WorldWideScience

Sample records for chicken sausage submitted

  1. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  2. Teores de colesterol de lingüiças de frango "light" e tradicionais submetidas a diferentes condições de estocagem Cholesterol content in light and traditional chicken sausages when submitted to different to storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Madruga

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se na presente pesquisa investigar os teores de gorduras e colesterol de lingüiças de frango processadas sob a forma "light" e "tradicional", quando submetidas a condições de estocagem sob refrigeração e congelamento. Na elaboração das lingüiças tipo frescal utilizou-se carne de frango branca, escura e pele, adicionados de condimentos naturais e antioxidantes comerciais ou ácido ascórbico. Seis tratamentos e doze formulações foram desenvolvidos, sendo que seis formulações foram de lingüiças tradicionais e seis de lingüiças "light". O tratamento 1 constou de produtos sem adição de antioxidante, denominado controle; o tratamento 2 foi formulado com o antioxidante ácido ascórbico 0,25%; os tratamentos 3, 4 e 5 foram formulados com antioxidantes comercias ("Kraki", "Duas Rodas" e "Adicon", conforme especificações dos fabricantes, e finalmente, o tratamento 6 que constou de formulação idêntica ao tratamento 5, porém adicionado de líquido defumante. As lingüiças foram estocadas a temperatura de refrigeração (5-10°C por 22 dias, e de congelamento (-20°C por 90 dias. Foram determinados na matéria-prima (carne de frango e pele e nas lingüiças armazenadas, os teores de gordura e colesterol. Os resultados mostraram que os teores de colesterol variaram em função da formulação das lingüiças tradicional e "light", apresentando estas, em relação às tradicionais, uma redução significativa destes componentes. A estocagem refrigerada e congelada influenciou significativamente (PThe present research had the purpose of investigating the percentages of fats and cholesterol on chicken sausages processed under the form "light" and "traditional", when submitted to conditions of stockpiling of cooling and freezing. In the elaboration of sausages was used white and dark chicken meat and skin, added of natural, commercial antioxidant seasonings and ascorbic acid. Six treatments and twelve formulations were

  3. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  4. Characteristics of Chicken Sausage Treated with Using Tofu Dregs Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu dregs flour serve the purpose of addition-agent in sausage making, as a whole sausage yielded to accept SNI 01-3820-1995. Usage of tofu dregs flour which more and more causing protein rate to increase, so do usage of sago flour will increase carbohydrate rate. Acceptable and best composition of panelist is treatment D = chicken flesh 75% : sago flour 15% : tofu dregs flour 10%. Best sausage characteristic and panelist is with water content 66,71%, fat rate 3,54%, ash content 1,74%, protein rate 13,91%, carbohydrate rate 14,10%, cooking yield 76,24%, juiciness 22,78%, reduction diameter -1,85%, reduction thickness 3,63%, folding test 4,67%.

  5. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (pmeat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (pmeat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat. PMID:26760754

  6. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Cecilia Venturini; Ângela Dulce Cavenaghi; Carmen Josefina Contreras Castillo; Eliane Marta Quiñones

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the produ...

  7. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cecilia Venturini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the products. Then, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* and h*, microbial contamination and sensory tests (ranking and acceptance were used to evaluate the quality of the uncured chicken sausages. The instrumental color (chroma and hue and the sensory properties of the A and B uncured sausages were similar to the commercial cured sausage (C. However, the sensory color and appearance of samples A and B were statistically higher than those of the commercial uncured sausages D, which are prepared without the addition of nitrite or pigments. The results showed that it is possible to produce safe and high-quality uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content, using natural pigments and antioxidants.

  8. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro; Fernanda Luisa Lüdtke; Flávia Santi Stefanello; Ernesto Hashime Kubota; Nelcindo Nascimento Terra; Leadir Lucy Martins Fries

    2014-01-01

    Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%), and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception thr...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of chicken kabab and sausage; as prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken kabab and sausage were treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation in a 60CO package irradiator. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 degree centigrade). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab and sausage were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months of storage. Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the chicken kabab and sausage were also investigated, but only immediately after treatment. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab and sausage (moisture, protein and fats). Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab and sausage. The dose needed to decrease by 1 log cfu/g (D10 value) of Salmonella spp and E coli. numbers were 213 and 400 Gy in chicken kabab, while 345 and 250 Gy in chicken sausage, respectively. The chemical parameters, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 5 months for chicken kabab and sausage treated with 4 and 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  10. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  11. Manufacturing of low-fat chicken sausage and keeping its quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to study the possibility of manufacturing low-fat chicken breast sausage formulated with aged fresh chicken breast meat, 8% beef fat ratio and other ingredients. Thc manufactured sausage was subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy to improve its hygienic quality and extending its shelf-life. The irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4± degree C), and the effects of gamma irradiation and cold storage on their microbiological, chemical and Sensory attributes were studied. Irradiated samples at dose of 2 kGy reduced the counts of total bacterial, lactic acid bacteria, total molds and yeasts and Bacillus cereus. Irradiation doses of 4 and 6 kGy completely eliminated Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, applied doses gamma irradiation under investigation had no remarkable effects on thc chemical composition, ph values and total volatile nitrogen (TVN), but increased the amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) of these product. irradiation treatments had no effects on sensory properties (appearance, texture and odor) of all fresh sausage samples. Moreover, fried sausage prepared from irradiated raw sausage had high sensory acceptability similar to those prepared from non-irradiated raw sausage. irradiation at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy prolonged the refrigeration shelf-life of fresh low-fat chicken breast sausage to 11, 20 and 27 days, respectively, compared to 5 days for non-irradiated samples without any adverse effects on sensory properties. Thus, it can be recommended as a healthy product especially for those who need to low fat and cholesterol foods

  12. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage.

  13. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage. - Highlights: • We evaluate the combined effects of gamma irradiation and antioxidant combination. • Gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the nitrite levels. • Combination of antioxidants might be helpful in enhancing the oxidative stability

  14. Germinated barley as a functional ingredient in chicken sausages: effect on physicochemical and technological properties at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of germinated barley (GB) levels on physicochemical and technological properties of cooked chicken sausages. The chicken sausages were formulated with 0-4 % GB. Addition of GB increased pH and yellowness but decreased lightness of the cooked chicken sausages. However, there was no difference in redness among treatments (P > 0.05). Based on the positive effects of GB on measurements related to water and/or fat retention ability, such as emulsion stability, cooking loss, and thawing loss, such results depended upon the added amount of GB. In addition, apparent viscosity increased with increasing levels of GB, resulting in hardness, springiness, and chewiness (P sausages and optimal level of GB was determined as minimum 2 %. PMID:26788010

  15. Effect of apple pomace fiber and pork fat levels on quality characteristics of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-06-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat level from 30 to 25 and 20% by partially substituting pork fat with 1 and 2% apple pomace fiber were investigated based on the evaluation of physicochemical properties and textural properties of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages. Increased fat level resulted in decreased moisture content, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and yellowness of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages, whereas, an increase in fat content, caloric energy, pH, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness was observed. The results showed that uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausage samples with increased apple pomace fiber level had lower cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, pH, and redness. The results from this study show that inclusion of apple pomace fiber in the formulation will successfully reduce fat content in emulsion sausages, while improving quality characteristics relative to regular-fat (30%) control. PMID:27030694

  16. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  17. Kinetics of Texture and Colour Changes in Chicken Sausage during Superheated Steam Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Asmaa A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic model to describe the texture and colour changes of chicken sausage during superheated steam cooking. Chicken sausages were cooked at temperature ranging from 150-200°C with treatment times ranging from 2-6 mins. The texture profile was evaluated in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, while the colour parameters were estimated in terms of lightness (L*, redness (a*, yellowness (b*, and total colour difference (∆E. Experimental data showed a gradual reduction in texture parameters as cooking times and temperatures increased. The L* value of the colour showed a linear reduction with cooking condition, while the a*, b*, and ∆E values showed a contrary effects. The decrease in texture parameters and L*-value of colour parameter followed the first-order kinetic model. While, zero-order kinetic model was adapted to fit the a* and b*. The modified first order kinetic showed a good fit for total ∆E. Significant correlations between colour and texture parameters were observed, which showed that a* alone could be used to predict the texture of chicken sausage.

  18. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  19. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  20. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 40C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author)

  1. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Moreno Vaca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T3 = 100 %. Sensory acceptability of treatments was performed. There were no statistically significant differences. Treatment T3 with highest score was chosen as the best treatment. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization was performed for T3 treatment and for a treatment which didn’t have in its formulation avocado oil, T0 treatment. T0. Protein was 13.23% in T0 and 12.56% in T3. Total fat, SFA and PUFA in T3 were reduced in 3.7%, 5.24% and 2.53% respectively. MUFA showed an increase of 3.51% in T3. Trans acids was 0% for both treatments. The results obtained were located within the acceptable range established in the NTE (INEN 1338:12.

  2. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract on the shelf-life of refrigerated ready-to-cook chicken sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined treatment of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract as natural anti-microbial and anti-oxidative food flavouring was used in the formulation of ready-to-cook chicken sausage for shelf-life extension and improvement of its microbiological quality. Sausages were treated with 500 ppm of rosemary extract, gamma irradiation with doses of 6 and 8 KGy and stored at 5 ± 1 degree C for 30 days.From the microbiological aspects, 8 KGy irradiation was sufficient to inactivate the microbial load during storage period. Addition of the antioxidant rosemary extract modulated releasing of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) occurred during storage. Sensory and textural evaluation results were significantly different in groups supplied with rosemary extract.Fresh ready-to-cook chicken sausage with rosemary exposed to 8 KGy were microbiologically safe and well acceptable for consumers when stored at 5± 1 degree C up to 30 days

  3. Bioproteção de lingüiça de frango Chicken sausages bioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Inês Guidolin Milani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo utilizar culturas bioprotetoras para inibir o desenvolvimento de microrganismos indesejáveis, na elaboração de lingüiça de frango com boas características sensoriais, durante seu período de armazenamento a 8°C. As lingüiças de frango foram elaboradas partindo da mesma massa básica (controle, e adicionando a cultura Elce e as culturas Bactoferm B2 e a Bactoferm S-SX. As análises realizadas foram: contagem de bactérias láticas, contagem de microrganismos psicrotróficos, contagem de Gram negativos, contagem de Staphylococcus aureus e contagem de Clostridios Sulfitos Redutores; análise sensorial e determinação de pH. Não houve desenvolvimento de Staphylococcus aureus e Clostridios Sulfitos Redutores. Alta contagem de bactérias láticas foi observada nas amostras de lingüiça de frango tratadas, devido à adição das culturas bioprotetoras. O pH destas, manteve-se com valores ligeiramente inferiores as lingüiças controle. Entretanto, as lingüiças de frango tratadas com a cultura Elce apresentaram menor desenvolvimento de microrganismos Gram negativos, sendo que no final do período de armazenamento a contagem estava aproximadamente dois ciclos logarítmicos inferior as do controle, indicando que o emprego desta cultura bioprotetora contribuiu para uma melhor qualidade microbiológica deste produto cárneo. As amostras tratadas com a cultura Bactoferm B2 e Bactoferm S-Sx apresentaram uma pequena inibição microbiana em relação ao controle, enquanto que a cultura Elce apresentou maior ação antimicrobiana. As culturas bioprotetoras melhoraram as características sensoriais das lingüiças de frango cruas, quando comparadas ao controle. Depois de serem assadas essas diferenças não foram observadas.To inhibit the undesirable microorganisms as well as to obtain better sensorial characteristics, bioprotective cultures were used on chicken sausages production. The chicken sausages were

  4. 不同种木薯变性淀粉对鸡肉肠品质的影响%Effect of different kinds of modified tapioca starch on the qualities of chicken sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅阳; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 姜珊珊

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different kinds of modified tapioca starch and native starch on the quality characteristics of chicken sausages were investigated.Three kinds of modified starches including starch acetate,cross-linked esterified starch and phosphate starch were added during chopping respectively.The cooking yield,color,texture profile analysis(TPA)and sensory characteristics were measured.The results showed that different modified starch had no significant effect on the cooking yield(P0.05).The sausage with starch acetate had the highest color L value.The textural characteristic of sausages with modified starch were better than sausage with native starch(P0.05).The sausage with cross-linked esterified starch had the highest hardness,springiness,chewiness and cohesiveness.The sensory evaluation showed that the product containing starch acetate had higher sensory scores compared with the products with other starch.Overall,the modified starch could improve the quality attributes of chicken sausage,and starch acetate was more suitable to the meat products.%对比研究了在斩拌过程中添加6%的木薯变性淀粉(醋酸酯淀粉、交酯淀粉和磷酸酯淀粉)和木薯原淀粉对鸡肉肠品质的影响。结果发现:添加变性淀粉的鸡肉肠的产率差异不显著(P〉0.05);添加醋酸酯淀粉的鸡肉肠的L*值最大;添加变性淀粉的产品的质构特性要明显好于添加原淀粉的鸡肉肠(P〈0.05),其中添加交酯淀粉的产品的硬度、咀嚼性、弹性和凝聚性最高。感官评定结果显示,添加醋酸酯淀粉产品的品质优于添加其它种类变性淀粉的产品。醋酸酯木薯淀粉更适合于肉类产品实际生产中。

  5. Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Balls Submitted to Sous Vide Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    ÖP Can; Harun, F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate temperature for processing storage of chicken meatballs made of minced chicken meat with the sous vide method. The chicken meatballs were prepared and separated into four experimental groups according to the application of heat treatment (10 and 20 minutes) and storage time (+2 and +10°C). Sensory, microbiological (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total psychrotrophs, lactic acidbacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiumperfringe...

  6. Effects of methionine and arginine dietary levels on the immunity of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    LL Rubin; CW Canal; ALM Ribeiro; Kessler, A.; I. Silva; L Trevizan; Viola, T; M. Raber; TA Gonçalves; R Krás

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the effects of methionine and arginine on the immune response of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli. Three methionine concentrations (0.31, 0.51, and 0.66% from 1 to 21 days of age; 0.29, 0.49, and 0.64% from 22 to 42 days of age) and 2 arginine concentrations (1.33 and 1.83%; 1.14 and 1.64% for the same life periods) were tested. Birds were divided into two groups for immunological stimuli (3x2x2 arrangement). Vaccines against Marek's dis...

  7. Salmonella spp. em carcaças, carne mecanicamente separada, lingüiças e cortes comerciais de frango Salmonella spp. in carcasses, mechanically deboned meat, sausages and chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cleusa de Fátima Banzatto de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos de origem animal representam papel fundamental na epidemiologia das salmoneloses humanas. Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos, a carne de frango ainda é passível de contaminação bacteriana, especialmente por microrganismos do gênero Salmonella, que podem encontrar-se albergados no trato intestinal ou em outra parte do corpo das aves. O presente trabalho objetivou pesquisar a ocorrência de Salmonella em carne de frango e derivados procedentes da região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas, através do método convencional de cultivo, 45 amostras de carcaças, 60 de carne mecanicamente separada (CMS, 25 de lingüiça de frango, 20 de peito, e 15 de coxa e sobre-coxa. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em 13,3% (6/45 das carcaças, 25% (15/60 das amostras de CMS, 16% (4/25 das lingüiças, 30% (6/20 dos peitos e 13,3% (2/15 das coxas e sobre-coxas analisadas. Do total de 165 amostras analisadas, 33 (20% apresentaram contaminação por Salmonella estando, portanto, impróprias para o consumo conforme legislação brasileira.Food of animal origin represents an important role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis. In spite of the technological improvement, the chicken meat is subjected to bacterial contamination, mainly by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella that can be found in the intestinal tract or elsewhere on the chicken body. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken meat and cuts from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. By conventional cultivation microbiological methods, 45 samples of carcasses, 60 samples of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, 25 samples of chicken sausages, 20 samples of chest, and 15 samples of chicken leg and thigh. Salmonella was found in 13.3% (6/45 of the carcass, 25% (15/60 of the MDM, 16% (4/25 of the sausages, 30% (6/20 of the chests and 13.3% (2/15 of the tight analysed. The results showed that 33 (20% out of 165 samples were

  8. Sensory Evaluation and Textural Properties of Mushroom Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh mushroom was used as primary material to produce mushroom sausages and their qualities was assessed by sensory evaluation and textural analysis. The processing procedures include clean, slice, blanch, crush and pulp, add accessories, stuff, heat and cool. Ingredients for mushroom sausage are mushroom 100, chicken 0~10, soybean protein isolate 10, corn starch 10, oil 2, spice 2.4, salt 1, sugar 1 and carrageenan 0.8. The optimal mushroom for sausage processing is Pleurotus nebrodensis and the following is Pleurotus ostreatus and other white or light color mushrooms. Mushroom sausages possess many advantages as far as nutrition, safety, cost and processing compared to normal sausages. This study shows that sausage is a potential and effective method for mushroom processing.

  9. Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Balls Submitted to Sous Vide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖP Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate temperature for processing storage of chicken meatballs made of minced chicken meat with the sous vide method. The chicken meatballs were prepared and separated into four experimental groups according to the application of heat treatment (10 and 20 minutes and storage time (+2 and +10°C. Sensory, microbiological (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total psychrotrophs, lactic acidbacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiumperfringens, Listeria spp., chemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid, color (L*, a*, b* values, and texture profile analyses were performed on meatball samples. Cl. perfringens and Listeria spp. were not detected in meatball samples during the storage period. Samples cooked at 10 minute and stored at +2°C the highest count of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (p<0.05. For lipid oxidation, interaction was observed between cooking time and storage temperature, with higher TBARs values for samples stored at 10 °C, while cooking time and storage temperature showed no influence on the color and textural analysis parameters. For the treatments evaluated, cooking time x storage temperature seem affect more microbiological and chemical parameters than color and textural parameters of chicken meatballs.

  10. Effects of methionine and arginine dietary levels on the immunity of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL Rubin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the effects of methionine and arginine on the immune response of broiler chickens submitted to immunological stimuli. Three methionine concentrations (0.31, 0.51, and 0.66% from 1 to 21 days of age; 0.29, 0.49, and 0.64% from 22 to 42 days of age and 2 arginine concentrations (1.33 and 1.83%; 1.14 and 1.64% for the same life periods were tested. Birds were divided into two groups for immunological stimuli (3x2x2 arrangement. Vaccines against Marek's disease, fowl pox, infectious bronchitis, Freund's Complete Adjuvant, Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, and avian tuberculin were administered to one group as immunological stimuli; the other group did not receive any stimulus. The experiment was carried out with 432 one-day-old male Ross broilers, distributed into 12 treatments with 6 replicates of 6 birds each. Performance data were weekly collected. Anti-SRBC antibodies were collected by hemagglutination test and cell immune response (CIR was measured by tubercularization reaction in one wattle 24 hours after administration of the second tuberculin injection at 42 days of age. The weight difference between the two wattles of each bird (one injected with tuberculin and the other not was the measure of CIR. Arginine levels did not influence either bird performance or immune response. Methionine concentrations higher or lower than usually adopted in broiler production (0.51 and 0.49% equally failed to influence the birds' immune humoral response, but the best CIR was observed at the intermediate methionine level. Vaccines administered on the first day of age impaired bird performance up to the 21st day of age.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu; Javier Carballo; Petru Alexe

    2011-01-01

    Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A), one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B) and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C). Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing), and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid b...

  12. Wiener sausage volume moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistical characteristics of a spatial region visited by a spherical Brownian particle during time t (Wiener sausage) are investigated. The expectation value and dispersion of this quantity are obtained for a space of arbitrary dimension. In the one-dimensional case the distribution of probability density and the moments of any order are determined for this quantity

  13. Effect of Edible Gums on the Qualities of Sausage of Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii also named king oyster mushroom, is a fast developing mushroom in recent years. This study employed P. eryngii as the main material to make sausage-like gel food. The effects of the kinds, addition method and amount and compound of edible gums on the qualities of P. eryngii sausage were investigated. The results showed that adding optimal edible gum can improve textural and sensory properties, increase water holding capacity and reduce cooking loss of P. eryngii sausage. During nine test edible gums, carageenan exhibited the best influence on sausage’s quality on the whole. Carageenan should been added at the powder form and the optimal concentration was 0.6% for mushroom pulp. Compound 0.4% carageenan with 0.2% konjac gum produced better qualities than 0.6% carageenan only. The optimal ingredient for P. eryngii sausage was: mushroom pulp 100%, soy protein 15%, corn starch 10%, chicken 18%, carageenan 0.4%, konjac gum 0.2%, sugar 0.7%, salt 1.3%, oil 5% and spices 1.4%. The interior of sausage presented a good network structure and a stable gel system observed by environmental scanning electron microscope. This study shows that sausage preparation is a feasible and potential method for the processing of P. eryngii.

  14. Collisionless sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chew--Goldberger--Low (CGL) double adiabatic model [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 236, 112 (1956)] is used to study the linear m = 0 (sausage) mode in a Z pinch operating in the collisionless, small ion Larmor radius regime. The model is valid in this case since the parallel heat flow is identically zero. A necessary and sufficient condition for stability, applicable to arbitrary (anisotropic) Z-pinch equilibria, is derived and the eigenvalue equation is solved for two classes of isotropic equilibria. Growth rates are shown to be lower than those of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is found that, in contrast to ideal MHD, the CGL eigenfunctions are characterized by an unperturbed inner region

  15. 9 CFR 319.143 - Breakfast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breakfast sausage. 319.143 Section 319.143 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Breakfast sausage. “Breakfast sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat; or fresh...

  16. The sausage sigma model revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Suneeta, Vardarajan

    2014-01-01

    Fateev's sausage sigma models in two and three dimensions are known to be integrable. We study their stability under RG flow in the target space by using results from the mathematics of Ricci flow. We show that the three dimensional sausage is unstable, whereas the two dimensional sausage appears to be stable at least at leading order as it approaches the sphere. The $n$-sphere, corresponding to the integrable O(n) sigma model, is geometrically stable and an attractor for nearby solutions to RG flow. We speculate that the stability results obtained seem to be linked to the classification of ancient solutions to Ricci flow (i.e., sigma models which are asymptotically free in the UV and nontrivial in the IR) in two and three dimensions. We also describe a class of perturbations of the three dimensional sausage (with the same continuous symmetries) which remarkably decouple. This indicates that there could be a new solution to RG flow which is described at least perturbatively as a deformation of the sausage.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A, one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C. Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing, and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid bacteria, salt tolerant flora, and Enterobacteriaceae and some physical-chemical parameters (moisture, NaCl, pH and aw values were determined. High microbial counts (log CFU were observed with values at the end of ripening period: for lactic acid bacteria 9.77 (A, 11.47 (B and 11.19 (C; for total aerobic mesophilic flora 9.89 (A, 11.38 (B and 11.30 (C; for salt tolerant flora 4.45 (A, 5.31 (B and 5.27 (C. The starter cultures had a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts (log CFU, values at the end of ripening period being 1.32 (A, 0.33 (B and not detected (C. A significant decrease in the pH values is observed until the seventh day of ripening, showing a slight, but progressive increase after the 14th day of ripening. Results show that the production and ripening process in a pilot scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes in obtaining safe and homogeneous products.

  18. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144 Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  19. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or...

  20. Characteristics of magnetoacoustic sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, A R; Brady, C S; Nakariakov, V M; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912088

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We perform an advanced study of the fast magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations of coronal loops in the context of MHD coronal seismology to establish the dependence of the sausage mode period and cut-off wavenumber on the plasma-beta of the loop-filling plasma. A parametric study of the ratios for different harmonics of the mode is also carried out. Methods: Full magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations were performed using Lare2d, simulating hot, dense loops in a magnetic slab environment. The symmetric Epstein profile and a simple step-function profile were both used to model the density structure of the simulated loops. Analytical expressions for the cut-off wavenumber and the harmonic ratio between the second longitudinal harmonic and the fundamental were also examined. Results: It was established that the period of the global sausage mode is only very weakly dependent on the value of the plasma-beta inside a coronal loop, which justifies the application of this model to hot flaring loops. The cut-o...

  1. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or frozen pork or both, but not including pork byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  2. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an...... unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...

  3. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an...... unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  5. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  6. Utilization of Chicken By-Products to Form Collagen Films

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudini A. Munasinghe; Jurgen G. Schwarz; Matthew Whittiker

    2015-01-01

    Chicken collagen casings could be an alternate source of collagen casings that are manufactured for sausages. The overall objective of this project was to extract chicken collagen from by-products of the broiler processing industries and to explore the possibility of making films. Chicken skin was washed, ground, and pretreated to remove the noncollagenous compounds. Collagen was extracted using acetic acid and pepsin. Solubilized collagen was salted-out and centrifuged at 20,000 ×g at 4°C fo...

  7. USE OF COMPLEX MIXES FOR MANUFACTURING SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Smoked sausages are favorite products of many people. In this work the basic aspects of application of the mixes are presented, the basic characteristic of applied starting cultures is presented

  8. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  9. Sausage oscillations of coronal plasma slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Fludra, A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Sausage oscillations are observed in plasma non-uniformities of the solar corona as axisymmetric perturbations of the non-uniformity. Often, these non-uniformities can be modelled as field-aligned slabs of the density enhancement. Aims: We perform parametric studies of sausage oscillations of plasma slabs, aiming to determine the dependence of the oscillation period on its parameters, and the onset of leaky and trapped regimes of the oscillations. Methods: Slabs with smooth transverse profiles of the density of a zero-beta plasma are perturbed by an impulsive localised perturbation of the sausage symmetry. In particular, the slab can contain an infinitely thin current sheet in its centre. The initial value problem is then solved numerically. The numerical results are subject to spectral analysis. The results are compared with analytical solutions for a slab with a step-function profile and also with sausage oscillations of a plasma cylinder. Results: We established that sausage oscillations in slabs generally have the same properties as in plasma cylinders. In the trapped regime, the sausage oscillation period increases with the increase in the longitudinal wavelength. In the leaky regime, the dependence of the period on the wavelength experiences saturation, and the period becomes independent of the wavelength in the long-wavelength limit. In the leaky regime the period is always longer than in the trapped regime. The sausage oscillation period in a slab is always longer than in a cylinder with the same transverse profile. In slabs with steeper transverse profiles, sausage oscillations have longer periods. The leaky regime occurs at shorter wavelengths in slabs with smoother profiles.

  10. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section 319.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 319.160 Smoked pork sausage. “Smoked Pork Sausage” is pork sausage that is smoked with hardwood...

  11. Observations of sausage modes in magnetic pores

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J; Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M

    2010-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 {\\AA} 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magneto-acoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage type magneto-acoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  12. SAUSAGE OSCILLATIONS OF CORONAL PLASMA STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of the period of sausage oscillations of coronal loops on length together with the depth and steepness of the radial profile are determined. We performed a parametric study of linear axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic (sausage) oscillations of coronal loops modeled as a field-aligned low-β plasma cylinder with a smooth inhomogeneity of the plasma density in the radial direction. The density decreases smoothly in the radial direction. Sausage oscillations are impulsively excited by a perturbation of the radial velocity, localized at the cylinder axis and with a harmonic dependence on the longitudinal coordinate. The initial perturbation results in either a leaky or a trapped sausage oscillation, depending upon whether the longitudinal wavenumber is smaller or greater than a cutoff value, respectively. The period of the sausage oscillations was found to always increase with increasing longitudinal wavelength, with the dependence saturating in the long-wavelength limit. Deeper and steeper radial profiles of the Alfvén speed correspond to more efficient trapping of sausage modes: the cutoff value of the wavelength increases with the steepness and the density (or Alfvén speed) contrast ratio. In the leaky regime, the period is always longer than the period of a trapped mode of a shorter wavelength in the same cylinder. For shallow density profiles and shorter wavelengths, the period increases with wavelength. In the long-wavelength limit, the period becomes independent of the wavelength and increases with the depth and steepness of the radial profile of the Alfvén speed.

  13. Bacteriological Characteristics of Fresh Ostrich Sausage (Linguiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteriological characteristics and shelf life of three formulations of ostrich sausages (linguiças, only differing in lean meat percentage: Formula 1, 100% ostrich meat; Formula 2, 75% ostrich meat + 25% pork; and Formula 3, 50% ostrich meat + 25% pork + 25% chicken. All linguiças were vacuum-packed and stored at 5 ± 2ºC. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, sulfite-reducing Clostridia, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and Escherichia coli were enumerated and Salmonella spp were isolated and identified. Initial mesophilic and psychotropic bacteria counts were high. During storage time, sulfite-reducing Clostridia, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and Escherichia colicounts never reached the tolerance limit established by the Brazilian legislation. However, Salmonellawas isolated from a Formula 2 sample on day 1, therefore, it was considered inappropriate for consumption. The shelf lives of Formulas 1 and 3 were below 12 and 8 days, respectively. If initial bacterial counts had been lower, the shelf life of the evaluated formulas would probably be longer. This study showed that ostrich meat trimmings can be successfully used in the production of ostrich linguiças, and that the formula containing ostrich meat as the only source of lean meat presented the longest shelf life.

