano-imaging that provides significant new data on MPs nanostructure, their composition and function. We are among the first to characterize by direct-imaging cryogenic transmitting electron microscopy (cryo-TEM the near-to-native nanostructure of MP systems isolated from different cell types and stimulation procedures. We found that there are no major differences between the MP systems we have studied, as most particles were spherical, with diameters from 200 to 400 nm. However, each MP population is very heterogeneous, showing diverse morphologies. We investigated by cryo-TEM the effects of standard techniques used to isolate and store MPs, and found that either high-g centrifugation of MPs for isolation purposes, or slow freezing to -80 °C for storage introduce morphological artifacts, which can influence MP nanostructure, and thus affect the efficiency of these particles as future diagnostic tools.

  14. Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Evan J

    2008-10-01

    Rotavirus causes gastroenteritis in almost all children by 5 years of age. Immunity to rotavirus is incomplete, with potential for recurrent infections occurring throughout life. Live rotavirus vaccines have been developed for the protection of children from severe wildtype rotavirus infections. Transmission of vaccine virus strains from vaccinated children to unvaccinated contacts harbours the potential for herd immunity, but also the risk of vaccine-derived disease in immunocompromised contacts. A review of rotavirus vaccine prelicensure studies shows that viral shedding and transmission were higher with the old tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine than with the current human attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine and the pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine. Immunocompromised contacts should be advised to avoid contact with stool from the immunised child if possible, particularly after the first vaccine dose for at least 14 days. Since the risk of vaccine transmission and subsequent vaccine-derived disease with the current vaccines is much less than the risk of wildtype rotavirus disease in immunocompromised contacts, vaccination should be encouraged.

  15. Inactivation of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Ground Chicken Meat Using High Pressure Processing and Gamma Radiation, and in Purge and Chicken Meat Surfaces by Ultraviolet Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Sommers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC, including uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC are common contaminants in poultry meat and may cause urinary tract infections after colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and transfer of contaminated feces to the urethra. Three nonthermal processing technologies used to improve the safety and shelf-life of both human and pet foods include high pressure processing (HPP, ionizing (gamma radiation (GR, and ultraviolet light (UV-C. Multi-isolate cocktails of UPEC were inoculated into ground chicken which was then treated with HPP (4 oC, 0-25 min at 300, 400 or 500 MPa. HPP D10, the processing conditions needed to inactivate 1 log of UPEC, was 30.6, 8.37, and 4.43 min at 300, 400, and 500 MPa, respectively. When the UPEC was inoculated into ground chicken and gamma irradiated (4 and -20 oC the GR D10 were 0.28 and 0.36 kGy, respectively. The UV-C D10 of UPEC in chicken suspended in exudate and placed on stainless steel and plastic food contact surfaces ranged from 11.4 to 12.9 mJ/cm2. UV-C inactivated ca. 0.6 log of UPEC on chicken breast meat. These results indicate that existing nonthermal processing technologies such as HPP, GR, and UV-C can significantly reduce UPEC levels in poultry meat or exudate and provide safer poultry products for at-risk consumers.

  16. Inactivation of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Ground Chicken Meat Using High Pressure Processing and Gamma Radiation, and in Purge and Chicken Meat Surfaces by Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christopher H; Scullen, O J; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, including uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are common contaminants in poultry meat and may cause urinary tract infections after colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and transfer of contaminated feces to the urethra. Three non-thermal processing technologies used to improve the safety and shelf-life of both human and pet foods include high pressure processing (HPP), ionizing (gamma) radiation (GR), and ultraviolet light (UV-C). Multi-isolate cocktails of UPEC were inoculated into ground chicken which was then treated with HPP (4°C, 0-25 min) at 300, 400, or 500 MPa. HPP D10, the processing conditions needed to inactivate 1 log of UPEC, was 30.6, 8.37, and 4.43 min at 300, 400, and 500 MPa, respectively. When the UPEC was inoculated into ground chicken and gamma irradiated (4 and -20°C) the GR D10 were 0.28 and 0.36 kGy, respectively. The UV-C D10 of UPEC in chicken suspended in exudate and placed on stainless steel and plastic food contact surfaces ranged from 11.4 to 12.9 mJ/cm(2). UV-C inactivated ca. 0.6 log of UPEC on chicken breast meat. These results indicate that existing non-thermal processing technologies such as HPP, GR, and UV-C can significantly reduce UPEC levels in poultry meat or exudate and provide safer poultry products for at-risk consumers.

  17. Community-based Men's Sheds: promoting male health, wellbeing and social inclusion in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-09-01

    Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity.

  18. Acoustic interaction with vortex structures shed by an obstacle in a closed cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, D.; Hebrard, P.; Pauzin, S.; Garnier, F.; Labegorre, B.; Laverdant, A.

    CERT-DERMES has created an experimental set-up for studying the interaction between acoustics and coherent structures. The set-up comprises a subsonic diffuser, a rectangular wind tunnel with a square prismatic obstacle placed at an incidence to shed vortices, and a converging-diverging nozzle. The sound waves are observed to be amplified when the acoustic triggering and vortex shedding frequencies are close to one another. A numerical simulation using an adapted version of the KIVA code developed at Los Alamos replicated experimental vortex shedding with particle dyes. The experimental and numerical Strouhal numbers for the vortex shedding behind the obstacle are in good agreement with previously published results.

  19. Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

  20. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  1. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  2. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D10-values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  3. Smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000: Sites and duration of viral shedding and effect of povidone iodine on scarification site shedding and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Phillip R; Garman, Patrick M; Kim, Sung-Han; Schmader, Trevor J; Nieding, William J; Pike, Jason G; Knight, Ryan; Johnston, Sara C; Huggins, John W; Kortepeter, Mark G; Korman, Lawrence; Ranadive, Manmohan; Quinn, Xiaofei; Meyers, Mitchell S

    2015-06-12

    The U.S. Department of Defense vaccinates personnel deployed to high-risk areas with the vaccinia virus (VACV)-based smallpox vaccine. Autoinoculations and secondary and tertiary transmissions due to VACV shedding from the vaccination site continue to occur despite education of vaccinees on the risks of such infections. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in naïve smallpox vaccinees, (a) whether the vaccination site can remain contagious after the scab separates and (b) whether the application of povidone iodine ointment (PIO) to the vaccination site inactivates VACV without affecting the immune response. These objectives were tested in 60 individuals scheduled to receive smallpox vaccine. Thirty individuals (control) did not receive PIO; 30 subjects (treatment) received PIO starting on post-vaccination day 7. Counter to current dogma, this study showed that VACV continues to shed from the vaccination site after the scab separates. Overall viral shedding levels in the PIO group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p=0.0045), and PIO significantly reduced the duration of viral shedding (median duration 14.5 days and 21 days in the PIO and control groups, respectively; p=0.0444). At least 10% of control subjects continued to shed VACV at day 28, and 3.4% continued to shed the virus at day 42. PIO reduced the proportion of subjects shedding virus from the vaccination site from day 8 until days 21-23 compared with control subjects. Groups did not differ significantly in the proportion of subjects mounting an immune response, as measured by neutralizing antibodies, IgM, IgG, and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay. When applied to the vaccination site starting on day 7, PIO reduced viral shedding without altering the immune response. The use of PIO in addition to a semipermeable dressing may reduce the rates of autoinoculation and contact transmission originating from the vaccination site in smallpox-vaccinated individuals.

  4. Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on Erythrocyte Immune Adherence of Chickens Inoculated with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and forty specific pathogen free leghorn chickens were randomly divided into four groups and reared in isolated pens. The tested chickens were negative to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 25 d old. Group 1 was treated with saline, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 were inoculated with 0.3 mL IBDV suspension intranasally the next day.Groups 3 and 4 were also administered with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) intramuscularly twice daily at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 BW, respectively, until 31 d old. The erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) and the erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were measured at 25, 29, 32, 35, and 38 d old. The results showed that IBDV significantly reduced E-C3bRR and E-ICRR when compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while simultaneous administration of APS with IBDV maintained E-C3bRR at similar levels to the control group (P> 0.05) and increased E-ICRR when compared with the control group and the group non-treated with APS (P < 0.05). APS treatment reduced the morbidity and mortality of chickens inoculated with IBDV (P < 0.05). The results suggest that APS may enhance the immune adherence of chickens erythrocytes by affecting the activity and/or the number of complement receptors on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings can be beneficial in providing an understanding of the basic mechanisms required for the rational application of APS in modern medicine.

  5. Effect of Different Selenium Supplementation Levels on Oxidative Stress, Cytokines, and Immunotoxicity in Chicken Thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yachao; Jiang, Li; Li, Yuanfeng; Luo, Xuegang; He, Jian

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of different selenium (Se) supplementation levels on oxidative stress, cytokines, and immunotoxicity in chicken thymus. A total of 180 laying hens (1 day old; Mianyang, China) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 45). The chickens were maintained either on a basic diet (control group) containing 0.2 mg/kg Se, a low-supplemented diet containing 5 mg/kg Se, a medium-supplemented diet containing 10 mg/kg Se, or a high-supplemented diet containing 15 mg/kg Se for 15, 30, and 45 days, respectively. Over the entire experimental period, serum and thymus samples were collected and used for the detection of the experimental index. The results indicated that the antioxidative enzyme activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of antioxidative enzymes, IFN-γ and IL-2 in the thymus, and the content of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the serum of excessive-Se-treated chickens at all time points (except for the 5 mg/kg Se supplement group at 15 days) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to the corresponding control groups. Interestingly, a significantly increase (P < 0.05) in the content of IFN-γ was observed in the serum and thymus in the 5 mg/kg Se supplement group at 15 and 30 days compared to the corresponding control groups. In histopathological examination, the thymus tissue from excessive-Se-treated chickens revealed different degrees of cortex drop, incrassation of the medulla, and degeneration of the reticular cells. These results suggested that the excessive Se could result in a decrease in immunity, an increase in oxidative damage, and a series of clinical pathology changes, such as cortex drop, incrassation of the medulla, and degeneration of the reticular cells. PMID:26740218

  6. Selenium and Polysaccharides of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz Play Different Roles in Improving the Immune Response Induced by Heat Stress in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Danning; Tian, Yunbo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute heat stress (HS) on the chicken immune response and to examine the role of selenium (Se) and the polysaccharides of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (PAMK) in immune regulation in the chicken immune system. Two hundred chickens were randomly divided into two groups: the HS group and the control (Con) group. These chickens were treated with Se (0.3 mg/kg), PAMK (200 mg/kg) alone, and a combination of Se (0.3 mg/kg) and PAMK (200 mg/kg). The cytokines; antioxidative enzymes; and HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 levels were examined in chicken immune organs. The results indicated that HS-induced immune dysfunction included increased levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as decreased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in immune organs (P chicken.

  7. Highly immunogenic prime–boost DNA vaccination protects chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stachyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry because of high mortality rate in infected flocks and trade restrictions. Protective antibodies, directed mainly against hemagglutinin (HA, are the primary means of protection against influenza outbreaks. A recombinant DNA vaccine based on the sequence of H5 HA from the H5N1/A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 strain of HPAIV was prepared. Sequence manipulation included deletion of the proteolytic cleavage site to improve protein stability, codon usage optimization to improve translation and stability of RNA in host cells, and cloning into a commercially available vector to enable expression in animal cells. Naked plasmid DNA was complexed with a liposomal carrier and the immunization followed the prime–boost strategy. The immunogenic potential of the DNA vaccine was first proved in broilers in near-to-field conditions resembling a commercial farm. Next, the protective activity of the vaccine was confirmed in SPF layer-type chickens. Experimental infections (challenge experiments indicated that 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against H5N1 of the same clade and that 70% of them were protected against H5N1 influenza virus of a different clade. Moreover, the DNA vaccine significantly limited (or even eliminated transmission of the virus to contact control chickens. Two intramuscular doses of DNA vaccine encoding H5 HA induced a strong protective response in immunized chicken. The effective protection lasted for a minimum 8 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine and was not limited to the homologous H5N1 virus. In addition, the vaccine reduced shedding of the virus.

  8. Comparison of three nonlinear models to describe long-term tag shedding by lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    We estimated long-term tag-shedding rates for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using two existing models and a model we developed to account for the observed permanence of some tags. Because tag design changed over the course of the study, we examined tag-shedding rates for three types of numbered anchor tags (Floy tags FD-67, FD-67C, and FD-68BC) and an unprinted anchor tag (FD-67F). Lake trout from the Gull Island Shoal region, Lake Superior, were double-tagged, and subsequent recaptures were monitored in annual surveys conducted from 1974 to 1992. We modeled tag-shedding rates, using time at liberty and probabilities of tag shedding estimated from fish released in 1974 and 1978–1983 and later recaptured. Long-term shedding of numbered anchor tags in lake trout was best described by a nonlinear model with two parameters: an instantaneous tag-shedding rate and a constant representing the proportion of tags that were never shed. Although our estimates of annual shedding rates varied with tag type (0.300 for FD-67, 0.441 for FD-67C, and 0.656 for FD-68BC), differences were not significant. About 36% of tags remained permanently affixed to the fish. Of the numbered tags that were shed (about 64%), two mechanisms contributed to tag loss: disintegration and dislodgment. Tags from about 11% of recaptured fish had disintegrated, but most tags were dislodged. Unprinted tags were shed at a significant but low rate immediately after release, but the long-term, annual shedding rate of these tags was only 0.013. Compared with unprinted tags, numbered tags dislodged at higher annual rates; we hypothesized that this was due to the greater frictional drag associated with the larger cross-sectional area of numbered tags.

  9. Acceleration of epithelial cell syndecan-1 shedding by anthrax hemolytic virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandhoke Vikas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recently reported that major pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accelerate a normal process of cell surface syndecan-1 (Synd1 ectodomain shedding as a mechanism of host damage due to the production of shedding-inducing virulence factors. We tested if acceleration of Synd1 shedding takes place in vitro upon treatment of epithelial cells with B. anthracis hemolysins, as well as in vivo during anthrax infection in mice. Results The isolated anthrax hemolytic proteins AnlB (sphingomyelinase and AnlO (cholesterol-binding pore-forming factor, as well as ClnA (B. cereus homolog of B. anthracis phosphatidyl choline-preferring phospholipase C cause accelerated shedding of Synd1 and E-cadherin from epithelial cells and compromise epithelial barrier integrity within a few hours. In comparison with hemolysins in a similar range of concentrations, anthrax lethal toxin (LT also accelerates shedding albeit at slower rate. Individual components of LT, lethal factor and protective antigen are inactive with regard to shedding. Inhibition experiments favor a hypothesis that activities of tested bacterial shedding inducers converge on the stimulation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Syk family, ultimately leading to activation of cellular sheddase. Both LT and AnlO modulate ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, while JNK pathway seems to be irrelevant to accelerated shedding. Accelerated shedding of Synd1 also takes place in DBA/2 mice challenged with Bacillus anthracis (Sterne spores. Elevated levels of shed ectodomain are readily detectable in circulation after 24 h. Conclusion The concerted acceleration of shedding by several virulence factors could represent a new pathogenic mechanism contributing to disruption of epithelial or endothelial integrity, hemorrhage, edema and abnormal cell signaling during anthrax infection.