  14. Yeasts associated with Vienna sausage packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, B C; Dykes, G A; Callis, M; von Holy, A

    1993-03-01

    A total of 123 representative yeast isolates from a previous study of a Vienna sausage processing plant were identified according to conventional methods and long-chain fatty acid analyses. The most prevalent isolates belonged to the genera Candida and Debaryomyces. Other genera encountered were Rhodotorula, Yarrowia, Pichia, Galactomyces, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon and Torulaspora. PMID:8466813

  15. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. In addition to... permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sausage. 319.140 Section...

  16. The sequential decay of a fire sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the sequential decay of a fire sausage in the framework of quark Geometrodynamics (QGD). Our results are then applied to the description of hadronic final states in e+e- annihilation at high energy. Agreement with experimental findings appears rather remarkable. (orig.)

  17. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  18. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages. PMID:22953917

  19. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  20. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  1. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Alica Bobková; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C). Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sa...

  2. Study of sausage instability in semiconductor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a perturbation of the adiabatically compressed linear pinch, a theory of the sausage instability is developed on the basis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations of motion and the particle conservation combined with Maxwell's equations. A dispersion relation of the instability and the explicit dependence of wave parameters on the fields are obtained by linearizing the equations for axially symmetrical harmonic perturbation. The critical field between a convective and an absolute instability is numerically obtained, and spatial growth rates associated with the instability are also derived in its convectively unstable region. The excitation of the sausage instability is made in an impact ionized plasma of n-InSb. The linear pinch effect of the samples is confirmed through the magnetic field dependence of current-voltage characteristics, and sinusoidal coherent oscillations are observed after a complete confinement of a pinch without an external magnetic field. Oscillation frequencies and currents on the threshold of excitations are obtained for various samples as a function of the applied electric field. The stabilization of instability by an axial magnetic field is also investigated theoretically and experimentally. The possibility of the stabilization is discussed through an evaluation of the magnetic Reynolds number in an impact ionized plasma pinch, and the critical magnetic field is derived from the hydromagnetic energy principle of the stabilization. Waveforms of the excited instability are observed under various axial magnetic fields in order to find the critical magnetic field for stabilization. The developed theories of the sausage instability on the dispersion relation and on the stabilization by axial magnetic fields are in good qualitative and quantitative agreements with the experiments. It is found that the sausage instability is excited in an impact ionized plasma of n-InSb and is explained well by the developed theory. (J.P.N.)

  3. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. PMID:25765533

  4. Radiation preservation of vienna sausage, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation of vienna sausages has been investigated in extending their shelf-life. Package irradiation is suitable for irradiation of vienna sausages in large quantity; however the unevenness of dose distribution occurs in the irradiated package. The dose distribution in a 20 x 30 x 30 cm package of vienna sausages (rho = 0.27 g/cm3) was measured with a Fricke of PMMA dosimeter, to examine the irradiation conditions for reducing the unevenness. The unevenness in the y-direction (horizontal) was only little. The variation in exposure dose in the z-direction (vertical) affects largely to the overall unevenness. The unevenness in the z-direction decreases by alteration of the specific activity ratio in this direction of the source rod. The unevenness in the x-direction (depth) can be decreased by irradiation at a low dose rate using a high activity source. The dose uniformity in the package was 1.13 at dose rate 1.7 x 105 R/hr with the 140,000 Ci source. (auth.)

  5. Standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorotovič, I.; Erdélyi, R.; Freij, N.; Karlovský, V.; Márquez, I.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: By focussing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the total intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Methods: Capturing several high-resolution time series of magnetic waveguides and employing a wavelet analysis, in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD), makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. Results: The waveguides display a range of periods from 4 to 65 min. These structures display in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for sausage modes within these waveguides. The detected periods point towards standing oscillations. Conclusions: The presence of fast and slow MHD sausage waves has been detected in three different magnetic waveguides in the solar photosphere. Furthermore, these oscillations are potentially standing harmonics supported in the waveguides that are sandwiched vertically between the temperature minimum in the lower solar atmosphere and the transition region. The relevance of standing harmonic oscillations is that their exploitation by means of solar magneto-seismology may allow insight into the sub-pixel resolution structure of photospheric MHD waveguides.

  6. Numerical simulation of fundamental trapped sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, M; Reula, O

    2011-01-01

    Context: We integrate the 2D MHD ideal equations of a straight slab to simulate observational results associated with fundamental sausage trapped modes. Aims: Starting from a non-equilibrium state with a dense chromospheric layer, we analyse the evolution of the internal plasma dynamics of magnetic loops, subject to line-tying boundary conditions, and with the coronal parameters described in Asai et al. (2001) and Melnikov et al. (2002) to investigate the onset and damping of sausage modes. Methods: To integrate the equations we used a high resolution shock-capturing (HRSC) method specially designed to deal appropriately with flow discontinuities. Results: Due to non-linearities and inhomogeneities, pure modes are difficult to sustain and always occur coupled among them so as to satisfy, e.g., the line-tying constraint. We found that, in one case, the resonant coupling of the sausage fundamental mode with a slow one results in a non-dissipative damping of the former. Conclusions: In scenarios of thick and den...

  7. 9 CFR 318.22 - Determination of added water in cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sausages. 318.22 Section 318.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.22 Determination of added water in cooked sausages. (a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply. (1) Cooked sausage. Cooked sausage is any...

  8. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  9. A new cause of spoilage in goose sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Panseri, Sara; Chiesa, Luca; Comi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the microorganisms present and to investigate their metabolites that cause spoilage of many goose sausages produced in Friuli, a northeast region of Italy. The defect was observed by sensorial analysis using the "needle probing" technique; the spoiled sausages were unsafe and not marketable. Despite the addition of starter, the microorganisms, particularly enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae, grew during ripening and produced a large amount of biogenic amines; therefore, these sausages represented a risk to consumers. The production of those compounds was confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, a second cause of spoilage was attributed to moulds that grew during ripening; the fungi grew between the meat and casing, producing a large amount of total volatile nitrogen, and consequently an ammonia smell was present either in the ripening area or in the sausages. This is the first description of this type of defect in goose sausages. PMID:27217359

  10. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued longitudinal wavenumber $k$ at given real angular frequencies $\\omega$. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of $\\omega_{\\rm c}$, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for $\\omega$ much lower than $\\omega_{\\rm c}$. However, while able to direct their energy upwards, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping ...

  11. Detection of hepatitis E virus RNA in raw sausages and liver sausages from retail in Germany using an optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Kathrin; Trojnar, Eva; Anheyer-Behmenburg, Helena; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Klein, Günter; Johne, Reimar

    2015-12-23

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen of increasing importance, which can be zoonotically transmitted from domestic pigs, wild boar, and deer to humans. Foodborne transmission by consumption of raw and undercooked liver, meat, or sausages prepared from infected animals has been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HEV in different types of sausages sold in Germany. As no standardized methods for HEV detection in food exist, several techniques of sample homogenization, virus concentration and nucleic acid extraction followed by real-time RT-PCR were compared using artificially contaminated sausages. A method using TRI Reagent® Solution showed the best efficacy of matrix disruption and a treatment with chloroform followed by a silica-based RNA extraction method resulted in the highest HEV detection rates. The detection limit of the method was 2.9 × 10(3) and 5.3 × 10(4) genome equivalents per 5 g raw sausage and 2 g liver sausage, respectively. Application of the method to raw and liver sausages from retail in Germany resulted in the HEV genome detection in 14 out of 70 (20%) raw sausages and in 11 out of 50 (22%) liver sausages. The detected HEV sequences showed a high diversity and belonged to different subtypes of HEV genotype 3. The results indicate a broad distribution of HEV-RNA in meat products sold in Germany; however, the infectivity of the detected virus remains to be assessed in future. PMID:26433460

  12. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to <4.5. This decrease in pH and the water activity of < 0.90 of sausages ensures the safety and preservation of this product. Sausages produced with these lactic cultures fulfill the requirements for microbiological quality and composition of Italian sausage type. Our results suggest the possibility of using these starter cultures for the production of sausages with peculiar characteristics that contribute to the identity of the product.

  13. Chosen quality parameters of pork sausage produced without curing mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kostecki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the infl uence of the dried celeriac juice addition, as a nitrogenous compounds sources, on the quality of the experimental pork sausage. Material and methods. In the sausages with vegetable preparation addition and in traditionally cured sausages amount of the sodium nitrate (III and sodium nitrate (V was determined (in the batter and 24 h after production. Moreover the total number of aerobic bacteria, number of coli forms, anaerobic survived bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes and occurrence of Salmonella in 25 g (according to Polish Standards was determined during sausages storing (after 2, 14 and 21 days. Also sensory evaluation was carried out (after 2 and 14 days. After 2, 7, 14 and 21 days the amount of drip loss in the package was determined. Result. In the experimental sausage produced with the addition of vegetable preparation (E0, the content was 2.2 times higher of sodium nitrate (V while sodium nitrate (III three times lower, compared to traditionally cured sausages (K. In the E0 sausages faster aerobic microorganisms proliferation was observed. However, in these products, in comparison to the control group (K, no higher contamination with coliform bacteria, anaerobic sporulating bacteria, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella was found. The sensory evaluation (colour in cross-section, fl avour, taste, consistency showed no statistically significant difference between the experimental sausages. Conclusions. In the sausages produced with dried celeriac juice addition there was above twice more sodium nitrate (V and threefold less sodium nitrate (III in comparison to traditionally cured sausages and faster growth of aerobic bacteria was demonstrated. Sensory quality of ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ sausages without curing salt was worse, but the score number was never lower than 4,1, so the sausages were accepted. In the

  14. An isoperimetric inequality for the Wiener sausage

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Let $(\\xi(s))_{s\\geq 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion in $d\\geq 1$ dimensions and let $(D_s)_{s \\geq 0}$ be a collection of open sets in $\\R^d$. For each $s$, let $B_s$ be a ball centered at 0 with $\\vol(B_s) = \\vol(D_s)$. We show that $\\E[\\vol(\\cup_{s \\leq t}(\\xi(s) + D_s))] \\geq \\E[\\vol(\\cup_{s \\leq t}(\\xi(s) + B_s))]$, for all $t$. In particular, this implies that the expected volume of the Wiener sausage increases when a drift is added to the Brownian motion.

  15. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education. PMID:26610557

  16. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied. PMID:9659435

  17. Functional genomics of the muscle response to restraint and transport in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Hazard, Dominique; Fernandez, Xavier; Pinguet, Jérémy; Chambon, Christophe; Letisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Wadih-Moussa, H.; Rémignon, Hervé; Molette, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we used global approaches (proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics) to assess the molecular basis of the muscle response to stress in chickens. A restraint test, combined with transport for 2 h (RT test) was chosen as the potentially stressful situation. Chickens (6 wk old) were either nontreated (control chickens) or submitted to the RT test (treated chickens). The RT test induced a 6-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitar...

  18. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  19. Approximations of the Wiener sausage and its curvature measures

    CERN Document Server

    Rataj, Jan; Meschenmoser, Daniel; 10.1214/09-AAP596

    2009-01-01

    A parallel neighborhood of a path of a Brownian motion is sometimes called the Wiener sausage. We consider almost sure approximations of this random set by a sequence of random polyconvex sets and show that the convergence of the corresponding mean curvature measures holds under certain conditions in two and three dimensions. Based on these convergence results, the mean curvature measures of the Wiener sausage are calculated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions. The corresponding approximation formulae are given.

  20. Development of jerked sausage technology with grain bioproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Капрельянц, Леонід Вікторович; Шлапак, Галина Всеволодівна; Бужилов, Микола Георгійович

    2015-01-01

    Research work on the development of technology of fermented sausages to provide them probiotic properties and microflora protection by the use of grain product is conducted in the article.On the basis of theoretical and practical part of science it is concluded that the development of technology of sausages with probiotic properties is possible and appropriate. Materials and products are chosen. Modern technological scheme of production to ensure efficient processing of raw materials and prod...

  1. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  2. Color changes of vienna sausage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color change of vienna sausage induced by gamma irradiation was investigated. Discoloration of irradiated vienna sausage was evaluated by use of the color difference meter and sensory test. The discoloration by irradiation was influenced by oxygen contents in packing pouches. In the case of commercial vienna sausage, significant difference from unirradiated control by 99% of probability was recognized at the doses of 1.0 Mrad in nitrogen, 0.5 Mrad in air and 0.3 Mrad in oxygen, respectively. The color change of the specially prepared vienna sausage (40% pork, 40% mutton, 20% beef, and no additional preservatives) was less than that of the commercial one. The absorbance at 540 nm of extracts from vienna sausages with 80% acetone decreased with increasing irradiation dose and oxygen content. While, change in absorbance at 340 nm was practically unaffected by the oxygen concentration. These results suggest that the degradation of nitroso-heme complex by irradiation causes mainly the discoloration of vienna sausage. (auth.)

  3. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to compare the effectiveness of Tapioca Starch (TS and Potato Flour (PF for preparation of pork sausage with 50 per cent lean and 30 per cent low value meat (Head, Heart and Tongue in the ratio of 70:15:15 was carried out. Sausages were prepared with 5 per cent level of PF and 7 per cent of TS and were subjected to physico-chemical characteristics viz., pH, shear force, TBARS and TV to study the keeping quality at refrigerated storage (4±10C for 30 days. Inclusion of 30 per cent low value meat had not much effect compared to full meat sausages. The results revealed that during storage there was a highly significant (P<0.01 decrease in pH, hear force, and increase in TBARS and TV with the increase in storage days in both the treatments. Sausages prepared with 5 per cent PF and 7 per cent TS were acceptable upto 25 days of refrigerated storage (4±10C. Sausages with potato flour had lower values of TBARS and hence considered more acceptable compared to TS incorporated sausages. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 95-97

  4. Antioxidant potential of a unique LAB culture isolated from Harbin dry sausage: In vitro and in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Kong, Baohua; Sun, Qinxiu; Dong, Fujia; Liu, Qian

    2015-12-01

    The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from Harbin dry sausage were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity. The in vitro results showed that P. pentosaceus had the strongest H2O2 resistance, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (Pacid-reactive substance and carbonyl formation, while it also reduced the sulfhydryl loss in sausages (Pstarter culture in fermented meat products. PMID:26241464

  5. Sausage mode stability boundaries: enumeration and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An axially symmetric sausage mode instability has been observed using particle simulation codes to propagate beams with a high degree of current neutralization. In this report the stability boundaries in terms of the magnitude and location of the return current are delineated for beams with square, Gaussian, and Bennett radial current profiles using the theoretical analysis of others. For the case in which the return current is held fixed as the beam propagates, a detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and the results of the RINGFAST single disk particle simulation code. Agreement between theory and code results is good although the code results do show a slightly larger than predicted unstable region

  6. Nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sausage instabilities of an incompressible, uniform, perfectly conducting Z pinch are studied in the nonlinear regime. In the long wavelength limit (analogous to the ''shallow water theory'' of hydrodynamics), a simplified set of universal fluid equations is derived, with no radial dependence, and with all parameters scaled out. Analytic and numerical solutions of these one-dimensional equations show that an initially sinusoidal perturbation grows into a ''spindle'' or cylindrical ''spike and bubble'' shape, with sharp radial maxima. In the short wavelength limit, the problem is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the planar semi-infinite Rayleigh--Taylor instability, which also grows into a spike-and-bubble shape. Since the spindle shape is common to both limits, it is concluded that it probably obtains in all cases. The results are in agreement with dense plasma focus experiments

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TAMBAQUI SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sleder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, fish are sold in retail fresh or frozen, whole, or gutted. To increase consumption, convenient products with good sensory attributes should be offered. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize, through physicochemical, microbiologica, and sensory traits, a fresh sausage of tambaqui fish (Colossoma macropomum. Three formulations, with different percentages of fat (0, 4.5, and 9% were developed. To determine shelf life, samples of the products were refrigerated at 4 ºC for 12 days and microbiological analyses were performed on days 0, 3, 7, and 12. Analyses of centesimal composition, shear force, cooking weight loss, and water-holding capacity were carried out. The shelf life of the fresh sausages was estimated at 7 days of storage. The sensory attributes evaluated were aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture, and overall appearance. All treatments showed high acceptance rates, above 80%. The treatment with 9% fat showed the highest mean values in the evaluated attributes, with 86.6%, 83.4%, 92%, 88.2%, 87.2%, and 85.8% for aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture and overall appearance, respectively. The centesimal composition of the treatments showed the following variations in g.100 g-1: moisture, 72.73 to 68.82; protein, 18.85 to 18.90; lipids, 2.90 to 8.33; and ash, 3.86 to 4.20. Shear force varied from 5.92 to 8.14 N; water-holding capacity varied from 71.83 to 74.71% and cooking weight loss, from 24.21 to 26.59%.

  8. "Sausage" and "Toothbrush" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Myungkook J.; Dawson, William; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Wittman, David M.; Merging Cluster Collaborations

    2016-06-01

    Radio-relic clusters are a subclass of merging clusters that exhibit elongated diffuse radio emissions at the periphery of the systems. A number of observational and theoretical studies support the premise that the relics trace the locations of shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Detailed analysis of the radio relic data enables us to put independent constraints on the key parameters necessary in our reconstruction of the merging scenario, including the direction of the merger, the projection angle between the merger axis and the plane of the sky, the shock velocity, and the time since the impact. Because of the limited observational time window set by both development and deterioration of mature shocks, only a few tens of radio relic clusters are known to date. In this poster, we present a detailed study of the two radio-relic clusters CIZA J2242.8+5301 and RX J0603.3+4214, whose peculiar radio-relic morphologies give them the nicknames "Sausage" and "Toothbrush", respectively. Both clusters possess remarkably large (~2 Mpc) radio relics stretched perpendicular to the hypothesized merger axes. After briefly reviewing previous studies, we highlight our recent weak-lensing analysis of these two interesting systems. We find that the "Sausage" cluster's dark matter is elongated along the merger axis and composed of two massive systems, each weighing ~1015 solar masses. On the other hand, the dark matter of the "Toothbrush" cluster is distributed complicatedly and resolved into at least four subclusters with relatively modest masses. Our weak-lensing studies help us to constrain the merger scenarios and enable detailed follow-up numerical studies in the future.

  9. The influence of inulin addition on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat (approximately 35 % lower cooked sausage, made with addition of 5% inulin, (sausage A were examined and compared with those of conventionally cooked sausage (sausage B. Chemical composition was evaluated according to standard ISO methods. Instrumental measurements of colour (L

  10. Development of shelf-stable meat sausages using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation techniques have been applied in development of ready to eat or shelf stable sausages. These sausages can be eaten directly without the need for prior heating or cooking procedure and displayed in the room temperature on the shelves of the retailers without frozen facilities. This study was designed to investigate the acceptability and microbial status of packed ready to eat sausages that had been sterilized using gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Packed pre-cooked sausage samples (sealed in plastic-polyethylene individually) were irradiated with different doses of 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising of staffs of MINT. A 5 points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were rancidity, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with doses 3.5 kGy were the most acceptable followed by samples irradiated with doses 2.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy respectively. Irradiation with doses up to 2.5 kGy will virtually eliminate disease-causing microorganisms and pathogens. The total microbial count, detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi in these samples were determined and discussed. (Author)

  11. Inferring Flare Loop Parameters with Measurements of Standing Sausage Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility of inverting the measured periods P and damping times τ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfvén time R/v_{Ai}, density contrast ρi/ρe, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, whether the measurements are spatially resolved or unresolved. While R/v_{Ai} can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an additional mode is present, it is possible to deduce self-consistently ρi/ρe, the profile steepness, and the internal Alfvén speed v_{Ai}. We show that at least for a recent QPP event that involves a fundamental kink mode in addition to a sausage one, flare loop parameters are well constrained even if the specific form of the transverse density distribution remains unknown. We conclude that spatially resolved, multi-mode QPP measurements need to be pursued to infer flare loop parameters.

  12. Effects of irradiation on quality of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fermented sausages were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy, and the quality of the fermented sausages were studied. The results showed that there were significant differences on the water contents between irradiated sausage and CK (P < 0.05), but no change on NaCl contents. pH values of 0 and 2 kGy groups were significantly higher than that of 4 and 6 kGy groups (P < 0.05). Amino acids contents of 4 kGy irradiated sausage were significantly higher than that of 2 and 6 kGy groups. The highest contents of esters, alkenes, acids and ketone were found in 4 kGy group and the highest content of alcohol was detected in 6 kGy group. SDS-PAGE results showed that the degradation rate of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein in irradiated fermented sausages were lower than control. (authors)

  13. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.

  14. On standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Dorotovic, I; Freij, N; Karlovsky, V; Marquez, I

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Capturing several series of high-resolution images of pores and sunspots and employing wavelet analysis in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as representative examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. The sunspots and pore display a range of periods from 4 to 65 minutes. The sunspots support longer periods than the pore - generally enabling a doubling or quadrupling of the maximum pore oscillatory period. All of these structures display area oscillations indicative of MHD sausage modes and in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for the presence of the slow sausage mode within these waveguides. The presence of fast an...

  15. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (psausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  16. Development and evaluation of a cabrito smoked sausage product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, G H; Williams, S K; Johnson, D D; Sims, C; McGowan, C H

    2003-06-01

    In order for the meat goat producer to survive, new avenues for marketing goats must be created. Currently, the live animal is sold directly to consumers, or to brokers who in turn sell the animal directly to consumers or retail stores that cater to various ethnic groups. The production of value-added products with appeal to North American consumers, as well as current ethnic consumers, should result in increased profitability of the meat goat. The objectives of this study were to develop a value added product, cabrito smoked sausage, using goat meat as the sole meat ingredient; evaluate soy protein concentrate (SPC) at various levels in an effort to reduce product cost; determine consumer acceptability; and conduct a cost analysis to determine the approximate market price for the product. Three fermented cabrito smoked sausage products were manufactured containing 0, 1.75 or 3.50% SPC and stored at 2±1°C until evaluated. The sausages were evaluated for sensory characteristics, proximate analysis, pH, water activity and smokehouse yields. Trained panelists detected no significant flavor differences (P > 0.05) between the products. As a result of these findings, sausages formulated with 0 and 3.50% SPC were compared in a consumer sensory evaluation. Consumer panelists detected no significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavor, texture and overall acceptance between the snack sticks. Approximately 65% of the panelists commented that they would purchase the value added products. Proximates, pH, water activity and smokehouse yields were similar (P > 0.05) for the sausages formulated with 0 and 3.50% SPC. The addition of SPC resulted in an 8.79% reduction in the price of the 3.50% SPC formulation when compared to the sausage formulated with no SPC. PMID:22062857

  17. Frequency and damping rate of fast sausage waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the frequency and damping rate of fast axisymmetric waves that are subject to wave leakage for a one-dimensional magnetic cylindrical structure in the solar corona. We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dispersion relation for axisymmetric MHD waves superimposed on a straight magnetic cylinder in the zero β limit, similar to a jet or loop in the solar corona. An analytic study accompanied by numerical calculations has been carried out to model the frequency, damping rate, and phase speed of the sausage wave around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. Analytic expressions have been obtained based on equations around the points of interest. They are linear approximations of the dependence of the sausage frequency on the wave number around the cut-off wavelength for both leaky and non-leaky regimes and in the long wavelength limit. Moreover, an expression for the damping rate of the leaky sausage wave has been obtained both around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. These analytic results are compared with numerical computations. The expressions show that the complex frequencies are mainly dominated by the density ratio. In addition, it is shown that the damping eventually becomes independent of the wave number in the long wavelength limit. We conclude that the sausage mode damping directly depends on the density ratios of the internal and external media where the damping declines in higher density contrasts. Even in the long wavelength limit, the sausage mode is weakly damped for high-density contrasts. As such, sausage modes could be observed for a significant number of periods in high-density contrast loops or jets.

  18. Effects of Different Starter Culture Combinations on Fermented Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    GÖNÜLALAN, Zafer

    2004-01-01

    Commercial starter cultures containing (group A) S. xylosus DD-34 + P. pentosaceus PC-1, (group B) L. plantarum L74 + S. carnosus MIII, (group C) S. carnosus MIII + L. pentosus LP-1, (group D) S. xylosus DD-34 + P. pentosaceus PCFF-1, (group E) P. acidilactici PA-2, (group F) S. carnosus MC-1 + P. pentosaceus PC-1 and (group G) S. xylosus DD-34 + L. alimentarus BJ 33 were used for manufacturing fermented sausage. Sausage samples were examined for pH values, moisture contents, mesophilic aerob...

  19. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significa...

  20. Detection and Genotyping of Leuconostoc spp. in a Sausage Processing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Frausto, J J; Cepeda-Marquez, L G; Salgado, L M; Iturriaga, M H; Arvizu-Medrano, S M

    2015-12-01

    Some Leuconostoc spp. have the ability to produce slime and undesirable compounds in cooked sausage. The objectives of this research were to identify Leuconostoc sources in a Vienna-type sausage processing plant and to evaluate the genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Three hundred and two samples of sausage batter, sausages during processing, spoiled sausage, equipment surfaces, chilling brine, workers' gloves and aprons, and used casings were collected (March to November 2008 and February to April 2010) from a sausage processing plant. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified, and Leuconostoc were detected using PCR. Strains were isolated and identified in Leuconostoc-positive samples. Leuconostoc strains were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. LAB content of nonspoiled and spoiled sausage ranged from sausages showed the same genotype. One L. lactis genotype included strains isolated from spoiled sausages analyzed in April 2008 and March to April 2010. Equipment and conveyor belts constitute Leuconostoc contamination sources. Leuconostoc persistence in the sausage processing environment and in the final product suggests the existence of microbial reservoirs, possibly on equipment surfaces. PMID:26613911

  1. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    1998-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM DRY SAUSAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanovski, S.; Chipeva, V.; Dimov, S. G.; Danova, S.; Dimitrova, I.; Yocheva, L.; Antonova-Nikolova, S.; Ivanova, I. (Irina)

    2009-01-01

    Eight genera (Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus) are most commonly used meat starter cultures. The Lactobacilli associated with meat fermentation and the efforts to accurate classification and identification of them are becoming more important as various isolates of LAB become more commonly used as starter cultures. The present work deals with characterization of the microflora associated with naturally fermented Bulgarian sausag...

  3. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  4. Inferring flare loop parameters with measurements of standing sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility to invert the measured periods $P$ and damping times $\\tau$ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfv\\'en time $R/v_{\\rm Ai}$, density contrast $\\rho_{\\rm i}/\\rho_{\\rm e}$, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation (DR) governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, be the measurements spatially resolved or unresolved. While $R/v_{\\rm Ai}$ can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an addit...

  5. Dietetic fiber addition effect on Vienna type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Vásquez Villalobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of two types of dietetic fiber (inulin and oligofructose on fat reduced sausages was studied. Fat percent was reduced (30 to 15%. Shear stress was not affected by the incorporation of the dietetic fiber. Maximum shear force values were lower with inulin than with oligofructosacarides as fat replacer.

  6. POULTRY AS A PROMISING RAW MATERIAL FOR PRODUCTION DRIED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of selection of optimum starting culture for manufacture of dried sausages from white and red fowl. The basic functional-technological properties of forcemeat from different parts of fowl with addition of starting cultures are resulted

  7. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Jatupornpipat; Payom Keatikumjorn

    2007-01-01

    The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml) was significantly higher (P

  8. Superintegrability of Geodesic Motion on the Sausage Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arutyunov, G; Medina-Rincon, D

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of the $\\eta$-deformed sigma model on ${\\rm AdS}_5 \\times {\\rm S}^5$ to the two-dimensional squashed sphere $({\\rm S}^2)_{\\eta}$ can be viewed as a special case of the Fateev sausage model where the coupling constant $\

  9. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

  10. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  11. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  12. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...

  13. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for ...

  14. Effects of Ripening Duration and Rosemary Powder Addition on Salchichon Modified Sausage Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Shim, Kwan-Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2015-01-01

    The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i) 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii) 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii) 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv) 60 days of ripeni...

  15. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.; Abu Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-01-01

    Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidati...

  16. Effect of Edible Gums on the Qualities of Sausage of Pleurotus eryngii

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Lu; Lei Luo; Xinxue Li; Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii also named king oyster mushroom, is a fast developing mushroom in recent years. This study employed P. eryngii as the main material to make sausage-like gel food. The effects of the kinds, addition method and amount and compound of edible gums on the qualities of P. eryngii sausage were investigated. The results showed that adding optimal edible gum can improve textural and sensory properties, increase water holding capacity and reduce cooking loss of P. eryngii sausage. Dur...

  17. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and...... Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...