  10. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  11. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  12. Utilization of buffered vinegar to increase the shelf life of chicken retail cuts packaged in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Monil A; Kurve, Vikram; Smith, Brian S; Campano, Stephen G; Soni, Kamlesh; Schilling, M Wes

    2014-07-01

    Poultry processors commonly place whole parts of broilers in plastic packages and seal them in an atmosphere of 100% carbon dioxide before shipping them to food service and retail customers. This practice extends the shelf life of retail cuts to approximately 12 d under refrigerated conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of vinegar for growth inhibition of mesophilic and lactic acid bacterial counts and enhancement of shelf life in CO2-packaged refrigerated chicken thigh samples. Meat quality, sensory differences, and microbial enumeration were evaluated for chicken thighs that were sprayed with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% vinegar. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) among treatments (control vs. 0.5 and 1.0% vinegar-treated chicken thighs) with respect to pH and Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b*for both chicken skin and the meat tissue. The difference from the control test indicated that trained panelists were not able to detect a difference (P > 0.05) in flavor between the chicken thigh treatments. The mesophilic and Lactobacillus bacterial counts were enumerated after 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage. The mesophilic bacterial load for the 1.0% vinegar treatment was less than all other treatments after 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage, whereas the 0.5% vinegar treatment had lower bacterial counts at d 12 than both controls and had an approximate shelf life of 16 d. For lactic acid bacteria, the vinegar 1.0% treatment had lower counts than the control treatments at d 12 and 16. The results from the study indicate that a combination of 1.0% vinegar with CO2 packaging can extend the shelf life from 12 to 20 d for chicken retail cuts without negatively affecting the quality and sensory properties of the broiler meat. PMID:24812233

  13. Utilization of buffered vinegar to increase the shelf life of chicken retail cuts packaged in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Monil A; Kurve, Vikram; Smith, Brian S; Campano, Stephen G; Soni, Kamlesh; Schilling, M Wes

    2014-07-01

    Poultry processors commonly place whole parts of broilers in plastic packages and seal them in an atmosphere of 100% carbon dioxide before shipping them to food service and retail customers. This practice extends the shelf life of retail cuts to approximately 12 d under refrigerated conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of vinegar for growth inhibition of mesophilic and lactic acid bacterial counts and enhancement of shelf life in CO2-packaged refrigerated chicken thigh samples. Meat quality, sensory differences, and microbial enumeration were evaluated for chicken thighs that were sprayed with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% vinegar. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) among treatments (control vs. 0.5 and 1.0% vinegar-treated chicken thighs) with respect to pH and Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b*for both chicken skin and the meat tissue. The difference from the control test indicated that trained panelists were not able to detect a difference (P > 0.05) in flavor between the chicken thigh treatments. The mesophilic and Lactobacillus bacterial counts were enumerated after 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage. The mesophilic bacterial load for the 1.0% vinegar treatment was less than all other treatments after 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage, whereas the 0.5% vinegar treatment had lower bacterial counts at d 12 than both controls and had an approximate shelf life of 16 d. For lactic acid bacteria, the vinegar 1.0% treatment had lower counts than the control treatments at d 12 and 16. The results from the study indicate that a combination of 1.0% vinegar with CO2 packaging can extend the shelf life from 12 to 20 d for chicken retail cuts without negatively affecting the quality and sensory properties of the broiler meat.

  14. Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Miyakoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV keratitis with detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of not only the symptomatic eye but also the contralateral asymptomatic eye by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods: This is a case report. A 63-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with circular corneal ulcer and stromal opacity with infiltration accompanied by mild conjunctival and ciliary injections in the left eye. Bacterial cultures of the corneal scrapings and virus PCR analyses of tear fluid from both eyes were performed. Results: No pathogen was found by bacterial cultures. PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, but positive for VZV. VZV DNA was also detected in the unaffected eye. Based on the diagnosis of VZV keratitis, oral valacyclovir and acyclovir eye ointment were administered to the corneal infected eye. The infected eye was healed and VZV DNA turned negative in the tear fluid of the treated eye after 6 months of treatment; however, VZV DNA was still positive in the tear fluid of the contralateral eye. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of both affected and unaffected eyes in a patient with VZV keratitis. Asymptomatic conjunctival shedding of VZV may continue in the healthy unaffected eye in VZV keratitis patients.

  15. Prolonged influenza virus shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard van der Vries

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised individuals tend to suffer from influenza longer with more serious complications than otherwise healthy patients. Little is known about the impact of prolonged infection and the efficacy of antiviral therapy in these patients. Among all 189 influenza A virus infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ErasmusMC, 71 were hospitalized, since the start of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We identified 11 (15% cases with prolonged 2009 pandemic virus replication (longer than 14 days, despite antiviral therapy. In 5 out of these 11 (45% cases oseltamivir resistant H275Y viruses emerged. Given the inherent difficulties in studying antiviral efficacy in immunocompromised patients, we have infected immunocompromised ferrets with either wild-type, or oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y 2009 pandemic virus. All ferrets showed prolonged virus shedding. In wild-type virus infected animals treated with oseltamivir, H275Y resistant variants emerged within a week after infection. Unexpectedly, oseltamivir therapy still proved to be partially protective in animals infected with resistant virus. Immunocompromised ferrets offer an attractive alternative to study efficacy of novel antiviral therapies.

  16. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure.

  17. CONTENT OF NUTRIENTS AND NUTRICINES - CARNOSINE IN DARK CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine content of nutrients and carnosine concentration in thighs (dark meat of chickens of the Ross 308 provenance with respect to chicken gender. Amount of carnosine is determined by the HPLC device. Thigh muscle tissue of female and male chickens contains 339.28±68.17 μg/g and 319.29±65.47 μg/g of carnosine (P>0.05, respectively. Live end weights of chickens are also shown, with average male chickens weights of 2377 g and female chickens 2104 g (P0.05 are also shown. The obtained research results are explained in the context of other relevant studies on a similar topic.

  18. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  19. Impact of enrofloxacin and florfenicol therapy on the spread of OqxAB gene and intestinal microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Sun, Jian; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Shao, Yang; Li, Liang; Fang, Liang-Xing; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-08-30

    Horizontal transfer of plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant determinants is a major health problem and has attracted much public attention. We studied the dissemination of the efflux pump gene oqxAB located on transferable plasmid pHXY0908 between Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli in the gut of chickens. After an inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium harboring oqxAB-bearing plasmid pHXY0908, chickens were treated with enrofloxacin and florfenicol. Inoculated, but non-treated chickens were included as a control group. Our results revealed that commensal E. coli isolates from the gut of chickens acquired the oqxAB-bearing plasmid in both treated and non-treated groups. Additionally, in the florfenicol treatment group, the average isolation rate of oqxAB-positive E. coli was significantly higher than that in the non-treated group. PFGE analysis showed that oqxAB-positive E. coli strains belonged to different patterns with one predominating. Moreover, multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed that E. coli ST533 was closely associated with the spread of oqxAB gene. qPCR analysis indicated that antibiotic administration provided selective advantages for sustaining a significantly high level of oqxAB gene from the DNA extracted from the feces. There was also a fluctuation in the intestinal microbiota with antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the oqxAB gene could be readily spread within the intestinal microflora. This could be enhanced by administrated with clinical doses of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, resulting in the enlargement of resistance gene reservoirs. In addition, ST533 E. coli isolates were found to contribute to transfer of the oqxAB gene. PMID:27527758

  20. Study on immunofunction and immunoregulation post newcastle disease vaccination of chickens infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV) at one-day-old and vaccinated with La Sota vaccine 8 days later. Meanwhile, uninfected chickens were vaccinated as controls. At 7, 14 and 28 days post vaccination, the content of IgG,IgM,IgA and HI titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T、B cells, the inductive activity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon (IFN) in thymus and spleen were tested. The results showed that the content of IgG, IgM, IgA and hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T cells and B cells as well as the inductive activity of IL-2 and IFN in thymus and spleen of infected-vaccinated chickens significantly decreased compared with the control. These results indicated that the immunofunction and immunoregulation were dropped post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  1. Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Haaning, Niels; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms whan a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period....

  2. Application of computational intelligence techniques for load shedding in power systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The power system blackout history of last two decades is presented. • Conventional load shedding techniques, their types and limitations are presented. • Applications of intelligent techniques in load shedding are presented. • Intelligent techniques include ANN, fuzzy logic, ANFIS, genetic algorithm and PSO. • The discussion and comparison between these techniques are provided. - Abstract: Recent blackouts around the world question the reliability of conventional and adaptive load shedding techniques in avoiding such power outages. To address this issue, reliable techniques are required to provide fast and accurate load shedding to prevent collapse in the power system. Computational intelligence techniques, due to their robustness and flexibility in dealing with complex non-linear systems, could be an option in addressing this problem. Computational intelligence includes techniques like artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic control, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and particle swarm optimization. Research in these techniques is being undertaken in order to discover means for more efficient and reliable load shedding. This paper provides an overview of these techniques as applied to load shedding in a power system. This paper also compares the advantages of computational intelligence techniques over conventional load shedding techniques. Finally, this paper discusses the limitation of computational intelligence techniques, which restricts their usage in load shedding in real time

  3. Influence of thermal inhibitor position and temperature on vortex-shedding-driven pressure oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Wanxing; Li Shipeng; Zhang Qiao; Li Junwei; Ye Qingqing; Wang Ningfei

    2013-01-01

    Vortex-acoustic coupling is one of the most important potential sources of combustion instability in solid rocket motors (SRMs).Based on the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) experimental motor,the influence of the thermal inhibitor position and temperature on vortex-shedding-driven pressure oscillations is numerically studied via the large eddy simulation (LES)method.The simulation results demonstrate that vortex shedding is a periodic process and its accurate frequency can be numerically obtained.Acoustic modes could be easily excited by vortex shedding.The vortex shedding frequency and second acoustic frequency dominate the pressure oscillation characteristics in the chamber.Thermal inhibitor position and gas temperature have little effect on vortex shedding frequency,but have great impact on pressure oscillation amplitude.Pressure amplitude is much higher when the thermal inhibitor locates at the acoustic velocity anti-nodes.The farther the thermal inhibitor is to the nozzle head,the more vortex energy would be dissipated by the turbulence.Therefore,the vortex shedding amplitude at the second acoustic velocity antinode near 3/4L (L is chamber length) is larger than those of others.Besides,the natural acoustic frequencies increase with the gas temperature.As the vortex shedding frequency departs from the natural acoustic frequency,the vortex-acoustic feedback loop is decoupled.Consequently,both the vortex shedding and acoustic amplitudes decrease rapidly.

  4. Proteoglycans in health and disease: the multiple roles of syndecan shedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manon-Jensen, Tina; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    dynamics and generates soluble ectodomains that can function as paracrine or autocrine effectors, or competitive inhibitors. It is known that the family of syndecans can be shed by a variety of matrix proteinase, including many metzincins. Shedding is particularly active in proliferating and invasive cells...

  5. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  6. Extensive Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Chicken Cecal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeant, Martin J.; Chrystala Constantinidou; Tristan A Cogan; Bedford, Michael R.; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown speci...

  7. Structural Analysis of the Angiogenesis in the Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoelst, Eva

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, the poultry sector is in search of ways to monitor chicken embryonic growth, health and quality, as to control and optimize the incubation conditions, especially the gas concentrations. One of the parameters of chicken development which may change under different gas concentrations is the angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), the organ for gas exchange of the chicken embryo. To be able to perform large incubation experiments under different gaseous condi...

  8. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP, with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP.

  9. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysne, Vegard; Bjørndal, Bodil; Vik, Rita; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Skorve, Jon; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP), with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP. PMID:26053618

  10. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, M J; Calore, E E; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1997-07-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

  11. Increase of uric acid synthesis in irradiated chicken's embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several important intermediate and end products of uric acid metabolism as well as their corresponding enzymatic reactions were studied in 16 day-old chicken embryos which had been one or more times irradiated or respectively treated with ammonium chloride. After sublethal X-irradiation and at the time of the second irradiation with 800 R, the activity of the glutamine synthetase and the xanthin dehydrogenase in the kidneys of the embryos was increased. In contrast to this the glutamate dehydrogenase activity was moderately decreased. Two hours after the main irradiation the uric acid values as well as the amount of fixed nitrogen in the blood serum of previously-irradiated embryos are noticeably higher than the comparative data in non-previously irradiated animals. The glutamic acid values increase after the second irradiation, but still remain lower than with the non-previously irradiated animals. I achieved concuring ressults when I treated the embryos with ammonium chloride instead of radiation. (orig./MG)

  12. ATYPICAL BULLOUS PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM WITH EARLY LESIONS MIMICKING CHICKEN POX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Pyoderma Gangrenosum (PG rare neutrophilic dermatoses (1/100,00 0, of which Bullous Pyoderma gangrenosum is an atypical form, which is very rare. Bullous PG is usually associated with haematological disorders like myeloproliferative disorders, haematological malignancies specially AML and several other haematological disorders. It presents as a superficial haemorrhagic bulla which ulcerates, ulcers increase in size and heal with scarring. Treatment is mainly to identify and treat the cause. Pyoderma Gangrenosum shows rapid response to oral corticosteroid therapy. 1 , 3 . Clinical presentation: A 32yr old female presented with fever, multiple vesicles on face, upper limb, lower limb and trunk, and these early lesions looked like chicken pox lesions. Lesions increased in size to form haemorrhagic bullas which eroded to form ulcers, ulcers rapidly increased in size with necrotic base and erythematous to violaceous border. Investigation: Haemoglobin: 5.7gm%, Peripheral smear: normocytic and normochromic anaemia. Skin Biopsy: Sub corneal blisters with dermal and perifollicular n eutrophilic infiltrate. A diagnosis of Bullous Pyoderma gangrenosum was made. Patient’s anaemia was treated; oral prednisolone and topical steroids were started. Patient showed marked improvement to treatment.

  13. Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-Shedding in Agent-Based Microgrid Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Research, development, and demonstration projects on microgrids have been progressed in many countries. Furthermore, microgrids are expected to introduce into power grids as eco-friendly small-scale power grids in the near future. Load-shedding is a problem not avoided to meet power balance between power supply and power demand to maintain specific frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Load-shedding causes consumers inconvenience and therefore should be performed minimally. Recently, agent-based microgrid operation has been studied and new algorithms for their autonomous operation including load-shedding has been required. The bankruptcy problem deals with distribution insufficient sources to claimants. In this paper, we approach the load-shedding problem as a bankruptcy problem and adopt the Talmud rule as an algorithm. Load-shedding using the Talmud rule is tested in islanded microgrid operation based on a multiagent system.

  14. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-01-01

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  15. Chicken QTL mapping by multiplex PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate rapid determination of the chromosomal location of quantitative trait loci, the current approaches to gene mapping are improved using a multiplex PCR technique. The high-throughput linkage analysis method described here allows selection of 178 from 328 microsatellite markers through the multiplex PCR method combined with the semi-automatic fluorescence-labeled DNA analysis technology. Those polymorphism markers are distributed on 23 autosomes and one sex chromosome (chromosome Z), covering 3080cM genetic distance. The average marker density is 18cM, dispersed into 30 different sets. These selected polymorphism microsatellite markers segregate with the family members, following the Mendel's heritage laws, and are very useful for chicken linkage map analysis as well as for the research on some important economic quantitative characters of chicken.

  16. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  17. Cardiovascular histamine receptors in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, N; Eyre, P

    1975-08-01

    The effects of mepyramine (H1-antagonist) and burimamide (H2-antagonist) were studied on histamine, 2-methylhistamine (a selective H1-agonist), 4-methylhistamine (a selective H2-agonist) and acetylcholine-induced changes in systemic arterial and central venous pressure and respiration in anaesthetized chickens. The result of this study suggested a predominance of H1 and some H2 histamine receptors in the cardiovascular system of domestic fowl where both are mediating systemic hypotension. There also appears to be predominance of H1 receptors mediating venous hypertension and respiratory apnoea to large doses of histamine and 2-methylhistamine. In addition, a possible involvement of H2-receptors in the cardiovascular system of chicken is suggested by the finding that burimamide always blocked mepyramine potentiated secondary pressor response to histamine and its analogues.