  18. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni; Nilsen, A.; Zanardi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics....... Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on residual nitrate and nitrite in some meat and chicken products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish the residual nitrate and nitrite and concentrations of six heavy metals in meat products samples that purchased from retail outlets in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. The possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy for reducing residual nitrate and nitrite was studied. The results showed that most of samples under investigation above the maximum permissible limit of nitrate in Egypt. Gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy reduced the levels of nitrate and nitrite proportionally to applied doses. The irradiation dose of 7 KGy was more effective for reducing the level of residual nitrate and nitrite. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using the inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) in non-irradiated samples. The results showed that the concentration of Pb in meat products was ranged between 0.643-0.828, 0.548, 0.598-0.844, 0.574-0.877, 0.324-0.568 and 0.156-0.432 mg/kg (wet weight basis) in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and minced beef meat, respectively, but the values of Hg ranged between 0.0965-0.839, 0.121, 0.147-0.218, 0.114-0.258, 0.087-0.143 and 0.057-0.124 mg/kg in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. The content of iron ranged between 0.336, 0.362-4.284, 0.364-0.611, 0.264-0.336 and 0.276-0.314 mg/kg in chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. However, the results indicated that, the most of meat products under investigation had high concentrations from toxic metals of Pb and Hg than the permissible limits that recommended by FAO/WHO of person daily. Therefore, the consumption of high amount of these commodities dose not pose a health risk for the consumer

  20. CHANGES IN COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS AND BIOGENIC AMINES PRODUCTION DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED SAUSAGES POLIČAN

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Kalhotka; Olga Cwiková; Veronika Čírtková(Kovářová); Zuzana Matoušová; Jitka Přichystalová

    2012-01-01

    Poličan is classic raw fermented sausage with low acidity. Dry fermented sausages Poličan were used for the analysis and drawn once a week during production from ripening chambers of meat-packing plants. Those sausages ripened for 35 days under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The aim of this article is to evaluate microorganisms accompanying ripening of fermented sausages Poličan and characterize relationships between activity of microorganisms and content of biogenic amines. ...

  1. Standing sausage modes in coronal loops with plasma flow

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves are important for diagnosing the physical parameters of coronal plasmas. Field-aligned flows appear frequently in coronal loops.We examine the effects of transverse density and plasma flow structuring on standing sausage modes trapped in coronal loops, and examine their observational implications. We model coronal loops as straight cold cylinders with plasma flow embedded in a static corona. An eigen-value problem governing propagating sausage waves is formulated, its solutions used to construct standing modes. Two transverse profiles are distinguished, one being the generalized Epstein distribution (profile E) and the other (N) proposed recently in Nakariakov et al.(2012). A parameter study is performed on the dependence of the maximum period $P_\\mathrm{max}$ and cutoff length-to-radius ratio $(L/a)_{\\mathrm{cutoff}}$ in the trapped regime on the density parameters ($\\rho_0/\\rho_\\infty$ and profile steepness $p$) and flow parameters (magnitude $U_0$ and profile steepness $u$). For e...

  2. Sausage instability threshold in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of sausage instability (m = 0 mode) is studied in a small low energy Mather-type plasma focus. A shadow graphic study of the current sheath has shown that the focused plasma necks off during the radial phase before the maximum compression. This may indicate the lowering of the instability threshold. Three hook-type structures are observed which may not be due to the multifoci formation. The bubble shape structure is observed to be developed in the expansion phase. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Sonia A. Socaci; Maria Tofană; Crina Mureșan; Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu); Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The physicochemical analyses highlighted th...

  4. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.;

    2001-01-01

    A commercial production was analysed at six stages during ripening. Water content, pH and bacterial counts were followed, and volatile compounds from sausages were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of all classes inc...... appear late in the processing. Benzeneacetaldehyde was absent in fresh mince, but increased to become one of the most abundant volatiles. Compounds from carbohydrate catabolism disappeared during the processing....

  5. Effect of cheese as a fat replacer in fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Hüdayi ERCOŞKUN

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beef fat substitution with kashar cheese were studied in traditional Turkish fermented sausage; sucuk. Six sucuk formulations were prepared by replacing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of beef fat was substituted with kashar cheese. The fat substitution of fat with kashar cheese decreased fat content and increased protein content of the product that affected the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of products. Saturated fatty acid content increased and unsaturated, mono-...

  6. A Field-Theoretic Approach to the Wiener Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovar, S.; Pruessner, G.

    2016-05-01

    The Wiener Sausage, the volume traced out by a sphere attached to a Brownian particle, is a classical problem in statistics and mathematical physics. Initially motivated by a range of field-theoretic, technical questions, we present a single loop renormalised perturbation theory of a stochastic process closely related to the Wiener Sausage, which, however, proves to be exact for the exponents and some amplitudes. The field-theoretic approach is particularly elegant and very enjoyable to see at work on such a classic problem. While we recover a number of known, classical results, the field-theoretic techniques deployed provide a particularly versatile framework, which allows easy calculation with different boundary conditions even of higher momenta and more complicated correlation functions. At the same time, we provide a highly instructive, non-trivial example for some of the technical particularities of the field-theoretic description of stochastic processes, such as excluded volume, lack of translational invariance and immobile particles. The aim of the present work is not to improve upon the well-established results for the Wiener Sausage, but to provide a field-theoretic approach to it, in order to gain a better understanding of the field-theoretic obstacles to overcome.

  7. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours...

  8. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to...

  9. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...

  10. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona; Laura Beatriz Karam; Roberta Wagner; Dayse Aline Ferreira Silva Bartolomeu; Jorge Daniel Mikos; João Gabriel Phabiano Francisco; Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo; Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM) obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking) and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum) were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumen...

  11. The Shape of a Sausage: A Challenging Problem in the Calculus of Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Many familiar household objects (such as sausages) involve the maximization of a volume under geometric constraints. A flexible but inextensible membrane bounds a volume which is to be filled to capacity. In the case of the sausage, a full analytic solution is here provided. Other related but more difficult problems seem to demand approximate…

  12. Dynamics of sausage instabilities of a gas-puff Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early stage of the sausage instability in a gas-puff Z-pinch has been registered in VUV and soft X-rays with a 10 ns framing camera. We hypothesize that the rings of plasma expanding from the sausage instability enable an alternative current path to dominate the formation of 'micropinches'. (orig.)

  13. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  14. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall;

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and...

  15. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  16. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  17. Sensory properties, consumer liking and choice determinants of Lucanian dry cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Carlucci, Angela; Bragaglio, Andrea; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Based on a food choice questionnaire we identified as the most influential aspects affecting consumer choice of Lucanian dry cured sausages: taste, animal health and addition of preservatives. Therefore, as a second step we conducted a study to assess the effect of preservative addition on sausage sensory properties and consumer liking, with a particular emphasis on taste. The addition of preservatives did not change the perception of taste attributes by an experienced panel, whereas differences were detected in terms of odor, texture and color attributes. However, consumers did not express a preference for a particular product in terms of overall liking, taste/flavor liking and texture liking, whereas appearance liking was higher for sausages containing preservatives. Since sausage taste was unaffected by the addition of preservative, in order to prevent the potentially detrimental effect of a label indicating their presence, producers should make an effort to obtain high quality Lucanian dry cured sausages without using them. PMID:26398006

  18. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution

  19. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2002-03-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution.

  20. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  1. Antimicrobial effect of natural preservatives in a cooked and acidified chicken meat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Marie-Josée; Choquette, Julie; Delaquis, Pascal J; Claude, Gariépy; Rodrigue, Natalie; Saucier, Linda

    2002-10-25

    The inhibitory effect of Microgard 100, Microgard 300, nisin, Alta 2002, Perlac 1902, sodium lactate and essential oil of mustard on microorganisms experimentally inoculated was screened in an acidified chicken meat model (pH = 5.0) and stored for 2 weeks at a none restrictive growth temperature of 22 degrees C. All antimicrobials tested were used at the highest concentration recommended by their manufacturer. Sausage batter made with mechanically deboned chicken was inoculated with a mixed culture of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Brochothrix thermosphacta CRDAV452, and a protective culture Lactobacillus alimentarius BJ33 (FloraCan L-2). A final cell concentration of 3-4 log CFU g (-1) was targeted after cooking at a core temperature of 55 degrees C for each microorganism in order to assess cell count variation effectively. Composition, water activity (a(w)), pH and redox potential of the sausage model was also evaluated. The E. coli population decreased steadily during storage and was close or below detection level (aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were significantly lower than the control after 2 days of storage (P aerobic mesophilic bacteria, E. coli, B. thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria counts, when compared to the control. PMID:12227640

  2. Time is a sausage (A Show of Shows),

    OpenAIRE

    Kivland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    A group exhibition over three months at Domo Baal, London, with a series of solo shows therein. 8 autonomous exhibitions that each contribute, be it through gesture or residue, to the exhibition in Gallery 1. 'Time is a Sausage' will not remain static but will evolve in tandem with 'A Show of Shows'. 26/11 – 05/12 Sharon Kivland exhibited photographs from her book Freud and the Gift of Flowers (with Forbes Morlock) and a series of photographs entitled Charaden, from a game of riddles...

  3. Taste of a new product: sheep and goat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Sandra; Teixeira, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a Project that aims to study a strategy which gives value-added to sheep and goat meat of animals which have very low price and out of quality label products as “Cabrito Serrano” and “Borrego Transmontano”. Bragançana ewes and Serrana goats’ carcasses were used in the production of a fresh sausage. Transformation was made in a traditional industry, according to 2 main recipes, including or not bonnet pepper. Thus, 4 treatments were considered: ewes with pepper, ewes with...

  4. Sausage-shaped instability in semiconductor plasma, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation is made on the sausage-shaped instability in an impact ionized plasma of n-InSb. Sinusoidal voltage oscillations are observed after complete confinement of a pinch without an external magnetic field, and the frequency is measured as a function of a sample current. Oscillation frequencies and currents at a threshold are obtained as a function of an applied electric field and compared with the dispersion relation theoretically obtained. Theoretical considerations are in good agreement with the experimental results on axial magnetic field stabilization of the oscillations. (author)

  5. Sausage Mode Propagation in a Thick Magnetic Flux Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Pardi, Anabele-Linda; Marcu, Alexandru; Orza, Beniamin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the propagation of slow magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves in a thick expanding magnetic flux tube in the context of the quiescent (VAL C) solar atmosphere. The propagation of these waves is found to be described by the Klein-Gordon equation. Using the governing MHD equations and the VAL C atmosphere model we study the variation of the cut-off frequency along and across the magnetic tube guiding the waves. Due to the radial variation of the cut-off frequency the flux tubes act as low frequency filters for waves.

  6. Sausage Mode Propagation in a Thick Magnetic Flux Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, A.; Ballai, I.; Marcu, A.; Orza, B.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the propagation of slow magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves in a thick expanding magnetic flux tube in the context of the quiescent (VAL-C) solar atmosphere. The propagation of these waves is found to be described by the Klein-Gordon equation. Using the governing MHD equations and the VAL-C atmosphere model we study the variation of the cut-off frequency along and across the magnetic tube guiding the waves. Due to the radial variation of the cut-off frequency the flux tubes act as low frequency filters for the waves.

  7. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  8. Moulds and ochratoxin A on surfaces of artisanal and industrial dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Chiesa, Luca; Boscolo, Daria; Manzano, Marisa; Cantoni, Carlo; Orlic, Sandi; Comi, Giuseppe

    2009-02-01

    The use of moulds as a seasoning for sausage can have both desirable and undesirable consequences. The desirable consequences are the creation of a successful product that appeals to consumers. The undesirable consequences are due to the growth of undesirable moulds that produce highly toxic secondary metabolites referred to as mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to investigate the presence of moulds producing ochratoxin A (OTA) on the surface of sausages from northern Italy. A total of 757 mould strains were isolated from sausage casings. The most frequently identified species were Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium oxalicum, Eurotium amstelodami, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosum, Penicillium viridicatum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum. Aspergillus ochraceus was detected in only one production lot. Approximately 45% of these samples were positive for the presence of OTA. On the casings of the investigated sausages, the lowest and highest OTA values were 3 and 18 microg/kg, respectively. The OTA concentration was reduced to below the limit of detection (LOD) by brushing and washing the sausages prior to sale. From these data it appears that the presence of OTA on the surface of sausage (on the casings) is not indicative of any health risk for human consumption of sausage, since OTA was not identified inside the dry meat. PMID:19028307

  9. Shallow irradiation of vienna sausage by electron beams in preventation of the slime production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna sausages get spoiled by slime production or putrefaction due to the propagation of microorganisms when stored for 3 to 5 days at 10 deg C. The radiation pasteurization of vienna sausages has mainly been studied with gamma irradiation. The slime of sausages is believed to be microorganisms themselves growing on the surface of the sausages. Pasteurization of the surface of vienna sausages with electron irradiation was thus investigated. The results obtained are as follows: The vienna sausages irradiated with a dose of 0.8 to approximately 1.0 Mrad by 0.5 MeV electrons could be stored without slime production or putrefaction for more than a week at 11 deg C. The effect of pasteurization increased with energy and dose of electrons. However, the changes in the organoleptic qualities of vienna sausages were detected when irradiated with a dose of over 0.7 Mrad by 2.0 MeV electrons. Consequently, the irradiation with a dose of 1.0 Mrad by 1.0 MeV electrons was effectual in lengthening their shelf-life without deterioration of the organoleptic qualities. (author)

  10. Linguiças frescais elaboradas com carne de avestruz: características físico-químicas Ostrich Brazilian sausage: physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Soares Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian legislation pattern's (BRASIL, 2000 and no differences (P>0,05 between formulations have been found except in the ash content, higher in mixed sausages. Differences (P>0,05 have been found also between the pH of the treatments, which increased with the heightening of the percentage of ostrich meat in formulation. The sausages formulated with 100% ostrich meat were darker and redder in appearance than the mixed ones. The mixed of ostrich, pork and chicken Brazilian sausage were the lightest. The Brazilian sausages prepared with ostrich meat, pure or mixed, are a viable option for production and sale, and can be placed in the market and compete with the traditional sausages with the prospect of being successful.

  11. The influence of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 on selected properties of fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages rank among non-heat-treated meat products. Their nutritional properties are similar to the raw material, simultaneously their microbial safety and stability is ensured using additives and specific microbial cultures. The use of probiotic cultures can positively affect the processing of fermented sausages, resulting in the new technological properties and beneficial effect on human health. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 is a gram-positive, non-spore forming, homofermentative rod, which according to studies may modulate immune responses in human organism and survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The main object of this work was to evaluate technological properties of L. paracasei LPC-37, which have not been fully examined. Two groups of fermented sausages were analysed in this work. The first group of fermented sausages was prepared using lyophilized starter culture (Lyocarni RHM-33. The second group of fermented sausages was prepared by the combination of lyophilized starter culture and potential probiotic culture Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37. The processing and ripening of sausages were carried out in meat processing plant to simulate real conditions of production. The changes of the products (water activity, pH, concentration of organic acids and microbial growth were evaluated during ripening (3 weeks, while sensory analysis was carried out in the final stage of the process and during storage (3 weeks. It was found that the environment of raw-fermented sausages is suitable for the growth and survival of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and the microbiological quality of the final product was very good (absence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The counts of lactobacilli reached 107 CFU/g of the product, which meet the requirements for functional foods. The results of the sensory evaluation showed

  12. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Salem, F. M.; Ibrahim, H. M.

    2010-07-01

    Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, ph, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidation and biogenic amine levels, as well as improved sensory quality. (Author) 56 refs.

  13. Effects of Chitosan on the Shelf Life of Harbin Red-sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan and Chitin can inhibit the growth of bacteria. The effect of different concentrations of chitosan solutions on the shelf life of Harbin Red-sausage was studied in this paper. Dipping the Red-sausage with chitosan could extend the shelf life significantly. The optimal composition of coating solution was 3% chitosan solution, whose deacetylated rate was 94%, which was dissolved in 2% acetic acid solution. The CFUs of the sausages with the chitosan deacetylated rate 94% treatment were significantly lower than control at the whole storage (P <0.05).

  14. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    method with ten descriptors and by gas chromatography olfactometry. The sensory profile was correlated to the experimental design and the volatile compounds by partial least squares analysis. Also, the effects of temperature and different ingredients on the strength of the individual descriptors were...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour and...

  15. Sausage mode of a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Z-pinch experiments at Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., growth rates have been measured by observing optical emission along the pinch axis. Growth rates estimated by means of the usual model of a pinch involving an incompressible fluid and a surface current are too large by a factor of 2-4. X-ray pinhole photographs generally have the appearance of a series of beads that would be expected from instability of the sausage mode. In some cases, particularly the implosion of large diameter wire arrays with BLACKJACK 5, the beads disappear and only the kink instability is apparent. Generalizing the pinch model to include compressibility does not significantly alter the predictions. A further generalization to include distributed current has therefore been considered. It seems likely that the current can penetrate significantly during the lifetime of the pinch. We consider a model of the pinch that is initially an infinite cylinder. For the sausage mode, stability is determined by a simple second order differential equation together with the boundary condition that follows from the wave number and the frequency of the instability

  16. Observation of multiple sausage oscillations in cool postflare loop

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, A K; Uddin, W; Dwivedi, B N; Kumar, Pankaj

    2008-01-01

    Using simultaneous high spatial (1.3 arc sec) and temporal (5 and 10 s) resolution H-alpha observations from the 15 cm Solar Tower Telescope at ARIES, we study the oscillations in the relative intensity to explore the possibility of sausage oscillations in the chromospheric cool postflare loop. We use standard wavelet tool, and find the oscillation period of ~ 587 s near the loop apex, and ~ 349 s near the footpoint. We suggest that the oscillations represent the fundamental and the first harmonics of fast sausage waves in the cool postflare loop. Based on the period ratio P1/P2 ~ 1.68, we estimate the density scale height in the loop as ~ 17 Mm. This value is much higher than the equilibrium scale height corresponding to H-alpha temperature, which probably indicates that the cool postflare loop is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. Seismologically estimated Alfv\\'en speed outside the loop is ~ 300-330 km/s. The observation of multiple oscillations may play a crucial role in understanding the dynamics of lower s...

  17. Sausage Waves in Transversely Nonuniform Monolithic Coronal Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  18. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  19. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. Effect of a sausage oscillation on radio zebra-pattern structures in a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sijie; Yan, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Sausage modes that are axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic oscillations of solar coronal loops are characterized by variation of the plasma density and magnetic field, and hence cause time variations of the electron plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency. The latter parameters determine the condition for the double plasma resonance (DPR), which is responsible for the appearance of zebra-pattern (ZP) structures in time spectra of solar type IV radio bursts. We perform numerical simulations of standing and propagating sausage oscillations in a coronal loop modeled as a straight, field-aligned plasma slab, and determine the time variation of the DPR layer locations. Instant values of the plasma density and magnetic field at the DPR layers allowed us to construct skeletons of the time variation of ZP stripes in radio spectra. In the presence of a sausage oscillation, the ZP structures are shown to have characteristic wiggles with the time period prescribed by the sausage oscillation. Standing and propagating saus...

  1. Correlation between volatile profiles of Italian fermented sausages and their size and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Aldo; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Magnani, Rudy; Gardini, Fausto; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    The aroma profiles of 10 traditional Italian fermented sausages were evaluated. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA allowed an acceptable separation but some sausage typologies were not well separated. On the other hand, the supervised approach of LDA allowed a clear grouping of the samples in relation to sausage size and starter culture. In spite of the extreme variability of the volatile profiles of the sausage typologies, this work showed the influence of diameter on VOC profile. The differences observed can be related to the effects that some fundamental physicochemical characteristics (such as water loss kinetics and oxygen availability) have on the results of ripening processes. Differences in VOC profiles were also observed due to the lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures, with differences mainly attributable to compounds deriving from pyruvate metabolism. PMID:26304405

  2. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages, with added Staphylococcus xylosus, were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected by dynamic...... headspace sampling and quantified and identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the levels of individual volatiles were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that sausages...... fermented under modern production conditions (high temperature, addition of glucose, nitrite, Pediococcus pentosaceus) in contrast to 'old-fashioned' sausages (added nitrate and fermented at low temperature) are likely to contain higher amounts of volatile acids, but lower levels of ethyl esters, certain...

  3. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The numbers of surviving Staphylococcus xylosus, lactic acid bacteria...

  4. QUALITY ESTIMATION OF SAUSAGES FOR KIDS IN THE PROCESS OF STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoshenko N. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the results of research of sausages for baby food are presented during storage at various temperatures. The results microbiological, organoleptic and microstructural researches are shown

  5. Growth and production of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus in dry sausages:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.; Martinussen, Jan

    Three sausage batches inoculated with normal inoculation level of Pediococcus pentosaceus (5 x 10(6) CFU/g) and with low, intermediate, and high inoculation levels of Staphylococcus carnosus (10(5), 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7) CFU/g, respectively) were produced. Cell counts and formation of volatiles were...... followed throughout a ripening period of three weeks. The staphylococci exhibited the fastest growth in sausages with a low inoculation level, whereas growth was only moderate in sausages with a high initial level. Analysis of volatiles showed that methyl-branched aldehydes and acids, phenylacetaldehyde, 2......-methyl-l-butanol, dimethyldisulphide and dimethyltrisulphide were produced in higher amounts in sausages with a high inoculation level of S. carnosus, whercas a low inoculation level correlated with high amounts of diacetyl, ethanol and ethyl esters. The levels of most compounds increased over time, but...

  6. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    fermented under modern production conditions (high temperature, addition of glucose, nitrite, Pediococcus pentosaceus) in contrast to 'old-fashioned' sausages (added nitrate and fermented at low temperature) are likely to contain higher amounts of volatile acids, but lower levels of ethyl esters, certain......Sausages, with added Staphylococcus xylosus, were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected by dynamic...... short chain aldehydes as well as lipid autoxidation products. Several nitriles, nitro-alkanes and one organic nitrate were identified for the first time in fermented sausages. Reaction mechanisms for those compounds and other classes of compounds are proposed and discussed in detail....

  7. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24511620

  8. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum;

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an...... overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0...

  9. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni;

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics. Sau......, and valine, or from microbial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Also, sulfur compounds arising from added garlic correlated positively with mature flavor....

  10. Laws of the Iterated Logarithm for High-Dimensional Wiener Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Qing WANG; Fu Qing GAO

    2011-01-01

    Let {β(s),s≥0} be the standard Brownian motion in Rd with d≥4 and let |Wr(t)| be the volume of the Wiener sausage associated with {β(s),s≥0} observed until time t.From the central limit theorem of Wiener sausage,we know that when d≥4 the limit distribution is normal.In this paper,we study the laws of the iterated logarithm for |Wr(t)|-E|Wr(t)| in this case.

  11. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Yoen; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the...

  12. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 107cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (103 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 105 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 103 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  13. Characterization of spoilage bacteria in pork sausage by PCR-DGGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Silva Dias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005 increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-08-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (pcontrol. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  15. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  16. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity.

  17. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hanwool; Lim, Younggap; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity. PMID:27621690

  18. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  19. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, de, T.; G Gubert; Roman SS; AP Kempka; RC Prestes

    2015-01-01

    Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours) and thawed by five differen...

  20. Forward modeling of gyrosynchrotron intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f < f peak) and high (f > f peak) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45°. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.

  1. The Main Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Smoked Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iuliana Costescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the organoleptic and physical-chemical quality of smoked sausage, produced by a manufacturer in the western part of Romania. The organoleptic examination highlighted: product shape, exterior and in section aspect, consistency, color, taste and flavor. The physical-chemical examination highlighted the content of moisture, fat, sodium chloride, nitrites and easy hydrolyzed nitrogen. Water content was under the maximum admitted limit of 58%. Medium fat value was 32.24%, by 5.76% under the 38% maximum limit. Medium sodium chloride content was 2.1%, under the maximum admitted limit of 3%. Easy hydrolyzed nitrogen registered a medium value of 26.71 mg NH3/100g product under the 45% maximum admitted limit. Nitrites content was 5.18 ppm, under the 7 ppm imposed limit.

  2. Forward Modeling of Gyrosynchrotron Intensity Perturbations by Sausage Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikova, V. E.; Antolin, P.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2014-04-01

    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f f peak) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45°. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.

  3. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  4. Effect of the Partial Substitution of Meat with Irradiated Sunflower Meal on the Quality of Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0 , 4 , 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphenol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined .The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level .The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties.

  5. Effect of the partial substitution of meat with irradiated sunflower meal on the quality of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphcnol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined. The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation . dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the, removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level. The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties

  6. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  7. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  8. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  9. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  10. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants. PMID:26579877

  11. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumental color, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N were assessed during storage. No presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected; however, the psychrotrophic count in pasteurized sausages exceeded the limits allowed for consumption. pH and lipid oxidation speed (TBARS values were reduced when vacuum packaging was used. Volatile nitrogenous bases remained virtually constant during the storage period, and higher values were observed in smoked products. Pasteurized sausages remain stable for 10 and 15 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively, and smoked sausages remain stable for 25 and 45 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively.

  12. Features of Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Italian sausages: focus on strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Amadoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L. sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products.

  13. Effect of the use of entire male fat in the production of reduced salt fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the use of entire male fat and salt reduction in dry fermented sausages was evaluated. Four different sausage formulations were manufactured with back fat from gilt or entire male and two different salt contents. The physicochemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture, lipid composition, volatile compounds and boar taint compounds were analysed. The use of entire male fat produced the highest weight losses producing high hardness and chewiness while salt reduction produced a decrease in hardness. Entire male sausages had the lowest oxidation values due to the low content of C18:2n6 while salt reduction did not affect the oxidation process. Boar taint odour was due to the presence of androstenone and skatole but entire male fat sausages had different generations of volatile compounds. The presence of androstenone was perceived by consumers as abnormal odours but also other sausage characteristics such as texture (high hardness) and oxidation were detected due to the different chemical compositions of entire males versus gilts. PMID:26882213

  14. Partial substitution of nitrite by chitosan and the effect on the quality properties of pork sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of partial nitrite replacement by chitosan on the quality of Ham Visking (a type of pork sausages. Five Ham Visking formulations were elaborated modifying the sodium nitrite (0.011; 0.016 or 0.0212% and chitosan concentrations (0.25 or 0.5% in the products. Sausages were stored at 4 ºC and physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial evaluations were performed in order to estimate their shelf life. Chitosan can be used in pork sausages without affecting ensory attributes such as color although the panelists detected textural differences among the samples with chitosan, which suggests that there is some influence of deacetylation degree of chitosan on the textural behavior of sausages which still needed to be explained for a successful application of chitosan in meat products. The reduction of residual sodium nitrite did not affect the color and flavor of such products, but the use of chitosan increasedsignificantly the shelf life of sausages.

  15. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode

  16. Evaluation of low-fat sausage containing desinewed lamb and konjac gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, W N; Keeton, J T

    2004-10-01

    Ground (GR) or desinewed (DS) lamb trimmings were combined with a konjac flour (KF) gel (0%, 10% or 20%) to produce a low-fat (8%) cured sausage. Physiochemical, sensory and shelf-life analyses were performed to determine the efficacy of the fat mimetic. Desinewing reduced collagen content (2.3 mg/g tissue) and cook yield (0.6%) when compared to GR trimmings. Grinding increased aerobic plate counts (APCs) ∼0.4log(10)/cm(2) more than DS, but APCs were not affected by inclusion of KF. Sausages with 20% KF lowered cook yield ∼1% and slightly reduced sensory panel and texture profile analysis texture values. KF gel incorporated at 10% had similar properties to a control low-fat desinewed lamb sausage, while KF at 20% could reduce "toughening" in low-fat sausage products. Use of konjac gel as a fat mimetic could reduce total caloric energy by replacing a portion of the meat in a sausage formulation. PMID:22062231

  17. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. PMID:26093224

  18. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Young [Traditional Food Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives, Fisheries Economic Institute, Seoul 138-827 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong-Hyun, E-mail: dhahn@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: > Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. > Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  19. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: → Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. → Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  20. Quantification of microbial populations associated with the manufacture of vacuum-packaged, smoked vienna sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, G A; Cloete, T E; von Holy, A

    1991-08-01

    Sources of contamination of vacuum-packaged vienna sausages by spoilage microorganisms were examined in a meat-processing plant. Microbial numbers present in the environment, on working surfaces and workers' hands and aprons were quantified by plate counting on selective media. Product line samples were taken at critical control points in the manufacturing process and analysed before and after preliminary incubation of vacuum-packaged samples at 25 degrees C for 24 h. In all samples the numbers of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were determined by standard procedures. Contamination of sausage surfaces by lactic acid bacteria occurred as a result of the manufacturing and handling processes. The environment and specifically packers' hands, as well as working surfaces contributed to microbiological contamination of various types after removal of the peel from individual sausages. The preliminary incubation procedure allowed detection of low numbers of spoilage microorganisms. PMID:1911080

  1. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate enhances formation of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of leucine and alpha-ketoglutarate addition on transamination of branched-chain amino acids was studied in model minces inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus. Leucine addition changed the ratio of volatile breakdown products of leucine, isoleucine and valine...... production. The results were verified in real fermented sausages with no, low (0.09% w/w) and high (0.36% w/w) addition of added alpha-ketoglutarate since the levels of the flavour intensive methyl-branched aldehydes and acids were drastically increased in sausages added a-ketoglutarate. The catabolism of...... phenylalanine was also induced by alpha-ketoglutarate and there were further indications of increased transamination of aspartate. A triangular test showed that the flavour of sausages with no and low addition of alpha-ketoglutarate could be clearly distinguished from one another. Altogether the results...