  18. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  19. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  20. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  1. Experimental Investigation on Cavitating Flow Shedding over an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Changli; WANG Guoyu; HUANG Biao

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, most researchers focus on the cavity shedding mechanisms of unsteady cavitating flows over different objects, such as 2D/3D hydrofoils, venturi-type section, axisymmetric bodies with different headforms, and so on. But few of them pay attention to the differences of cavity shedding modality under different cavitation numbers in unsteady cavitating flows over the same object. In the present study, two kinds of shedding patterns are investigated experimentally. A high speed camera system is used to observe the cavitating flows over an axisymmetric blunt body and the velocity fields are measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in a water tunnel for different cavitation conditions. The U-type cavitating vortex shedding is observed in unsteady cavitating flows. When the cavitation number is 0.7, there is a large scale cavity rolling up and shedding, which cause the instability and dramatic fluctuation of the flows, while at cavitation number of 0.6, the detached cavities can be conjunct with the attached part to induce the break-off behavior again at the tail of the attached cavity, as a result, the final shedding is in the form of small scale cavity and keeps a relatively steady flow field. It is also found that the interaction between the re-entrant flow and the attached cavity plays an important role in the unsteady cavity shedding modality. When the attached cavity scale is insufficient to overcome the re-entrant flow, it deserves the large cavity rolling up and shedding just as that at cavitation number of 0.7. Otherwise, the re-entrant flow is defeated by large enough cavity to induce the cavity-combined process and small scale cavity vortexes shedding just as that of the cavitation number of 0.6. This research shows the details of two different cavity shedding modalities which is worthful and meaningful for the further study of unsteady cavitation.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and residues of enrofloxacin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, A; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Díaz, M J; Bringas, P; Martínez, M A; Fernàndez-Cruz, M L; Fernández, M C; Fernández, R

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of enrofloxacin were determined in broiler chickens after single IV and orally administered doses of 10 mg/kg of body weight. After IV and oral administrations, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life and the mean +/- SEM residence time of enrofloxacin for plasma were 10.29 +/- 0.45 and 9.65 +/- 0.48 hours, respectively, after IV administration and 14.23 +/- 0.46 and 15.30 +/- 0.53 hours, respectively, after oral administration. After single oral administration, enrofloxacin was absorbed slowly, with time to reach maximal plasma concentration of 1.64 +/- 0.04 hours. Maximal plasma concentration was 2.44 +/- 0.06 micrograms/ml. Oral bioavailability was found to be 64.0 +/- 0.2%. Statistically significant differences between the 2 routes of administration were found for the pharmacokinetic variables--half-lives of the distribution and elimination phase and apparent volume of distribution and volume of distribution at steady state. In chickens, enrofloxacin was extensively metabolized into ciprofloxacin. Residues of enrofloxacin and the major metabolite ciprofloxacin in fat, kidney, liver, lungs, muscles, and skin were measured in chickens that received an orally administered dose of 10 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. The results indicate that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues were cleared slowly. Mean muscle, liver, and kidney concentrations of the metabolite ciprofloxacin ranging between 0.020 and 0.075 micrograms/g persisted on day 12 in chickens after dosing. However, at the time of slaughter (12 days), enrofloxacin residues were only detected in liver and mean +/- SEM concentration was 0.025 +/- 0.003 micrograms/g.

  3. Feed restriction in broiler chickens production

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraei M.

    2012-01-01

    The feed restriction program is on of the main techniques in growth curve manipulation for increasing production efficiency in broiler chicken. Quantities and qualitative feed restriction are procedures that can be used to manipulate the feeding strategies of poultry in order to decrease growth and metabolic rate to some extent and so alleviate the incidence of some metabolic diseases such as ascites, lameness, mortality, and sudden death syndrome and so im...

  4. Low dose influenza virus challenge in the ferret leads to increased virus shedding and greater sensitivity to oseltamivir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Marriott

    Full Text Available Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 induces mild to moderate respiratory disease in infected ferrets, following inoculation with 106 plaque-forming units (pfu of virus. We have demonstrated that reducing the challenge dose to 102 pfu delays the onset of clinical signs by 1 day, and results in a modest reduction in clinical signs, and a less rapid nasal cavity innate immune response. There was also a delay in virus production in the upper respiratory tract, this was up to 9-fold greater and virus shedding was prolonged. Progression of infection to the lower respiratory tract was not noticeably delayed by the reduction in virus challenge. A dose of 104 pfu gave an infection that was intermediate between those of the 106 pfu and 102 pfu doses. To address the hypothesis that using a more authentic low challenge dose would facilitate a more sensitive model for antiviral efficacy, we used the well-known neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir. Oseltamivir-treated and untreated ferrets were challenged with high (106 pfu and low (102 pfu doses of influenza H1N1pdm09 virus. The low dose treated ferrets showed significant delays in innate immune response and virus shedding, delayed onset of pathological changes in the nasal cavity, and reduced pathological changes and viral RNA load in the lung, relative to untreated ferrets. Importantly, these observations were not seen in treated animals when the high dose challenge was used. In summary, low dose challenge gives a disease that more closely parallels the disease parameters of human influenza infection, and provides an improved pre-clinical model for the assessment of influenza therapeutics, and potentially, influenza vaccines.

  5. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods:One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results:S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40%and 48%in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions:The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  6. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  7. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  8. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  9. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  10. Influence of Citric Acid on the Pink Color and Characteristics of Sous Vide Processed Chicken Breasts During Chill Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Chicken breast dipped with citric acid (CA) was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d. A non-dipped control group (CON) and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed (0.5%, 0.5CIT; 2.0%, 2CIT and 5.0%, 5CIT; w/v). Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. While the redness of the juice and meat in all groups showed significant increase during storage, the redness of the citric acid groups was reduced compared to the control group (pacid reactive substances (TBARS) were generally lower in the citric acid-treated samples than in untreated ones, indicating extended shelf life of the cooked chicken breast dipped in citric acid solution. The shear force of the 2CIT and 5CIT groups was significantly lower (pcitric acid concentrations.

  11. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo

    2011-06-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high

  12. Evaluation of deoxyribonuclease activity in seminal plasma of ejaculated chicken semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuminoriSato; TomokiSoh; Masa-akiHattori; NoboruFujihara

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To confirm the stability of exogenous genes in the generation of transgenic chickens using ejaculated chicken sperm, the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity was evaluated in the seminal plasma of ejaculated semen and the stability of DNA was examined by adding lipofection reagents. Methods: A PCR fragment (249 bp) of pEGFPN-1 vector was used as the DNA substrate and was incubated with the seminal plasma at 40℃for 30 min. Then, the whole reaction solution was subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis and the DNA size was evaluated under UV light.Results: The DNA substrate was completely diminished after incubation with seminal plasma. However, the sub-strate was intact after incubation with heat-treated seminal plasma or incubation with seminal plasma in the presence of 0.5 mmol/L-5 mmol/L EDTA. The substrate was stabilized in the seminal plasma by the addition of commercially available lipofection reagents. Conclusion: The DNase activity is present in the seminal plasma of ejaculated chicken semen. However, DNA is stable in the liposomal-DNA complex. ( Asian JAndro12003 Sep; 5: 213-216)

  13. Antimicrobial effect of Salvia officinalis L. against selected group of bacteria isolated from chickens meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil as well as vacuum packaging in extending the shelf life of fresh chicken’s breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. In a preliminary experiment Salvia officinalis L. essential oil  were used at concentrations 2% v/w while vacuum packaging. Microbiological properties of fresh chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 days period. For this experiment three groups were used. First group was control with air packaging second was with vacuum packaging condition and was treated with essential oil on the surface of fresh chicken breast meat. From the microbiological indicators in this experiment total count of bacteria and coliform bacteria were observed. The total count of bacteria on the meat after killing animals was 2.97 log cfu.g-1 and number of coliform bacteria was 0.33 log cfu.g-1. The total count of bacteria on the chicken breast meat after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days gradually increased. The same number of coliform bacteria in extending self-life gradually increased. The highest number of both groups of microorganisms was in the control group with air condition and lowest number of both bacterial groups was in the group with salvia essential oil treatment.

  14. Formation of ortho-tyrosine by radiation and organic solvents in chicken tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh chicken breast and beef incubated in water were found to contain no o-Tyr at the current levels of detection (0.1 ppm) by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and selective ion monitoring. In contrast, samples incubated at 37 degrees C in the presence of ethanol, benzene, or carbon tetrachloride (used in fat extraction) contained large quantities (2.5-5.1 ppm) of o-Tyr. No o-Tyr was detected in the water-insoluble fraction of meat treated with carbon tetrachloride after triple extraction by water. However, reaction of radiation generated .OH in gamma-irradiated fresh chicken tissue with endogenous phenylalanine yields o-Tyr with a linear yield-dose response in both water-soluble and -insoluble tissue fractions. Nonradiolytically generated .OH is suggested to be formed through a mitochondrion-mediated Haber-Weiss reaction in association with water-soluble proteins since the yields of o-Tyr in beef, a tissue with a higher mitochondrial content, are four times greater than in the chicken breast tissue

  15. In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeraba, A; Quere, P

    2000-05-01

    Acemannan (ACM 1), a beta-(1,4) -acetylated mannan isolated from Aloe vera, can be used as an effective adjuvant in vaccination against some avian viral diseases. Our results demonstrate a quick and lasting in vivo priming effect of ACM 1 on macrophage response after intramuscular inoculation in chickens (500 microg per 2-month-old bird). In response to IFN-gamma in vitro, monocytes from ACM 1-treated chickens exhibited a strong enhancement of NO production from 3 to 9 days p.i., but a weaker effect on MHC II cell surface antigen expression on day 3 p.i. A stimulating effect of ACM 1 treatment was also observed on spontaneous and inducible NO production for splenocytes only on day 3 p.i. By that time, splenocytes exhibited a strong higher capacity to proliferate in response to the T cell-mitogen PHA. At the same time, the in vivo capacity to produce NO, measured by the (NO(-)(2)+NO(-)(3)) serum level after intravenous LPS injection, increased greatly from 3 to 9 days p.i. In conclusion, ACM 1 was able efficiently and durably to increase the activation capacity of macrophages from the systemic immune compartment (in particular from the blood and spleen after an intramuscular injection) in chickens, especially for NO production. These findings provide a better understanding of the adjuvant activity of ACM 1 for viral and tumoral diseases.

  16. Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Storage of Chicken: Effects on Fat and Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and post-irradiation storage of 21 days at 4±2º. The effects on fat and protein of chicken were studied. Rate of formation of total volatile basic-nitrogen was less in irradiated samples particularly in samples treated with 5.0KGy during the entire storage. Fatty acid profiles of chicken lipids were not significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected by irradiation especially at doses of 5.0 KGy. However, irradiation caused a large increase in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values which continued gradually during storage. Changes in amino acids were minimal. Irradiated and unirradiated samples showed the appearance of protein subunits with molecular weights in the range of 10.0 to 88.0 and 10.0 to 67.0 KD, respectively. No changes were observed in the sarcoplasmic protein but the intensity of bands in all irradiated samples decreased after 21 days of storage

  17. Effect of irradiation on sterilization and sensory quality of soft can packaged chicken feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft can packaged chicken feet were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at 0, 3, 5 and 10 kGy, and the aerobic plate count, enumeration of coliforms, pathogens, TBARS value and sensory characteristics were investigated during different storage times of 0, 30, 60 and 90 d, respectively. The result showed that aerobic plate count of all treated groups were 6.1 × 103, 1.4 × 103 and 765 cfu/g, respectively, and were all lower than that of control after 90 d. Enumeration of coliforms, and pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salimonella were not detected. TBARS value of all groups increased during the storage time, and there was no significant difference between 3 kGy irradiated group and control, which was 0.410 and 0.404 after 90 d. Irradiation would not change the sensory quality of chicken feet obviously, and 60Co γ-rays irradiation was an effective sterilization method on soft can packaged chicken feet. (authors)

  18. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus transmission using bioceramic derived from chicken feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    Bioceramic powder (BCX), at pH 13.0, derived from chicken feces, was evaluated for its efficacy to inactivate virus and inhibit virus horizontal transmission by fecal-oral route, using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain D78 as a challenge virus. Three 1-week-old SPF chicks were vaccinated per os and used as seeder birds. Six hours later, 3 sentinel 1-week-old SPF chicks were introduced into the same cage. Results revealed that BCX had excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV within 3 min. Treating IBDV contaminated litter in the cage with BCX could prevent transmission of IBDV to new sensitive chicks completely. Further, transmission of IBDV to the sentinel chicks was significantly inhibited by adding BCX to litter and chicken feed. These data suggest that BCX at pH 13, derived from chicken feces, has excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV, which can be applied in bedding materials for preventing viral transmission during production round. It is a good material that can effectively be used for enhancing biosecurity system in poultry farms. PMID:25892716

  19. Correlation Analysis between Body Size and Slaughter Performance in F-1 Hybrid Offspring of Princess Chicken and Kirin Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Naibin; Du; Bingwang; Yang; Fenxia; Tao; Lin; Chen; Jiebo

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the meat development value of princess chicken,the body size traits and slaughter performance of 12-week-old F1 hybrid offspring of princess chicken(♂) and kirin chicken(♀) were measured and the correlations between different traits were analyzed. The results showed that body length,keel length and shank length of male F1 hybrid offspring were significantly higher than those of female chickens(P < 0. 05). The live weight,carcass weight,semi-eviscerated weight,semi-eviscerated ratio,eviscerated weight,chest muscle weight,the leg muscle weight and heart weight of male chickens were extremely significantly higher than that of female chickens(P < 0. 01),and the leg muscle ratio and wings weight were significantly higher than that of female chickens(P < 0. 05),but sebum thickness of male chickens was extremely significantly lower than that of female chickens(P < 0. 01). Other indicators failed to reach the significant difference level. There were extremely significant or significant correlations between the slaughter performance and body size in F1 hybrid offspring. The regression equations between different indicators were identified and developed. The results provided a certain theoretical reference to predict slaughter performance indicators through a living body size measurement,and revealed an improved production performance of F1 hybrid offspring.

  20. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  1. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

    2012-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  2. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (570C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines

  3. The influence of the mode of administration in the dissemination of three coliphages in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A; Sereno, R; Nicolau, A; Azeredo, J

    2009-04-01

    Escherichia coli can cause severe respiratory and systemic infections in chickens, and it is often associated with significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Bacteriophages (phages) have been shown to be potential alternatives to the antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. To accomplish that, phage particles must be able to reach and remain active in the infected organs. The present work aims at evaluating the effect of the route of administration and the dosage in the dissemination of 3 coliphages in the chicken's organs. In vivo trials were conducted by infecting chickens orally, spray, and i.m. with 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) plaque-forming units/mL suspensions of 3 lytic phages: phi F78E (Myoviridae), phi F258E (Siphoviridae), and phi F61E (Myoviridae). Birds were killed 3, 10, and 24 h after challenge and the phage titer was measured in lungs and air sacs membranes, liver, duodenum, and spleen. When administered by spray, the 3 phages reached the respiratory tract within 3 h. Oral administration also allowed all phages to be recovered in lungs, but only phi F78E was recovered from the duodenum, the liver, and the spleen. These differences can be explained by the possible replication of phi F78E in commensal E. coli strains present in the chicken gut, thus leading to a higher concentration of this phage in the intestines that resulted in systemic circulation of phage with consequent phage in organs. When phages were administered i.m., they were found in all of the collected organs. Despite this better response, i.m. administration is a nonpracticable way of protecting a large number of birds in a poultry unit. In general, the results suggest that oral administration and spray allowed phages to reach and to remain active in the respiratory tract and can, therefore, be considered promising administration routes to treat respiratory E. coli infections in the poultry industry. PMID:19276415

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher L*, a* and b* values while storing. The TBARS values of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lowest among the samples. These results show that spice extracts are very effective against microbial growth, lipid oxidation and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw chicken meats.