  2. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  3. Production of elastic onion sausage%洋葱弹力香肠的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 袁书林

    2015-01-01

    Pork and onion were taken as main raw materials to produce elastic onion sausage. The new type products were improved based on the processing technology and formula of traditional sausage meat products. The elastic onion sausage was of good sensory and physical and chemical properties. And it had high nutritive value.%试验以洋葱和猪肉为主要原料制作香肠,在传统香肠肉制品的加工工艺和配方基础之上进行改进,制作出洋葱弹力香肠。洋葱弹力香肠具有较好的感官和理化指标,营养价值较高。

  4. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to investigate the combined effects of irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on the color, nitrosoheme pigments (NO-Mb), residual nitrite and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in sausage during storage. Sausage with air, vacuum, CO2, N2, or CO2/N2 packaging was irradiated at 5 kGy. Irradiation reduced the red color of sausage, and a vacuum or MAP was effective in minimizing the loss of redness. The reduction of NO-Mb was observed by irradiation, while the MAP was more effective in maintaining the NO-Mb than the aerobic ones. Residual nitrite was reduced by irradiation, and the contents were lower under vacuum or MAP than aerobic ones. NDMA was significantly reduced by irradiation

  5. Re-acceleration model for the `Sausage' Radio Relic

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2016-01-01

    The Sausage radio relic is the arc-like radio structure in the cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, whose observed properties can be best understood by synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons accelerated at a merger-driven shock. However, there remain a few puzzles that cannot be explained by the shock acceleration model with only in-situ injection. In particular, the Mach number inferred from the observed radio spectral index, $M_{\\rm radio}\\approx 4.6$, while the Mach number estimated from X-ray observations, $M_{\\rm X-ray}\\approx 2.7$. In an attempt to resolve such a discrepancy, here we consider the re-acceleration model in which a shock of $M_s\\approx 3$ sweeps through the intracluster gas with a pre-existing population of relativistic electrons. We find that observed brightness profiles at multi frequencies provide strong constraints on the spectral shape of pre-existing electrons. The models with a power-law momentum spectrum with the slope, $s\\approx 4.1$, and the cutoff Lorentz factor, $\\gamma_{e,c}\\a...

  6. Spectral age modelling of the `Sausage' cluster radio relic

    CERN Document Server

    Stroe, Andra; Hardcastle, Martin J; Röttgering, Huub J A

    2014-01-01

    CIZA J2242.8+5301 is a post-core passage, binary merging cluster that hosts a large, thin, arc-like radio relic, nicknamed the `Sausage', tracing a relatively strong shock front. We perform spatially-resolved spectral fitting to the available radio data for this radio relic, using a variety of spectral ageing models, with the aim of finding a consistent set of parameters for the shock and radio plasma. We determine an injection index of $0.77^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$ for the relic plasma, significantly steeper than was found before. Standard particle acceleration at the shock front implies a Mach number $M=2.90^{+0.10}_{-0.13}$, which now matches X-ray measurements. The shock advance speed is $v_\\mathrm{shock}\\approx2500$ km s$^{-1}$, which places the core passage of the two subclusters $0.6-0.8$ Gyr ago. We find a systematic spectral age increase from $0$ at the northern side of the relic up to $\\sim60$ Myr at $\\sim145$ kpc into the downstream area, assuming a $0.6$ nT magnetic field. Under the assumption of freely-...

  7. Kinetic theory of sausage instability of z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear problem of the development of the sausage instability of a z-pinch is analyzed. Kinetic effects are taken into account for the case of a current with an ideal skin effect. The electrons of the plasma are assumed to be cold, and the ions collisionless. It is also assumed that the magnetic field in the pinch does not affect the motion of the ions. The ions are reflected specularly from the potential jump which arises at the plasma boundary. In the case of long-wave perturbations, with ka much-lt 1 (a is the pinch radius, and k is the wave number), the instability growth rate differs from the hydrodynamic growth rate only by a numerial factor. For short-wave perturbations, ka much-gt 1, kinetic effects lead to a substantial decrease in the growth rate [by a factor of (ka)1/2] from that in the hydrodynamic description. It thus becomes possible to explain the improved stability of z-pinches which is observed experimentally

  8. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the Earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the growth rate and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage and kink instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alvenic flow are studied. Based on the linearized compressible profiles of the fastest growing mode which is either the streaming sausage mode or kink mode. The streaming sausage and kink instabilities, similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, are caused by the sheared plasma flow. The results show that for V0/sub m/ = 2 V/sub A//sub ∞/ the sausage mode grows faster than the kink mode when β/sub ∞/1.5, the streaming kink instability has a higher growth rate. Here V/sub A//sub ∞/ is the Alfven velocity and β/sub ∞/ is the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer, and V0/sub m/ is the maximum velocity of plasma flow at the current sheet. In addition, an analytical dispersion equation is obtained for an ideal four-layer model of the current sheet in the incompressible limit. In the presence of a finite resistivity, the mixed sausage-tearing mode or the streaming tearing mode may be excited, which leads to the formation of plasmoids in the magnetotail. As an application to the Earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and β/sub ∞/≅0.1--0.3 in the lobes, it is suggested that the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities may occur in the magnetotail

  9. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  10. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  11. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. G.; Seol, K. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  12. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, D.G.; Seol, K.H.; Jeon, H.J. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: moohalee@snu.ac.kr

    2008-06-15

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  13. Evaluation of N-nitrosopiperidine formation from biogenic amines during the production of dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Peeters, Christine; Derdelinckx, Guy; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the precursors cadaverine and piperidine in the N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) formation during the production of dry fermented sausages. The influences of pH (4.9 and 5.3), sodium nitrite (0 and 150 mg/kg) and ascorbate (0 and 500 mg/kg) were investigated by the use of a dry fermented sausage model. The biogenic amines and volatile N-nitrosamines were analyzed by HPLC-UV and GC-TEA. The major biogenic amines were tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT)...

  14. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage

  15. Sausage instability in a proton-beam transport through wall-confined plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instability observed previously in a 800-keV of proton-beam transport through a wall-confined, z-discharged plasma channel (1-m long) has been identified as a sausage type from measurements made using an image converter campera. Clear evidence of the sausage instability has been obtained from the streak and framing photographs. When the instability grows with time, the wavelength tends to increase. The pinch velocity of the channel has also been measured in a parameter space, which gives reasonable agreement with the existing theory. (author)

  16. Image analysis with the computer vision system and the consumer test in evaluating the appearance of Lucanian dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Di Bello, Gerardo; Braghieri, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The object of the investigation was the Lucanian dry sausage appearance, meant as color and visible fat ratio. The study was carried out on dry sausages produced in 10 different salami factories and seasoned for 18 days on average. We studied the effect of the raw material origin (5 producers used meat bought from the market and other 5 producers used meat from pigs bred in their farms) and of the salami factories or brands on meat color, fat color and visible fat ratio in dry sausages. The sausages slices were photographed and the images were analysed with the computer vision system to measure the changes in the colorimetric characteristics L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma and in the visible fat area ratio. The last parameter was assessed on the slice surface using image binarization. A consumer test was conducted to determine the relationship between the perception of visible fat on the sausage slice surface and acceptability and preference of this product. The consumers were asked to look carefully at the 6 sausages slices in a photo, minding the presence of fat, and to identify (a) the slices they considered unacceptable for consumption and (b) the slice they preferred. The results show that the color of the sausage lean part varies in relation to the raw material employed and to the producer or brand (Pcolor is not uniform in some salami factories (Pcolor. The visible fat ratio of the sausages slices is higher (P<0.001) in the product from salami factories without pig-breeding farm. The fat percentage is highly variable (P<0.001) among the sausages of each salami factory. On the whole, the product the consumers consider acceptable and is inclined to eat has a low fat percentage (P<0.001). Our consumers (about 70%) prefer slices which are leaner (P<0.001). Women, in particular, show a higher preference for the leanest (P<0.001). PMID:24041911

  17. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  18. Processing technique of Tai-wan roast sausage%台湾烤肠加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The processing technology and technological requirements of Tai-wan roast sausage are stressed,including selecting material,formula,chopping meat,mixing up ingredient,making sausage,boiling,and package sausage,until to the finish product,and through which%主要介绍了台湾烤香肠的加工工艺及技术要点,包括选料、配料、制馅、拌馅、灌制、煮制、包装到成品等过程。

  19. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  20. Instability and "Sausage-String" Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Alstrøm, P; Colding-Jorgensen, M; Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Alstrom, Preben; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Colding-Jorgensen, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    1999-01-01

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

  1. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes, together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored “ready to eat” (RTE foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un- published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  2. Instability and `Sausage-String' Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Alstrøm, P.; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    1998-01-01

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

  3. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0; low fat control (T1; low fat with 15% inulin (T2; low fat with 30% inulin (T3; low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4; and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5. The addition of fibers increased the yield (T3 and T5; 98.96%, and the color parameters were slightly reduced (T3. Moisture (61.14% and ashes (6.96% of sausages with inulin and pectin were higher (T5, while shear force, hardness, fracturability, gumminess, and chewiness (T3 and T5 were slightly lower than those of the control. The addition of inulin (T2 increased the sensory acceptance of the sausages (5.75. Fat can be replaced with inulin and pectin in frankfurter sausages to produce healthy and functional products.

  4. Two-stream sausage and hollowing instabilities in high-intensity particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisymmetric two-stream instabilities in high-intensity particle beams are investigated analytically by making use of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the smooth-focusing approximation. The eigenfunctions for the axisymmetric radial modes are calculated self-consistently in order to determine the dispersion relation describing collective stability properties. Stability properties for the sausage and hollowing modes, characterized by radial mode numbers n=1 and n=2, respectively, are investigated, and the dispersion relations are obtained for the complex eigenfrequency ω in terms of the axial wavenumber k and other system parameters. The eigenfunctions obtained self-consistently for the sausage and hollowing modes indicate that the perturbations exist only inside the beam. Therefore, the location of the conducting wall does not have an effect on stability behavior. The growth rates of the sausage and hollowing modes are of the same order of magnitude as that of the hose (dipole-mode) instability. Therefore, it is concluded that the axisymmetric sausage and hollowing instabilities may also be deleterious to intense ion beam propagation when a background component of electrons is presented

  5. Nonlinear sausage-wave propagation in a magnetic slab in an incompressible fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long nonlinear sausage-wave propagation in a magnetic slab in an incompressible plasma is considered. The governing equation is derived with the aid of the reductive perturbation method. The solutions of this equation in the form of periodic waves of permanent shape are found numerically. (Author)

  6. Nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a 2d envelope model is described for the nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches. Numerical solutions for various cases of interest are provided which lay the foundation for a quantitative model of nonthermal neutron emission in dense Z-pinches by determining the induced electric fields associated with the development of the instability

  7. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...

  8. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  9. Growth and production of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus in dry sausages:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.;

    2004-01-01

    Three sausage batches inoculated with normal inoculation level of Pediococcus pentosaceus (5 x 10(6) CFU/g) and with low, intermediate, and high inoculation levels of Staphylococcus carnosus (10(5), 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7) CFU/g, respectively) were produced. Cell counts and formation of volatiles we...

  10. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  11. Regional regulation of transcription in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megens Hendrik-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years, the relationship between gene transcription and chromosomal location has been studied in a number of different vertebrate genomes. Regional differences in gene expression have been found in several different species. The chicken genome, as the closest sequenced genome relative to mammals, is an important resource for investigating regional effects on transcription in birds and studying the regional dynamics of chromosome evolution by comparative analysis. Results We used gene expression data to survey eight chicken tissues and create transcriptome maps for all chicken chromosomes. The results reveal the presence of two distinct types of chromosomal regions characterized by clusters of highly or lowly expressed genes. Furthermore, these regions correlate highly with a number of genome characteristics. Regions with clusters of highly expressed genes have higher gene densities, shorter genes, shorter average intron and higher GC content compared to regions with clusters of lowly expressed genes. A comparative analysis between the chicken and human transcriptome maps constructed using similar panels of tissues suggests that the regions with clusters of highly expressed genes are relatively conserved between the two genomes. Conclusions Our results revealed the presence of a higher order organization of the chicken genome that affects gene expression, confirming similar observations in other species. These results will aid in the further understanding of the regional dynamics of chromosome evolution. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE17108. The reviewer access link is: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?token=tjwjpscyceqawjk&acc=GSE17108

  12. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras; REMEDIOS D. CATAMIN; Delia A. Paragados; AILEEN C. DE LA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefu...

  13. Effect of spices commercial mixture with GDL on the quality of fermented dry-cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main fermented meat products are fermented sausages in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB are the essential agents of the ripening process. Their application as starter organisms ensures the dominance of the starter during the whole ripening process. However, when no starter cultures are used, direct addition of acids like a glucono-delta-lactone (GdL is preferred. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of commercial spices mixtur (containing GdL on selected technological parameters of fermented dry-cured sausages - Danube sausage in comparison with currently available conventional spices. Comparison was evaluated also with addition of starter cultures. Determinations of technological (value of pH, water activity, color and microbiological properties (count of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae family, yeasts and moulds were realized after 24 hours, 5 and 30 days. The sensory analysis of sausages was carried out after 30 days of ripening process. In sausages with the addition of commercial spice mixture in combination with starter culture were determined the lowest values of pH and aw at the end of ripening process (30 days. Bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family were occurred in the samples with the addition of currently available conventional spices at the beginning of ripening, but after 5 days of ripening were bacteria of this family not detected. The counts of yeasts in analyzed samples were not detected. Counts of LAB at the end of ripening proccess (30 days were lower in coparison with result obtained after 5 days; however their count was comparable with count determined at the beginig of the ripening. Our results show, that the combination of starter culture and commercial spice mixture containig GdL may cause excesive sour taste and sensory defect of dry fermented meat products.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraqueza, Maria João

    2015-11-01

    Dry-fermented sausages are meat products highly valued by many consumers. Manufacturing process involves fermentation driven by natural microbiota or intentionally added starter cultures and further drying. The most relevant fermentative microbiota is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, producing mainly lactate and contributing to product preservation. The great diversity of LAB in dry-fermented sausages is linked to manufacturing practices. Indigenous starters development is considered to be a very promising field, because it allows for high sanitary and sensorial quality of sausage production. LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented food, however, since they are present in human gastrointestinal tract, and are also intentionally added to the diet, concerns have been raised about the antimicrobial resistance in these beneficial bacteria. In fact, the food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antimicrobial resistance transmission from animal to human bacterial populations. The World Health Organization 2014 report on global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance reveals that this issue is no longer a future prediction, since evidences establish a link between the antimicrobial drugs use in food-producing animals and the emergence of resistance among common pathogens. This poses a risk to the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This review describes the possible sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistant LAB of dry-fermented sausages, presenting LAB antibiotic resistance profile and related genetic determinants. Whenever LAB are used as starters in dry-fermented sausages processing, safety concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance should be addressed since antibiotic resistant genes could be mobilized and transferred to other bacteria. PMID:26002560

  15. Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked sausages by migration into polyethylene packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semanová, Jana; Skláršová, Božena; Šimon, Peter; Šimko, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work was a study of interactions between a smoked meat product and plastic packaging to find a possibility of elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from smoked sausages by migration into the packaging. Smoked meat sausages were packed into o-polyamide/low density polyethylene laminated film and content of four PAH was determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min by HPLC. During this time, total PAH4 content decreased from 30.1 to 5.7 μg/kg, benzo[a]anthracene decreased from 11.5 to 2.1 μg/kg, chrysene from 9.4 to 1.9 μg/kg, benzo[b]fluoranthene from 5.3 to 0.6 μg/kg and benzo[a]pyrene from 3.9 to 1.1 μg/kg while PAH4 content in non-packed sausages remained at a constant level. So, while sausages did not meet European safety limits set for PAH4 content of 12 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene before packaging, these limits were met at the end of the experiment. This decrease was brought about by migration of PAH4 from sausages into low density polyethylene packaging bulk and the measure of decrease can be predicted by a kinetic equation, making it possible to calculate PAH content equal to any time of experiment as well as the time of interaction necessary to fulfil EU legislative limits. PMID:26868540

  16. Evaluation of Some Vegetal Colloids on the Quality Attributes of Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Osheba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colloids are of vital role for improving the quality of foods including that of psyllium, locust bean and pectin which is found in orange peel albedo. These colloids are also of value for clinical nutrition. The last opinion could be confirmed by the chemical analysis which revealed that locust bean seeds had higher total phenolic compounds (485.28 mg/100 g while psyllium seeds (297.54 mg/100 g and orange peel albedo (246.11 mg/100 g showed nearly the same level. Major phenolic compound was pyrogallol for locust bean, being cholchecein for other two colloids sources. Total flavonoid compounds were higher for psyllium seeds (536.46 mg/100 g and locust bean seed (275.76 mg/100 g, being less for orange peel albedo (113.65 mg/100 g; major flavonoid in all sources was the hesperidin. The best eating qualities recoded for psyllium sausage followed by locust bean sausage. Generally, all three colloids sources improved the eating quality of beef sausage. Plasticity confirmed the results of sensory evaluation where the best sample was that of psyllium sausage. Higher pH value after 6 months storage at-18ºC was in line with the best Water Holding Capacity (WHC and plasticity levels recorded for psyllium sausage. Color intensity and TBA value were best for locust been followed by psyllium treatments. The lowest color intensity was in line with the highest TBA value. The keeping quality was better when adding the tested colloids; TVN, TBA value, Total Bacterial Count (TBC, Yeast and Mold (Y and M count was lowest for psyllium followed by locust bean treatment. Other colloids showed the same trend but at lower degree.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for pigs, piglets, bovines, ovines, calves, equines, chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by Fermenta Biotech Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. No safety concern was identified for the use of vitamin D3 in chickens for fattening and fish. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is sufficiently below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a skin sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No risk to the environment resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, pigs, piglets (suckling, calves for rearing, calves for fattening, bovines, ovines, equines, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by DSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. No safety concern was identified for the use of vitamin D3 in chickens for fattening and fish. Not withstanding the long history of supplementing compound feed with vitamin D and the absence of publicly reported intolerances, the FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D and considers the current maximum contents as temporarily acceptable. Any additional administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is sufficiently below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is not a skin sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful to persons handling the additive. No risk to the environment resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  19. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  20. Changes in protein structures to improve the rheology and texture of reduced-fat sausages using high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Yu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Haibo; Han, Minyi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the role of high-pressure processing (HPP) for improving the functional properties of meat batters and the textural properties of reduced-fat sausages. Application of 200MPa pressure at 10°C for 2min to pork batters containing various fat contents (0-30%) affected their rheological properties, cooking losses, color, textual properties and their protein imaging. The results revealed that both application of 200MPa and increasing fat content decreased cooking loss, as well as improved the textural and rheological properties. Cooking losses, texture and sensory evaluation of 200MPa treated sausages having 20% fat were similar to those of the 0.1MPa treated sausages having 30% fat. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the levels of fat addition and by HPP. These findings indicated the potential of HPP for improving yield and texture of emulsion-type sausages having reduced fat contents. PMID:27288900

  1. Determination of volatile N-nitrosamines in irradiated fermented sausage by gas chromatography coupled to a thermal energy analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Han, Sang-Bae

    2004-10-29

    Volatile N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in irradiated pepperoni and salami sausages were determined using a gas chromatography coupled to a thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA). These fermented sausages with aerobic or vacuum packaging were irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy, and then stored for 4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Both NDMA and NPYR in the fermented sausage were significantly reduced by irradiation. The vacuum packaging showed significantly lower (P 10 kGy) was needed to reduce the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the fermented sausage during storage and the GC-TEA analysis was effective in determining the N-nitrosamines in irradiated meats even at low trace levels. PMID:15553169

  2. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. PMID:26283171

  3. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.; Jensen, K.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Xu, X.B.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.......47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus...... longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing...

  4. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation...... by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFeIINO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well...

  5. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  6. Microbiological characteristics of "androlla", a Spanish traditional pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fontán, María C; Lorenzo, José M; Parada, Ana; Franco, Inmaculada; Carballo, Javier

    2007-02-01

    Counts of total aerobic mesophilic microflora, lactic acid bacteria, salt-tolerant microflora, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, moulds and yeasts, and staphylococci, and some physico-chemical parameters (total solids, NaCl and nitrate contents and pH and aw values) were determined in 20 units of "androlla", a traditional dry-fermented sausage made in the NW of Spain. In general, high counts of all the investigated microbial groups were observed, with average values of 8.99 +/- 0.46 log cfu/g for the total aerobic mesophilic microflora, 9.11 +/- 0.16 log cfu/g for the lactic acid bacteria, 6.87 +/- 0.68 log cfu/g for the salt-tolerant microflora, 2.80+/-1.85 log cfu/g for the Enterobacteriaceae, 3.25 +/- 1.86 log cfu/g for the enterococci, 4.30 +/- 1.73 log cfu/g for the moulds and yeasts, and 3.62 +/- 0.60 log cfu/g for the staphylococci. From MRS agar, SPC agar + 7.5% NaCl, VRBG agar, and KAA agar, 10 colonies were randomly taken from each androlla unit and from each culture medium. A total of 200 strains per culture medium were then identified using the classical methods. Among the isolates from MRS agar, Lactobacillus sakei predominated, followed by Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. Of the 200 isolates obtained from SPC agar + 7.5% NaCl, only 56 strains belonged to the Staphylococcaceae or Micrococcaceae families. Among the Staphylococcaceae, Staphylococcus xylosus was the main species, followed by Staph. epidermidis; Staph. equorum, Staph. capitis and Staph. saprophyticus were isolated in very low proportions. Among the Micrococcaceae, Micrococcus luteus predominated, followed by Micrococcus lylae, Kocuria varians and Kocuria kristinae. Of the 150 isolates obtained from VRBG agar, Hafnia alvei was the main species, followed by Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus; six isolates were identified as Salmonella. Among the 190 isolates obtained from KAA agar, 122 were considered enterococci; 20 isolates were

  7. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  8. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....

  9. Effect of fat and salt reduction on the sensory quality of slow fermented sausages inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela; Flores Llovera, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The inoculation of a Debaryomyces hansenii strain in dry fermented sausages with reduced fat and salt contents was evaluated in terms of chemical, microbial and consumer acceptability. The implantation of the inoculated yeast strain was confirmed by RAPDs of M13 minisatellite. A reduction of 17-20% salt and 10-16% fat content was achieved. These reductions affected the sausage quality by producing an increase in aw, hardness and chewiness values and a decrease of staphylococci growth. However...

  10. Effects of Different Spices Used in Production of Fermented Sausages on Growth of and Curvacin A Production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174

    OpenAIRE

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy , Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pe...

  11. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered stable at room temperature due to their acidity and drying degree. Regarding to the weight loss and diameter of the sausage parameters, there were no differences between source types, however, a reduction of diameter was observed with the addition of fiber. Sausages with lamb meat and fiber showed an increase in oxidation. Higher values of luminosity were obtained in pork sausages. The most preferred samples were the pork meat sausages with the presence of fiber.

  12. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  13. Effects of electron beam irradiated natural casings on the quality properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 kGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage was evaluated. There were no significant differences in pH, instrumental color, sensory properties (overall acceptability), and hardness between all the samples. The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than that of the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation, and inhibited the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and the increase in total aerobic bacteria. In conclusion, the natural casings irradiated below at a dose of 3 kGy had no effect on physicochemical and sensory properties of the emulsion sausages, however, that improved the shelf-stability over 5 weeks. Therefore, natural casings irradiated at moderate doses are suitable for sausage production. - Highlights: ► The effect of E-beam irradiated natural casings on sausage quality was evaluated. ► The use of irradiated casings improved shelf stability of sausage. ► Natural casings irradiated below 3 kGy are suitable for sausage production.

  14. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline; Woods, Anne

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  15. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  16. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  17. Periods and damping rates of fast sausage oscillations in multi-shelled coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Standing sausage modes are important in interpreting quasi-periodic pulsations in the lightcurves of solar flares. Their periods and damping times play an important role in seismologically diagnosing key parameters like the magnetic field strength in regions where flare energy is released. Usually such applications are based on theoretical results neglecting unresolved fine structures in magnetized loops. However, the existence of fine structuring is suggested on both theoretical and observational grounds. Adopting the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we model coronal loops as magnetized cylinders with a transverse equilibrium density profile comprising a monolithic part and a modulation due to fine structuring in the form of concentric shells. The equation governing the transverse velocity perturbation is solved with an initial-value-problem approach, and the effects of fine structuring on the periods $P$ and damping times $\\tau$ of global, leaky, standing sausage modes are examined. A parameter...

  18. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °C temp., and 60 % R.H. before and after cooking. For statistical evaluation of results, paired T test was used, statistically significant differences were taken at pdoi:10.5219/273

  19. Impact of different visible light spectra on oxygen absorption and surface discoloration of bologna sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhner, Nadine; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several visible light spectra in various intensities on the oxygen absorption and surface color of sliced bologna. Sausage samples were stored in a gastight model packaging system and illuminated at 5°C with six single-colored LEDs covering the main part of the visible light spectrum. The initial oxygen level was set at 0.5% in order to simulate common residual oxygen amounts in conventional packaging. The oxygen absorption and the discoloration measured as changes in CIE a*-value were dependent from the applied light intensity. The color stability of bologna was differently affected by light of various wavelengths. The results show that the use of suitable LEDs with specific spectra for display illumination can help to reduce the light induced deterioration of cured sausages in retail markets. PMID:27343458

  20. Waste utilization of apple pomace as a source of functional ingredient in buffalo meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace was analyzed for its proximate analysis which showed protein content of 4.50% and total dietary fiber of 62.67%. Its functional properties were also carried out which showed high water- and oil-holding capacity of 3.89 gH2O g−1 Solid and 1.92 ml g−1, respectively. Its antimicrobial activity was also found against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and L. monocytogenes. Further, it has shown lower in vitro glucose retardation index. Buffalo meat sausages incorporated with apple pomace powder showed high cooking yield and emulsion stability of 94.46% and 74.70, respectively, as compared to control sausage. Additionally, the dietary fiber content got enhanced with the incorporation of apple pomace powder as expected.

  1. Effect of pork fat addition on the volatile compounds of foal dry-cured sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Montes, Rosa; Purriños, Laura; Franco, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The effect of fat content on volatile compounds from foal dry-cured sausage was studied. Three batches (10 units per batch) of dry fermented sausages with different pork back fat content (5%, 10% and 20%) were manufactured; low fat (LF), medium fat (MF) and high fat (HF), respectively. A total of 45 volatile compounds were extracted by purge-and-trap and identified by GC-MS in the headspace of the batches. The mixture comprised 11 terpenes, 15 esters, 14 hydrocarbons and 2 alcohols. Spices were responsible for the generation of 14 volatile compounds comprising terpenes and hydrocarbons. After 49 days of ripening volatile compounds from spices represented 52.9, 38.9 and 31.2% of the total area for samples from LF, MF and HF batches, respectively, while lipid autooxidation was responsible for the generation of 8 volatile compounds. The PCA offered a good separation of the mean samples according to their fat content. PMID:22498135

  2. A simple analytic model of the sausage mode in a resistive Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple analytic linearized theory of the sausage mode is developed, based on resistive MHD, certain long-wavelength assumptions, and in particular the assumption that the perturbations of the radial density profile are self-similar. The perturbations to the magnetic field are not assumed to be self-similar. Time dependences of the equilibrium, e.g., current rising as τα, ohmic heating, and time-varying radius, are included quite generally. The formalism appears to provide a good representation of those modes which lead to coherent sausaging of the entire radial cross section of the pinch, but excludes modes which are localized near a particular radius. The net effect of resistivity and time variation of the equilibrium is to decrease the instability growth rate (but by no more than a factor of two) if α approx-lt 1, or to increase it if α approx-gt 1

  3. Kink and Sausage Modes in Nonuniform Magnetic Slabs with Continuous Transverse Density Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of a continuous density structuring transverse to coronal slabs on the dispersive properties of fundamental standing kink and sausage modes supported therein. We derive generic dispersion relations (DRs) governing linear fast waves in pressureless straight slabs with general transverse density distributions, and focus on the cases where the density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width and in arbitrary form. The physical relevance of the solutions to the DRs is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent computations. For all profiles examined, the lowest-order kink modes are trapped regardless of longitudinal wavenumber $k$. A continuous density distribution introduces a difference to their periods of $\\lesssim 13\\%$ when $k$ is the observed range, relative to the case where the density profile takes a step-function form. Sausage modes and other branches of kink modes are leaky at small $k$, and their periods and damping times are heavily influenced by how the ...

  4. Nonlocal sausage-like instability of current channels in electron magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of stability of electron current channels in a plasma to rapidly growing modes on electron time scales is of considerable interest in a wide range of physical problems, e.g., fast ignitor concept of laser fusion, plasma opening switches, Z pinches, etc. Earlier studies have demonstrated the instability of such current channels to kink modes. However, the stability to sausage-like modes has not been investigated so far. In this paper such an investigation has been carried out and it is shown that the current channels are unstable to sausage-like modes with parallel scale lengths longer than the current channel width. These instabilities are closely related to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability of a sheared electron layer

  5. Line-of-sight geometrical and instrumental resolution effects on intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Antolin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics of MHD waves in the solar atmosphere is a topic which often encounters problems of interpretation, due partly to the high complexity of the solar atmospheric medium. Forward modeling can significantly guide interpretation, bridging the gap between numerical simulations and observations, and increasing the reliability of mode identification for application of MHD seismology. In this work we aim at determining the characteristics of the fast MHD sausage mode in the corona on the modulation of observable quantities such as line intensity and spectral line broadening. Effects of line-of-sight angle, and spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions are considered. We take a cylindrical tube simulating a loop in a low-{\\beta} coronal environment with an optically thin background, and let it oscillate with the fast sausage mode. A parametric study is performed. Among other results, we show that regardless of the ionisation state of the plasma, the variation of spectral line broadening can be significant, e...

  6. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiated Natural Casings on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 KGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage were evaluated. There were no significantly differences in ph, instrumental color, and sensory evaluation among all the samples tested (p>0.05). The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. However, the results on the purge loss after storage for 5 weeks were contradictory. The hardness of the sausage was lower when the irradiated natural casings were used. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation. The volatile basic nitrogen values were lower in samples treated with electron beam irradiation. The natural casings irradiated up to a dose of 3kGy not only had different total aerobic bacteria counts during the initial storage period but also displayed higher TAB counts at the final storage period

  7. Developments of sausages in a z-pinch with short-wave perturbation of a boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numeric simulation of sausage evolution in z-pinch during short-wave excitation of the boundary of plasma column pinch is carried out. The simulation has shown that due to nonlinear development of sausages in a pinch plasma colomn the cavities filled with a magnetic field in a rarefied pinch plasma are formed. Simultaneously compact column of tense plasma whose temperature is much higher than the average temperature of pinch plasma column are formed on the pinch axis. In the region of inlet in the cavity plasma is radially directed due to ponderomotoric force 1/2 x jB up to velocities greatly increasing the thermal velocity of ions in a plasma column

  8. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiated Natural Casings on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hackyoun; Hwang, Koeun; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Cheonjei; Choi, Jihun; Choi, Yunsang [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 KGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage were evaluated. There were no significantly differences in ph, instrumental color, and sensory evaluation among all the samples tested (p>0.05). The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. However, the results on the purge loss after storage for 5 weeks were contradictory. The hardness of the sausage was lower when the irradiated natural casings were used. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation. The volatile basic nitrogen values were lower in samples treated with electron beam irradiation. The natural casings irradiated up to a dose of 3kGy not only had different total aerobic bacteria counts during the initial storage period but also displayed higher TAB counts at the final storage period.

  9. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  10. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates. PMID:27451178

  11. Fast magnetoacoustic wave trains of sausage symmetry in cylindrical waveguides of the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Shestov, S; Kuzin, S

    2015-01-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves guided along the magnetic field by plasma non-uniformities, in particular coronal loops, fibrils and plumes, are known to be highly dispersive, which leads to the formation of quasi-periodic wave trains excited by a broadband impulsive driver, e.g. a solar flare. We investigated effects of cylindrical geometry on the fast sausage wave train formation. We performed magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of fast magnetoacoustic perturbations of a sausage symmetry, propagating from a localised impulsive source along a field-aligned plasma cylinder with a smooth radial profile of the fast speed. The wave trains are found to have pronounced period modulation, with the longer instant period seen in the beginning of the wave train. The wave trains have also a pronounced amplitude modulation. Wavelet spectra of the wave trains have characteristic tadpole features, with the broadband large-amplitude heads preceding low-amplitude quasi-monochromatic tails. The mean period of the wave train...

  12. Characteristics of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Used as Starter Cultures in Dry Sausage Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nordal, John; Slinde, Erik

    1980-01-01

    The fermentation characteristics of two commercial (Duploferment 66 and Saga II) and five Norwegian lactic acid bacteria used in dry sausage production were compared with those of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. The Norwegian strains lacked the ability to ferment mannitol, sorbitol, lactose, and d-(+)-raffinose and grew at 8 but not at 42°C, in contrast to the ATCC culture and the two commercial strains. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the Norwegian strains was not stimulated by pyru...

  13. Frequency of contamination Listeria monocytogenes of raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Hristo Daskalov; Fejzulla Fejzullah; Alexandra Daskalova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect actual data concerning the frequency of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some very popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from October 2004 till May 2008. 148 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 9 different food business operators during all seasons of the year. The samples were analyzed according to USDA method for meat foods. Ten specimens were positive for presence of Listeria monocytogenes equal to 6,75% of a...

  14. Effects of Food Additives on Susceptibility of Gram Negative Bacteria Derived from Dry-Fermented Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    DORJ, Serjmyadag; SHIMADA, Kenichiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; 島田, 謙一郎; 関川, 三男

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of food additives on gram-negative bacteria. The food additives used included synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA, and butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT), a curing agent and lactic acid with or without a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing antimicrobial compounds of Lactobacillus sakei D-1001. The gram-negative bacteria were selected from dry-fermented sausages and cultured with different food additives for 18 h in nutrient broth, and then anot...

  15. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork, beef, and/or veal livers computed on the weight of the fresh livers. It may also contain pork and/or beef fat... sausage made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork,...

  16. Portuguese traditional sausage, Alheira, made with diffrent meat: sensory evaluation and texture.

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Miguel; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    At a Portuguese traditional meat plant 6 different formulas were used to produce “alheira”, a Portuguese traditional fermented sausage, from the north region, usually made with chopped meat from pork and poultry and with bread. Results from TPA suggest that texture of “alheiras” made with meat from poultry (more common) or Alentejano pig breed (never done before) are similar while “alheiras” made with extreme beef meat showed different textural characteristics comparing with the others. C...

  17. The influence of extracts on the durability of different ground meats and sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Andronikov, Darko; Sofijanova, Elenica; Taskov, Nako; Naseva, Dijana; Saneva, Dusica; Kletnikoski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    According to the Book of Rules of Agency for Food and Veterinary published in Official Gazette No. 63, 2013, sales of minced meat in retail facilities may be made only if it is previously packed in appropriate containers. In this project, for the first time an application of different extracts of vegetable origin - basil, garlic and muscat flower will be performed in order to extend the shelf life of sausages, minced meat and shaped products thereof (obtained from different animals). At the s...

  18. Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum) on Duck Sausage Quality during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Muthia Dewi; Nurul Huda; Easa. A. M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding natural antioxidant (garlic, fresh or powdered) or a synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene/ BHT) on the quality of duck sausage during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Proximate composition, pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Aerobic plate counts (APC), and mold count were measured. Generally, all sample types showed decreased moisture content and pH and increased protein and fat contents over the course of the refrigerated s...

  19. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla; SaraBover-Cid

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  20. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  1. Formation, cascade development and breakup of the X pinch sausage-type instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the X-pinches high-resolution shadowgraphy in a high-power thick plasma generator are presented. The process of mini-diode formation, sausage-type instability originating therein, its breakup and subsequent destruction are studied. The cascade formation of short-living structures, firmly reproducing the mini-diode form in smaller scales before the X-ray flare, are observed in the process of implosion. The position of the X-ray emission points is determined

  2. Nonlinear full two-fluid study of m=0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear full five-moment two-fluid model is used to study axisymmetric instabilities in a Z pinch. When the electron velocity due to the current J is greater than the ion acoustic speed, high wave-number sausage instabilities develop that initiate shock waves in the ion fluid. This condition corresponds to a pinch radius on the order of a few ion Larmor radii

  3. Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.

  4. Stabilizing effect of gas conductivity evolution on the resistive sausage mode of a propagating beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous theoretical work has shown that a highly current-neutralized charged particle beam propagating in a preionized plasma channel of fixed conductivity is subject to a resistive sausage instability. It is shown that the instability is stabilized, for the case of beam propagation into an initially un-ionized gas, when the effect of beam-collisional ionization on the gas conductivity is modeled fully self-consistently

  5. Sausage instability of Z-discharged plasma channel in LIB-fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current-carring plasma channels have been proposed for transporting intense ion beams from diodes to a target in a LIB-fusion device. In this paper, the growth rate of the most dangerous surface mode, that is, axisymmetric sausage instability is examined for the plasma channel. The growth rate is shown to be smaller than that of the plasma channel with no fluid motion in a sharp boundary. It is concluded that the stable plasma channel can be formed. (author)

  6. Preparation of integrally spun viscose sausage casings using radiation-modified cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of precipitation bath parameters on the physiocomechanical properties of integrally spun sausage casings prepared using radiation-modified cellulose has been studied. It has been found that the use of radiation-modified cellulose ensures the possibility of producing a high-quality product with a reduction of the consumption of carbon disulfide in xanthation to 10-15% based on wt. of α-cellulose

  7. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Sebhatu Gebrelul; Henson, James F.

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concent...

  8. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  9. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  10. Development of hawthorn and pork sausage%山楂猪肉腊肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩倩

    2012-01-01

    以山楂和猪肉为主料,以酱油、白糖、白酒等为辅料,对山楂猪肉腊肠的配方进行研究。通过单因素试验及正交试验研究山楂、酱油、白酒、白糖添加量对猪肉腊肠品质的影响。结果表明,山楂添加于肉中可制作出新型猪肉腊肠;猪肉的肥瘦比为2:8,最适添加量分别为山楂3%、酱油3%、白酒3%、白糖6%。%Hawthorn and pork were taken as main ingredient and soy sauce, white sugar and liquor as adjuvant, the formula of hawthorn pork sausages was studied in this article. The effects of addition of hawthorn, soy sauce, liquor, white sugar on the pork sausage quality were determined by single factor ex- periment and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that it was a new style of pork sausage added with hawthorn. The optimal formula was that fat and lean pork ratio was 2:8, and the addition of hawthorn, soy sauce, liquor, white sugar was 3% , 3% , 3% , 6% , respectively.

  11. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging. PMID:27433114

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on the hygienic quality and shelf-life of Turkish fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish fermented sausage samples were prepared by using irradiated raw materials (0.0 kGy, 1.0 kGy, 2.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy) and starter culture to improve the hygienic quality and shelf-life of Turkish fermented sausage. The samples were examined for the total aerobic count, Lactobacilli, micrococcus/staphylococcus, fecal streptococci, Coliform and E.coli. In addition to these, their pH, TBA and sensorial attributes were determined during the ripening period (28 days) and the storage periods (5 months). Applied irradiation doses reduced the counts of all the microorganisms to some extent, especially the coliform and E.coli to levels lower than those which could cause public health concern. Because of the reduction in the microorganisms the hygienic quality of Turkish fermented sausage improved and shelf-life was extended to about 4 months at 10 deg. after the ripening. (author). 21 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab

  13. Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum on Duck Sausage Quality during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding natural antioxidant (garlic, fresh or powdered or a synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene/ BHT on the quality of duck sausage during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Proximate composition, pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, Aerobic plate counts (APC, and mold count were measured. Generally, all sample types showed decreased moisture content and pH and increased protein and fat contents over the course of the refrigerated storage period. While TBA values and APCs increased during the experimental period for all sample types, the increases were lower in the samples with garlic added due to the antioxidant effect of garlic. TBA values of duck sausage with fresh garlic or garlic powder added were higher than that of the control throughout the storage period. Fresh garlic and garlic powder were more effective in preventing microbial growth than without adding synthetic antioxidant but addition of BHT was slightly better. Overall, the addition of 50 g of fresh garlic per kg sausage was the best at reducing the TBA value among the six levels of garlic tested.

  14. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Chinese-style sausage is a very popular meat product obtained from a mixture of chopped pork meat, lard, salt, spices, additives (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ursolic acid were studied. Lipid oxidation was assessed through determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and volatile aldehydes. The content and composition of fatty acids in phospholipid were evaluated. At the optimum addition level, apple phenolic (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) was more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than BHT (0.15 g·kg(-1) in total fat) and ursolic acid (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) in Chinese-style sausages during 120 days storage. Moreover, apple phenolic exhibited stronger phospholipid protective capacity than ursolic acid and BHT at the end of storage. This study reveals a potential application of apple phenolic to enhance the oxidation stability of meat products during long storage. PMID:25694715

  15. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  16. THE EFFECT OF SURFACE MOULD APPLICATION TO SELECTED PROPERTIES OF DRY FERMENTED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three batches of dry fermented sausages were prepared. A proportion of the products from each batch were surface-treated with a mould starter culture, with the remaining products being smoked without mould. Physico-chemical analysis, including determination of the content of lactic acid and biogenic amines, was performed on day 35 during the ripening and on the final products (day 65. The sausages with surface mould showed a higher pH value, a higher water activity value and a lower content of D/L-lactic acid. The differences were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001. A higher content of malondialdehyde (TBARS was found in products with mould, though the differences determined were not statistically significant. From day 35, statistically significant differences were found in the content of biogenic amines (BA. The highest content was recorded on day 65 in sausages with surface mould, with a content seven times that of the content in the mix immediately after being filled in the casing being recorded. In no case did the sum level of BA exceed 100 mg kg-1.

  17. Stabilization of sausage and kink instability modes of a plasma pinch by radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the global sausage (m=0) and kink (m=1) perturbations of a Z-pinch subject to radial oscillations is considered. It is demonstrated that the oscillations result in significant reduction of the growth rate of both kink and sausage instability modes with wavelengths long compared to the pinch radius. The analysis of stability is carried out in two ways. The first method is based on the averaging magnetohydrodynamic equations over the period of radial oscillations. The second one consists in the analysis of the growth of Fourier-components of perturbations. Numerical simulation demonstrates that even moderate radial oscillations cause reduction of the growth rate of long-wavelength sausage instabilities and complete stabilization of long kinks. This can be understood as a result of the effective gravitational field produced in the pinch by the oscillations. The effect in question can explain the anomalous stability of pinches with respect to the kink perturbations observed in experiments. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Properties of reformulated hot dog sausage without added nitrites during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Herrero, A M; Tahmouzi, S; Razavi, S H; Triki, M; Rodríguez-Salas, L; Samcová, K; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a complete nitrite replacement strategy using celery, carmine, sodium lactate and orange dietary fibre combined with vitamins C and E, on the quality characteristics (technological, sensorial and safety properties) of hot dog sausages (five samples) during chilled storage (2 ± 1℃ 60 days). Nitrite replacers (combined with vitamins C and E) presented antioxidant activity, reducing lipid oxidation in reformulated samples. At the end of storage redness (a*) was similar in the control sample (with added nitrite) and in the sample without added nitrite. Sensory evaluation detected no significant difference between samples with and without added nitrite. All the reformulated samples were judged acceptable by the panellists. At the end of storage, the control sample contained more than four times as much residual nitrite as the reformulated samples. Growth of presumptive Clostridium perfringens was not observed in any of the samples. Samples without added nitrite had longer shelf-lives than control sausage. Samples containing 0.1% vitamin C registered the lowest microbiological levels. This strategy could be a good alternative to reduce and/or eliminate added nitrite in hot dog sausages. PMID:25480689

  19. A solvable self-similar model of the sausage instability in a resistive Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvable model is developed for the linearized sausage mode within the context of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The model is based on the assumption that the fluid motion of the plasma is self-similar, as well as several assumptions pertinent to the limit of wavelength long compared to the pinch radius. The perturbations to the magnetic field are not assumed to be self-similar, but rather are calculated. Effects arising from time dependences of the z-independent perturbed state, e.g., current rising as tα, Ohmic heating, and time variation of the pinch radius, are included in the analysis. The formalism appears to provide a good representation of ''global'' modes that involve coherent sausage distortion of the entire cross section of the pinch, but excludes modes that are localized radially, and higher radial eigenmodes. For this and other reasons, it is expected that the model underestimates the maximum instability growth rates, but is reasonable for global sausage modes. The net effect of resistivity and time variation of the unperturbed state is to decrease the growth rate if α approx-lt 1, but never by more than a factor of about 2. The effect is to increase the growth rate if α approx-gt 1

  20. Simulation of high-energy particle production through sausage and kink instabilities in pinched plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experimental plasma, high-energy particles were observed by using a plasma focus device, to obtain energies of a few hundred keV for electrons, up to MeV for ions. In order to study the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges, a numerical simulation was introduced. By use of a three-dimensional relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, the dynamics of a Z-pinch plasma, thought to be unstable against sausage and kink instabilities, are investigated. In this work, the development of sausage and kink instabilities and subsequent high-energy particle production are shown. In the model used here, cylindrically distributed electrons and ions are driven by an external electric field. The driven particles spontaneously produce a current, which begins to pinch by the Lorentz force. Initially the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy particles are observed

  1. Kink and Sausage Modes in Nonuniform Magnetic Slabs with Continuous Transverse Density Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2015-11-01

    We examine the influence of a continuous density structuring transverse to coronal slabs on the dispersive properties of fundamental standing kink and sausage modes supported therein. We derive generic dispersion relations (DRs) governing linear fast waves in pressureless straight slabs with general transverse density distributions, and focus on cases where the density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width and in arbitrary form. The physical relevance of the solutions to the DRs is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent computations. For all profiles examined, the lowest order kink modes are trapped regardless of longitudinal wavenumber k. A continuous density distribution introduces a difference to their periods of ≲13% when k is the observed range relative to the case where the density profile takes a step function form. Sausage modes and other branches of kink modes are leaky at small k, and their periods and damping times are heavily influenced by how the transverse density profile is prescribed, in particular the length scale. These modes have sufficiently high quality to be observable only for physical parameters representative of flare loops. We conclude that while the simpler DR pertinent to a step function profile can be used for the lowest order kink modes, the detailed information on the transverse density structuring needs to be incorporated into studies of sausage modes and higher order kink modes.

  2. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established. PMID:26686009

  3. Propagation of sausage soliton in the solar lower atmosphere observed by Hinode/SOT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaqarashvili, T V; Khodachenko, M L; 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00838.x

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic waves and pulses propagating from the solar photosphere upwards may quickly develop into shocks due to the rapid decrease of atmospheric density. However, if they propagate along a magnetic flux tube, then the nonlinear steepening may be balanced by tube dispersion effects. This may result in the formation of sausage soliton. The aim of this letter is to report an observational evidence of sausage soliton in the solar chromosphere. Time series of Ca II H line obtained at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the board of Hinode is analysed. Observations show an intensity blob, which propagates from 500 km to 1700 km above the solar surface with the mean apparent speed of 35 km s$^{-1}$. The speed is much higher than expected local sound speed, therefore the blob can not be a simple pressure pulse. The blob speed, length to width ratio and relative intensity correspond to slow sausage soliton propagating along a magnetic tube. The blob width is increased with height corresponding to...

  4. Periods and Damping Rates of Fast Sausage Oscillations in Multishelled Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Standing sausage modes are important in interpreting quasi-periodic pulsations in the light curves of solar flares. Their periods and damping times play an important role in seismologically diagnosing key parameters like the magnetic field strength in regions where flare energy is released. Usually, such applications are based on theoretical results neglecting unresolved fine structures in magnetized loops. However, the existence of fine structuring is suggested on both theoretical and observational grounds. Adopting the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we model coronal loops as magnetized cylinders with a transverse equilibrium density profile comprising a monolithic part and a modulation due to fine structuring in the form of concentric shells. The equation governing the transverse velocity perturbation is solved with an initial-value-problem approach, and the effects of fine structuring on the periods P and damping times τ of global, leaky, standing sausage modes are examined. A parameter study shows that fine structuring, be it periodically or randomly distributed, brings changes of only a few percents to P and τ when there are more than about ten shells. The monolithic part, its steepness in particular, plays a far more important role in determining P and τ. We conclude that when measured values of P and τ of sausage modes are used for seismological purposes, it is justified to use theoretical results where the effects due to fine structuring are neglected.

  5. Performance of a novel casing made of chitosan under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzaly, Noor Zainah; Jackson, Andrea; Kang, Iksoon; Almenar, Eva

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the commercial feasibility of a novel casing formed from chitosan containing cinnamaldehyde (2.2%, w/v), glycerol (50%, w/w) and Tween 80 (0.2% w/w) under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions. Meat batter was stuffed into both chitosan and collagen (control) casings and cooked in a water bath. Before and after cooking, both casings were compared for mechanical, barrier, and other properties. Compared to collagen, the chitosan casing was a better (P≤0.05) barrier to water, oxygen, liquid smoke, and UV light. In mechanical and other properties, the chitosan casing had higher (P≤0.05) tensile strength, lower (P≤0.05) elongation at break and tensile energy to break, and better (P≤0.05) transparency whereas a similar (P>0.05) water solubility to the collagen casing. Overall, the chitosan casing was less affected by sausage manufacturing conditions than the collagen casing, indicating that chitosan casing has potential as an alternative to the current collagen casing in the manufacture of sausages. PMID:26656870

  6. CHANGES OF MICROFLORA DURING STORAGE OF ‘NDUJA, A VERY TYPICAL SAUSAGE OF CALABRIA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giofré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ‘nduja is one of the most typical and appreciated Calabrian raw seasoned sausages. As well as other Calabrian meat products, the ‘nduja contains a high quantity of hot red chilli pepper. The ‘nduja is a seasoned, very savoury but yet spreadable sausage; it is traditionally spread on bread or used as natural flavour enhancer of pasta, pizza and other similar kind of food. 27 samples of ‘nduja were sampled, 15 coming from artisanal production and the remaining 12 from industrial production, in order to establish if they were differences between the two kind of production from the hygienic point of view. The samples were stored up to 6 month and analyzed at 1 day of storage and then at 3 and 6 month of storage. Our results show that the ‘nduja is a meat product of good hygienic quality; the sausages made in artisanal manner showed a more variable microbial quality as the ones made in industrial factories. The microbial flora of ‘nduja is mainly composed by lactobacilli, yeasts and moulds; only in rare cases we have found quite high numbers of micrococci and/od pseudomonads. Total and faecal coliforms are in general very low, in the product ready to eat. No Salmonella enterica nor Listeria monocytogenes nor enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus or B. cereus were found in the samples analysed.

  7. Effects of field-aligned flows on standing kink and sausage modes supported by coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S -X; Xia, L -D; Chen, Y -J; Yu, H

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental standing modes and their overtones play an important role in coronal seismology. We examine how a significant field-aligned flow affects standing modes supported by coronal loops, modeled here as cold magnetic slabs. Of particular interest are the period ratios of the fundamental to its $(n-1)$-th overtone ($P_1/nP_n$) for both kink and sausage modes, and the threshold half-width-to-length ratio for sausage modes. For standing kink modes, the flow significantly reduces $P_1/nP_n$ in general, the effect being particularly strong for larger $n$ and when the density contrast $\\rho_0/\\rho_e$ between loops and their surroundings is weak. That said, even when $\\rho_0/\\rho_e$ approaches infinity, this effect is still substantial, reducing the minimal $P_1/nP_n$ by up to 13.7% (24.5%) for $n=2$ ($n=4$) relative to the static case, when the Alfv\\'en Mach number $M_A$ reaches 0.8 where $M_A$ measures the loop flow speed in units of the internal Alfv\\'en speed. For standing sausage modes, though not negligib...

  8. Adding value to the meat of spent laying hens manufacturing sausages with a healthy appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KMR de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of spent laying hens' meat in the manufacturing of mortadella-type sausages with healthy appeal by using vegetable oil instead of animal fat. 120 Hy-line® layer hens were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments of six replicates with ten birds each. The treatments were birds from light Hy-line® W36 and semi-heavy Hy-line® Brown lines. Cold carcass, wing, breast and leg fillets yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and lipid contents were determined in breast and leg fillets. The breast and legg fillets of three replicates per treatment were used to manufacture mortadella. After processing, sausages were evaluated for proximal composition, objective color, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptance. The meat of light and semi-heavy spent hens presented good yield and composition, allowing it to be used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Mortadellas were safe from microbiological point of view, and those made with semi-heavy hens fillets were redder and better accepted by consumers. Values for all sensory attributes were evaluated over score 5 (neither liked nor disliked. Both products presented high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The excellent potential for the use of meat from spent layer hens of both varieties in the manufacturing of healthier mortadella-type sausage was demonstrated.

  9. Incorporation of nisin in natural casing for the control of spoilage microorganisms in vacuum packaged sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Regina de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of natural casing treatment with nisin and phosphoric acid on control of spoilage microorganisms in vacuum packaged sausages. Ovine casings were dipped in the following baths: 1 0.1% food grade phosphoric acid; 2 5.0 mg/L nisin; 3 0.1% phosphoric acid and 5.0 mg/L nisin; and 4 sterile water (control. The sausages were produced in a pilot plant, stuffed into the pretreated natural casings, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 and 10 °C for 56 days. The experiments were performed according to a full factorial design 2³, totalizing 8 treatments that were repeated in 3 blocks. Aerobic plate counts and lactic acid bacteria analysis were conducted at 1, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days of storage. Treatment of casings with phosphoric acid 0.1% alone did not inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria and reduced the aerobic plate count by 1 log. The activity of nisin against lactic acid bacteria was enhanced by the addition of phosphoric acid, demonstrating a synergistic effect. Furthermore nisin activity was more evident at lower storage temperature (4 ºC. Therefore treatment of the natural casings with nisin and phosphoric acid, combined with low storage temperature, are obstacles that present a potential for controlling the growth of lactic acid bacteria in vacuum packaged sausage.

  10. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  11. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...

  12. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.)

  13. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; R Godbout

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternati...

  14. Reactivation of chicken erythrocyte nuclei in heterokaryons results in expression of adult chicken globin genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, S.; Zuckerman, S H; Ringertz, N R

    1981-01-01

    Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte--rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins.

  15. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  16. Nutritional characteristics and consumer acceptability of sausages with different combinations of goat and beef meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef, with either no added rice bran (NRB or 3 percent stabilized rice bran (RB. Proximate analysis, fatty acids, -tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations of the six cooked formulations were determined. The six sausage formulations were compared in a consumer acceptability taste test. Results: The fat concentration of the NRB and RB formulations decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The sum of the saturated fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.01. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid concentrations increased linearly (p < 0.05 with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB sausage formulations. The α-tocopherol concentration of the NRB formulations did not change across the goat meat percentages, but in the RB formulations it increased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The cholesterol concentration decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB formulations (p <0.01, < 0.05 respectively. The tasters preferred the NRB with higher goat meat percentage to the RB formulations. Conclusions: The NRB and RB sausage formulations with higher percentages of goat meat had higher concentrations of -tocopherol, CLA (18:2 cis 9 Trans 11, total n-3, total PUFA, total n-3/total n-6 ratio, and a lower cholesterol concentration. The RB sausage formulations with higher

  17. Effect of multiple scattering and external magnetic field of the development of the resistive and sausage instability of a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of multiple Coulomb scattering and of longitudinal external magnetic field on development of resistive sausage instability of relativistic electron beam propagating within ohmic gas and plasma medium was studied. The mentioned factors were shown to reduce essentially amplitude of sausage mode

  18. MODELING THE SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM DURING FERMENTATION, DRYING, AND STORAGE OF SOUDJOUK-STYLE FEREMENTED SAUSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses have been linked to the consumption of fermented dry and semi-dry sausage (FDDS) contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. This study quantified and modeled the survival of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium in soudjouk-style sausage ...

  19. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  20. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  1. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  2. Effect of high pressure processing on textural and microbiological quality of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausage during chilled storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Sarika; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Jaganath, Bindu; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2015-10-01

    The non-thermal high pressure (HP) processing was studied on fish sausage to enhance the quality during chilled storage. Pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausages, packed in poly amide casing under vacuum were subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa pressures (dwell time: 10 min and ramp rate: 300 MPa/min) and compared with heat-set samples for physico-chemical and microbial quality parameters. Pressurized samples formed softer and glossier gels with a slight reduction in water-holding capacity. HP made the texture of sausage softer, cohesive and less chewy and gummier than heat-treated ones. Folding test seen higher acceptance values in samples treated at 500 and 600 MPa, during storage. Maximum log reduction in microbial count was observed in 600 MPa immediately, and significant difference in cooked and pressurized sausages was seen only up to 7th day. This revealed the potential application of HP in replacing conventional heat treatment for sausages preparation with enhanced shelf-life.