  5. The Expression of Can and Camk is Associated with Lipogenesis in the Muscle of Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntramuscular fat (IMF content in chickens significantly contributes to meat quality. The main objective of this study was to assess the expression of calcineurin (CaN and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK in lipogenesis in chicken muscle. Chickens were slaughtered and sampled at 4, 8, and 16 weeks of age. IMF content and the expression of CaN subunits and CaMK isoforms were measured in the thigh muscle tissue. The results showed that the IMF contents were greater at 16 weeks compared with those at 4 and 8 weeks (p<0.05. Transcription of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36 mRNA significantly increased with age, from four to 16 weeks (p<0.05. The mRNA levels of CaNB and CaMK IV were significantly lower at 16 weeks than at four weeks (p<0.05, but CaMK II mRNA levels were significantly higher than at four weeks (p<0.05. In order to evaluate the role of CaMK and CaN in adipogenesis, SV cells were incubated in standard adipogenic medium for 24 h and treated with specific inhibitor of CaMK and CaN. The expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein b (C/EBPb, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1,and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor g (PPARγwere dramatically enhanced by the CsA, CaN inhibitor (p<0.05. KN93, CaMK II inhibitor, dramatically repressed the expression of those lipogenic gene (p<0.05. These results indicated that CaN and CaMK had different effects on adipogenesis in the muscle of chickens.

  6. Influence of different dietary supplementation on the quality of frozen and irradiated chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine the influence of different diet ingredients on meat quality of chicken treated by different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5 and 7.5 KGy) and stored for 2, 4 and 6 months at -18 degree C. The groups of diet used were G1 (yellow corn and soybean meal) as control, G2 (10% of yellow corn was replaced by clover), G3 (10% of yellow corn was replaced by green carrot leaves), G (10% of yellow corn was replaced by green carrot leaves and K enzyme), G (10% of yellow corn was replaced by dry carrot leaves) and G (10% of yellow corn was replaced by dry carrot leaves fermented with Aspergillus niger). The highest percentage of linoleic acid (C 18: 2) was found in chicken meat fed on G4, G3, G6 and G5, respectively. Also, the total unsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids ratio (TU / TS) was high in G3 and G4. The exposure of chicken meat to gamma irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 KGy induced very little changes in the amounts of the different fatty acids. The highest percentage of the total amino acids was found in G3 followed by G2 compared with G1 (Control) but the lowest percentage was found in G5. In addition, the percentage of the total essential amino acids to total non-essential amino acids after gamma irradiation doses was approximately constant in all treatments. Microbial analysis indicated that gamma irradiation and frozen storage had significant effects on the reduction of microbial loads and improved the safety and extending shelf-life of chicken meat. However, the fatty acid and amino acid profiles were slightly affected with doses used in the present study

  7. Nutritional effects of egg shell membrane supplements on chicken performance and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Huff, W E; Huff, G R

    2015-06-01

    Eggshell membranes (ESM) contain a variety of proteins and peptides which help in the development of embryo and provide protection to it. Many of the peptides and proteins associated with ESM have antimicrobial, immune-modulatory, and adjuvant properties. We hypothesized that the membrane byproducts from egg, provided as posthatch nutritional supplements to chickens, may improve their performance and immunity. To explore its effect, we fed 3 groups of broiler chicks with feed containing 0, 0.2, and 0.4% ESM from d 1 posthatch through 14 d and regular feed thereafter. The birds were individually weighed at the onset of the study and at weekly intervals until the termination at third wk when they were bled and euthanized. The relative weights of liver, spleen, bursa, and heart, hematology profiles, and clinical chemistry variables including serum IgM, IgG, and corticosterone concentrations were measured. The chickens in the ESM treated groups showed a statistically significant increase in BW with no impact on relative organ weights. Compared with controls, the WBC and lymphocyte percentage increased in chickens fed 0.4% ESM whereas the monocyte percentage decreased at both levels of ESM. Except for the serum protein which increased in ESM fed birds no other metabolic clinical chemistry variables showed any significant change. Both IgM and IgG(Y) levels were elevated and corticosterone levels reduced in chickens fed ESM supplemented diets. Our results suggest that ESM supplements during the early phases of growth may improve immunity and stress variables, and enhance their growth performance without any detrimental effect on other physiological parameters. PMID:25840966

  8. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  9. Numerical simulation of terrain-induced vortex/wave shedding at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Li-Jie; Mao, Hui [Shenzhen National Climate Observatory, Meteorological Bureau of Shenzhen Municipality (China); Chan, P.W. [Hong Kong Observatory (China)

    2013-10-15

    The present study aims at simulating the shedding of vortex/wave from a mountain nearby the Hong Kong International Airport using a computational fluid dynamics model by employing high resolution terrain data without smoothing. The successful simulation of this shedding would have an important application in the short-term forecasting of the chance of occurrence of terrain-induced windshear at an operating airport. Two typical cases of vortex/wave shedding are considered, namely, in neutral atmosphere associated with the passage of a typhoon, and in stably stratified atmosphere in spring-time easterly flow with continental origin. The model is found to successfully capture the salient features of the shedding. The simulated radial velocity fields of weather radar/LIDAR compare well with actual observations. In particular, the creation and the propagation of the vortex/wave through shedding from a mountain nearby the airport are captured well in the model simulation. The shedding periods are also reproduced. From the limited number of cases studied in this paper, it appears that the model has the capability of forecasting the occurrence of vortex/wave shedding by coupling with a mesoscale meteorological model. (orig.)

  10. Numerical simulation of terrain-induced vortex/wave shedding at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at simulating the shedding of vortex/wave from a mountain nearby the Hong Kong International Airport using a computational fluid dynamics model by employing high resolution terrain data without smoothing. The successful simulation of this shedding would have an important application in the short-term forecasting of the chance of occurrence of terrain-induced windshear at an operating airport. Two typical cases of vortex/wave shedding are considered, namely, in neutral atmosphere associated with the passage of a typhoon, and in stably stratified atmosphere in spring-time easterly flow with continental origin. The model is found to successfully capture the salient features of the shedding. The simulated radial velocity fields of weather radar/LIDAR compare well with actual observations. In particular, the creation and the propagation of the vortex/wave through shedding from a mountain nearby the airport are captured well in the model simulation. The shedding periods are also reproduced. From the limited number of cases studied in this paper, it appears that the model has the capability of forecasting the occurrence of vortex/wave shedding by coupling with a mesoscale meteorological model.

  11. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  12. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1 the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2 any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  13. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  14. Dynamics of Viremia and Antibody Responses in Chickens Inoculated with ALV-J%ALV-J人工感染鸡病毒血症和抗体反应动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贝贝; 崔治中; 张青婵; 娄本红

    2009-01-01

    [目的]了解J亚群白血病病毒(ALV-J)感染鸡后抗体反应和带毒排毒的规律,以便为制定鸡群中ALV-J感染的预防控制和净化措施提供可靠的流行病学依据.[方法]1日龄和49日龄SPF鸡分别通过注射、121服和接触感染ALV-J,对各感染组的病毒血症、泄殖腔排毒及抗体反应进行动态检测.[结果]不同日龄感染ALV-J后的病毒血症和抗体的动态有很大差异.1日龄SPF鸡注射感染ALV-J后,自2周起开始可检出泄殖腔p27抗原和病毒血症.注射感染组有71%(5/7)鸡在26周内持续带毒排毒,其中有3只鸡在感染后45周仍带毒排毒.其中一只鸡在16周时产生一过性抗体,另两只鸡完全没有抗体.口服感染组仅11%(1/9)鸡呈持续带毒排毒,44%(4/9)鸡仅呈短暂性带毒排毒,且自第8周起即可检测到较高的抗体水平.同笼接触组既不带毒排毒,也无抗体水平,表明未发生传染.49日龄SPF鸡即使注射攻毒后,在19周内的5次检测中,p27抗原和病毒血症均为阴性.攻毒后1周开始出现抗体反应并维持一段时间.49日龄SPF鸡经口服和接触感染,病毒血症和泄殖腔p27均为阴性,也无抗体反应.[结论]1日龄SPF鸡感染ALV-J很容易发生免疫耐受,感染鸡持续带毒排毒而不产生抗体;49日龄SPF鸡感染后,1周可产生高水平的抗体,但不带毒排毒.不同接种方式对ALV-J感染的动态有很大影响,注射感染诱发的病毒血症和耐受性病毒血症显著高于口服感染.%[Objective] To understand the dynamics of viremia, virus shedding and antibody responses in chickens inoculated with avian lenkosis vrius subgroup J (ALV-J) and provide essential epidemiological data for prevention and eradicationo of ALV-J infection. [Method] Viremia, virus shedding and antibody response were successively measured after inoculation with ALV-J strain HN0001 intraperitoneally ,orally or in contact in SPF chickens at 1 day and 49 days. [Result] The dynamics ofviremia

  15. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Zhuang, Hong; Hinton, Arthur; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-12-01

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major). Chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4 °C after exposed to an in-package cold plasma (80 kV for 180 s) treatment. Populations of mesophiles, psychrophiles, and pseudomonas spp. were measured as indicators for microbiological shelf life and CIELAB L(∗) values as an indicator for raw meat appearance. Results show that regardless of microbial type, there were no significant differences in microbial counts between the control and CP treated chicken fillets packed in air. However, in the MA packages, microbial counts were consistently lower than the non-treated control during refrigerated storage. Regardless of CP treatment, the microbial counts on the samples packed in air were much higher than in MA. They were more than 6 logs cfu/g in air compared to fewer than 4 logs cfu/g in MA after 7 d storage and fewer than 6 logs cfu/g after 14 d storage. Regardless of CP treatment and gas composition in package, there were no significant differences in the surface L(∗) value between the fillets pre-treatment and those after storage at 4 °C. These results demonstrate that the effects of in-package CP treatments on microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken fillets depend upon headspace composition in packages. When fresh chicken fillets are packed in air, CP treatment has no effect on microbiological shelf life. MA packages with high O2 and CO2 significantly extend shelf life and CP treatment with MA can at least double shelf life of fresh chicken meat (more than 14 days). Regardless of headspace composition, in-package CP does not have negative effects on chicken meat appearance.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics. PMID:27035748

  17. Investigating the potential role of vitamin E in modulating the immunosuppressive effects of tylvalosin and florfenicol in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ela, Fatma I Abo; Shany, S A S; El-Deen, Manal B; El-Banna, H A; El-Gendy, A A; Hendy, K; Tohamy, M A

    2016-10-01

    Tylvalosin (TVS) is a third-generation macrolide drug used for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasma, however; it is supposed to possess an immunosuppressive effect. In the current study, the immunosuppressive effect of TVS and florfenicol (FFC) and the potential immunomodulatory role of Vit E were investigated. The experiment included one day old chick groups treated with either TVS, FFC, Vit E, TVS/Vit E, FFC/Vit E and control non-treated group. Chicks were vaccinated with inactivated H9N2 avian influenza (AI) vaccine and humoral antibody titers to viral antigen as well as innate immunity (serum lysozyme activity and nitric oxide levels) were evaluated. Total and differential leucocytic counts, serum liver enzymes level, blood leucocytic DNA damage and cellular area percentages within the lymphoid organs were also screened. Treatment with TVS and FFC significantly decreased immune response of chickens while treatment with Vit E improved the humoral immune response at 4 and 5weeks post-vaccination. Vit E also significantly increased the cellular immune response. The combination of Vit E with either TVS or FFC modulated their immunosuppressive effect and resulted in mild immunostimulatory effects. TVS alone induced a genotoxic effect on chickens' blood leucocytes and the genotoxicity was inhibited by combination of TVS with Vit E. Histopathology revealed that chickens treated with either TVS or FFC exhibited toxic effect on the lymphatic tissues. PMID:27663366

  18. Investigating the potential role of vitamin E in modulating the immunosuppressive effects of tylvalosin and florfenicol in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ela, Fatma I Abo; Shany, S A S; El-Deen, Manal B; El-Banna, H A; El-Gendy, A A; Hendy, K; Tohamy, M A

    2016-10-01

    Tylvalosin (TVS) is a third-generation macrolide drug used for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasma, however; it is supposed to possess an immunosuppressive effect. In the current study, the immunosuppressive effect of TVS and florfenicol (FFC) and the potential immunomodulatory role of Vit E were investigated. The experiment included one day old chick groups treated with either TVS, FFC, Vit E, TVS/Vit E, FFC/Vit E and control non-treated group. Chicks were vaccinated with inactivated H9N2 avian influenza (AI) vaccine and humoral antibody titers to viral antigen as well as innate immunity (serum lysozyme activity and nitric oxide levels) were evaluated. Total and differential leucocytic counts, serum liver enzymes level, blood leucocytic DNA damage and cellular area percentages within the lymphoid organs were also screened. Treatment with TVS and FFC significantly decreased immune response of chickens while treatment with Vit E improved the humoral immune response at 4 and 5weeks post-vaccination. Vit E also significantly increased the cellular immune response. The combination of Vit E with either TVS or FFC modulated their immunosuppressive effect and resulted in mild immunostimulatory effects. TVS alone induced a genotoxic effect on chickens' blood leucocytes and the genotoxicity was inhibited by combination of TVS with Vit E. Histopathology revealed that chickens treated with either TVS or FFC exhibited toxic effect on the lymphatic tissues.

  19. Intestinal mucosa structure of broiler chickens infected experimentally with Eimeria tenella and treated with essential oil of oregano Morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com Eimeria tenella e tratados com óleo essencial de orégano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first trial a total of 250 day-old male chicks were distributed into five treatments and given the following diets: a diet with growth promoter; a diet without added growth promoter; a diet added with avilamycin only; diet supplemented with 0.5g of oregano oil kg diet-1; 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. In other trial a total of 288 day-old chicks was used and distributed into four treatments, which were given the following diets: a diet with anticoccidial agent; a diet without anticoccidial agent; a diet supplemented with 0.5g of oregano oil kg diet-1; a 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. In the first trial the nonmedicated group had the highest crypt depth which differs from chickens fed with growth promoter or with 0.5 and 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. The broilers fed with positive control (antibiotic and anticoccidial had the highest villous: crypt ratio compared with the negative control that had the lowest villous:crypt ratio and the highest oocyst excretion in litter (PInicialmente, foram utilizados, neste estudo, 250 pintos de um dia de idade distribuídos em cinco tratamentos: dieta com promotor de crescimento; dieta sem promotor de crescimento; dieta contendo somente antibiótico; dieta com 0,5g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1 ou com 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. No outro ensaio, foram utilizados 288 pintos de um dia de idade distribuídos em quatro grupos: dieta com anticoccidiano; dieta sem anticoccidiano; dieta com 0,5g de orégano óleo kg dieta-1 ou 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. No primeiro ensaio, o grupo tratado sem promotor de crescimento apresentou a maior profundidade de cripta quando comparada com os animais tratados com promotor de crescimento ou com 0,5 e 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. Os frangos que receberam a dieta com promotor de crescimento (antibiótico+anticoccidiano apresentaram uma maior relação vilo:cripta em comparação com os frangos do controle negativo, os quais tiveram a

  20. Lipids shed into the culture medium by trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusti Rosalia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were metabolically labeled with [14C]-ethanolamine and [3H]-palmitic acid. Lipids shed to the culture medium were analyzed and compared with the parasite components. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine accounted for 53% of the total incorporated precursor. Interestingly, phosphatidylethanolamine and its lyso derivative lysophosphatidylethanolamine, although present in significant amounts in the parasites, could not be detected in the shed material. Shed lipids were highly enriched in the desaturated fatty acids C16:1 and C18:1 when compared to the total fatty acid pool isolated from the parasites.