  3. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. PMID:27526658

  4. Effect of relevant environmental stresses on survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anette; Måge, Ingrid; Heir, Even; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild L

    2016-07-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFSs) have been linked to several serious foodborne outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). The ability of pathogens to utilize adaptive responses to different stressful conditions intended to control their growth in foods, food preparation and production processes may enhance their survival. In certain cases, induced tolerance to one type of stress may lead to enhanced resistance to the applied stress as well as to other stresses. We exposed two EHEC strains, MF3582 of serotype O157:H- and MF5554 of serogroup O145, to different stresses commonly encountered during a production process. The two EHEC strains, previously shown to have different abilities to survive DFS production process conditions, were subjected to low temperatures (4°C and 12°C), 5% NaCl or 1% lactic acid for 6days prior to being added to sausage batters. Survival of EHEC was recorded in salami of two recipes, fermented at two temperatures (20°C and 30°C). The results showed that recipe type had the largest impact on EHEC reductions where Moderate recipe (MR) salami batters containing increased levels of NaCl, glucose and NaNO2 provided enhanced EHEC reductions in salami (2.6 log10) compared to Standard recipe (SR) salami (1.7 log10). Effects of pre-exposure stresses were dependent both on strain and recipe. While acid adaptation of MF5554 provided enhanced log10 reductions from 2.0 to 3.0 in MR sausages, adaptation to a combination of acid and salt stress showed the opposite effect in SR sausages with reductions of only 1.1 log10 as compared to the average of 1.8 log10 for the other SR sausages. Otherwise, the salt and acid adaptation single stresses had relatively small effects on EHEC survival through the DFS production process and subsequent storage and freeze/thaw treatments. Growing cells and cells frozen in batter survived poorly in MR sausages with an average reduction of 3.4 and 3.2 log10, respectively. The reductions of EHEC after storage of

  5. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  6. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

  7. Microencapsulated jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) extract added to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, Juliana Cristina; Michelin, Euder Cesar; Polizer, Yana Jorge; Rodrigues, Isabela; de Godoy, Silvia Helena Seraphin; Fregonesi, Raul Pereira; Pires, Manoela Alves; Carvalho, Larissa Tátero; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen Silvia; de Lima, César Gonçalves; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Trindade, Marco Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the addition of microencapsulated jabuticaba extract (MJE) to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Fresh sausages without dye, with cochineal carmine and with addition of 2% and 4% MJE were evaluated for chemical, microbiological and sensory properties during 15days of refrigerated storage. TBARS values were lower (Psausages with 2% and 4% MJE (below 0.1mg of malondialdehyde/kg sample) than in control and carmine treatments (from 0.3 to 0.6mg of malondialdehyde/kg sample). T2% and T4% also showed lower microbial counts on storage days 4 and 15 for APCs. The addition of 4% MJE negatively influenced (P0.05) sensory acceptance to control and carmine treatments in most of the attributes evaluated except for a decrease in color. Thus, addition of 2% MJE to fresh sausage can be considered as a natural pigment ingredient. PMID:27016672

  8. High-throughput assessment of bacterial ecology in hog, cow and ovine casings used in sausages production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Annalisa; Pisacane, Vincenza; Miragoli, Francesco; Polka, Justyna; Falasconi, Irene; Morelli, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    Natural casings derived from different intestine portions have been used for centuries in the production of fresh and dry-fermented sausages. Here we analysed by means of culture-dependent methods and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons the bacterial ecology of hog, cow and ovine casings at different stages of their preparation for sausages production. Several strains of Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Vagococcus and Clostridium were counted, isolated and characterised at phylogenetic level. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed a high bacterial diversity, which differed strongly between casings of different animal species. The technological processes involved in the preparation for casing had also a strong impact on the casings bacterial ecology, with a significant reduction of undesired microorganisms, and an increase in the proportion of lactobacilli and staphylococci. Natural casings were demonstrated to be complex ecological environments, whose role as microbiological inoculants in the production of sausages should not be underestimated. PMID:26003605

  9. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  10. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a) Subject to the availability of funds, the Deputy Administrator shall provide for an enrollment period for submitting ECP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may...

  11. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages. - Highlights: ► A fermented dextrose (FD) with γ-irradiation in pork sausages was investigated. ► Pork sausages containing the FD were prepared and then irradiated. ► Combined treatment reduced the bacterial growth compared to the treatments alone. ► Combined treatment increased the shelf-life compared to both treatments alone.

  12. Killer cells in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)

  13. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  14. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  15. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  16. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC...

  17. Simulation of the dynamics of sausage development in a z pinch with a high rate of thermonuclear heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the sausage instability in a z pinch is accompanied by the formulation of a high-temperature plasma. This high-temperature region initiates a wave of thermonuclear burning propagating along the pinch. A numerical solution of the MHD equations has been carried out, taking into account plasma energy losses through radiation and thermonuclear heating. Results of calculations on the growth of the sausage instability are presented for ρr = 0.23 g/cm2. It is accompanied by the development of a stable wave of thermonuclear burning. 12 refs., 4 figs

  18. Observation of the effect of current loss in the sausage type instability of Z-pinch formed on wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrupt drop of current in the sausage range up to value not exceeding 2% of total current through the pinch constituting ∼100 kA was recorded at investigation in plasma of Z-pinch using Faraday rotation technique. Plasma was formed at 25 μm explosion of Al-wire used as a load of high-current generator of current. The experiment results change radically the concept of sausage mechanism formation. The qualitative features of the phenomenon agree well with electron MHD. 14 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality. PMID:27288899

  20. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco; Sergio Soto-Simental; Rosa H. Alfaro-Rodriguez; et alias

    2014-01-01

    The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered...

  1. Effects of Red and Green Glassworts (Salicornia herbacea L.) on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Reduced-salt Cooked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, In-Jun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of red and green glasswort on the physicochemical and textural properties of reduced-salt cooked sausages. The control was formulated with 1.5% NaCl; then, three reduced-salt treatments were prepared, with 0.75% NaCl (RS), 0.75% NaCl+1.0% red glasswort (RSR) and 0.75% NaCl+1.0% green glasswort (RSG), respectively. The addition of glasswort within the added amount of 1% had no influence on the pH value of the reduced-salt cooked sausages, regar...

  2. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload. PMID:17190684

  3. Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains of Sausage Symmetry in Cylindrical Waveguides of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestov, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Kuzin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves guided along the magnetic field by plasma non-uniformities, in particular coronal loops, fibrils, and plumes, are known to be highly dispersive, which lead to the formation of quasi-periodic wave trains excited by a broadband impulsive driver, e.g., a solar flare. We investigated the effects of cylindrical geometry on the fast sausage wave train formation. We performed magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of fast magnetoacoustic perturbations of a sausage symmetry, propagating from a localized impulsive source along a field-aligned plasma cylinder with a smooth radial profile of the fast speed. The wave trains are found to have pronounced period modulation, with the longer instant period seen in the beginning of the wave train. The wave trains also have a pronounced amplitude modulation. Wavelet spectra of the wave trains have characteristic tadpole features, with the broadband large-amplitude heads preceding low-amplitude quasi-monochromatic tails. The mean period of the wave train is about the transverse fast magnetoacoustic transit time across the cylinder. The mean parallel wavelength is about the diameter of the wave-guiding plasma cylinder. Instant periods are longer than the sausage wave cutoff period. The wave train characteristics depend on the fast magnetoacoustic speed in both the internal and external media, the smoothness of the transverse profile of the equilibrium quantities, and also the spatial size of the initial perturbation. If the initial perturbation is localized at the axis of the cylinder, the wave trains contain higher radial harmonics that have shorter periods.

  4. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The numbers of surviving Staphylococcus xylosus, lactic acid bacteria...... xylosus were reduced by high fermentation temperature, especially when salt concentration was low and glucose concentration high. High levels of nitrite and addition of Pediococcus pentosaceus had adverse effects as well. pH was lowered by high fermentation temperature, low salt concentration and addition...

  5. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora; José Arturo García-Macías; Eduardo Santellano-Estrada; América Chávez-Martínez; Lorenzo Antonio Durán-Meléndez; Ramón Silva-Vázquez; Armando Quintero-Ramos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0); low fat control (T1); low fat with 15% inulin (T2); low fat with 30% inulin (T3); low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4); and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5). The addition of fibers increased the yield (...

  6. Studies Concerning the Economic Efficiency and Quality of the Vegetal Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Salagean

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of performed research aimed to establish the influence of protein supplements on the quality and economic efficiency in the processing of a certain semi-smoked sausage assortment using two experimental processing technologies: with 3% soy protein derivatives as supplements and 100% soy protein derivatives as vegetal raw materials. The results revealed that, from an economical point of view, the vegetal processing technology (with exclusively vegetal raw materials was more efficiently than the supplemented processing technology (with protein derivatives as supplements and from qualitatively point of view, the obtained values have been in accordance with the in force STAS-es.

  7. Effects of low-level gamma irradiation on the characteristics of fermented pork sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. At Day 0 of irradiation, the pH, redness (CIE a⁎), yellowness (CIE b⁎), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy were higher (p⁎ values (lightness) were lower than those of the non-irradiated control (p⁎, CIE a⁎ and CIE b⁎-value of samples were not significantly influenced by irradiation. The CIE a⁎, and CIE b⁎-values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy decreased with the increase of storage time. The VBN, TBARS, and CIE L⁎-values of samples irradiated at 4 kGy were not changed significantly during refrigerated storage for 90 days (p>0.05). The total plate counts (TPC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples irradiated at 4 kGy were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those with lower irradiation doses. At the end of storage, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the samples were not increased after irradiation at 1, 0.5 and 1 kGy, respectively. TPC and LAB were not detected in samples irradiated at 4 kGy at Day 90. In addition, no coliform bacteria were found in samples irradiated at 1 kGy during refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that the rancid flavor of samples irradiated at 4 kGy was significantly higher, but aroma and taste scores were lower than those of the control at Day 3 of storage. Irradiation of dry fermented sausages at 2 kGy was the best conditions to prolong the shelf-life and decrease the rancid flavor without significant quality deterioration. - Highlights: ► Effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. ► At Day 90, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the dry fermented sausages were not increased after irradiation at 2, 0.5 and 4 kGy, respectively. ► TPC and LAB were not detected in samples

  8. Elaboration of sausage using minced fish of Nile tilapia filleting waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Campagnoli de Oliveira Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of minced fish (MF (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, obtained from Nile tilapia filleting waste, in sausage and determine their physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties. The sausages showed a decrease in protein and increase in fat content with increasing inclusion of MF. The nutritional quality of the products was high, with digestibility over 85%. The parameters of texture instrumental and yellow color (b* decreased with the increasing inclusion of MF. The sensory evaluation of the color showed that the maximum level of inclusion of MF was not well accepted by the panelists. The sausage with the best acceptance for the flavor attribute was those with 60% of MF. The results showed good nutritional quality of sausages utilizing MF of Nile tilapia filleting waste and according to the sensory evaluation, the maximum level of inclusion should not exceed 60%.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a inclusão de carne mecanicamente separada (CMS (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100%, obtido de resíduos de filetagem de tilápias do Nilo, em salsichas e determinar suas propriedades físico-químicas, nutricionais e sensoriais. As salsichas apresentaram diminuição de proteína e aumento de lipídeos com a inclusão de CMS. A qualidade nutricional dos produtos foi alta, com digestibilidade acima de 85%. Os parâmetros de textura e cor instrumental amarela (b* diminuíram com inclusão crescente de CMS. A avaliação sensorial da cor mostrou que o nível máximo de inclusão de CMS não foi bem aceito pelos provadores. As salsichas com melhor aceitação do atributo sabor foram aquelas com 60% de CMS. Os resultados demonstraram a boa qualidade nutricional das salsichas utilizando CMS de resíduos de filetagem de tilápias do Nilo e de acordo com avaliação sensorial, a porcentagem máxima de inclusão é de 60%.

  9. Modelling the heat and mass transfer analysis during oil-frying of cylindrical sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Mustafa [Tubitak-Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Dept. of Food and Refrigeration Technology; Dincer, Ibrahim [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    An analytical and experimental study was performed on the analysis of the heat and mass transfer within cylindrically shaped sausages during deep-oil frying. Experiments were conducted to determine temperature distribution at the centre of an individual sample and the changes in the weight, moisture and oil contents of the samples. The proposed approach was used to estimate these parameters theoretically. Good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results. The results of this study indicates that the proposed approach is capable of analysing the heat and mass transfer during frying of the cylindrical sample. (author)

  10. Proton-beam propagation through wall-confined plasma channel stabilized against sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results are presented of proton-beam (energy ∼ 650 keV) propagation through wall-confined plasma channel that is stabilized against sausage instability by an externally-applied longitudinal magnetic field. Significant improvement of beam-propagation efficiency has been obtained of ∼ 70 % compared with the previous experiment of ∼ 55 % without the magnetic field. The propagation can also be available up to ∼ 30 % even in a non-propagation region in a non-stabilized channel. (author)

  11. preservation of irradiated mechanically separated turkey hen meat based Vienna sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the influence of growing doses of irradiation on the microbiological quality (pathogenic bacteria, faecal contaminants, total germs) and the physical and chemical characteristics (pH, humidity, total free fat materials, chloride and protein) of mechanically separated turkey hen meat. This study also permitted the measuring of the effects of incorporation of mechanical y separated turkey hen meat irradiated at 5 KGy on the microbiological, physical, chemical and structural qualities of Vienna sausages, as manufactured in a private company in Tunis (author)

  12. Nutritional characteristics and consumer acceptability of sausages with different combinations of goat and beef meats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Sebhatu Gebrelul; James Henson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef...

  13. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  14. Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies and sausages in late 1999 and early 2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of our marketing research is to obtain an overview of the status of the Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies and sausages at the end of 2000. The study was laid expert method, which includes: choice of the form the survey of experts, the definition of the structure and strength of the expert group, the development of survey methodology, survey, list of problems. By the expert survey involved managers and specialists, who know how deeply the problem of organization as a whole,...

  15. Two efficient nitrite-reducing Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented pork (Nanx Wudl) as competitive starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiapeng; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jinchun; Yang, Junna; Chen, Wenhua; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Dong pork product (Nanx Wudl) were investigated for their potential as starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausages. Based on preliminary screening, Lactobacillus plantarum CMRC6 and Lactobacillus sakei CMRC15, both showing excellent nitrite-reducing capacity, were used as single-strain starter cultures. For comparison, a commercial composite starter was also tested. In CMRC6 and CMRC15-inoculated sausages, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora and improved the microbiological safety by suppression of Enterobacteriaceae growth. Nitrite content of all inoculated sausages declined rapidly during ripening compared to non-inoculated. Texture profiles analysis showed inoculated sausages had more pronounced textural development during ripening. Sensory evaluation indicated CMRC6 and CMRC15-fermented sausages had comparable or more desirable organoleptic characteristics than sausage made with commercial starters. Therefore, CMRC6 and CMRC15 are promising candidates as multi-functional starter cultures for microbiological safety and residual nitrite control in gourmet Chinese dry sausage production. PMID:27395823

  16. Role of Oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil as a surface fungus inhibitor on fermented sausages: evaluation of its effect on microbial and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Martin-Sánchez, Ana María; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Angel Pérez Alvarez, José

    2012-01-01

    Oregano essential oil (OEO) was evaluated to determine its effect on the growth of natural contaminating molds on the surface of Spanish fermented sausage, the development of the internal microbial population of the sausage, and the physicochemical properties of the sausage. Results indicated a dramatic reduction in the contaminant molds. At the end of ripening, the main endogenous fungal species in control samples were Mucor racemosus (55%), Aspergillus fumigatus (20.6%), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (11.1%), Acremonium strictum (7.9%), and Aspergillus niger (4.7%). In samples treated with OEO, M. racemosus and A. fumigatus were the only species isolated; the treatment was more effective against A. fumigatus than against M. racemosus. The use of OEO to inhibit surface fungi did not affect the sausage drying process, pH, water activity, or color changes during ripening. These parameters change in a typical pattern for fermented dry-cured sausages during ripening. At the end of ripening, OEO-treated sausages had lower hardness and greater chewiness than the control but showed similar textural properties to sausages treated with potassium sorbate. PMID:22221361

  17. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Zungur; Berker Nacak; Meltem Serdaroglu

    2015-01-01

    Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking ...

  18. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens and small ruminants in particular play importantsoci-economic roles in developing countries. Production of village chickens is a source of easy and regular income for rural farmers in developing countries in general and inBurkina Fasoin particular. Unfortunately efforts to improve this production system were not very effective and village chickens still h...

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host....

  20. Functional genomics of the muscle response to restraint and transport in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, D; Fernandez, X; Pinguet, J; Chambon, C; Letisse, F; Portais, J-C; Wadih-Moussa, Z; Rémignon, H; Molette, C

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we used global approaches (proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics) to assess the molecular basis of the muscle response to stress in chickens. A restraint test, combined with transport for 2 h (RT test) was chosen as the potentially stressful situation. Chickens (6 wk old) were either nontreated (control chickens) or submitted to the RT test (treated chickens). The RT test induced a 6-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. The RT test decreased the relative abundance of several hexose phosphates [glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), and mannose-6-P (M6P)] in thigh muscle. In addition, 55 transcripts, among which 39 corresponded to unique annotated genes, were significantly up- (12 genes) or downregulated (27 genes) by treatment. Similarly, 45 proteic spots, among which 29 corresponded to unique annotated proteins, were overexpressed (11 proteins), underexpressed (14 proteins), or only expressed in treated chickens. Integrative analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins showed that most transcripts and proteins belong to 2 networks whose genes were mainly related with cytoskeleton structure or carbohydrate metabolism. Whereas the decrease in energetic metabolites suggested an activation of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in response to the RT test, the reduced expression of genes and proteins involved in these pathways suggested the opposite. We hypothesized that the prolonged RT test resulted in a repression of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in thigh muscle of chickens. The down-expression of genes and proteins involved in the formation of fiber stress after the RT test suggests a reinforcement of myofibrils in response to stress. PMID:21512117

  1. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFL...

  2. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    OpenAIRE

    Deogade; A H; Zanjad; P. N.; Ambadkar; R. K. and Raziuddin; M

    2008-01-01

    Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0...

  3. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors;

    2013-01-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters......, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat...

  4. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  5. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Teresia J; Kumar, Ranjit; Gresham, Cathy R; Burgess, Shane C.; McCarthy, Fiona M

    2009-01-01

    Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually...

  6. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  7. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Tike Sartika; Sri Sulandari; M.S.A. Zein; Sri Paryanti

    2006-01-01

    Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF) trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine...

  8. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  9. Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat (MDCM) and Collagen on the Quality Characteristics of Semi-dried Chicken Jerky

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (p

  10. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  11. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  12. Behavior of Staphylococcus aureus and autochthone microbiota in fresh sausages added of sodium nitrite and stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyanne Maria Moraes Correia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fresh sausages are cured meat products that may be contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus during the manufacturing procedure, which is frequently related with inadequate handling practices. The use of nitrite in meat products has proven efficacy against Clostridium botulinum, and studies indicate that bactericidal action against S. aureus depends on factors that are intrinsic and extrinsic to the product. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nitrite concentration, and pH on S. aureus and psychrotrophic autochthone microbiota in fresh sausages stored at different times and temperatures. Fresh sausage were produced at nitrite concentrations 50, 150 and 200ppm and contaminated with S. aureus. The sausages were storage at refrigeration (7 and 12°C and the quantification of S. aureus and psychrotrophic microorganisms was carried out on days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Results showed that nitrite concentrations and the temperatures used had minimal effect on the multiplication of S. aureus and psychrotrophic autochthone microbiota. Final counts depended only on the length of storage: at the end of 10 days, counts were statistically similar in the different groups, showing that temperature and nitrite concentrations used did not control microbial growth effectively. It is suggested that the product should be stored below 7°C or at freezing temperatures for greater microbiological stability

  13. Period ratios for standing kink and sausage modes in magnetized structures with siphon flow on the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Standing oscillations with multiple periods were found in a number of atmospheric structures on the Sun. The ratio of the period of the fundamental to twice the one of its first overtone, $P_1/2P_2$, is important in applications of solar magneto-seismology. We examine how field-aligned flows impact $P_1/2P_2$ of standing modes in solar magnetic cylinders. For coronal loops, the flow effects are significant for both fast kink and sausage modes. For kink ones, they reduce $P_1/2P_2$ by up to 17\\% relative to the static case even when the density contrast between the loop and its surroundings approaches infinity. For sausage modes, the reduction in $P_1/2P_2$ due to flow is typically $\\lesssim 5.5\\%$ compared with the static case. However, the threshold aspect ratio, only above which can trapped sausage modes be supported, may increase dramatically with the flow magnitude. For photospheric tubes, the flow effect on $P_1/2P_2$ is not as strong. However, when applied to sausage modes, introducing field-aligned flo...

  14. Period ratios for standing kink and sausage modes in magnetized structures with siphon flow on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong

    2016-06-01

    Standing oscillations with multiple periods have been found in a number of atmospheric structures on the Sun. The ratio of the period of the fundamental to twice the one of its first overtone, P 1/2P 2, is important in applications of solar magneto-seismology. We examine how field-aligned flows impact P 1/2P 2 of standing modes in solar magnetic cylinders. For coronal loops, the flow effects are significant for both fast kink and sausage modes. For kink modes, they reduce P 1/2P 2 by up to 17% relative to the static case even when the density contrast between the loop and its surroundings approaches infinity. For sausage modes, the reduction in P 1/2P 2 due to flow is typically ≲ 5.5% compared with the static case. However, the threshold aspect ratio, only above which can trapped sausage modes be supported, may increase dramatically with the flow magnitude. For photospheric tubes, the flow effect on P 1/2P 2 is not as strong. However, when applied to sausage modes, introducing field-aligned flows offers more possibilities in interpreting the multiple periods that have recently been measured. We conclude that field-aligned flows should be taken into account to help better understand what causes the departure of P 1/2P 2 from unity.

  15. Outbreak of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection from Consumption of Beef Sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Smith, B.; Torpdahl, M.;

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26: H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records...

  16. Outbreak of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection from consumption of beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethelberg, Steen; Smith, Birgitte; Torpdahl, Mia; Lisby, Morten; Boel, Jeppe; Jensen, Tenna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Mølbak, Kåre

    2009-04-15

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records from the computer systems of supermarkets. PMID:19272017

  17. Effect of whey protein coating on quality attributes of low-fat, aerobically packaged sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, J; Chin, K B

    2008-08-01

    Whey protein-based edible coating was used to reduce oxidative degradation and microbial growth of low-fat sausages (LFSs) stored at 4 degrees C for 8 wk, under aerobic package. Whey protein coating reduced (P<0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) formation compared to control sausages. The percent inhibition of TBARS and PV for whey protein-coated sausages, compared to the control, was 31.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The ability of the whey protein coating to provide a moisture barrier for the sausages was reduced (P<0.05). In addition, a reduction of moisture loss by 36.7% compared to the control was achieved by whey coating. However, whey protein coating of LFSs did not inhibit the growth of either the total number of aerobic bacteria or of Listeria monocytogenes. These results indicated that whey protein coating had an antioxidative activity in LFSs under aerobic package during refrigerated storage. PMID:19241536

  18. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product. PMID:27478218

  19. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. PMID:27095684

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories. PMID:21549053

  1. Model experiments to establish behaviour of Yersinia enterocolitica O: 9 strains in various types of fresh dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, J; Bergann, T

    1996-01-01

    In model experiments different kinds of raw sausages were inoculated with liquid cultures of virulent-plasmid-carrying clinical Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica (e.) strains of the O: 9 serotype, doses being between 10(4) and 10(5) cfu g-1. The sausage samples were stored at 3-5 degrees C and 13-16 degrees C. During the first 10 d of storage the Y.e. plate count was detected with Desoxycholate-Citrate-Lactose-Sucrose Agar every day, later on in addition to it with phosphate buffer-enrichment and with enrichment according to Schiemann (1982) in intervals of several days' duration. The pH and aw values, the contents of salt and water were detected. The multitude of complexly acting factors and substances prevents obviously the proliferation of Y.e. in fresh dry sausages. Decay dynamics of Y.e. were found to be considerably affected by storage temperature. Cold storage, basically, had a conservation effect and thus delayed the dying process of model strains. Yersinia enterocolitica-contaminated fresh dry sausage may cause potential danger to consumers, because of relatively extended survival periods of the pathogen. Therefore, manufacturers are expected to observe most stringent hygienic rules of Good Manufacturing Practice. PMID:8698649

  2. 山楂猪肉腊肠的研制%Development of Pork Sausage Adding Hawthorn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩倩; 刘学军

    2011-01-01

    以山楂和猪肉为原料,以酱油、白糖、白酒等为辅料,通过单因素试验及正交试验的方法研究了山楂、酱油、白酒、白糖添加量对猪肉腊肠品质的影响.试验结果表明,山楂添加于肉中可制作新型猪肉腊肠,山楂、酱油、白酒、白糖的最适添加量分别为3%、2%、3%、6%.%Hawthorn and pork as raw materials, soy sauce, sugar, white wine, etc as trims, the influence of hawthorn, soy sauce, salt and sugar on pork sausage quality was studied by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that new hawthorn pork sausage could be prepared by adding hawthorn to pork and the best content of hawthorn was 3% , the best content of soy sauce was 2% , the best content of white wine was 3% and the best content of sugar was 6% .

  3. Effects of low-level gamma irradiation on the characteristics of fermented pork sausage during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I. S.; Jo, C.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, D. U.; Kang, S. N.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. At Day 0 of irradiation, the pH, redness (CIE a*), yellowness (CIE b*), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy were higher (p0.05). The total plate counts (TPC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples irradiated at 4 kGy were significantly lower (pbacteria were found in samples irradiated at 1 kGy during refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that the rancid flavor of samples irradiated at 4 kGy was significantly higher, but aroma and taste scores were lower than those of the control at Day 3 of storage. Irradiation of dry fermented sausages at 2 kGy was the best conditions to prolong the shelf-life and decrease the rancid flavor without significant quality deterioration.

  4. Proteolysis in dry fermented sausages: The effect of selected exogenous proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Fernandez, M; De Fernando, G D; de la Hoz, L; Ordoñez, J A

    1997-05-01

    The effect of three commercial proteases (pronase E from Streptomyces griseus, aspartyl proteinase from Aspergillus oryzae and papain) on protein breakdown and the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages was investigated. Water soluble, non-protein, 5% phosphotungstic acid soluble, 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble and total volatile basic nitrogen contents increased during fermentation, stabilizing later until the end of ripening (26th day). Nitrogen values were always greater in the aspartyl proteinase added batch in comparison with the other protease added batches. Total free amino acid changes showed a similar pattern to those observed for the 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble nitrogen. The electrophoretic studies demonstrated that proteolysis of high molecular weight myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins was more prominent in protease added batches. It was especially intensive in papain one. The dominant amino acids at the end of ripening were similar in all batches. Tyramine and histamine increased throughout ripening. No significant differences in sensory properties were found between control and pronase E and papain added batches, but they were significantly different (p fermented sausage is discussed. PMID:22061850

  5. Frequency of contamination Listeria monocytogenes of raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Daskalov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect actual data concerning the frequency of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some very popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from October 2004 till May 2008. 148 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 9 different food business operators during all seasons of the year. The samples were analyzed according to USDA method for meat foods. Ten specimens were positive for presence of Listeria monocytogenes equal to 6,75% of all tested samples. In two other raw dried cured sausages L.welshimeri and L.innocua were found, but these species are not pathogenic for consumers. In the period before the official implementation of HACCP system (01.01.2006 in Bulgaria, 52 samples were examined and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates were found (~10%. 2,5 years after the HACCP implementation, 96 specimens from the same meat factories were tested and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates (5,2% were detected. Samples taken from lots, produced in winter time were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes more often (7 of all 10 than specimens taken during other seasons. Data were discussed through the point of view of the effectiveness of hygienic practices and HACCP system application. Also, application of ‘microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes was considered.

  6. Evaluation of natural preservatives in combination with acid whey for use in fermented sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Natural antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are set to become an important component in food preservation methodology. The effect of alternative natural preservatives (Sinapis alba L.-M, Rosmarinus officinalis L.-R, Juniperus communis L.-J in combination with acid whey (AW was investigated after the ripening period (21d and over a prolonged storage period of sausage. An antioxidant activity of extracts exercise was performed. The antimicrobial, oxidative stability and sensory properties of these natural preservatives were compared to curing-control (C. Significantly lower rancid odor and rancid flavor (1.48 were observed for R and M compared with the C sample. The low level of these attributes evidenced the antioxidant properties of the R sample, which confirmed the lower CD (~0.48-0.48 µmol mg−1 and TBARS values (~0.41-1.02 mg MDA kg−1 during sausage storing and the highest antioxidant activity against ABTS+ radicals (~85.45 %. Incorporation of acid whey with rosemary extract will give the product a threefold effect: high quality (sensory acceptance, healthy benefit (elimination of nitrite and nitrate from meat products and safety (improved microbiological and oxidative stability.

  7. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  8. Standing Sausage Modes In Nonuniform Magnetic Tubes: An Inversion Scheme For Inferring Flare Loop Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Xiong, Ming; Yu, Hui; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Standing sausage modes in flare loops are important for interpreting quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar flare lightcurves. We propose an inversion scheme that consistently uses their periods $P$ and damping times $\\tau$ to diagnose flare loop parameters. We derive a generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage waves in pressure-less straight tubes, for which the transverse density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width $l$ and is of arbitrary form. We find that $P$ and $\\tau$ depend on the combination of $[R/v_{\\rm Ai}, L/R, l/R, \\rho_{\\rm i}/\\rho_{\\rm e}]$, where $R$ is the loop radius, $L$ is the looplength, $v_{\\rm Ai}$ is the internal Alfv\\'en speed, and $\\rho_{\\rm i}/\\rho_{\\rm e}$ is the density contrast. For all the density profiles examined, $P$ and $\\tau$ experience saturation when $L/R \\gg 1$, yielding an inversion curve in the $[R/v_{\\rm Ai}, l/R, \\rho_{\\rm i}/\\rho_{\\rm e}]$ space with a specific density profile when $L/R$ is sufficiently large. When applied to a spat...