  1. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  2. First reported fatal Morganella morganii infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changguang; Tang, Na; Wu, Yanping; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Wanmeng; Qin, Xiuhui; Zhao, Jixun; Zhang, Guozhong

    2012-05-01

    Morganella morganii, a Gram-negative rod commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, is here confirmed to cause a fatal infection in chickens by isolation and identification of the bacteria, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and experimental infection. This is the first case of M. morganii infection in chickens.

  3. Method of detecting genetically modified chicken containing human erythropoietin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) chickens carrying the human erythropoietin (hEpo) gene have been developed to produce recombinant hEpo protein in eggs. However, such animals have not been approved as food sources in Japan. We developed a method for detecting the hEpo gene in chicken meat using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The hEpo gene was clearly detected in genomic DNA extracted from magnum and heart of a chimeric chicken containing the hEpo gene. A plasmid containing the hEpo gene was used as a standard reference molecule as well. The results clearly showed that our method was capable of detecting the hEpo gene contained in the plasmid in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from a raw chicken meat sample. We successfully used this method to test six samples of raw chicken meat and six samples of chicken meat in processed foods. This method will be useful for monitoring chicken meat that might have originated from GM chickens carrying the hEpo gene to assure food safety.

  4. Short-term effects of triiodothyronine on hypothyroid chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    These experiments determined relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and gene expression in chickens fed methimazole. Male, broiler chickens were fed diets containing 18% crude protein and either 0 or 1 g methimazole per kg of diet. At 28 days, these two groups were further subdivide...

  5. Immune responses in cecal tonsils of MDV-infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Clinical signs of MD include dep...

  6. 英语『变色龙』Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程朝峰

    2010-01-01

    @@ "同学们,你们看过Chicken Little吗?相信你们一定喜欢这部3D动画片里的Chicken Little,今天的英语'变色龙',我们就一起来学习一些有关chicken的习语."洋博士开始上课了.

  7. Diversity and prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-nine strains of Arcobacter spp., isolated from 10 chicken carcasses purchased from a supermarket and 15 chicken carcasses collected from a poultry abattoir, were speciated using a variety of phenotypic identification methods. All were tested using API Campy test strips and the 16-test...

  8. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Boonstra-Blom, A.G.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore,

  9. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S;

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  10. Detecting gallbladders in chicken livers using spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Mølvig Jensen, Eigil; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting gallbladders attached to chicken livers using spectral imaging. Gallbladders can contaminate good livers, making them unfit for human consumption. A data set consisting of chicken livers with and without gallbladders, has been captured using 33 wavelengths...

  11. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  12. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine specif

  13. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping;

    2005-01-01

    IBDV) as well as vaccine strain IBDV in experimentally infected chickens. Two groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated using the intermediate infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine D78. Group 1 was vaccinated at the age of one week and group 2 at the age of three weeks. Both groups were...

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  15. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

  16. Protective Efficacy of an H5N1 Inactivated Vaccine Against Challenge with Lethal H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 Influenza Viruses in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianying; Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Liling; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Kong, Huihui; Feng, Huapeng; Bai, Jie; Li, Xin; Shi, Wenjun; Tian, Guobin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-05-01

    The Goose/Guangdong-lineage H5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (HA) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. Since late 2013, the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. Different subtypes of the clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in Asia, Europe, and North America. In this study, we developed a new H5N1 inactivated vaccine by using a seed virus (designated as Re-8) that contains the HA and NA genes from a clade 2.3.4.4 virus, A/chicken/Guizhou/4/13(H5N1) (CK/GZ/4/13), and its six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. We evaluated the protective efficacy of this vaccine in chickens challenged with one H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1b virus and six different subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 strains. In the clade 2.3.2.1b virus DK/GX/S1017/13-challenged groups, half of the vaccinated chickens shed virus through the oropharynx and two birds (20%) died during the observation period. All of the control chickens shed viruses and died within 6 days of infection with challenge virus. All of the vaccinated chickens remained healthy following challenge with the six clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, and virus shedding was not detected from any of these birds; however, all of the control birds shed viruses and died within 4 days of challenge with the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses. Our results indicate that the Re-8 vaccine provides protection against different subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses. PMID:27309064

  17. Immunological differences between layer- and broiler-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Marjorie E; Boonstra-Blom, Anneke G; Jeurissen, Suzan H M

    2002-10-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry, alternatives for the use of antibiotics and vaccines are under investigation, which preferably have to be applicable for both layer- and broiler-type chickens. There are indications that the defense mechanisms vary between layer- and broiler-type chickens. Therefore, the difference in immune response between layer- and broiler-type chickens of the same age was investigated, using TNP-KLH (trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin) as antigen without adjuvant. First different routes of immunization (intravenously, intramuscular, subcutaneous and ocular) were examined to find out which immunization route gives the highest antibody titers. The intravenous immunization route resulted in higher TNP-specific antibody responses than the other immunization routes tested and therefore this immunization route was used in both following experiments. In order to investigate the optimal dose of antigen needed for immunization, a dose-response curve in broiler- and layer-type chickens was completed. The humoral immune response was measured in serum by a TNP-specific ELISA and the in vitro cellular immune response by an antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation assay. The antibody response of layer- and broiler-type chickens appeared to differ, not only in optimal dose and response, but also in kinetics of the response itself. Broiler chickens generated higher IgM anti-TNP titers whereas layer-type chickens generated higher IgG anti-TNP titers. This specific antibody response in broiler-type chickens did not last as long as in layer-type chickens. The TNP-specific cellular immune response was detectable in layer-type chickens, but not in broilers. Both types generate a non-specific cellular immune response, although this response in broilers is lower than in layer-type chickens. From these results, we conclude that broilers primarily respond to TNP-KLH with a high IgM antibody response whereas layer-type chickens respond with a high Ig

  18. Ways of Improving Risk Management on Chicken Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Turc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ways of improving riskmanagement on broiler or egg chicken farms can be evaluated depending on therisk categories in emergency situations and on the components of riskmanagement. Risks can generate biological, natural, social and technologicalemergency situations. A risk element is any element that can deviate from thestrategies, plans and programmes of a chicken farm and allows predictingreality and confronting true achievements with expected results. Achieving thegoals of any broiler or egg chicken farm supposes knowing and assuming multiplerisks: risk management covers both risk identification and risk reaction. Riskanalysis supposes measures for the increase of transparency regarding chickenhealth safety, supply of experiences and protection within international tradewith broiler chickens and eggs or even live chicken. Risk analysis stipulatesthe improvement of phyto-sanitary measures and it aim at collecting, evaluatingand recording information that lead to recommendations, positions, approachesand actions as a response to an identified risk or danger; it is not meant tosupply decisions but to support decision-making.

  19. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  20. Purification of cone visual pigments from chicken retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, T; Fukada, Y; Artamonov, I D; Yoshizawa, T

    1989-10-31

    A novel method for purification of chicken cone visual pigments was established by use of a 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1- propanesulfonate-phosphatidylcholine (CHAPS-PC) mixture. Outer segment membranes isolated from chicken retinas were extracted with 0.75% CHAPS supplemented with 1.0 mg/mL phosphatidylcholine (CHAPS-PC system). After the extract was diluted to 0.6% CHAPS, it was loaded on a concanavalin A-Sepharose column. Elution from the column with different concentrations of methyl alpha-mannoside yielded three fractions: the first was composed of chicken violet, blue, and red in roughly equal amounts, the second predominantly contained chicken red, and the third was rhodopsin with a small amount of chicken green, which was separated from rhodopsin by DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Since CHAPS has little absorbance at both ultraviolet and visible regions, we could demonstrate the absolute absorption spectra of chicken red (92%) and rhodopsin (greater than 96%) in these regions. The maximum of the difference spectrum between either chicken red or rhodopsin and its photoproduct (all-trans-retinal oxime plus opsin) was determined to be 571 or 503 nm, respectively. Although chicken green was contaminated with a small amount of rhodopsin having a similar spectral shape, the maximum of its difference spectrum was located at 508 nm by taking advantage of the difference in susceptibility against hydroxylamine between these pigments. Although chicken blue and chicken violet were minor pigments present in the first fraction from the concanavalin A column, their maxima in the difference spectra were determined to be at 455 and 425 nm, respectively, by a partial bleaching method.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  2. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering, represent an exosome population and a cancer-cell-specific microvesicle population and that extracellular shed vesicle size provides information about provenance and cargo. We have designed and implemented a novel microfluidic technology that separates microvesicles, as a function of diameter, from heterogeneous populations of cancer-cell-derived extracellular shed vesicles. We measured cargo carried by the microvesicle subpopulation processed through this microfluidic platform. Such analyses could enable future investigations to more accurately and reliably determine provenance, functional activity, and mechanisms of transformation in cancer. PMID:25342569

  3. Power System Stability Using Decentralized Under Frequency and Voltage Load Shedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    Load shedding (LS) is the last emergency control action against voltage and frequency instability or even system blackout. In conventional Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) relays, LS is carried out by curtailing a fixed amount of load when the frequency declines below a set of predefined...... of disturbance location. In this paper, to aim adaptive performance of the relays, the amount of load shed in each stage is determined proportional to the measured Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). In order to localize the LS scheme close to the disturbance place, this scheme utilizes the voltage drop...... information to shed the loads with higher voltage decay first. Therefore, this approach deals with coordination of voltage and frequency information instead of independent methods. Numerical simulations which are carried out in DigSilent PowerFactory software confirm the efficiency of proposed methodology...

  4. Prevalence of human herpesvirus-8 salivary shedding in HIV increases with CD4 count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Koelle, D M; Ameli, N; Bacchetti, P; Greenspan, J S; Navazesh, M; Anastos, K; Greenblatt, R M

    2004-08-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which occurs in epidemic form in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-infected individuals. Saliva is the only mucosal fluid in which infectious HHV-8 has been identified, although factors associated with HHV-8 salivary shedding remain unclear. Our study performed PCR analysis for HHV-8 DNA in saliva (and other body fluids) in 66 HIV- and HHV-8-co-infected women without KS so that we could examine predictors for HHV-8 DNA detection. CD4 count was the most significant predictor of HHV-8 salivary shedding, with increased prevalence of HHV-8 salivary DNA at higher CD4 counts. The odds of salivary HHV8 shedding at CD4 counts > = 350 cells/microL was 63 times the odds of shedding at CD4 200. Analysis of these data suggests an increased potential for HHV-8 transmission early in HIV infection, with implications for HHV-8 prevention.

  5. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  6. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis t...

  7. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Steven M.; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering...

  8. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Ariyanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG, that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic treatments. Control by vaccination programmes using appropriate vaccines are the only ideal method, but vaccination failure using trivalent of classical serovar A, B and C of H. paragallinarum products from USA and European countries still occurred. This might probably due to the presence of new serovar B and C raised in the poultry farms in the fields, of which their antigenicity, immunogenicity and also immunoprotection of classical coryza vaccines are different from the new serovar in the fields. Research on coryza conducted at the Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science during the last 2 decades, resulted in some HPG isolates (belong to the classical serovar A, B or C and these isolates were kept at the Bbalitvet Culture Collection (BCC Unit. Studies on local isolate of HPG vaccine productions had been conducted to determine their efficacy in experimental chickens. At the same period, it was reported from Latin America and South Africa countries that new serovars B and new serovar C were found in that regions. These new serovars B and C were identified different to that of the classical serovar B or C antigenicity and immunogenicity which lead to the failure of coryza vaccination with classical serovar A, B and C imported from USA and Europe. These retrospective studies recommend that coryza is an important disease in poultry industries in this country causing a signifinant economic losses which need to be controlled properly. Further research is

  9. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...... leucocytes of previous authors. The numbers of all cell types increased with age. Correlation was found between the number of small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells, but not between granular cells and either of the other two. A hypothesis is proposed, assigning these cells with a function in mucosal...

  10. The chicken as a natural model for extraintestinal infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antão, Esther-Maria; Glodde, Susanne; Li, Ganwu; Sharifi, Reza; Homeier, Timo; Laturnus, Claudia; Diehl, Ines; Bethe, Astrid; Philipp, Hans-C; Preisinger, Rudolf; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2008-01-01

    E. coli infections in avian species have become an economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Several factors have been associated with the virulence of E. coli in avian hosts, but no specific virulence gene has been identified as being entirely responsible for the pathogenicity of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Needless to say, the chicken would serve as the best model organism for unravelling the pathogenic mechanisms of APEC, an extraintestinal pathogen. Five-week-old white leghorn SPF chickens were infected intra-tracheally with a well characterized APEC field strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5) using different doses corresponding to the respective models of infection established, that is, the lung colonization model allowing re-isolation of bacteria only from the lung but not from other internal organs, and the systemic infection model. These two models represent the crucial steps in the pathogenesis of APEC infections, including the colonization of the lung epithelium and the spread of bacteria throughout the bloodstream. The read-out system includes a clinical score, pathomorphological changes and bacterial load determination. The lung colonization model has been established and described for the first time in this study, in addition to a comprehensive account of a systemic infection model which enables the study of severe extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections. These in vivo models enable the application of various molecular approaches to study host-pathogen interactions more closely. The most important application of such genetic manipulation techniques is the identification of genes required for extraintestinal virulence, as well as host genes involved in immunity in vivo. The knowledge obtained from these studies serves the dual purpose of shedding light on the nature of virulence itself, as well as providing a route for rational attenuation of the pathogen for vaccine construction, a measure by which extraintestinal infections, including

  11. Development of a screening method to identify regulators of MICA shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Takahiro; Otsuka, Motoyuki; Ohno, Motoko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masaya; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, recognize virally infected and transformed cells, and eliminate them through the interaction between NKG2D receptors on NK cells and NKG2D ligands on pathogenic cells. Shedding of NKG2D ligands is thought to be a type of counter-mechanism employed by pathogenic cells to evade from NKG2D-mediated immune surveillance. MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) is a prototypical NKG2D ligand. We previously reported that, in soluble form, MICA expression levels are significantly associated with hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we report a MICA shedding assay that utilizes membrane-bound MICA tagged at its N-terminus with a nano-luciferase reporter to quantify MICA shedding into culture media. Using this method, we screened a compound library and identified putative regulators of MICA shedding that have the potential to enhance the immune reaction by simultaneously increasing cell surface MICA levels and decreasing soluble MICA levels. This shedding assay may be useful for screening regulators of cell surface molecule shedding.