  9. Kinetic Behavior of Salmonella on Low NaNO2 Sausages during Aerobic and Vacuum Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beomyoung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth kinetics of Salmonella spp. in processed meat products formulated with low sodium nitrite (NaNO2). A 5-strain mixture of Salmonella spp. was inoculated on 25-g samples of sausages formulated with sodium chloride (NaCl) (1.0%, 1.25%, and 1.5%) and NaNO2 (0 and 10 ppm) followed by aerobic or vacuum storage at 10℃ and 15℃ for up to 816 h or 408 h, respectively. The bacterial cell counts were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar, and the modified Gompertz model was fitted to the Salmonella cell counts to calculate the kinetic parameters as a function of NaCl concentration on the growth rate (GR; Log CFU/g/h) and lag phase duration (LPD; h). A linear equation was then fitted to the parameters to evaluate the effect of NaCl concentration on the kinetic parameters. The GR values of Salmonella on sausages were higher (psausages with low NaNO2. PMID:27194936

  10. Wave Damping Observed in Upwardly Propagating Sausage-mode Oscillations contained within a Magnetic Pore

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, S D T; Moreels, M G; Morton, R J; Christian, D J; Giagkiozis, I; Verth, G; Fedun, V; Keys, P H; Van Doorsselaere, T; Erdelyi, R

    2015-01-01

    We present observational evidence of compressible magnetohydrodynamic wave modes propagating from the solar photosphere through to the base of the transition region in a solar magnetic pore. High cadence images were obtained simultaneously across four wavelength bands using the Dunn Solar Telescope. Employing Fourier and wavelet techniques, sausage-mode oscillations displaying significant power were detected in both intensity and area fluctuations. The intensity and area fluctuations exhibit a range of periods from 181-412s, with an average period ~290s, consistent with the global p-mode spectrum. Intensity and area oscillations present in adjacent bandpasses were found to be out-of-phase with one another, displaying phase angles of 6.12 degrees, 5.82 degrees and 15.97 degrees between 4170 Angstrom continuum - G-band, G-band - Na I D1 and Na I D1 - Ca II K heights, respectively, reiterating the presence of upwardly-propagating sausage-mode waves. A phase relationship of ~0 degrees between same-bandpass emissi...

  11. Thermosyphon installation for energy thrift in a smoked fish sausage oven (TISO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parametthanuwat, T.; Rittidech, S. [Heat Pipe and Thermal Tools Design Research Laboratory (HTDR), Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand); Booddachan, K. [Faculty of Industrial Technology and Management, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-07-15

    This research presents a case study of applying a thermosyphon for energy conservation in a smoked fish sausage oven. An oven with the size of 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m (width x length x height) was installed with a thermosyphon made up of 304 stainless steel (AISI 304) tubes with 25.4 mm ID to improve temperature distribution, decrease processing time and reduce LPG consumption. The lengths of the evaporator and condenser sections were 30 cm and 120 cm, respectively. Deionized water, deionized water mixed with silver nano particles and deionized water mixed with gold nano particles at the concentration of 0.5% (w/v) were used as working fluids at a filling ratio of 80% by evaporator section volume. The oven using deionized water mixed with silver nano particles as working fluid appeared to have uniform temperature distribution. Consequently, processing time and LPG consumption could be reduced by 10 min/unit and 1.8 kg/unit, respectively. The quality of color measurement and consideration of texture of the smoked fish sausages exceeded manufacturing standards. (author)

  12. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michline Brice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  13. Characterization of the aromatic profile for the authentication and differentiation of typical Italian dry-sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Cantoni, C; Careri, M; Chiesa, L; Musci, M; Pinna, A

    2007-06-15

    In order to chacterize two kinds of typical Italian dry-sausages, namely "Salame Mantovano" and "Salame Cremonese", the volatile composition was determined for seven samples of "Salame Mantovano" and for five samples of "Salame Cremonese". The study was performed by the dynamic headspace extraction technique (DHS) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the 104 volatiles identified, terpenes, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols represented the most abundant compounds. Peak area data for all the substances from the above mentioned group was used for statistical purposes. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out in order to visualize data trends and to detect possible clusters within samples. Then, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed in order to detect the volatile compounds able to differentiate the two kinds of sausages investigated. The data obtained by GC-MS shows that the most important contributions to the differentiation of the two kinds of typical Italian salami were seven volatile compounds, i.e. 3-methylbutanal, 6-camphenol, dimethyl disulfide, 1-propene-3,3'-thiobis, ethyl propanoate, 1,4-p-menthadiene and 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene. Prediction ability of the calculated model was estimated to be 100% by the "leave-one-out" cross-validation. PMID:19071797

  14. Consumers' perception and acceptance of boiled and fermented sausages from strongly boar tainted meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Schnäckel, Wolfram; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic off-flavours may occur in uncastrated male pigs depending on the accumulation of androstenone and skatole. Feasible processing of strongly tainted carcasses is challenging but gains in importance due to the European ban on piglet castration in 2018. This paper investigates consumers' acceptability of two sausage types: (a) emulsion-type (BOILED) and (b) smoked raw-fermented (FERM). Liking (9 point scales) and flavour perception (check-all-that-apply with both, typical and negatively connoted sensory terms) were evaluated by 120 consumers (within-subject design). Proportion of tainted boar meat (0, 50, 100%) affected overall liking of BOILED, F (2, 238)=23.22, P<.001, but not of FERM sausages, F (2, 238)=0.89, P=.414. Consumers described the flavour of BOILED-100 as strong and sweaty. In conclusion, FERM products seem promising for processing of tainted carcasses whereas formulations must be optimized for BOILED in order to eliminate perceptible off-flavours. Boar taint rejection thresholds may be higher for processed than those suggested for unprocessed meat cuts. PMID:27038338

  15. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory assessments of Italian salami sausages with probiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nogueira Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. We evaluated the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La and Bifidobacterium lactis (Bl probiotics and their effects on the technology and sensorial characteristics of fermented sausage. The presence of probiotic cultures reduced water activity and promoted faster pH reduction in the salamis, which presented pH values between 4.71 and 5.23 and water activity between 0.84 and 0.89. Lactic acid content ranged between 0.19 and 0.29 g, and the samples lost up to 35 % of their weight during ripening. As regards color, no differences were found between the probiotic salamis and the control, presenting an overall mean of 40.85 for L* (lightness, 14.48 for a* (redness and 6.46 for b* (yellowness. High consumer acceptance was observed for the probiotic salamis, which showed an average acceptance of approximately 7.0 on a nine-point hedonic scale for all attributes evaluated, with no differences (p < 0.05 when compared with the control. The performance of La was better, as the salamis treated with this microorganism presented less weight loss, better acceptance and greater purchase intention. Flavor and texture were the attributes that most influenced sensory acceptance. Salamis supplemented with probiotic cultures may be a viable option for the formulation of fermented sausages in the food industry.

  16. Sausage Instabilities on top of Kinking Lengthening Current-Carrying Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments involve fast topological change beyond MHD reconnection. Recent experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities coupling disparate plasma scales could be responsible for this fast topological change by accessing two-fluid and kinetic scales. This study will explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Current driven flux tubes evolve over a wide range of aspect ratios k and current to magnetic flux ratios λ . An analytical stability criterion and numerical investigations, based on applying Newcomb's variational approach to idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents, indicate a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k - λ trajectory of the flux tubes. A triple electrode planar plasma gun (Mochi.LabJet) is designed to generate flux tubes with discrete core and skin currents. Measurements from a fast-framing camera and a high resolution magnetic probe are being assembled into stability maps of the k - λ space of flux tubes. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  17. Global sausage oscillation of solar flare loops detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K; Wang, Tongjiang; Antolin, Patrick; Chen, Bin; He, Jiansen

    2016-01-01

    An observation from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveals coherent oscillations in the loops of an M1.6 flare on 2015 March 12. Both the intensity and Doppler shift of Fe~{\\sc{xxi}}~1354.08\\AA{}~show clear oscillations with a period of $\\sim$25 seconds. Remarkably similar oscillations were also detected in the soft X-ray flux recorded by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). With an estimated phase speed of $\\sim$2420~km~s$^{-1}$ and a derived electron density of at least 5.4$\\times$10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$, the observed short-period oscillation is most likely the global fast sausage mode of a hot flare loop. We find a phase shift of $\\sim$$\\pi$/2 (1/4 period) between the Doppler shift oscillation and the intensity/GOES oscillations, which is consistent with a recent forward modeling study of the sausage mode. The observed oscillation requires a density contrast between the flare loop and coronal background of a factor $\\geqslant$42. The estimated phase speed of the global mode...

  18. Global Sausage Oscillation of Solar Flare Loops Detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Young, Peter R.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Wang, Tongjiang; Antolin, Patrick; Chen, Bin; He, Jiansen

    2016-05-01

    An observation from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveals coherent oscillations in the loops of an M1.6 flare on 2015 March 12. Both the intensity and Doppler shift of Fe xxi 1354.08 Å show clear oscillations with a period of ∼25 s. Remarkably similar oscillations were also detected in the soft X-ray flux recorded by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). With an estimated phase speed of ∼2420 km s‑1 and a derived electron density of at least 5.4 × 1010 cm‑3, the observed short-period oscillation is most likely the global fast sausage mode of a hot flare loop. We find a phase shift of ∼π/2 (1/4 period) between the Doppler shift oscillation and the intensity/GOES oscillations, which is consistent with a recent forward modeling study of the sausage mode. The observed oscillation requires a density contrast between the flare loop and coronal background of a factor ≥42. The estimated phase speed of the global mode provides a lower limit of the Alfvén speed outside the flare loop. We also find an increase of the oscillation period, which might be caused by the separation of the loop footpoints with time.

  19. Analysis and Optimization of the Production Process of Cooked Sausage Meat Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, L.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2010-09-01

    In the production of cooked sausages a critical step for product quality is the cutting process, where the comminuting and mixing of meat, fat, ice and spices are carried out. These processes take usually place in bowl cutters, which main control parameters are the working time, knife geometry (shape and sharpness) and rotational velocities of the knives and the bowl. The choice of the geometry and sharpness of the knives influences not only the meat matrix properties (mechanical, rheological, etc.) and, as a consequence, the sensory value of the sausages (size of connective tissue particles, water binding, etc.), but also the energetic demand for the production. However, the cutting process proves to be understood only fragmentarily due to the complex colloid chemical and mechanical behavior of the product. This is documented on the one hand by numerous knife types on the market, extremely empirical approach during determination of geometry and process parameters in practice as well as, on the other hand, by contradictory statements and explanation approaches of observed phenomena present in literature. The present contribution applies numerical simulations to analyze thermo fluid mechanical phenomena, e.g. shear stresses, during the cutting process of the non-Newtonian meat matrix. Combining these results with selected experimental investigations from literature, e.g. sensory properties, knife geometry, velocity of the knife and bowl, improvements of the cutting and mixing process are proposed using cognitive algorithms (Artificial neural networks) aiming at an optimization regarding energy and time demand and product quality.

  20. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high morta...

  1. Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massino De Marchi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

  2. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for sampl...

  3. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  4. CROWING SOUND ANALYSIS OF GAGA??? CHICKEN: LOCAL CHICKEN FROM SOUTH SULAWESI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  5. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  6. Effect of sun mushroom extract in pork sausage and evaluation of the oxidative and microbiological stability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santi Stefanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of lipid oxidation is one of the meat industry’s target and, consequently, the search for natural antioxidants has been increased in last years. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill on the oxidative and microbiological stability of pork meat sausage during storage at 4ºC. The extract was added to sausages in 0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % (v/w concentrations. There was done the proximate composition, pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* e h*, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and microbiological analyzes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, in randomized completely design. The results from proximate composition and microbiological analyzes at day 0 were according to the Brazilian legislation. At 1st day of storage, control treatment showed higher (p<0,05 a* value (red than the other treatments, while b* value (yellow has increased (p<0,05 during the storage period in all treatments. At 21st day of storage, TBARS values of sausages with 2.0 % extract addition was lower (0,705±0,01 mg MDA/kg sample (p<0,05 than the control (1,097±0,11mg MDA/kg sample. The extract has not shown effect on the microbiological stability of the sausages. Nevertheless, the hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom was effective on the oxidative stability of pork meat sausage when added in a 2.0 % concentration, improving its shelf-life up to 21 days of storage at 4 °C, and it is possible the use as a natural antioxidant source.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs that were produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mA...

  8. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  9. Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni for chicken embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, S; Rodgers, F G

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni was examined in chicken embryos. In this system, mortality data and histopathological findings induced by organisms and by bacterium-free filtered broth were identical. The absence in chicken embryo tissues both of organisms and of an inflammatory infiltrate suggests a toxin etiology.

  10. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  11. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  12. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  13. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham M Ittyachen; Mohan B Jose; Varghese Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  14. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  15. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  16. Effects of Anthocyanin-rich Colored Potato Flakes on Lipid Oxidation, Instrumental Color Evaluation and Sensory Characteristics in Cooked Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    JAYAWARDANA, Barana C.; YANAGIHARA, Maki; HAN, Kyu-Ho; FUKUSHIMA, Michihiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; SHIMADA, Kenichiro; 韓, 圭鎬; 福島, 道広; 関川, 三男; 島田, 謙一郎

    2012-01-01

    We investigated lipid oxidation, instrumental color evaluation, and sensory characteristics in cooked pork sausages containing anthocyanin rich colored potato (Solanum tuberosam cv. Shadow Queen) flakes (CPF). According to the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values, addition of 2% CPF suppressed lipid oxidation (P < 0.05) by 80% compared to the control. The antioxidant activity of 2% CPF was comparable to the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (0.1%) in cooked pork sausages...

  17. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani S Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for st...

  18. Estabilidad de Salchichas con Hidrocoloides y Emulsificantes Stability of Sausages with Emulsifiers and Hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.G. Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las mejoras en la estabilidad de emulsiones cárnicas (salchichas, comparando los efectos de la incorporación de distintos emulsificantes e hidrocoloides. Las salchichas fueron preparadas, en un molino coloidal, con una fórmula base y se comparó el efecto de la incorporación de la goma xántica, guar, carragenina o alginato y a su vez con hidrocoloides específicos. Se determinó la estabilidad en la cocción de forma gravimétrica, en baño termostatizado a 70°C durante 30 min. La pérdida de grasa por el tratamiento térmico fue determinada de forma gravimétrica. Se cuantificó la pérdida de agua de las muestras almacenadas durante 21 días cada 48h. a 5°C. Las emulsiones con emulsificantes e hidrocoloides fueron aproximadamente un 2% más estables en la cocción, porque perdieron menor cantidad de agua durante el almacenamiento y un 2,25% menos de separación de grasa. Se concluye que la incorporación de estos emulsificantes e hidrocoloides, disminuye las pérdidas de grasa y agua durante el tratamiento térmico y el almacenamientoThe objective of this study was to evaluate improvements in the stability of meat emulsions (sausage by comparing the effects of incorporating different emulsifiers and hydrocolloids. Sausages were prepared using a colloidal mill using a basic formula, to which was added guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan, alginate and emulsifiers. The cooking stability was determined gravimetrically at 70°C in a water bath for 30 min. Fat loss during heat treatment was determined gravimetrically. Water loss was quantified at 5°C for 21 days at 48h intervals. The sausage containing emulsifiers and hydrocolloids were about 2% more stable during cooking because they lost smaller quantities of water during storage and had 2.25% lower fat separation. It is concluded that addition of these emulsifiers and hydrocolloids decreased the loss of fats and water during heat treatment and storage

  19. Genomic organisation of the chicken ghrelin gene and its single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Q; Zeng, H; Lei, M; Ishag, N A; Fang, M; Sun, B; Yang, G; Zhang, X

    2004-10-01

    (1) Ghrelin is a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is expressed primarily in the stomach and hypothalamus with the probable function of stimulating GH secretion and food intake both in mammals and poultry. The complete sequences of ghrelin gene have been reported in humans and mice; however, that of chickens remains unclear. (2) Here, we report the complete sequence of chicken ghrelin gene (submitted to Genbank; accession number AY303688), which consists of 5 exons and 4 introns. As in mice, the first exon of chicken ghrelin gene does not encode any amino acid. (3) Scanning point mutations with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) using WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis Systems and confirmed with direct sequencing for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire gene of chicken ghrelin. (4) Results showed that there were 19 SNPs in chicken ghrelin gene, and most of these SNPs were scattered in the 4 introns. In these SNPs, one mutation in exon 5 (A2355G) led to the change of amino acid from glutamine to arginine (Gln 113 Arg): as a result a different ghrelin precursor instead of a mature peptide was produced. In addition, one SNP in 5'UTR (C223G) determined the presence or absence of a potential binding site of transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), which might affect the expression of chicken ghrelin gene. Some of the SNPs detected in the present study could be used in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for growth characters in chickens. (5) Because one SNP is located in a polymorphic site of restriction enzyme PagI of intron 4, it was possible to design a PCR-RFLP procedure and analyse the diversity of 10 chicken populations. Results showed the allelic frequencies of C2100T differ among these breeds, however, no significant difference was observed between imported breeds and Chinese native ones, nor between egg layers and

  20. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID:26479388

  1. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  2. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... acids was significantly affected by the different factors. High fermentation temperature and nitrite content increased the amount, while high contents of salt, nitrate, glucose and P. pentosaceus lowered the amount of free amino acids. In general, temperature and nitrate had the greatest influence. It...... was shown that the amounts of the volatile compounds, 2-methyl propanal, 2- and 3-methyl butanal, were inversely correlated with the amounts of valine, isoleucine and leucine, respectively, indicating that those volatiles were degradation products of the latter. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  3. Technological and safety properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Spanish dry-cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta, G; Curiel, J A; Carrascosa, A V; Muñoz, R; de las Rivas, B

    2013-10-01

    Technological and safety-related properties were analyzed in lactic acid bacteria isolated from Spanish dry-cured sausages in order to select them as starter cultures. In relation to technological properties, all the strains showed significative nitrate reductase activity; Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and 52% of the Enterococcus faecium strains showed lipolytic activity and only Lactobacillus sakei strains (43%) were able to form biofilms. Related to safety aspects, E. faecium strains were the most resistant to antibiotics, whereas, L. sakei strains were the most sensitive. In relation to virulence factors, in the E. faecium strains analyzed, only the presence of efaA gene was detected. The analysis of biogenic amine production showed that most E. faecium strains and L. sakei Al-142 produced tyramine. In conclusion, L. paracasei Al-128 and L. sakei Al-143 strains possess the best properties to be selected as adequate and safe meat starter cultures. PMID:23743032

  4. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds. PMID:24423545

  5. Kinetic study of the sausage-type resistive instability of a REB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-linear problem on the development of the sausage-type resistive instability of a REB propagating without collisions in a rarefied plasma is solved. The case of high conductivity of the plasma is considered when the wave phase velocity is low as compared with the light velocity. For beam description the kinetic approach is used. Using numerical soluition of the problem it is confirmed that the above instability is developed in a cold uniform beam. At the nonlinear stage of instability development, the beam develops the tubular structure. For a beam with a Bennet distribution function the suppression of instability is revealed. The suppression mechanism is a phase mixing of beam particles

  6. Kinetic study of the sausage mode of a resistive instability of a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear problem of the growth of the sausage mode of the resistive instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating without collisions through a tenuous plasma is solved. The plasma conductivity is assumed to be high, so that the wave phase velocity is low in comparison with the velocity of light. A kinetic approach is taken to the description of the beam. A numerical solution of the problem shows that this instability occurs in a cold, uniform beam. In the nonlinear stage of the instability the beam goes through states with a hollow structure. Suppression of the instability is found for a beam with a Bennett distribution function. The stabilization results from phase mixing of the beam particles

  7. Kinetic theory of the sausage instability of a z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear problem of z-pinch sausage development is considered taking into account the influence of kinetic effects for ideal scanning current. Plasma electrons are considered to be cold and ions - collisionless. It is also supposed that the magnetic field inside a pinch doesn't affect the motion of ions, which are reflected like in a mirror from a jump of an electric potential arising on the plasma boundary. In case of long-wave perturbations ka>1 the acount of kinetics leads to considerable decrease of the increment [(ka)1/2 times] in comparison with the hydrodynamic description, that permits to explain the increased instability of z-pinches observed in experiments

  8. Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamic simulations of sausage-like instability of current channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of current channels to fast electron magnetohydrodynamic modes is a topic of great interest in several frontier areas of plasma research, e.g., fast ignitor concept of laser fusion, fast Z pinches, plasma opening switches, current channels at the center of fast magnetic reconnection region, etc. This paper deals with a detailed fluid simulation study of linear and nonlinear aspects of the velocity shear modes in electron current channels in a two dimensional geometry. Simulation results clearly show the development of sausage-like structures (kink structures, which are intrinsically three-dimensional excitations, are ruled out in the present simulations) which grow linearly and eventually saturate by nonlinear effects. An analytic understanding of the nonlinear saturation mechanism is also provided

  9. The rate of decay of the Wiener sausage in local Dirichlet space

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Lee R

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a heat kernel diffusion which admits a Gaussian type estimate with parameter beta on a local Dirichlet space, we consider the log asymptotic behavior of the negative exponential moments of the Wiener sausage. We show that the log asymptotic behavior up to time t^{beta}V(x,t) is V(x,t), which is analogous to the Euclidean result. Here V(x,t) represents the mass of the ball of radius t about a point x of the local Dirichlet space. The proof uses a known coarse graining technique to obtain the upper asymptotic, but must be adapted to for use without translation invariance in this setting. This result provides the first such asymptotics for several other contexts, including diffusions on complete Riemannian manifolds with non-negative Ricci curvature.

  10. Preservation of canned Vienna sausage by combination of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since no texture improver is permitted in Hungarian Vienna sausage, the heat treatment necessary for bacteriological safety causes texture and consistency problems with this type of product. The aim of the investigations was to lower the heat damage by using a combination of mild heat treatment and irradiation. During the experiments an irradiation dose of 0.45 Mrad was combined with heat treatments of various F0 values (0.2-0.5). F0 of the control was 1.9. Naturally contaminated samples were used. Storage temperature was 300C, storage time up to 2 months. Combination of irradiation (0.45 Mrad) and heat treatment (F0=0.4) - regardless of the sequence - gave satisfactory results in shelf-life and excellent results in organoleptic properties as compared to traditionally heat treated samples. This statement is valid for uninoculated samples only. (F.J.)

  11. Development of sausage-type instability in a Z-pinch plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of sausage-type instabilities in an initially homogeneous Z-pinch plasma column has been investigated by means of numerical modelling. It is shown that in the presence of short-wave perturbations of a Z-pinch boundary and a rarefied plasma surrounding the pinch, cavities filled with a rarefied plasma and with a magnetic field are formed in the plasma column. As a result of this cavity growth, small columns of dense plasma form on the axis in the Z-pinch which have a temperature substantially higher than the average plasma temperature in the plasma column. When deuterium is present in the pinch, these dense high temperature bunches can become a source of intensive neutron radiation. (author). 24 refs, 7 figs

  12. Evaluation of different strategies to mask boar taint in cooked sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B; Rubio, B; Viera, C; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Panella-Riera, N; Garrido, M D

    2016-06-01

    The use of smoking and/or spices was evaluated for their ability to mask boar taint in frankfurters manufactured from entire pigs with high levels of androstenone. Five frankfurter types were considered: control, smoked, flavouring+smoked, spicy and spicy+smoked. A trained panel in androstenone perception carried out a sensory profile on the different sausages. The highest scores for androstenone perception (odour, flavour and aftertaste) were found in frankfurters that included no masking strategy which indicated the effectiveness of the evaluated strategies. Regarding masking strategies, the contribution of spices and smoking to sensory perception of frankfurters was detected by the panellists. Smoking was the best strategy to mask androstenone odour, while the use of spices masked androstenone odour to a greater extent than androstenone flavour. Only the combined use of spices and smoking was able to eliminate the perception of androstenone. The application of this strategy in frankfurters could be an alternative in the commercialization of entire pigs. PMID:26844925

  13. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  14. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  15. Identification of Transgenic Organisms Based on Terahertz Spectroscopy and Hyper Sausage Neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, Zh.; Hu, F.; Chen, T.; Du, Y.; Xin, H.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identifi cation of terahertz (THz) spectra of genetically modifi ed organisms (GMOs) based on hyper sausage neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugarbeet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject nonsimilar samples of the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of genetically modified organisms by using THz spectroscopy.

  16. The Characteristic and The Use of Pelung Chicken in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sofjan Iskandar; Triana Susanti

    2007-01-01

    Pelung chicken is one of livestock genetic resources in Indonesia, which has been playing an important role for years in the villagers in West Java Province. Pelung chicken originally came from Cianjur district in West Java area. It has been raised as a singing cockerel. This singing ability of the cockerel has become the main criteria for Pelung chicken regular competition in Cianjur. A serious attention on Pelung chicken can maintain the existence of Pelung chicken. The specific character o...

  17. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning. PMID:24674432

  18. 卤香烤肠的研制%Development of halogen fragrant roasted sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国荣

    2015-01-01

    Pork was taken as main raw material to study the manufacturing technical formula of hal⁃ogen fragrant roasted sausage. Through single factor experiment and L9 (34 ) orthogonal experiment, the optimized technical formula was obtained. The result showed that the addition of starch, water, pot -stewed flavor, pot - stewed extract were 10% , 35% , 0. 1% and 0. 3% , respectively. The sausage was produced with smooth surface, high flexibility, dense structure, and smooth slice. Its section was sauce red. Besides, it tastes smooth, had moderate saltiness and a fine braised pork flavor.%以猪肉为主要原料,研究了卤香烤肠的制作工艺配方。通过单因素试验和 L9(34)正交试验,确定出卤香烤肠的最佳工艺配方:淀粉添加量为10%,水添加量为35%,卤肉香精添加量为0.1%,卤肉膏添加量为03%。制出的烤肠表面光滑,富有弹性,组织致密,切片光滑平整,切面呈酱红色,口感细腻无粗糙感,咸淡适中,具有浓郁的卤肉香味。

  19. A Study of the Characteristics of Lactobacillus Plantarum Isolated from Sausage in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactic acid bacteria are widely used for the fermentation and preservation of dairy and meat products and to improve their aroma and texture. The aim of this study wasto screen Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from sausage for detection of plasmids, protein bandsand phages, to find possible linkage of bacteriocin production to genetic location. Material and Methods: Two Lactobacillus plantarum with antibacterial activitywere isolated from sausage. Bacterial plasmids were isolated by alkali lysis and electrophoresis through agarose gel. Proteins were precipitated from cell-free supernatants by ammoniumsulphate and analysed by SDS-PAGE. For detection of phages, mitomycin C of final concentration of 2.5 óg/ml was used and phages were detected by transmission electron microscopy. Results: One plasmid of about 4.5 kbp was detected in one Lactobacillus plantarum strain.Two bands of proteins were found on SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of protein bands of Lacto. plantarum without plasmid was higher than the protein bands of Lacto. plantarum with plasmid. A phage was detected on the cell wall of one strain of Lacto. Plantarum; no plasmid was detected in this Lacto. plantarum. It appears that antibacterial activity is located in the phage of this strain. Conclusion: The high molecular weight of proteins with a wide spectrum effect on bacteria may indicated chromosome-coded bacteriocin. The role of phages in lactobacilli couldbe a factor which inhibit meat product starter cultures or attributed in antimicrobial activity, i.e.antibacterial genes might be on chromosomal phages. Bacteriophages could be a threat toindustrial fermentation foods.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF SAUSAGE-PINCH INSTABILITY IN SOLAR CORONA BY SDO/AIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first observational evidence of the evolution of sausage-pinch instability in active region 11295 during a prominence eruption using data recorded on 2011 September 12 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We have identified a magnetic flux tube visible in AIA 304 Å that shows curvatures on its surface with variable cross-sections as well as enhanced brightness. These curvatures evolved and thereafter smoothed out within a timescale of a minute. The curved locations on the flux tube exhibit a radial outward enhancement of the surface of about 1-2 Mm (a factor of two larger than the original thickness of the flux tube) from the equilibrium position. AIA 193 Å snapshots also show the formation of bright knots and narrow regions in-between at the four locations as that of 304 Å along the flux tube where plasma emission is larger compared to the background. The formation of bright knots over an entire flux tube as well as the narrow regions in <60 s may be the morphological signature of the sausage instability. We also find the flows of confined plasma (propagation of brightness) in these bright knots along the field lines, which indicates the dynamicity of the flux tube that probably causes the dominance of the longitudinal field component over short temporal scales. The observed longitudinal motion of the plasma frozen in the magnetic field lines further vanishes the formed curvatures and plasma confinements as well as growth of instability to stabilize the flux tube.

  1. Standing Sausage Modes in Nonuniform Magnetic Tubes: An Inversion Scheme for Inferring Flare Loop Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xiong, Ming; Yu, Hui; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2015-10-01

    Standing sausage modes in flare loops are important for interpreting quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar flare light curves. We propose an inversion scheme that consistently uses their periods P and damping times τ to diagnose flare loop parameters. We derive a generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage waves in pressure-less straight tubes, for which the transverse density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width l and is of arbitrary form. We find that P and τ depend on the combination of [R/{v}{Ai},L/R,l/R,{ρ }{{i}}/{ρ }{{e}}], where R is the loop radius, L is the looplength, vAi is the internal Alfvén speed, and ρi/ρe is the density contrast. For all the density profiles examined, P and τ experience saturation when L/R ≫ 1, yielding an inversion curve in the [R/{v}{Ai},l/R,{ρ }{{i}}/{ρ }{{e}}] space with a specific density profile when L/R is sufficiently large. When applied to a spatially unresolved QPP event, the scheme yields that R/vAi is the best constrained, whereas l/R corresponds to the other extreme. For spatially resolved QPPs, while L/R ≫ 1 cannot be assumed beforehand, an inversion curve remains possible due to additional geometrical constraints. When a spatially resolved QPP event involves another mode, as is the case for a recent event, the full set of [{v}{Ai},l,{ρ }{{i}}/{ρ }{{e}}] can be inferred. We conclude that the proposed scheme provides a useful tool for magneto-seismologically exploiting QPPs.

  2. Microbial ecology of food contact surfaces and products of small-scale facilities producing traditional sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounadaki, Antonia S; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Drosinos, Eleftherios H; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-04-01

    The microbial status in 7 small-scale facilities (SSFs) producing traditional fermented and/or dry sausages was investigated. It was shown that the hygienic status of the processing environment and equipment plays an essential role in the microbial stability and safety of the final products. The current study revealed that the majority of the sampling sites (control points) tested were highly (>4 log CFU/cm(2)) contaminated by spoilage flora (i.e. Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae), with knives, tables and mincing machines being the most heavily contaminated surfaces. Moreover, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 11.7%, 26.4%, and 11.7% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The presence of these pathogens seemed to be associated with high numbers of one or more specific groups of the 'house-flora' on the sampling sites of the facilities; however, high numbers of 'house-flora' do not always suggest the presence of pathogens. With regard to product samples, batter samples were heavily contaminated with the 'house-flora' present on surfaces and equipment of the processing facilities while by the end of processing (final products) LAB constituted the predominant microbial flora of all products. The low initial levels of S. aureus and Salmonella found in batter samples as well as the combination of hurdles (mainly a(w)<0.92, average pH ca. <5.0 and competitive effect of natural flora) in the final products were able to inhibit and/or eliminate these pathogens; however, the detection of L. monocytogenes in 3 out of the 7 final products examined is indicative of cross-contamination. Our findings further indicate that inadequate hygiene practices within small-scale-processing facilities may result in loss of microbial control. Therefore, this study addresses the need for strict control measures within SSFs producing traditional fermented sausages. PMID:18206774

  3. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  4. Ionizing radiation from 60Co and electron accelerator in reducing the population of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs: evaluation of acceptance by consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella sp. is one of the main microorganisms that causes outbreaks of food borne diseases associated to poultry, and among its derivatives, the chicken meatballs are getting the favorites of the consumer. In the attempt to improve microbiological food safety, a method that has been hardly studied is the irradiation. To study the viability of the use o ionizing radiation originated from 60 Co and electrons accelerator in the reduction of Salmonella sp., frozen chickens meatballs were inoculated with 104 CFU/g of Salmonella sp., with needle and syringe. Subsequently they were exposure to doses of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy and Salmonella sp. was enumerated. Chicken meatballs were exposed to doses 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and submitted to sensory analysis. The gamma radiation from 60CO was effective in the reduction of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs. The ionizing radiation originated from electron beam was not effective in the conditions applied in this research. The commercial chicken meatballs prepared with chicken meat, mixed up with soy protein, seasoning and anti-oxidants additives did not loose their sensorial quality when exposure to doses of 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and, in a general way, the consumers showed to be disposed to buy the irradiation product (author)

  5. Evaluation of the ejaculate quality of the red jungle fowl, domestic chicken, and bantam chicken in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Abdul; HARON, Abd Wahid; YUSOFF, Rosnina; NESA, M.; BUKAR, Muhammad; Kasim, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the semen quality of 3 chicken breeds: the red jungle fowl, domestic chicken, and bantam chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 27 cocks, including 9 cocks each of red jungle fowl, domestic chicken, and bantam chicken, were used in this study. Semen was collected once a week by dorso-abdominal massage method. The semen was evaluated for volume, concentration, motility, live/dead ratio, and percentage abnormalities. There were no significa...

  6. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... the customer and Western. (b) Method of submitting IRPs. Customers must submit IRPs to Western...

  7. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Chen; Xiuping Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may ha...

  8. Volatiles in a sausage surface model-influence of Penicillium nalgiovense, Pediococcus pentosaceus, ascorbate, nitrate and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Trihaas, Jeorgos; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two agar sausage models were arranged in a 2((5-1)) fractional factorial design to analyse the effects of Penicillium nalgio-vense growth, Pediococcus pentosaceus starter, sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrate and temperature on 79 volatiles produced during incubation. The model focused on the...... outer 10 millimeters of sausages. Ascorbate addition showed clear antioxidative effects, and reduced the amount of more than half of all volatiles but increased concentrations of 2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal. The effects of P. pentosaceus and Micrococcaceae were confounded, but together they...... had pronounced antioxidative effects, lowering the amount of straight chain aldehydes, 2-alkenals, furanes and ketones. P. pentosaceus and Micrococcaceae growth increased the leucine catabolites 3-methyl-butanal and 3-methyl-1-butanol. P. nalgiovense decreased the concentrations of 2-heptanone, 2...

  9. Characterization of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma in naturally fermented sausages by gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize naturally fermented dry sausages produced without the use of microbial starters and to determine which odour-active compounds are responsible for their aroma. The traditional manufacture was responsible for different chemical characteristics and consumer's acceptance. The volatile compounds detected in the headspace comprised a complex mixture of volatile compounds derived from bacterial metabolism (mainly esterase activity of Staphyloccoci), spices and lipid auto-oxidation. The odour-active volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) using the detection frequency method. The aroma profile was characterized by the presence of several compounds such as acetic acid, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, benzeneacetaldehyde and 4-methyl-phenol. However, naturally fermented sausages were also characterized by numerous esters, both ethyl and methyl esters, which impart a wide variety of fruity notes. PMID:24334376

  10. 火腿肠中淀粉含量的测定%Determination of starch content in ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 尚新彬; 张莉; 焦驼文

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,acid hydrolysis was used to determine the starch content in sausages,and the results showed that the measured starch content in the sample was 8.4g/100g.This method is simple,and of high accuracy for determination of starch content in sausag%采用酸水解法测定火腿肠中淀粉的含量,结果表明,所测样品中淀粉的含量为8.4g/100g,该方法简单、准确度高,适用于火腿肠中淀粉含量的测定。

  11. Effect of green tea or rosemary extract on protein oxidation in Bologna type sausages prepared from oxidatively stressed pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Gunvig, Annemarie; Skibsted, Leif H; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-03-01

    Bologna type sausages were prepared from oxidatively stressed pork (UV-irradiation, 48 h, 5 °C) using a traditional recipe (control) or the same recipe but added green tea extract (500 ppm total phenolic compounds) or rosemary extract (400 ppm total phenolic compounds). Green tea and rosemary extracts protected against formation of TBARS and protein carbonyls. On the contrary, increased thiol loss and a distinct loss of myosin heavy chain and actin due to polymerization by reducible bonds as determined by SDS-page were found by addition of green tea extract. The enhanced protein polymerization was ascribed to the reaction between quinone compounds from the plant extracts and protein thiol groups to yield phenol-mediated protein polymerization. Analysis by ESR spectroscopy revealed increased radical intensities in sausages added plant extracts, which was ascribed to originate from protein-bound phenoxyl radicals, which may protect against other oxidatively induced protein modifications. PMID:23273462

  12. "Sausage-string" appearance of arteries and arterioles can be caused by an instability of the blood vessel wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Beierholm, Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Rene;

    2002-01-01

    observed experimentally. Most importantly, it suggests that the "sausaging" phenomenon is neither caused by a mechanical failure of the vessel wall due to a high blood pressure nor is it due to standing pressure waves caused by the beating of the heart. Rather, it is the expression of a general instability......Vascular damage induced by acute hypertension is preceded by a peculiar pattern where blood vessels show alternating regions of constrictions and dilations ("sausages on a string"). The pattern occurs in the smaller blood vessels, and it plays a central role in causing the vascular damage. A...... related vascular pattern has been observed in larger vessels from several organs during angiography. In the larger vessels the occurrence of the pattern does not appear to be related to acute hypertension. A unifying feature between the phenomenon in large and small vessels seems to be an increase in...

  13. Ascorbate and Apple Phenolics Affect Protein Oxidation in Emulsion-Type Sausages during Storage and in Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-05-25

    The effect of sodium ascorbate and apple phenolics on the oxidative stability of emulsion-type sausages during storage and digestion was investigated. Emulsion-type sausages containing 0.05% sodium ascorbate or 3% freeze-dried apple pomace were subjected to chilled illuminated storage and subsequent in vitro digestion. Lipid oxidation was assessed as TBARS, and protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonyls, and γ-glutamic and α-amino adipic semialdehyde. Proteolysis was measured after digestion to evaluate protein digestibility. The results suggest the presence of protein-ascorbate and protein-phenol interactions, which may decrease protein digestibility and may interfere with spectrophotometric methods for measuring oxidation. PMID:27133801

  14. Combined Effect of Monoxide Hemoglobin and Sodium Nitrite on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Pork Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjiang Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 faces a challenge in the meat industry because of its carcinogenicity. The studies about nitrite substitutes have attracted a considerable interest for many years. This study aims at the combined effects of monoxide hemoglobin (COHb and NaNO2 on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of pork sausages. The addition of COHb led to the reductions in L*, b*, TBA, VBN and aerobic plate count as well as the increase in a* (p<0.05. The samples with 0.005% NaNO2 and 0.2% COHb addition had equal even better sensory color, flavor, mouthfeel and slice traits than those with 0.015% NaNO2 addition during storage. Moreover, such sample had less than 30 cfu/100 g Escherichia coli and no detectable Staphylococcus aureus during 29 days storage. Therefore, COHb showed a potential in the manufacture of sausages

  15. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  16. Low molecular weight peptides derived from sarcoplasmic proteins produced by an autochthonous starter culture in a beaker sausage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza M. López

    2015-06-01

    Significance: The selection of a specific autochthonous starter culture guarantees the hygiene and typicity of fermented sausages. The identification of new peptides as well as new target proteins by means of peptidomics represents a significant step toward the elucidation of the role of microorganisms in meat proteolysis. Moreover, these peptides may be further used as biomarkers capable to certify the use of the applied autochthonous starter culture described here.

  17. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum c...

  18. 胡萝卜火腿肠生产工艺%Processing technology of carrot ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌喜; 董玲娟

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology of carrot ham sausage was introduced in this paper, and this new product could satisfy people with carrot nutrition and enrich the meat market.%介绍了胡萝l、火腿肠的加工工艺,产品满足人们对胡萝卜的营养需要,丰富了肉制品市场的种类。

  19. Growth inhibition of bacterial isolates recovered from two types of Portuguese dry smoked sausages (chouriço)

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, T.J.S.; Bruno-Soares, A.; Jensen, B. B.; Barreto, A.S.; Hojberg, O.

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB) and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) were investigated as surface treatments for their ability to inhibit the growth of 18 isolates of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria from two types of Portuguese dry smoked sausages (Chouric o). MHB significantly inhibited the growth rate of 12 of the isolates (p < 0.05) whereas no effect was observed for four isolates of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici ...

  20. Microbiological characterization of alheira, a typical Portuguese fermented sausage, and its relation with hygienic conditions of the processing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Ana Luísa; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Pereira, Ermelinda

    2011-01-01

    Fermented meat products are part of the daily diet in rural areas of Portugal. Nevertheless, in urban centers the demand for this kind of products has been increasing. Alheiras are traditional, smoked, naturally-fermented meat sausages, produced in the North of Portugal and generally in kitchens of small dimension, entitled regional kitchens. In this study three regional kitchens of alheiras, located in the North of Portugal, were evaluated in terms of microbiological quality of the enviro...

  1. Nonlinear State of Sausage-like Instability of Electron Current Channels in Fast Ignition Concept of Inertial Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a detailed fluid simulation study of linear and nonlinear aspects of the velocity shear modes in electron current channels in a two dimensional geometry. Simulation results clearly show the flattening of flow profile and the development of sausage like structures (kink structures, which are intrinsically three dimensional excitations, are ruled out in the present simulations) which grow linearly and eventually saturate by nonlinear effects. An analytic understanding of the nonlinear saturation mechanism is also provided

  2. A study on the toxigenesis by Clostridium botulinum in nitrate and nitrite-reduced dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital, Xavier F; Hierro, Eva; Stringer, Sandra; Fernández, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Nitrite has been traditionally used to control Clostridium botulinum in cured meat products. However, in the case of dry fermented sausages, environmental factors such as pH, aw and the competitive microbiota may exert a more relevant role than nitrite in the inhibition of the growth and toxin production by C. botulinum. In this challenge test study, two varieties of Mediterranean dry sausages (salchichón and fuet) were inoculated with spores of C. botulinum Group I (proteolytic) and C. botulinum Group II (nonproteolytic). Sausages were prepared with 150 mg/kg of NaNO3 and 150 mg/kg of NaNO2 (maximum ingoing amounts allowed by the European Union regulation), with a 25% and 50% reduction, and without nitrate/nitrite. The initial pH in both products was 5.6, and decreased to values below 5.0 in salchichón and to 5.2 in fuet. Lactic acid bacteria counts reached 8-9 log cfu/g after fermentation. The aw decreased from initial values of 0.96 to about 0.88-0.90 at the end of ripening. Botulinum neurotoxin was not detected in any of the sausages, including those manufactured without nitrate and nitrite. Despite the environmental conditions were within the range for germination and growth of C. botulinum Group I during the first 8 days of the ripening process in fuet and 10-12 days in salchichón, acidity, aw and incubation temperature combined to inhibit the production of toxin, independently of the concentration of curing agents. Although decreasing or even removing nitrate/nitrite from the formula did not compromise safety regarding C. botulinum in the conditions tested in this study, their antimicrobial role should not be underestimated in the case that other hurdles could fail or other ripening conditions were used, and also considering the effect of nitrite on other pathogens. PMID:26619314

  3. The period ratio for standing kink and sausage modes in solar structures with siphon flow. I. magnetized slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bo; Chen, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    In the applications of solar magneto-seismology(SMS), employing the ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to twice the one of its first overtone, $P_1/2P_2$, plays an important role. We examine how field-aligned flows affect the dispersion properties, and hence the period ratios, of standing modes supported by magnetic slabs in the solar atmosphere. We numerically solve the dispersion relations and devise a graphic means to construct standing modes. For coronal slabs, we find that the flow effects are significant, for the fast kink and sausage modes alike. For the kink ones, they may reduce $P_1/2P_2$ by up to 23% compared with the static case, and the minimum allowed $P_1/2P_2$ can fall below the lower limit analytically derived for static slabs. For the sausage modes, while introducing the flow reduces $P_1/2P_2$ by typically $\\lesssim 5$ % relative to the static case, it significantly increases the threshold aspect ratio only above which standing sausage modes can be supported, meaning that their det...

  4. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages. PMID:23567124

  5. THE PERIOD RATIO FOR STANDING KINK AND SAUSAGE MODES IN SOLAR STRUCTURES WITH SIPHON FLOW. I. MAGNETIZED SLABS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the applications of solar magneto-seismology, the ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to twice the period of its first overtone, P1/2P2, plays an important role. We examine how field-aligned flows affect the dispersion properties, and hence the period ratios, of standing modes supported by magnetic slabs in the solar atmosphere. We numerically solve the dispersion relations and devise a graphic means to construct standing modes. For coronal slabs, we find that the flow effects are significant for the fast kink and sausage modes alike. For the kink ones, they may reduce P1/2P2 by up to 23% compared with the static case, and the minimum allowed P1/2P2 can fall below the lower limit analytically derived for static slabs. For the sausage modes, while introducing the flow reduces P1/2P2 by typically ∼1/2P2 that deviates from unity even for a zero-width slab, while standing sausage modes no longer suffer from a threshold aspect ratio. We conclude that transverse structuring in plasma density and flow speed should be considered in seismological applications of multiple periodicities to solar atmospheric structures.

  6. Neutral hydrogen gas, past and future star-formation in galaxies in and around the 'Sausage' merging galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Stroe, Andra; Rottgering, Huub J A; Sobral, David; van Weeren, Reinout; Dawson, William

    2015-01-01

    CIZA J2242.8+5301 ($z = 0.188$, nicknamed 'Sausage') is an extremely massive ($M_{200}\\sim 2.0 \\times 10^{15}M_\\odot$ ), merging cluster with shock waves towards its outskirts, which was found to host numerous emission-line galaxies. We performed extremely deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI observations of the 'Sausage' cluster to investigate the effect of the merger and the shocks on the gas reservoirs fuelling present and future star formation (SF) in cluster members. By using spectral stacking, we find that the emission-line galaxies in the 'Sausage' cluster have, on average, as much HI gas as field galaxies (when accounting for the fact cluster galaxies are more massive than the field galaxies), contrary to previous studies. Since the cluster galaxies are more massive than the field spirals, they may have been able to retain their gas during the cluster merger. The large HI reservoirs are expected to be consumed within $\\sim0.75-1.0$ Gyr by the vigorous SF and AGN activity and/or driven out by t...

  7. Effect of Fasting on Technological Quality of Chicken during Postmortem Rigidity%禁食对僵直前后鸡肉加工特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小翠; 李春保; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of fasting on the technological quality of chicken,three-yellow chicken with fasting 0,8,16 h and 24 h were killed,and the breast meat was harvested,minced after postmortem rigidity for 0,3 h and 24 h and then processed into sausages.The pH,cooking loss,pressure loss,shear force,meat color and textural characteristics of the chicken sausages obtained were measured.The results showed that prolonged fasting time could result in a decrease in pH and shear force(P0.05) and an increase in pressure loss and cooking loss.At pre-rigor state,the control group had better textural properties than fasting groups,which revealed the highest hardness,elasticity,cohesiveness,gumminess and chewiness.The group with fasting for 16 h had higher texture than other two fasting groups.As time went on,the pH,water-holding capacity and textural quality of chicken sausage became smaller during postmortem rigidity.%三黄鸡分别禁食0、8、16h和24h,采用三管齐断法宰杀,于宰后僵直前(0h)、僵直阶段(3h)和僵直后(24h)分别制成鸡肉糜,测定新鲜肌肉的pH值,鸡肉肠的蒸煮损失、加压损失、剪切力值、肉色和质构等指标,观察不同禁食时间对僵直前后鸡肉糜制品品质的影响。结果表明:随着禁食时间延长,pH值先升高后降低(P〈0.0 5),蒸煮损失和加压损失都有增加的趋势,剪切力值有降低的趋势,未禁食组僵直前鸡肉肠的硬度、弹性、黏聚性、胶黏性和咀嚼性最高,禁食16h组僵直和僵直前的质构特性优于禁食8h和24h组。随着宰后时间延长,p H值显著降低,持水力显著下降,僵直后鸡肉肠的质构特性劣于僵直和僵直前鸡肉肠的质构特性。

  8. Evaluation of thermotolerant capacity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial sausages and the effects of their addition on the quality of cooked sausages Avaliação da capacidade termotolerante de bacterias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais e os efeitos de sua adição na qualidade de salsichas cozidas

    OpenAIRE

    María de Lourdes Pérez-Chabela; Alfonso Totosaus; Isabel Guerrero

    2008-01-01

    The thermotolerant capacity of several lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cooked commercial sausages was determined. Four strains were positively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilacti, after surviving thermal treatment (70 °C during 60 minutes). Thermotolerant strains were inoculated in sausage batters before cooking in order to determine their effect on color, texture, acceptance and inhibition of Enterob...

  9. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macropha...

  10. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  11. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. Fi...

  12. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...

  13. The chicken gene nomenclature committee report

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising functional ortholog...

  14. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  15. Characteristics productive and meat quality of broiler chickens fed finisher diet without vitamin-mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate and submitted to heat stress pre-slaughter Características produtivas e de qualidade de carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas de terminação sem suplemento vitamínicomineral ou calcário e fosfato bicálcico e submetidos a estresse térmico pré-abate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Search mechanisms that can reduce the cost of production of poultry is an important factor in the poultry industry. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the removal of vitamin and mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate feed during the finishing phase, further of the broilers chickens to heat stress pre-slaughter. Hybro male broiler (n=108 aged 42 days old were evaluated until 49 days old to evaluate the performance, carcass and cuts yield, blood biochemistry and meat quality. The results showed that the removal of vitamin and mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate feed during the finishing phase did not impair the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality, as well as showing a possible mechanism to reduce production costs. While heat stress pre-slaughter provided a poor meat quality of poultry. Buscar mecanismos que possam reduzir o custo de produção das aves, sem reduzir o desempenho e a qualidade do produto final é um importante fator dentro da cadeia avícola. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a retirada do suplemento vitamínico-mineral ou calcário e fosfato bicálcico da ração na fase de acabamento, além de submeter os frangos de corte a estresse térmico pré-abate visando avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade de carne do peito. Foram utilizados 108 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Hybro com 42 dias de idade, que receberam uma ração controle, ração sem suplemento vitamínico-mineral e sem calcário e fosfato bicálcico, dos 42 aos 49 dias de idade. Foram avaliados os dados de desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e cortes, bioquímica do sangue e qualidade de carne. Os resultados mostraram que a retirada do suplemento vitamínico-mineral ou o calcário e o fosfato bicálcico da dieta de terminação não prejudicou o desempenho, características de carcaça e qualidade de carne, mostrando assim como um possível mecanismo para reduzir os custos de produ

  16. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  17. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  18. Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from the brains of commercial broiler breeder chickens with meningitis and encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT has been identified as one of the respiratory bacterial pathogens in turkey and chicken flocks. Four live birds displaying severe torticollis were submitted from a 13-week-old commercial broiler breeder chicken flock located in Mazandaran province. These birds were suspected to pasteurellosis by the farm veterinarian. No other marked gross lesion except emaciation was seen. Histopathologic examination of the brains showed mild to moderate meningeal vasculitis, perivascular cuffing with lymphocytes, degeneration and necrosis of purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Viral culture of the brains especially for Newcastle disease and avian influenza viruses was negative. Bacterial culture of the brains onto the blood agar revealed pure growth of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. In this study molecular confirmation of ORT by using of a very specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out. Amplification products of a 784 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of ORT confirmed the bacterium identification. This is the first field case of ORT isolation from the brain of commercial chickens in Iran. These data suggest that this bacterium should be considered in differential diagnosis in cases of avian nervous signs. Further studies are necessary to confirm if ORT is a primary pathogen in such cases.

  19. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P flavor scores in both studies (P < 0.05). Overall, immunological castration had no detrimental effects on color stability, sensory characteristics, or textural properties of fresh pork sausage. PMID:27247765

  20. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  1. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  3. Listeria monocytogenes persistence in ready-to-eat sausages and in processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mureddu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern in the fermented meat products and is able to persist in their processing environments. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the virulence profile and the persistence capacity of L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Sardinian fermented sausages processing plants. Food (ground meat, sausages at the end of acidification and ripening stage and environmental samples (a total of n. 385, collected from 4 meat processing plants located in Sardinia (Italy, were examined to detect L. monocytogenes presence. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. A subset of strains was also characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping, using the lmo0737, lmo1118, ORF2819 and ORF2110 genes. Three different multiplex PCRs were used to obtain the virulence profiles by the rrn, hlyA, actA, prfA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, plcB and mpl marker genes. Furthermore, in vitro biofilm forming ability and resistance to disinfectants were carried out on microtiter plate. The overall prevalence was 31.5% in food, and 68.5% in environmental samples. The prevalent serotype resulted 1/2c (43%, followed by 1/2a (40%, 4b (8.6%, and 1/2b (8.6%. The amplification products of the virulence genes were found in all the isolates with the following prevalence: 77.1% hlyA; 100% rrn; 100% prfA; 97.1% iap; 65.7% inlB; 88.6% inlA; 100% plcA; 100% plcB and 74.3% mpl. As for biofilm forming ability, 37.1% of the strains were positive and resulted weak producer, but all the isolates were sensible to disinfectants showing a reduction of L. monocytogenes growth after each incubation time. More appropriate technologies and application of measures of hygienic control should be implemented to prevent the L. monocytogenes growth and crosscontamination in salsiccia sarda processing plants.

  4. The Effect of Negative Air Ionization Exposure on Ontogenetic Development of Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the benefic effects of negative air ions (NAI quoted in the literature until the end of the 20th century were obtained with high doses of NAI, but at these doses a phased action was noted: favorable at the beginning, then unfavorable on extended exposures. In Romania, experimental studies on animal or human subjects were made mostly with moderate doses of air ions, close to those in the nature, and the duration of ionization was limited. In order to clear out some methodological issues regarding the air ionization use, we proposed to make a stepped set of investigations, on the hen egg submitted to incubation.The first goal of our study follows to evaluate the role of NAI on the development of the chicken embryo, in average concentration, but with extended exposure. The second goal is to detect the effects of negative air ionization in high doses on the incubated eggs, as well as to accentuate the periods of chicken eggs’ ontogenetic development periods, when air ionization acts stronger, or with more benefits.In the first experiment, the eggs were submitted to moderate air ionization day and night (in continuous application, during all the incubation period (21days. In the second experiment the eggs were ionized with high doses of negative air ions, in different period of ontogenetic development.Continuous ionization (day and night with moderate doses of NAI, during entire period of eggs incubation (21 days, supports the idea of phased action of air ions in moderate doses: favorable at the beginning and unfavorable later, if the exposure to air ions is extended. The application of higher doses of air ions appeared to be positive in the eggs development and hatching, but only if the exposure was made in the second half of incubation, after the chicken development was finished.

  5. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  6. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  7. Application of quantitative descriptive analysis( QDA )method in sensory evaluation of ham sausage%QDA在火腿肠感官评定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 王琼波; 张莉

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) sory quality and establish spider web - shaped graphs by QDA data showed that this method could distinguish the sensory characteristics method was adopted to of three ham sausages. of three hanl sausages evaluate sen- The results , and it wassuitable for evaluating the sensory quality of ham sausage.%采用定量描述法(QDA)对三种火腿肠进行了感官评定,并建立了三种火腿肠的QDA数据的蜘蛛网图,结果表明,此方法能区别三种火腿肠的感官特性,适用于火腿肠感官品质的评价。

  8. 一种火腿肠弹性评价方法的建立%Establishment of evaluation method of springiness about ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边兴伟

    2012-01-01

    主要对火腿肠弹性指标的仪器评价方法进行了研究,并将仪器测试的结果与感官评价结果进行相关性分析。结果表明,火腿肠弹性的感官评定值与TPA测定值存在极显著相关性,可以用TPA仪器测试代替对火腿肠弹性的感官检验。%The instrumental evaluation method of springiness about ham sausage was studied,the correlative analysis between sensory and instrumental measurement indicated that the correlation between sensory evaluation value and TPA parameters of ham sausage was very significant,thus the instrumental method-TPA could be used to instead of sensory to test ham sausage springiness.

  9. Physicochemical and textural properties of ultrasound-degraded konjac flour and their influences on the quality of low-fat Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Chiu-Ying

    2008-08-01

    Physical and textural properties of varying molecular-weight konjac gels made by ultrasonic degradation were compared and gels were processed into low-fat Chinese-style sausages for the evaluation of textural and sensory characteristics. Results showed that as molecular weights decreased, storage modulus and loss modulus of konjac gels of varying molecular weights declined, indicating more elastic and viscous konjac gels. Shear values and textural springiness and cohesiveness of Chinese sausage were similar among all treatments. All treatments were found to have similar juiciness and overall acceptability scores. Results indicated that konjac gels with varying molecular weights could be used to partially replace pork fat to achieve similar textural properties. Incorporation of konjac gels with varying molecular weights at the current levels showed similar textural and sensory quality characteristics to the high-fat control, and contained less fat than traditional Chinese sausage. PMID:22063022

  10. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens in the region of Triângulo Mineiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CBC Silva; WF Chagas; RF Santos; LR Gomes; MR Ganda; AMC Lima

    2015-01-01

    Avian salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis are infectious diseases that, in addition of causing lack of flock uniformity, represent a hazard to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens slaughtered at a processing plant with local health inspection in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. A total of 210 samples were randomly collected at the time of bleeding. Samples were submit...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3910 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.3910 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the... Notification. You must submit the initial notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4310 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.4310 What notifications must I submit? (a) You must submit the... Notification. You must submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4110 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... Records § 63.4110 What notifications must I submit? (a) You must submit the notifications in §§ 63.7(b... sections, except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section. (1) You must submit the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3510 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... § 63.3510 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the notifications in §§ 63.7(b... submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or reconstructed affected source no...

  16. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, customers that have not previously had an IRP approved by Western must submit the initial IRP to...

  17. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP. The rules for submitting and paying bills are stated...

  18. 40 CFR 82.178 - Information required to be submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information required to be submitted... Information required to be submitted. (a) Persons whose substitutes are subject to reporting requirements... (MSDS), should also be submitted. To assist in locating any studies previously submitted to EPA...

  19. 18 CFR 706.401 - Employees required to submit statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submit statements. 706.401 Section 706.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... Employees required to submit statements. (a) Employees in the following named positions shall submit... and shall be submitted by the Director to the Chairman of the Council....

  20. 40 CFR 86.1605 - Information to be submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information to be submitted. 86.1605... submitted. (a) Manufacturers shall submit to the Administrator the text of the altitude performance... shall submit to the Administrator the following information about the adjustments: (1) Specifications...