  12. Cone outer segment shedding in the goldfish retina characterized with the 3H-fucose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an intravitreal injection of 3H-fucose, red- and blue-sensitive cone outer segments (OSs) in the goldfish retina became heavily labeled, green-sensitive cone OSs showed light labeling, and rod OSs showed virtually no labeling. Fish were maintained in white light (light/dark: 12 hr/12 hr; 6 to 10 weeks) and were injected with 3H-fucose 24 hr before sacrifice. After light onset, only phagosomes with no label were found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); after light offset, phagosomes with heavy, light, or no label were found in the RPE. A broad peak of cone OS shedding derived from all cone types was found beginning 2 hr after light offset and returning to baseline levels after 12 hr, with a maximum at 4 to 6 hr. When the white light was replaced with red light during the final 24 hr (irradiance matched to the white light at 625 nm), the green cones showed a reduction in shedding by 62%, the rods showed a 48% reduction in shedding, and the number of heavily labeled phagosomes was reduced by 24% (a value that may reflect normal and red cone shedding and a reduction in blue cone shedding). The results suggest that chromatic stimulation during the light period may influence the shedding response of a given class of cone OS. Finally, the 3H-fucose technique is useful for determination of the photoreceptor OS from which a given phagosome in the RPE originates in this species

  13. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation at normal processing temperatures on the B vitamins of pork chops and chicken breasts and on the survival of salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 0 to 6.65 kGy of gamma radiation on the percentage of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin in pork chops and chicken breasts at -20 deg. to +20 deg. C were determined. Pork chops irradiated at 0 deg. C and then cooked lost 5.6 and 17.6% thiamin at 0.3 and 1.0 kGy, respectively. The approved gamma radiation dose range for trichina control in the United States of America is 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. Much greater thiamin losses occurred in pork at radiation doses exceeding 3 kGy. The loss of thiamin was temperature dependent. Other vitamin losses were small or non-existent in both pork and chicken. Cooked chicken irradiated at 0 deg. C lost 9.05% thiamin at 3.34 kGy and 25.8% at 6.65 kGy. Treating chicken meat with gamma radiation greatly increased the sensitivity of surviving cells of Salmonella typhimurium to the effects of cooking. An irradiation temperature between -20 deg. C to +20 deg. C significantly affected the survival of salmonellae in mechanically deboned chicken meat. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  16. 简易大棚生态环境对青椒生长的影响%Effect of Simple Plastic Shed Environment on the Growth of Green Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静清; 章文洪; 杨玫

    2013-01-01

    For the problems of the yield reducing of green pepper in simple plastic shed, the set-point tracking investigation was taken. The shed body: ridge hight 2 m, side hight 0.9 m. Fertilizer application 41 475.5 kg/hm2, not rotten chicken manure 75 m3/hm2; Watering: 10 times surface flooding; Soil in active layer: 20 cm; Lighting inside shed: 6 5000 lx, reduced by 34% than the light outside. In the 50 cm high position of the shed, the temperature over 34 ℃ can last for 7 hs; wind speed in the side of the shed is increased by 24% than that in the middle. In the growth period, the diseases and insect pests were not effectively controlled. The reslutls showed that, under this ecological environment, single green pepper overgrew, group green pepper grew in disorder, fruit was less, unphysically deformity fruit increased, and part of the plant root system formed the lateral root. So the bad ecological environment of simple plastic shed is key cause of the decline in yield.%对简易大棚种植青椒出现的减产问题,进行了定点跟踪调查.结果表明,棚体脊高2m,边高0.9 m;施各种化肥4 147.5 kg/hm2,未腐熟鸡粪75 m3/hm2;浇水10次(灌满畦子);活土层土壤20 cm;棚内光照6.5万Lx,较棚外光照减少34%;棚内50 cm高处温度为34℃以上达7h;棚边风速较棚中风速提高24%;在生长周期中病虫害未能得到有效控制,这样的生态环境条件,致使青椒个体生长过旺,群体生长极不整齐,挂果偏少,非生理性畸形果增多,部分植株根系形成侧根.生态环境不良是简易大棚产量下降的根本原因.

  17. Reverse genetics based rgH5N2 vaccine provides protection against high dose challenge of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S; Khandia, R; Sood, R; Bhat, S; Siddiqui, A; Jahagirdhar, G; Mishra, S; Mishra, A; Pateriya, A K; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-08-01

    An inactivated vaccine was developed using the rgH5N2 virus (6 + 2 reassortant) generated by plasmid based reverse genetics system (RGS) with WSN/33/H1N1 as backbone virus. Following mutation of the basic amino acid cleavage site RRRKKR*GLF to IETR*GLF, the H5-HA (haemagglutinin) gene of the selected donor H5N1 virus (A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008) of antigenic clade 2.2 was used along with the N2-NA gene from H9N2 field isolate (A/chicken/Uttar Pradesh/2543/2004) for generation of the rgH5N2 virus. A single dose (0.5 ml/bird) of the inactivated rgH5N2 vaccine protected 100% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 28(th) dpv (early challenge) and 90% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 200(th) dpv (late challenge) against high dose challenge with HPAI virus (10(9) EID50/bird). Challenge virus shedding via oropharynx and cloaca of the vaccinated chickens was detectable by realtime RT-PCR during 1-5 dpc and 1-9 days dpc in the early and the late challenge, respectively. The protective level of antibodies (mean HI titre > 128) was maintained without booster vaccination for 200 days. The present study provides the experimental evidence about the extent of protection provided by a reverse genetics based vaccine for clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses against challenge with high dose of field virus at two different time points (28 dpv and 200 dpv). The challenge study is uniquely different from the previous similar experiments on account of 1000 times higher dose of challenge and protection at 200 dpv. The protection and virus shedding data of the study may be useful for countries planning to use H5 vaccine in poultry especially against the clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses. PMID:27296706

  18. Mentoring at Men's Sheds: an international survey about a community approach to health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-05-01

    Men's Sheds are named within the Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies as an exemplar of male health and well-being and offer a range of formal and informal mentoring to counter the known consequences of social exclusion. The study aimed to report on whether Men's Sheds undertake mentoring programmes, and if so, who is being mentored; are mentors being trained, and if so by whom; and the perceived effectiveness of the mentoring programme. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore associations between sheds with a mentoring programme and factors that reflect an inclusive and a health-focused environment. All known Men's Sheds were invited to participate in the survey; of those, 324 (42.8%) Men's Sheds in Australia and 59 (48.0%) International sheds participated in the study between April and August 2012. Overall, 39.2% (n = 127) of Australian sheds and 23.7% (n = 14) of International sheds undertook formal mentoring. Youth was the most common group being mentored in both Australia (60.6%; n = 77) and Internationally (71.4%; n = 10). Over half of Australian shed co-ordinators rated their mentoring programme as moderately effective (52.8%; n = 67) and over a third as highly effective (36.2%; n = 46), while half of International shed co-ordinators rated theirs as highly effective (50.0%; n = 7). The findings from this paper support the notion that a large number of Men's Sheds offer formal mentoring programmes targeting a range of disadvantaged sub-populations, thus supporting social inclusion. Inter-generational mentoring is the most frequently occurring type of mentoring programme. While training mentors occurs at some sheds, the efficacy of this training and programme outcomes are unknown. A typology of shed types appears to be emerging based on a divergence of sheds with a more utilitarian focus and sheds that appear to embrace a health and well-being focus.

  19. Genetic differences in the body weight and haematological traits of Nigerian indigenous chickens infected with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenaike, A S; Mabunmi, A O; Takeet, M I; Adenaike, O D; Ikeobi, C O N

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to shed more light on the tolerance of indigenous chickens to coccidiosis, we compared the body weight, faecal oocyst load and haematological parameters based on sex and genotypes of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. Three hundred chicks from three genotypes (normal-feathered, frizzle-feathered and naked-neck) of Nigerian indigenous chickens which comprised 100 birds per genotype were raised for 6 weeks. At 3 weeks old, each chick was weighed and faecal, and blood samples were collected before inoculation. Subsequently, the birds were weighed and faecal samples collected at days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 post-inoculation. Blood samples were collected from 50 chicks per genotype at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation. Blood parameters were determined and faecal samples subjected to McMaster egg counting technique. Results showed genotype, and sex had significant effects on body weight from day 1 to 15 post-inoculation. Normal-feathered chicks had the highest body weight while frizzle-feathered chicks showed lowest body weight at post-inoculation. E. tenella was identified in caecal and lower intestinal mucosa of the genotypes, but genotype had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the lesion score. There were no significant differences in haematological values among genotypes (p > 0.05) except for lymphocytes where naked-neck chicks had the highest lymphocytes' count (1.83 ± 0.02 %), followed by normal-feathered (1.79 ± 0.02 %) and the frizzle-feathered (1.68 ± 0.02 %). The present values of body weight, faecal oocyst and haematological parameters obtained seemed not to be convincing enough to suggest that the genotypes were different in terms of tolerance to coccidiosis. PMID:27465695

  20. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. PMID:26518641

  1. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Halbherr

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade. Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  2. Replication kinetics and shedding of very virulent Marek's disease virus and vaccinal Rispens/CVI988 virus during single and mixed infections varying in order and interval between infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tanzila; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Renz, Katrin G; Islam, A F M Fakhrul; Ralapanawe, Sithara

    2014-10-10

    Vaccination is thought to contribute to an evolution in virulence of the Marek's disease virus (MDV) as vaccines prevent disease but not infection. We investigated the effects of co-infections at various intervals between Rispens/CVI988 vaccine virus (Rispens) and very virulent MDV (vvMDV) on the replication and shedding of each virus. The experiment used 600 ISA Brown layer chickens in 24 isolators with all treatments replicated in two isolators. Chickens were vaccinated with Rispens and/or challenged with the vvMDV isolate 02LAR on days 0, 5, or 10 post hatching providing vaccination to challenge intervals (VCI) of -10, -5, 0, 5 or 10 days with the negative values indicating challenge prior to vaccination. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), feathers and isolator exhaust dust were sampled between 7 and 56 days post infection (dpi) and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to differentiate the two viruses. Overall Rispens significantly reduced the viral load of vvMDV in PBL and feather cells and shedding in dust. Similarly vvMDV significantly reduced the viral load of Rispens in PBL and feather cells but not in dust. VCI significantly influenced these relationships having strong positive and negative associations with load of vvMDV and Rispens respectively. Differences between the two viruses and their effects on each other were greatest in PBL and feathers, and least in dust. This study expands our understanding of the interaction between pathogenic and vaccinal viruses following vaccination with imperfect vaccines and has implications for selection of appropriate samples to test for vaccination success.

  3. 鸭源贝氏隐孢子虫对鸡的致病性%Pathogenicity of duck-derived Cryptosporidium baileyi to chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤; 张素梅; 王荣军; 菅复春; 张龙现

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium baileyi is the predominant species in birds, and it is also the common Cryptosporidiurn species in chicken farms in China, however, the pathogenicity dosage of C. baileyi is unclear. In the present study, three dosage of Cryptosporidiurn baileyi from duck were used to inoculate 2 day-old chickens and the clinical manifestation, weight gain, ooeysts shedding regulation, bursa of Fabricius index, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of parasitic site were obtained. Results showed that 1.6 × 10^6 C. baileyi oocysts could cause obvious respiratory disease. The weight gain of infected chickens significantly decreased, and the atrophy of Fabrieius' bursa was severe. The pathogenicity and the regulation of oocysts shedding of C. baileyi was associated with the dosage of Cryptosporidium oocysts,the major pathological change was respiratory disease and bursa of Fabrieius inflammation.%设计3个不同剂量的鸭源隐孢子虫试验感染2日龄雏鸡,通过临床症状、增重、排卵囊规律和法氏囊指数及寄生器官组织扫描电镜观察,证实贝氏隐孢子虫160万个卵囊感染即可引起明显的呼吸道症状,发病鸡增重显著降低,法氏囊严重萎缩。贝氏隐孢子虫致病程度和排卵囊规律与感染剂量相关,主要病变表现呼吸道病变和法氏囊炎症。

  4. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. PMID:26208530

  5. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice.

  6. Hyperspectral Imaging of fecal contamination on chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA research partnership center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. Health-related applications of HSI include scanning chickens during processing to help prevent contaminated food from getting to the table. ProVision is working with Sanderson Farms of Mississippi and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ProVision has a record in its spectral library of the unique spectral signature of fecal contamination, so chickens can be scanned and those with a positive reading can be separated. HSI sensors can also determine the quantity of surface contamination. Research in this application is quite advanced, and ProVision is working on a licensing agreement for the technology. The potential for future use of this equipment in food processing and food safety is enormous.

  7. Maintenance of chicken embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the methods we have used to show that chicken leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated state in culture. Recombinant chicken LIF (rchLIF) was expressed as a fusion protein linked to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified to greater than 90% purity in two chromatography stages, the first an affinity step using the GST tail, which was cleaved before further purification by gel chromatography. Chicken ES cells were obtained by culturing chicken blastodermal cells isolated from stage X embryos of freshly laid chicken eggs. These cells can be maintained in media containing rchLIF for at least 9 d without any other cytokines or feeder cells. Chicken ES cells were characterized by the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1. In addition, the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 by LIF, which is sufficient to maintain the undifferentiated state of ES cells, was detected by Western blotting analysis. PMID:16845981

  8. Protective effect of in ovo treatment with the chicken cathelicidin analog D-CATH-2 against avian pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Matthijs, Mieke G R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and ever stricter control on antibiotic use are a driving force to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One such strategy is the use of multifunctional Host Defense Peptides. Here we examined the protective effect of prophylactic treatment with the D analog of chicken cathelicidin-2 (D-CATH-2) against a respiratory E. coli infection. Chickens were treated with D-CATH-2 in ovo at day 18 of embryonic development or intramuscularly at days 1 and 4 after hatch. At 7 days of age, birds were challenged intratracheally with avian pathogenic E. coli. Protection was evaluated by recording mortality, morbidity (Mean Lesion Score) and bacterial swabs of air sacs at 7 days post-infection. In ovo D-CATH-2 treatment significantly reduced morbidity (63%) and respiratory bacterial load (>90%), while intramuscular treatment was less effective. D-CATH-2 increased the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and heterophils by both administration routes. E. coli specific IgM levels were lower in in ovo treated animals compared to intramuscular D-CATH-2 treatment. In short, in ovo treatment with the Host Defense Peptide derived D-CATH-2 can partially protect chickens from E. coli infection, making this peptide an interesting starting point to develop alternatives to antibiotics for use in the poultry sector. PMID:27229866

  9. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  10. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  11. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  12. Nd:YAG laser in experimentally induced chronic degenerative osteoarthritis in broiler chickens: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.

  13. Effect of ultrasound treatment on functional properties of reduced-salt chicken breast meat batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatments (40 kHz, 300 W) for different times (10, 20, 30 and 40 min) combined with different salt contents (1.0 %, 1.5 % and 2.0 %) on gel properties and water holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast meat batter were investigated. Results showed salt level significantly (p  0.05) on texture, cooking loss or WHC. However, longer ultrasound (40 min) treatment resulted in a decrease in hardness, G' value and WHC. Microstructural analysis revealed that gels treated with ultrasound for 20 min had a compact structure whereas those treated for 40 min contained more protein aggregations and more cavities. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated that ultrasound treatment for 20 min lowered the values of spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and increased the proportion of myofibillar water. Overall, high power ultrasound technology is a promising process which can improve the gelation properties and thereby allowing for a partial reduction in the salt levels in chicken meat gels.

  14. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation.

  15. Duration of shedding of respiratory syncytial virus in a community study of Kenyan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngama Mwanajuma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admissions. Methods In a household study, children testing RSV positive by direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA were enrolled. Nasal washings were scheduled right away, then every three days until day 14, every 7 days until day 28 and every 2 weeks until a maximum of 16 weeks, or until the first DFA negative RSV specimen. The relationship between host factors, illness severity and viral shedding was investigated using Cox regression methods. Results From 151 families a total of 193 children were enrolled with a median age of 21 months (range 1-164 months, 10% infants and 46% male. The rate of recovery from infection was 0.22/person/day (95% CI 0.19-0.25 equivalent to a mean duration of shedding of 4.5 days (95%CI 4.0-5.3, with a median duration of shedding of 4 days (IQR 2-6, range 1-14. Children with a history of RSV infection had a 40% increased rate of recovery i.e. shorter duration of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-1.86. The rate of cessation of shedding did not differ significantly between males and females, by severity of infection or by age. Conclusion We provide evidence of a relationship between the duration of shedding and history of infection, which may have a bearing on the relative role of primary versus re-infections in RSV transmission in the community.

  16. Role of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in CD16b Shedding Mediated by Different Stimulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Guo; Min Peng; Qing Zhao; Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main proteinases responsible for CD16b shedding under different stimulators.Methods HEK293 cell line stably expressing CD16b was constructed by lentivirus system.The cell line was then overexpressed with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) or ADAM17,suppressed with short hairpin RNA of ADAM10 or ADAM17,and reconstituted with ADAMi0 or ADAM17,respectively.After each treatment,the cell line was stimulated with ionomycin or phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) for 12 hours.The soluble CD 16b released from cell membrane was detected by immunoprecipition and immtmoblot.Quantitation was then implemented to compare the amount of soluble CD 16b in cell supernatant after stimulation.Results HEK293 cell line stably expressing CD16b was successfully established.When CD16b expressing cell line was overexpressed with ADAM1 0,shedding of CD 16b was increased after stimulation with ionomycin but not PMA; when the cell line overexpressed with ADAM 17,shedding of CD 16b was increased after stimulation with PMA but not ionomycin.Similarly,when ADAM10 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA,CD16b shedding was decreased after stimulation with ionomycin; when ADAM17 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA,CD16b shedding was decreased after stimulation with PMA.The shedding of CD16b was increased again when CD16b expressing cell line was reconstituted with ADAM10 and stimulated by ionomycin or reconstituted with ADAM 17 and stimulated by PMA.Conclusions Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 could shed CD16b,but they possess differed preferences.ADAM10 is the main sheddase under stimulation of ionomycin,while ADAM17 is the main sheddase under stimulation of PMA.

  17. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. PMID:25701819

  18. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  19. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, A; Niemann, J; Engberg, Jørgen H;

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  20. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  1. Interactions of Cu2+ ions with chicken prion tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczak, Pawel; Łuczkowski, Marek; Juszczyk, Paulina; Grzonka, Zbigniew; Kozłowski, Henryk

    2004-07-21

    The potentiometric and spectroscopic (EPR, UV-Vis, CD) data have shown that the chicken prion hexa-repeat (Ac-His-Asn-Pro-Gly-Tyr-Pro-NH(2)) is a very specific ligand for Cu(2+) ions. The His imidazole is an anchoring binding site, then the adjacent amide nitrogen coordinates as a second donor. The presence of Pro at position 3 induces binding of phenolate oxygen as a third donor atom. The tridentate coordination dominates around physiological pH. Similar to human octapeptide fragments, chicken tandem repeats exhibit a cooperative effect in binding Cu(2+) ions, although chicken peptides are much less effective in metal ion coordination. PMID:15249945

  2. Influence of Citric Acid on the Pink Color and Characteristics of Sous Vide Processed Chicken Breasts During Chill Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Chicken breast dipped with citric acid (CA) was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d. A non-dipped control group (CON) and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed (0.5%, 0.5CIT; 2.0%, 2CIT and 5.0%, 5CIT; w/v). Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. While the redness of the juice and meat in all groups showed significant increase during storage, the redness of the citric acid groups was reduced compared to the control group (psous vide chicken breast at 2% and 5% citric acid concentrations. PMID:26761885

  3. Lesser prairie-chicken nest site selection, microclimate, and nest survival in association with vegetation response to a grassland restoration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Dixon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    captured at individual leks, and then for all leks pooled. There was no clear pattern of selection for treatment type for nest placement among hens associated with individual leks; however, when hens from all leks were pooled, we found nesting lesser prairie-chickens selected control plots for nesting over plots that were grazed, treated with tebuthiuron, or were both grazed and treated with tebuthiuron. Overall, the probability of a nest surviving the incubation period was 0.57 for this study and did not vary significantly among treatment types. In contrast to nesting preference for untreated habitats, lek use exhibited no noticeable selection of treatment type. Over the 10 years of the habitat management study, there was 91 percent less sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) in treated areas than untreated areas. The removal of sand shinnery oak made environmental soil moisture more available for grasses and forbs to germinate and grow. Grasses increased by 149 percent and forbs increased by 257 percent in treated areas as compared to untreated areas throughout the study period. Our combined results, including our habitat selection analysis at the individual lek level, indicated that reduced rates of herbicide and short-duration grazing treatments were not detrimental to nesting lesser prairie-chickens and that populations of lesser prairie-chickens in shrub-dominated ecosystems may benefit from reduced rates of herbicide application and short duration of grazing that results in increased habitat heterogeneity.

  4. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  5. Broilers with low serum Mannose-binding Lectin show increased fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie L; Juul-Madsen, Helle R; Kjærup, Rikke B; Okimoto, Ron; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Maurischat, Sven; Sørensen, Poul; Dalgaard, Tina S

    2016-08-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key molecule in innate immunity. MBL binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens, initiating the complement system via the lectin-dependent pathway or facilitates opsonophagocytosis. In vivo studies using inbred chicken lines differing in MBL serum concentration indicate that chicken MBL affects Salmonella resistance; further studies are imperative in conventional broiler chickens. In this study 104 conventional day-old chickens (offspring from a cross between Cobb 500 male and female parent breeders) were orally infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo. The chickens were divided into two groups based on polymorphisms in their MBL promoter region, designated L/L for low serum concentrations of MBL and L/H for medium serum concentrations of MBL. A semi-quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in cloacal swabs was used, the log10 CFU quantification was based on a standard curve from artificially spiked cloacal swab samples pre-incubated for 8 h with known concentrations of Salmonella ranging from 10(1) to 10(6) CFU/swabs, with an obtained amplification efficiency of 102% and a linear relationship between the log10 CFU and the threshold cycle Ct values of (R(2) = 0.99). The L/L chickens had significantly higher Log10 CFU/swab at week 5 post infection (pi) than the L/H chickens. A repetition of the study with 86 L/L and 18 L/H chickens, also gave significantly higher log10 CFU ± SEM in cloacal swabs, using the semi-quantitative real-time PCR method from L/L chickens than from the L/H chickens at week 5 pi. These results indicate that genetically determined basic levels of MBL may influence S. Montevideo susceptibility. PMID:26994208

  6. The SHED-IT community trial study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of weight loss programs for overweight and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Myles D

    2010-11-01

    intake, sedentary behaviour, physical activity and dietary cognitions, sleepiness, quality of life, and perceived sexual health. Generalised linear mixed models will be used to assess all outcomes for the impact of group (Resources, Online, and Control, time (treated as categorical with levels baseline, 3-months and 6-months and the group-by-time interaction. These three terms will form the base model. 'Intention-to-treat' analysis will include all randomised participants. Discussion Our study will compare evidence-based and theoretically driven, low cost and easily disseminated strategies specifically targeting weight loss in men. The SHED-IT community trial will provide evidence to inform development and dissemination of sustainable strategies to reduce obesity in men. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000699066

  7. Review on Health Functions of Chicken Broths%鸡汤健康功能的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蓉蓉; 李怡芳; 李维熙; 栗原博

    2012-01-01

    There had been a long history of using chicken broths to improve and treat diseases. In traditional medicine, chicken broths had the effects of warming up the body, elevating energy and vitality, strengthening organs and bones, etc. Recent researches proved that consuming chicken broths can relieve cold symptoms, tiredness, promoting metabolism and increasing immune functions. People found that chicken broths are rich in nutrients like proteins, various a-mino acids, minerals and trace elements, etc. Carnosine and anserine which are important nutrients in chicken broth, are histamine dipeptide compounds and antioxidative substances with multiple bioactivities. They act as precursors of central nervous histaminergic transmitters, which can regulate central nervous histamine level and activity of serotonin, and hence activate serotonin-related physiological activities. Results showed that chicken broth can improve sleeping qualities, lighten up mood and regulate rhythm of life. With the industrialization of chicken broth production, people are paying much more attention to functional foods like chicken essences. This article summarizes the researches on active components and physiological effects of chicken broths and elucidates the related mechanisms, which can provide consumers with more beneficial information, on the research and development of chicken broths.%传统医学认为,鸡汤具有温中益气、补虚填精、益五脏健脾胃及强筋骨等效果.近年来的研究证明鸡汤具有缓解感冒症状、消除疲劳、促进机体新陈代谢及增强免疫功能等作用.鸡汤中富合蛋白质、多种氨基酸、多种矿物质及微量元素等营养成分,其中肌肽和鹅肌肽是组胺酰二肽类化合物,不仅是鸡汤中的营养成分,同时也是具有多种生理活性的抗氧化物质.此外,肌肽等小分子化合物又作为中枢组织胺神经递质的前驱活性物质,可以通过组氨酸等代谢途径有效调节

  8. Simulated browsing affects leaf shedding phenology and litter quality of oak and birch saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, S; Hester, A J; Maestro, M; Millard, P

    2013-04-01

    Herbivore effects on leaf litter can have a strong impact on ecosystem nutrient cycling. Although such effects are well described for insect herbivory, research on the impacts of browsing by mammalian herbivores on leaf litter dynamics and nutrient cycling has been more limited, particularly at the level of the individual plant. Clipping treatments (66% shoot removal twice, plus unclipped) were applied to analyse the effect of browsing on the phenology (start date and pattern of leaf shedding) and leaf litter quality (nitrogen (N), soluble sugars, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, plus C : N ratios) of Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl. saplings. Clipping decreased leaf litter biomass and delayed leaf senescence and shedding, but did not change the phenological timing of litterfall between senescence and shedding. The quality of leaf litter of both species was increased by simulated browsing, through an increase in N and carbohydrate concentrations (mainly soluble sugars) and a decreased C : N ratio. This is the first evidence we are aware of that browsing may cause changes in leaf shedding phenology, delaying the process without altering its pattern. Our results also indicate that simulated browsing increases the quality of leaf litter. However, the potential positive effect of browsing on N cycling through litter quality may be offset by its negative impact on the amount of N shed per tree.

  9. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  10. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Vortex Shedding on Solar Collector Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaulddin Abdulqader Kadim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of vortex shedding on the solar collector performance of the parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC was estimated experimentally. The effect of structure oscillations due to wind vortex shedding on solar collector performance degradation was estimated. The performance of PTSC is evaluated by using the useful heat gain and the thermal instantaneous efficiency. Experimental work to simulate the vortex shedding excitation was done. The useful heat gain and the thermal efficiency of the parabolic trough collector were calculated from experimental measurements with and without vortex loading. The prototype of the collector was fabricated for this purpose. The effect of vortex shedding at different operation conditions was examined. The variation of angles of attack and wind velocity leads to different values of vortex loading coefficients and shedding frequencies. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and solar collector performance was evaluated. The finite element method was used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the solar collector in addition to experimental work to evaluate the relation between the dynamic behavior of the collector and its performance.

  11. Oral and systemic health correlates of HIV-1 shedding in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R; Kono, N; Kumar, S K S; Nowicki, M; Alves, M; Mack, W J

    2010-10-01

    The relationship among oral and systemic health and HIV shedding in saliva is not well-understood. We hypothesized that oral and systemic health are associated with HIV shedding in saliva of HIV-infected women. Saliva from 127 participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was collected at repeated visits over a 5½-year study period (October 1998 through March 2004) and was evaluated for HIV-1 RNA. Demographic, lifestyle, and systemic and oral health characteristics were evaluated as possible correlates of salivary HIV-1 shedding. Multivariate models showed significantly increased risk of HIV-1 shedding in saliva as blood levels of CD4 cell counts decreased (p < 0.0001) and HIV RNA increased (p < 0.0001). Diabetes (p = 0.002) and a high proportion of gingival bleeding sites (p = 0.01) were associated with increased likelihood, while anti-retroviral therapy (p = 0.0003) and higher levels of stimulated saliva flow rates (p = 0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA shedding in saliva.

  12. Preparation and characterization of keratin and chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yao; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of keratin-chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite films were studied using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to demonstrate and quantify the secondary transformation of composite films. The results showed that the secondary structure of treated films was transformed from disordered structure to ordered conformation including α-helix conformation and β-pleated-sheet conformation due to the increase of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The absorption features of treated films were exhibited by the UV-vis spectra. The bule-shift and decreased intensity indicated the change of microenvironment due to the concentration of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The transmission electron microscopy images of composite films supported the aggregation resulting from microenvironment. The effect of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster was characterized by the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) images which showed the gradually intensive luminescence with increasing Au cluster and the transformation from the whiskers to nanoparticle.

  13. Full-Genome Sequence of Chicken Anemia Virus Strain GXC060821, Isolated from a Guangxi Sanhuang Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel chicken anemia virus strain GXC060821, isolated from a Sanhuang chicken in Guangxi Province of southern China. The complete genome of GXC060821 was sequenced. The full-length of GXC060821 is 2,292 bp and contains three overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). A comparison of the complete sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of GXC060821 with 31 other published chicken anemia virus sequences showed that the homologies of the nucl...

  14. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Rani Gilhare; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Ashish Kumar; Surendra Kumar Naik; Tarini Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  15. Addition of tea catechins and vitamin C on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability during chilled storage in cooked or raw beef and chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Mitsuru; O'Grady, Michael N; Kerry, Joe P; Joe Buckley, D

    2005-04-01

    The effects of addition of tea catechins (TC) and vitamin C (VC) on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability in cooked or raw beef and chicken meat patties during refrigerated storage were studied. Fresh beef striploin and chicken breast muscles were minced, following removal of external fat and connective tissue. Following mincing, beef and chicken were assigned to one of the following five treatments: control (meat treated with no antioxidant); TC200, meat plus 200 mg TC/kg muscle; TC400, meat plus 400 mg TC/kg muscle; VC200, meat plus 200 mg VC/kg muscle, VC400, meat plus 400 mg VC/kg muscle. Sodium chloride (1%) was added to all samples. Patties (125 g portions), formed from the above-treated minced meat, were oven cooked, cooled, and packaged in 30% CO(2):70% N(2). Fresh raw beef and chicken patties were packaged in 80% O(2):20% CO(2). All samples were stored for up to 7 days under fluorescent lighting at 4 °C. Sensory parameters (colour, flavour, taste, tenderness and overall acceptability) were evaluated on cooked beef and chicken patties after 1, 3 and 6 days of storage. Surface colour (Hunter L, a and b values), and lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured on days 1, 3 and 6 of storage for cooked meats and on days 2 and 7 for raw beef and chicken. Tea catechins addition (200 or 400 mg/kg) to minced meat caused (P<0.05) discolouration in cooked beef and chicken meat patties and significantly reduced (P<0.001) lipid oxidation in cooked or raw beef patties compared to the control. Beef, either raw or cooked, was more susceptible (P<0.01) to oxidation compared to chicken. Raw meat stored in high oxygen conditions was more susceptible to lipid oxidation than cooked meat stored in anaerobic conditions. Tea catechins treatments (TC200 and TC400) inhibited (P<0.05) lipid oxidation in raw beef to a greater extent than vitamin C treatments (VC200 and VC400). These results indicate that tea catechins are potent natural

  16. Sexual difference in gonadal development of embryonic chickens after treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent and lipophilic environmental endocrine disrupters that can be biomagnified in human and animals including birds and thus to affect reproductive functions.Poultry meat and eggs contain a great deal of fat and possibly concentrate higher PCBs and other environmental contaminants such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT).In order to identify the adverse effects of PCBs and possible sexual difference on chicken gonadal development, Aroclor 1254 was injected into fertilized Hyline chicken eggs before incubation. Four groups of eggs received yolk injection of either peanut oil as control, 1, 10 or 100 μg/egg of Aroclor 1254 as treatment group, respectively. After hatching the gonads were removed for histological examination. Testicular structure was apparently changed and exhibited dramatic decrease in area of the transverse sections (1 μg/egg, P< 0.01; 10 and 100 μg/egg, P<0.001), diameter (10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.05) and relative area of the testicular tubules (10 μg/egg, P<0.05; 100 μg/egg, P<0.01). Most testicular tubules of the highest dose group degenerated and even disappeared. The differentiation of germ cells was retarded in all groups treated with Aroclor 1254. Some germ cells were irregular in shape, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatism nucleus (pyknosis) in 1 and 10 μg/egg groups and almost all germ cells in 100 μg/egg group. In contrast,the area of the left ovarian transverse sections increased dramatically (10 and 100 lμg/egg, P <0.001), the ovarian cortex manifested a significant increment in thickness (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) and a higher number of oocytes was observed (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) in the female chickens treated with Aroclor 1254 compared with the control group. A few oocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nucleus were also observed in ovarian cortex after PCBs exposure. These results showed that PCBs interfered

  17. A genome-wide screen identifies a single β-defensin gene cluster in the chicken: implications for the origin and evolution of mammalian defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yanjing

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defensins comprise a large family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that are characterized by the presence of a conserved cysteine-rich defensin motif. Based on the spacing pattern of cysteines, these defensins are broadly divided into five groups, namely plant, invertebrate, α-, β-, and θ-defensins, with the last three groups being mostly found in mammalian species. However, the evolutionary relationships among these five groups of defensins remain controversial. Results Following a comprehensive screen, here we report that the chicken genome encodes a total of 13 different β-defensins but with no other groups of defensins being discovered. These chicken β-defensin genes, designated as Gallinacin 1–13, are clustered densely within a 86-Kb distance on the chromosome 3q3.5-q3.7. The deduced peptides vary from 63 to 104 amino acid residues in length sharing the characteristic defensin motif. Based on the tissue expression pattern, 13 β-defensin genes can be divided into two subgroups with Gallinacin 1–7 being predominantly expressed in bone marrow and the respiratory tract and the remaining genes being restricted to liver and the urogenital tract. Comparative analysis of the defensin clusters among chicken, mouse, and human suggested that vertebrate defensins have evolved from a single β-defensin-like gene, which has undergone rapid duplication, diversification, and translocation in various vertebrate lineages during evolution. Conclusions We conclude that the chicken genome encodes only β-defensin sequences and that all mammalian defensins are evolved from a common β-defensin-like ancestor. The α-defensins arose from β-defensins by gene duplication, which may have occurred after the divergence of mammals from other vertebrates, and θ-defensins have arisen from α-defensins specific to the primate lineage. Further analysis of these defensins in different vertebrate lineages will shed light on the mechanisms of

  18. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K;

    2001-01-01

    tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin......Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... heavy chains (MHC) and double immunostaining techniques, we found that tetranectin was restricted to slow (type I) muscle fibers. Similarly only slow intrafusal fibers accumulated tetranectin. The pattern of immunostaining in chickens differs markedly from that seen in mouse muscles, indicating...

  19. Sichuan-style Diced Chicken with Chili and Peanuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gongbao; Jiding

    2005-01-01

    Mix chicken cubes with soy sauce, salt and cooking wine. Add 1 table-spoon wet starch and mix. Make the sauce by mixing soy sauce, sugar.vinegar, and the other tablespoon of wet starch in clear stock.

  20. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  1. Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned and/or administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge.

  2. The Trail Inventory of Attwater Prairie Chicken NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  3. Estimated occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shown are the current estimated occupied range and the historical range of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken. The current range was updated in January 2011 by the Lesser...

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  5. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir. PMID:23781673

  6. Dietary levels of potassium for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.

  7. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: r.m.cooke@ewi.tudelft.nl; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.

  8. Scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256

  9. Studies on radurization of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)

  10. Underfrequency Load Shedding for an Islanded Distribution System With Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Significant penetration of distributed generation in many distribution systems has opened an option of operating distribution systems in island mode for economical and technical reasons. However, balancing frequency of the islanded system is still an issue to be solved, especially when the demand...... exceeds the generation in the power island. This paper presents a strategy to shed an optimal number of loads in the island to stabilize the frequency. The load shedding strategy is based on frequency information, rate of change of frequency, customers' willingness to pay, and loads histories. Different...... scenarios have been simulated with results showing that the proposed method is effective in shedding the optimal number of loads while stabilizing frequency....

  11. Neural net based determination of generator-shedding requirements in electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M. (Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.-H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This paper presents an application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in support of a decision-making process by power system operators directed towards the fast stabilisation of multi-machine systems. The proposed approach considers generator shedding as the most effective discrete supplementary control for improving the dynamic performance of faulted power systems and preventing instabilities. The sensitivity of the transient energy function (TEF) with respect to changes in the amount of dropped generation is used during the training phase of ANNs to assess the critical amount of generator shedding required to prevent the loss of synchronism. The learning capabilities of neural nets are used to establish complex mappings between fault information and the amount of generation to be shed, suggesting it as the control signal to the power system operator. (author)

  12. Herpes Simplex [corrected] Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mary K; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-11-15

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74-2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86-2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35-1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use.

  13. Post-parturient shedding of Listeria monocytogenes in breast milk of infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Pillers, DeAnn M; Conway, James H; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop an animal model to study Listeria monocytogenes infection during the peri-parturient period and identify sources of maternal shedding of the pathogen. Peri-parturient mice were infected intragastrically with L. monocytogenes that expressed bacterial luciferase. Mice were then imaged in vivo over time. Secreted breast milk samples from mice infected after parturition were enriched and plated for culture and imaging. Bioluminescence imaging technology was able to detect luciferase emitting L. monocytogenes in vaginal secretions and maternal and fetal organs at 72 and 96 h post infection in mice infected prior to, or just after, parturition. The results from this study clearly show that L. monocytogenes is shed in vaginal secretions and disseminates to the mammary chain, from which it can be shed in the milk of peri-parturient mice. PMID:24246517

  14. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  15. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  16. Efficient production of germline transgenic chickens using lentiviral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    McGrew, Mike; Sherman, Adrian; Ellard, Fiona M; Lillico, Simon G; Gilhooley, Hazel J; Kingsman, Alan J.; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A.; Sang, Helen

    2004-01-01

    An effective method for genetic modification of chickens has yet to be developed. An efficient technology, enabling production of transgenic birds at high frequency and with reliable expression of transgenes, will have many applications, both in basic research and in biotechnology. We investigated the efficiency with which lentiviral vectors could transduce the chicken germ line and examined the expression of introduced reporter transgenes. Ten founder cockerels transmitted the vector to betw...

  17. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  18. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    OpenAIRE

    Isao Oishi; Kyoko Yoshii; Daichi Miyahara; Hiroshi Kagami; Takahiro Tagami

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, ...

  19. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Huang; Ching-I Lin; Chien-Chao Chiu; Yi-Ting Lin; Wei-Kai Huang; Hui-Yu Huang; Chi-Chang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receiv...

  20. Addition of anacardic acid as antioxidants in broiler chicken mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU; Ana Lúcia Fernandes PEREIRA; Ednardo Rodrigues de FREITAS; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; José Maria Correia da COSTA

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, ...

  1. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chi...

  2. Metabolic properties of chicken embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy metabolism correlates with cell fate,but the metabolic properties of chicken embryonic stem (chES) cells are poorly understood.Using a previously established chES cell model and electron microscopy (EM),we found that undifferentiated chES cells stored glycogen.Additionally,undifferentiated chES cells expressed lower levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) mRNAs but higher levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1) and glycogen synthase (GYS) mRNAs compared with control primary chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) cells,suggesting that chES cells direct glucose flux towards the glycogenic pathway.Moreover,we demonstrated that undifferentiated chES cells block gluconeogenic outflow and impede the accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) from this pathway,as evidenced by the barely detectable levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PCX) and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2) mRNAs.Additionally,cell death occurred in undifferentiated chES cells as shown by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI) double staining,but it could be rescued by exogenous G6P.However,we found that differentiated chES cells decreased the glycogen reserve through the use of PAS staining.Moreover,differentiated chES cells expressed higher levels of GLUT1,HK1 and PFK mRNAs,while the level of GYS mRNA remained similar in control CEF cells.These data indicate that undifferentiated chES cells continue to synthesize glycogen from glucose at the expense of G6P,while differentiated chES cells have a decreased glycogen reserve,which suggests that the amount of glycogen is indicative of the chES cell state.

  3. Application of active power sensitivity to frequency and voltage variations on load shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgis, Adly A. [Clemson University, 303 Riggs Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-0915 (United States); Mathure, Shruti [ITC Holdings, MI (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The occurrence of a large disturbance in a power system can lead to a decline in the system frequency and bus voltages due to a real and reactive power deficiency or due to the formation of islands with generation-load imbalance. Load shedding is an emergency control action that can prevent a blackout in the power system by relieving the overload in some parts of the system. This paper shows that rate of change of frequency can be utilized to determine the magnitude of generation-load imbalance, while the rate of change of voltage with respect to active power can be utilized to identify the sensitive bus for load shedding. The frequency, voltages and their rate of change can be obtained by means of measurements in real-time from various devices such as digital recorders or phasor measurement units or these parameters can be estimated from the voltage data by other means such as an optimal estimation method like Kalman filtering. The rate of change of system frequency, along with the equivalent system inertia may be used to estimate the magnitude of the disturbance prior to each load shedding step. The buses with a higher rate of change of voltage may be identified as the critical ones for load shedding and load can be first shed at these buses, depending on the change in the power flow at each bus. This application is tested on the IEEE 30 bus system and the preliminary results demonstrate that it is feasible to be used in load shedding to restore system voltage and frequency. (author)

  4. Efficacy of a potential DNA vaccine encoding Cryptosporidium baileyi rhomboid protein against homologous challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yimin; Xue, Xue; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Du, Aifang

    2016-07-30

    The parasite Cryptosporidium baileyi can infect the larynx, trachea, bursa and cloaca of poultry, causing high mortality during severe infection and leading to substantial economic losses of the poultry industry. The rhomboid protein is very important in Cryptosporidium infection. In this study, a nucleic acid based vaccine candidate pEGFP-CbROM was constructed. After orally challenging with C. baileyi oocysts, the corresponding immune responses induced were analyzed and the immunoprotective effect evaluated in chickens. Obtained results revealed that this nucleic acid based vaccine could induce antibody responses and peripheral blood T lymphocytes proliferation significantly (Poocysts shedding was shortened by 2days in the 100μg pEGFP-CbROM group, and the rate of reduction could reach to around 71.3%. While no significant difference in body weight gain was observed among the immunized groups (P>0.05), the differences between the immunized and the non-immunized groups were found to be significant (P<0.05). Our data provides a useful basis for further work in cryptosporidiosis prevention and treatment. PMID:27369569

  5. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M;

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... antibody and by the ability to recombine with the chicken MHC class I heavy chain. The purity was estimated by SDS-PAGE and IEF. The pI was between 5.1 and 5.3 for chicken beta 2-m and 4.7 and 4.8 for turkey beta 2-m, which fact is reflected in their different electrophoretic mobilities in agarose gel...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m...

  6. Neuroglobin mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Globin protein family plays an important role in storing and transporting oxygen.As a newly reported globin,the revealed function of neuroglobin includes binding and storing oxygen as well as facilitating the utilization of oxygen in neuronal cells.In the Dresent study,mutations in exons of chicken Ngb gene were identified with the method of sequencing and created restriction site PCR in Tibet chicken and other four lowland chicken breeds.The mutations of Lys-2224(E4)-Asn and Ser-2279(E4)-Gly were identified in exon 4 of the gene.The Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation existed only in Tibet chicken and the mutation frequencies increased with increasing altitude.Analysis of the haplotype and diplotype of the two mutations in Tibet chicken populations of different altitudes showed that the frequencies of TG haplotype and TTGG diplotype also increased with increasing altitude,while the reverse tendency was found on GGAA diplotype.Under the hypoxic simulation incubation,the main haplotype was TG in living embryos and GA in dead embryos.The results showed that the Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation may be a specific mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products.

  8. Klf7 modulates the differentiation and proliferation of chicken preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhang; Haixia Wang; Yingning Sun; Hui Li; Ning Wang

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 7 (Klf7) has been extensively studied in the mammalian species,but its function in avian species is unclear.The objective of this study was to reveal the function of chicken Klf7 (Gallus gallus Klf7,gKlf7) in adipogenesis.The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the relative mRNA level of chicken Klf7 (gKlf7/gβ-Actin) in the abdominal adipose tissue was significantly associated with the abdominal fat content and the age of broilers (P <0.05),and gKlf7 was more highly expressed in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P< 0.05).In addition,Oil red O staining showed that gKlf7 inhibited chicken preadipocyte differentiation,and MTT assay indicated that gKlf7 overexpression promoted preadipocyte proliferation.Additionally,luciferase assays showed that gKlf7 overexpression suppressed the chicken CCAAT/enhancerbinding protein α (C/ebpα),fatty acid synthase (Fasn),and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) promoter activities (P < 0.05),and gKlf7 knockdown increased the chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ),C/ebpα and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) promoter activities (P < 0.05).Together,our study demonstrated that chicken Klf7 inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and promotes preadipocyte proliferation.

  9. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  10. Listeria monocytogenes in retailed raw chicken meat in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S G; Kuan, C H; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Soopna, P; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Afsah-Hejri, L; Son, R

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken meat samples at hypermarkets and wet markets. Chicken drumsticks, breasts, and thighs were randomly selected. The most probable number (MPN) PCR method was used to quantify the L. monocytogenes in the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 20% of the samples. Occurrence of L. monocytogenes was highest in breast (42.03%) followed by drumstick (11.27%) and thigh (7.14%). Samples from hypermarkets showed higher occurrence (25.71%) of L. monocytogenes compared with wet markets (14.29%). The density of L. monocytogenes found in samples ranged from <3.0 to 16 MPN•g(-1). The presence of L. monocytogenes in raw chicken meat is unwanted but unpreventable. Thus, further research on the processing method to reduce and eliminate this kind of bacteria in chicken meat before consumption is necessary. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in chicken. Thus, more study is needed to find ways to eliminate this pathogen from poultry. PMID:22991558

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products. PMID:22856571

  12. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens. PMID:26473669

  13. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-07-16

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease.

  14. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds.

  15. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  16. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  17. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  18. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  19. Near-wake effects of a heat input on the vortex-shedding mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, R. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands)], E-mail: rene.kieft@corusgroup.com; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, A.A. van [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents the investigation on the vortex formation and shedding process behind a heated cylinder which is exposed to a cold cross flow. The Reynolds number is chosen to be 75 while the Grashof number is varied between 0 and 5000 (resulting in a variation from forced to mixed convection). The numerical results show that the addition of heat disturbs the vortex formation process. The vortices shed from the upper half of the cylinder become stronger for increasing heat input. Therefore, the shedding process at the upper half of the cylinder becomes more effective compared with the process at the lower half. Consequently, the vortices shed from the upper half of the cylinder have a higher vorticity extreme and a higher temperature. The results show that the difference in effectiveness is mainly caused by a decreasing effect of strain rate during the formation of an upper vortex. This change in strain rate is caused by a change in flow pattern around the cylinder for increasing Grashof number. For higher heat input more fluid flows underneath the cylinder, resulting in weaker shear layers at the upper part of the cylinder.

  20. Fatigue of threaded rods in cable anchorages due to Vortex shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Snijder, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The 'Hovenring' is a bicycle roundabout flyover built as a signature bridge with a central steel pylon carrying a circular bridge deck suspended through stay-cables. Shortly after installation of the bridge, the stay-cables turned out to vibrate in the wind due to vortex shedding. These vibrations h